Sie sind auf Seite 1von 82

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS ISO/IEC TR 10037 : 1995

only, copying and networking pro MS ISO/IEC TR 10037 : 1995 MALAYSIAN STANDARD MS 1228 :

MALAYSIAN

STANDARD

networking pro MS ISO/IEC TR 10037 : 1995 MALAYSIAN STANDARD MS 1228 : 1991 ICS 91.140.80

MS 1228 : 1991 ICS 91.140.80

10037 : 1995 MALAYSIAN STANDARD MS 1228 : 1991 ICS 91.140.80 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS STANDARDS & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA
OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS STANDARDS & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA

STANDARDS & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA © Copyright

1

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

© SIRIM. No part of this publication may be photocopied or otherwise reproduced without the prior permission in writing of SIRIM

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS

1228

1991

This

Malaysian

Standard,

which

had

been

approved

by

the

Building

and

Ci’ il

Engineering

Industry

Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) was published under the authorit\ of the SIRIM Coun~ii in July, 1991.

Standards

Committee

and

endorsed

by

the

Council

of

the

Standards

and

Industrial

S1RIM wishes to draw attention to the fact that this Malaysian Standard does not purport to

include all the necessary provisions of a contract.

The Malaysian Standards are subject to periodical review to Leep abreast of’ progress in the

industries concerned. Suggestions for improvements will be recorded and in due course

the. notice of the Committees charged with the revision of the standards to which they refer.

brought to

The following references relate to the work on this standard:

Committee reference

:

SIRIM 491/1 1—I

Draft for comment

:

Dl 13

(ISC D)

Amendments issued since publication

Arnd.

No.

Date of issue

Text affected

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS

1228 : 1991

 

CONTENTS

 

Page

 

Committee representation

3

Foreword

4

1

General

5

2

Materials

10

3

Design flow and organic loadings

12

4

Sewer and appurtenances

14

5

Sewage pumping stations

21

6

Treatment works

27

7

Disposal of sewage and

treated effluent

52

8

Treatment and disposal of sludge

55

Tables

 

1

Equivalent populations

13

2

Design criteria for aerated lagoons

43

3

Common parameters and operating characteristics of single-stage activated sludge system

47

4

Sludge Loading Rate

62

Appendx A List of references

66

Figures

 
 

Typical diagram for manhole and inspection chamber

67-74

2

Typical installation of automatic connecting type submersible pump

75

3

Typical

diagrams for septic tank

76-77

4

Typical

view of a sedimentation tank

78

5

Fixed film media

79

6

Suspended film media

80

2

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

Committee representation

MS 1228

1991

The Building and Civil Engineering Industry Standards Committee under whose supervision this Malaysian Standard was prepared, comprises representatives from the following Government Ministries, trade, commerce and manufacturer associations and scientific and professional bodies.

Master Builders’ Association

Malaysian Institute of Architects

Ministry of Works and Utilities (Public Works Department)

Ministry

Institution

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Association of Consulting Engineers (Malaysia)

Chartered Institute of Building (Malaysia)

of Housing and Local Government (Housing

of Engineers, Malaysia

Division)

The

Technical

Committee

on

Building

Services

which

prepared

this

Malaysian

Standard

consists

of

the

following

representatives:

Ir

Sugunan Pillay

 

Bhg. Perkhidmatan

}Cejuruteraan Kementerian

Kesihotan

(Chairman)

Ir. Tan Boo Ir. K. Rishyakaran

 

Bhg.

Perkhidmatan

Kejuruteraan

Kementerian

Kesihatan

Ir. Kazal Sinha Ir. Zulkifli Yahya Ir. Ong Soon Haw

Bhg. Kerajaan Tempatan Kementerian

Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan

Ii’. Omar Mohd Yusof/

 

Jabatan

Perumahan

Negara

Ir. Shamsinar

Samad/

 

Ir. Hasnan Hassan

Encik Mohsin Ali Rahman

Encik Ahmad Najuib/

Puan Mariana

Mohd Nor

.labatan Bangunan,

Institut Tekno}ogi MARA

Jabatan

Alam Sekitar

Ir. Tee Tong Kher

Persatuan

Jurutera Perunding Malaysia

 

Ir. S. Sivarajah

Majlis

Perbandaran

lpoh (MPI)

Ir. CD.

Ponniah

MINCONSULTANT

Bhd.

Encik Eric Baxendale

PAM

Ir. Mahesan Kandiah/ lr. C. Balasundran

Bahagian Perparitan

dan Pembentungan

Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur

Encik Ali Maidin/

Puan Mariani Mohammad (Secretary)

Standards

and Industrial Research Institute

of Malaysia

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

FORE ‘WORD

This Malaysian Standard Code of Practice was prepared by the Technical Committee on Building

Ser’ices under the authority of the Building and Civil Engineering industry Standards Committee.

In the past, pit privies. conservancy systems and septic tank system were considered satisfactory

methods for the disposal of excreta. However, numerous studies have indicated thai these

methods. without further

can be an environmental health

treatment of the effluents and sludge

hazard. A number of epidemics of cholera, typhoid. gastroenteritis. infectious hepatitis and the

like have been closely linked with water supply and contaminated with excreta. Furthermore

these systems were not designed to receive sullage which were discharged to surface drains with

no treatment and were the only practicable means for disposal density of population is low.

in rural areas where the

of sewage

The

where the wastewater can be treated prior to disposal is very necessary to protect the environment

and the health of the people in general. This code of practice deals with planning, design.

provision of a sewerage system

to collect and convey all

wastewater to a convenient point

installation

and

testing,

which

includes

the

appurtenances,

sewage

pumping

stations.

sewage

treatment works, sludge treatment and disposal of effluent. It is intended for use by the design

relevant approving

engineer

in the

planning and

the design of sewerage systems,

and by

the

authority for the vetting and evaluation of designs, plans and specifications for such works. While

this code provides standards/specifications

for those

is also recognised

that not all sewerage works are designed by such persons. It is, therefore, strongly recommended

that specialist advice be sought where appropriate, particularly in the design of the sewage

experienced

in design. it

treatment works.

In the preparation of this code, references have been made to various internationally accepted

adapting them to local conditions. Considerable assistance and

codes of

valuable advice have also been derived from a panel of experts and such assistance is hereby

ac know ledged.

practice and standards,

4

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

CODE

OF

PRACTICE

FOR

MS 1228:

1991

 

DESIGN

AND

INSTALLATION

OF

SEWERAGE

SYSTEMS

SECTION

1. GENERAL

 

1.1

Scope.

This

code

of

practice

deals

with

the

planning

design,

construction

and

installation and testing, of sewerage system, which includes

sewage pumping

stations,

sewage

treatment

works, and all

the sewers and sewer appurtenances,

the other

works necessary

to collect.

convey, treat, and finally dispose domestic sewage and permitted amount of industrial wastewater. This code does not deal with the treatment of industrial effluents (those not permitted to be discharged into the sewerage system) and operation and maintenance.

This code is intended to

design

indicate what is considered

to

of

sewerage systems and good

practices, under

be

the

minimum

requirements

normal conditions.

However,

it

for

the

is also

realised that in certain localities and/or circumstances, there may be special conditions which may require modification to the minimum requirements laid down in this code.

by skilled engineering advice

This Code’s recommendations should be supplemented as required

based on knowledge of sewerage work practices and of local conditions.

1 .2

Fundamental considerations

1.2.11 Legislations.

The existing legislations that affect

the

provisions under this Code, and

that affect the rights and duties of the

Local Authorities,

who are the final approving authorities

of all plans pertaining to sewerage systems, include the following:

(a)

Local Government Act, 1976.

(b)

Streets, Drainage and Building Act, 1974:

(i)

Uniform Building By-laws, 1984.

(ii)

Drainage, Sanitation and Sanitary Plumbing By-laws, 1976.

(c)

Environmental Quality Act, 1974. (i) Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)

 

Regulations, 1979 - PU. (A) 12/79

 

(ii)

Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations, 1978.-PU. (A) 28078

(iii)

Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 1987.

(d)

Town and Country Planning Act, 1976.

(e)

Factories and Machinery Act. 1967.

(I’)

Electrical Inspectorate Act, 1984.

)

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 :1991

1.2.2 Safely.

sewerage systems in the planning, design and construction of such system. The treatment works. pumping station, sewer and sewer appurtenances shall be adequately protected and located where necessary against unauthorised interference and potential accidents.

Full consideration shall be given to the safety of the public and operators of

Attention is also drawn to the provisions of the Factories and Machinery Act. 1967, with regards to the safety requirements for operators in sewers and sewage works. Reference can be made to

the Health and Safety Guidelines No. 2 ‘Safe National Joint Health and Safety Committee for the

Water Service, National Water Council. England - 1969’ and occupational health and physical safety in the Wastewater Treatment Plant Design by a joint committee of the Water Pollution Control Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers.

1.2.3 Location of facilities.

All sewer and sewer appurtenances, pumping stations and sewage

treatment works shall be located as far from the public right-of-way and habitable buildings as

economically practicable.

sewage treatment works. Generally, unless required otherwise by the prevailing~local conditions, the sewage treatment works and pumping station shall be at least 20 m away from any habitable building. For works where noise, odour, aerosols, etc. is a factor the distance should be increased. Location of the final discharge point for treated effluent from sewerage treatment works shall also consider beneficial users of the receiving water course.

of prevailing winds shall be considered when siting the

The direction

1 .2.4

Access.

Good all weather access roads shall be provided to the sewer appurtenances,

pumping stations and sewage treatment works.

Industrial wassewarer. Industrial wastewaters require pretreatment prior to discharge into

the sewerage system. Pretreatment is necessary to reduce toxic substances and other materials that

with the normal operation of the sewerage system or may pose a risk to sewage

system workers.

may

1 .2.5

interfere

The stipulation of the pretreatment standard for the discharge of Industrial effluent into the

sewerage system is the responsibility of the respective local authority. The Sixth Schedule of the

Environmental Quality (Sewage and industrial Effluents) Regulations, 1979 - P.U.(A) 12/79,

may

be used as a guide for discharge of pretreated industrial wastewater into sewerage systems.

In addition to this,

industrial wastewaters shall not contain any of the following:

(a) Any liquid, solid or gases, which by itself or in combination with other substances, and

fire, explosion or to cause

damage to any component of the sewerage system, or be a health hazard or otherwise objectionable, or prevents the entry into the system by the maintenance/repair workers;

likely or is sufficient

which

by

reason

of its quantity is

to cause

(b)

Any radioactive substances; and

(c)

Any substances liable to form a viscous or solid coating

or deposition on any part of the

sewerage system, thereby affecting the performance of the system.

1.3 References.

The titles of publications referred to and other standards of interest in this

field is given in appendix A.

1 .4

Definitions.

For the purpose of this code of practice the following definitions apply:-

1 .4.1

Activated sludge.

A flocculent microbial

mass,

produced when sewage is continuosly

aerated.

6

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

(g)

particulars

of potential outfall location, e.g. tidal or inland waters,

MS 1228

:

1991

rivers, streams,

ditches or

soakage, also the proximity, highest known flood level and minimum flow of any stream or other watercourse to which discharge of the effluent is possible;

(h) conditions under which the works will be normally operate and be maintained;

(j)

possibility

of the

need

for

future

extension

of the

works or

of their

elimination

by

a

comprehensive scheme;

 

(k)

availability of electric power and mains water;

 

(m)

facilities for eventual disposal of sludge and screenings.

 
 

9

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

SECTION 2.

MATERIALS

2.] General. All materials used in the construction of any of the works described in this code should comply with the relevant Malaysian Standards.

\Vhere no Malaysian Standard exists, materials should be suitable and adequate for the purpose for which they are used and comply with any acceptable international standard.

2.2 Aggregates.

aggregates shall comply to the requirements stated in MS 522:Part it

All aggregates shall comply to MS 29* and MS 30**. The grading of the

2.3 Cement.

requirements of MS 522:Part l~and MS l037~.

Cement

used

for

works

included

in

this

code

should

comply

with

the

Other type of cement can be used with the prior approval by

the relevant authorities.

2.4 Cement mortar.

Cement mortar selection of the correct cement and aggregate for the

use in mortars should follow the recommendations of 2.2 and 2.3. A mortar cement/sand ratio is suitable for the following purposes:

mix

having a

1:3

(i)

brickwork plastering;

 

(ii)

jointing clay or concrete pipes where flexible joints cannot be used;

 

(iii)

rendering of inverts and benchings;

 

(iv)

bedding and haunching manhole covers and frames.

Calcium chloride should not be added to mortars.

2.5

Bricks.

All bricks shall comply to MS 76~and MS 327ss.

2.6

Concrete

2.6.1

General.

Concrete works should be in accordance with MS

1 l95:Part

l.#

All concrete

surfaces subjected to acid attack and corrosion should be treated and lined with epoxy or other treatments or constructed with sulphate—resisting cement

2.6.2 Adniixiures.

entraining air or for any other purpose should be used only with the prior approval of the

for

Admixtures

for

promoting

workability,

for

improving

strength,

relevant authority.

Admixtures shall comply with MS 922:Pari 1

+

MS 29 - Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources.

MS 30 - Methods for sampling and Testing

MS 522:Part

of Mineral Aggregates (Sands and

Fillers).

1

-

Specification

of Portland Cement (Ordinary

and Rapid-Hardening)

MS 1037

MS 76 - Specification for bricks and blocks of fire brickearth or shale.

MS ~27 - Specification for refractory bricks

-

Specification

for Sulphate-Resisting

Portland

Cement.

MS 1195:Part

1

- Malaysian

Standard

Structural

Use of Concrete. Part 1:Code of Practice

for design and

 

construction.

 

MS

922:Part

1

-

Specification

of Concrete

Admixtures.

Part

1:Accelerating

Admixtures

and

Water-reducing

Admixtures.

10

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

\lS 1228: 1991

Calcium chloride as a admixture should not be used in reinforced concrete. prestressed concrete or any concrete made from sulphate-resisting Portland cement. For guidance, reference should be made to MSll95.

2.6.3 Workmanship. Concrete should be mixed in a mechanical mixer until there is a uniform

distribution of the materials and the mix is uniform in colour. It should be transported to the

point of placing as rapidly as practicable by methods that will prevent segregation or the loss of

any of the ingredients, placed

or vibration so as to form a void free mass around any reinforcement and into the corners of the

formwork or excavation. Exposed concrete should be cured by keeping it in a damp condition for at least four days.

by rodding, tamping

as soon as

possible and thoroughly compacted

2.7 Plastics.

and where practicable should have flexible joints. New plastic products can be used with the prior approval by the relevant authorities.

All pipes and fittings should

comply with the

relevant Malaysian Standards

2.8

Others.

approval

by the

Standard.

Other materials which are not mention in this code can be used with the prior

relevant authorities

and where possible it should comply with all the Malaysian

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS

1228 :

1991

SECTION 3.

DESIGN

FLOW

AND

ORGANIC

LOADINGS

3:1

General.

Sewerage systems shall be designed

for the estimated

ultimate contributary

population,

except when considering parts of the system that can be readily increased in capacity.

The design

flow and organic loading

shall be estimated on the basis of the estimated contributary

population and shall include infiltration flows allowances.

3.2

Average

design

flow.

The average daily design flow shall

be based

on 225

litre

per

person.

3.3

Design organic loadings.

The organic loading

from domestic

sewage shall be normally

based on 55 g of BOD (5 days at 20°C) per person per day, and 68 g of suspended solids per person per day. When existing system is being upgraded, the design of the new facilities shall be based on actual strength of the wastewater flow.

Where industrial wastewater is permitted into the sewerage systems. the loadings shall be based on the permissible levels described under the Environmental Quality (Sewage and lndustrial Effluents) Regulations,1979 - P.U.(A) 12/79.

3.4 Estimation of sewage flows and organic loading from various premises. The average design daily flow may be estimated from a given premises can be determined by multiplying the

estimated equivalent population for that premise by the average daily flow per capita given in

3.2. The equivalent population for the various types of premises given in table I can be used as

the minimum, for the purpose of computing the average design daily flows.

3.5 Industrial

the design flows shall be based on the minimum requirements given in table 2.

wastewater.

Where industrial wastewater is permitted

into a sewerage system,

sewers,

pumping stations and components of the treatment plant, shall be determined from the following form ula:

3.6

Peak

flows.

The

peak

hourly

flow,

which

will

required

in

the

design

of

Peak flow factor = 4.7 x

where p is estimated equivalent population,

in thousand.

3.7 Infiltration.

While the sewerage system shall be designed cater for unavoidable amount

of infiltration, which arises from faulty joints, cracked sewer pipes and manholes, it is absolutely

important that the infiltration into the sewerage system be minimised through proper selection of

construction technology and materials, proper supervision of Construction and field testing of the

components of system for water—tightness.

For guidance, the sewerage system may be designed to cater for a maximum infiltration rate of 50 litre per mm. diameter per km of sewer per day.

3.8

shall be 20 m 3 per hectare/day.

The

industrial

wastewater

flow

for

light

industries

including

flatted

Other category of industry will be gauge by case basis.

12

factories

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

Table

1.

Equivalent population

MS

1228:

1991

No.

Type of Premise/Establishment

Population equivalent (recommended)

Residential

 

5

per unit*

Commercial:

 

(includes entertainment/recreational centres, restaurants, cafeteria, theatres)

3

per 100 m gross area

Schools/Educational

Institutions:

-

Day schools/institutions

0.2

per student

 

Fully residential

I

per student

-

Partial residential

0.2 per student for non-residential student and 1 per student for

 

residential student

4

Hospitals

 

4

per bed

D

Hotels (with dining and laundry facilities)

4

per room

6

Factories (excluding process wastes)

0.3

per staff

 

7

Market (wet type)

 

3

per stall

8

Petrol kiosks/Service stations

18 per service

bay

9

Bus terminal

 

4

per bus bay

‘1 peak flow is equivalent

to 225 I/cap

3

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

SECTION 4.

SEWER

AND

APPURTENANCES

4.1 General. Sanitary sewers shall be designed and installed to collect and convey all waste

flows - both domestic(municipal) wastes and industrial wastes (should be approved by the approving authority) as well as an unavoidable amount of the ground water infiltration to a point of acceptable treatment and ultimate discharge. Rain water from roofs, streets, and other areas and ground water from foundation drains shall be excluded.

4.2

Pipe Materials for gravity sewers

 

4.2.1

Choice of materials.

Various pipe materials are available

and selection

should be based

on evaluation

of the following factors:-

(a)

Life expectancy

(b)

Previous local experience

(c)

Resistance to internal and external corrosion and abrasion

(d)

Roughness coefficient

(e)

Structural strength

(f)

Cost of supply, transport and ease of installation

(g)

Local availability

4.2.2 Ti’pes of pipe material. Common material suitable for sanitary sewers are:-

(a) Vitrified

lengths of 0.6 m to 1.0 m or more and diameter of

clay pipe (1/C?).

Available locally and

are manufactured

100 mm to 300 mm.

with

flexible joints

in

(b) Reinforced concrete pipe.

diameter.

for pipe diameter greater than 375 mm.

socket type with rubber rings.

Available locally in sizes ranging from

150 mm

to 3000

mm in

Standard length are

1.83 m for pipe diameter less than 375 mm and lengths of 3.05 in

Several pipe joints are available including the spigot and

(c) Fabricated

diameter (100 mm to 1500 mm) and lengths up to 9.0 m. Several pipe joints are available such as spigot and socket, flange and mechanical which are commonly used for small diameters up to 750 mm whilst welded joints are used for larger diameter pipes.

steel

with

suiphates

resistance

cement

lining.

Available

in

a

wide

range

of

(d)

commonly used include both the flanged and the spigot and socket types.

Cast iron.

Available in a variety of diameters and the standard length of 3.66 m.

Pipe joints

(e) Asbestos

standard length is 4.0 rn. Pressure pipes are manufactured in various classes suitable for certain

limits of working pressure.

loading conditions and required crushing strengths.

cement pipe.

The available pipe diameters range from 100 mm to 600 mm and the

Gravity sewers

(autociaved

only) are manufactured

to Suit

various

(f) Plastic pipes.

and with the nominal range from 110 mm up to 630 mm and of pipe length of 6 m.

are available including spigot end and socket type with rubber seals as well as jointing by flanges. welding and solvent cementing.

Available

in

variety of plastics materials such as UPVC.

HDPE,

PE and PP Pipe joints

(g)

Other material.

As approved

and permitted

for their use by the appropriate local authority.

14

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

 

MS 1228

:

1991

4.3

Design of sewers

 

4.3.1

Economy

in the design.

While sewers should generally be kept as short as possible,

and

unproductive lengths avoided, care should be taken not to restrict potential development. The

route and depth of a new sewer should always take account of land where there is the possibility of future development.

Where

and surfaces,

local house connections, and to connect the riders at convenient points into the main sewers.

sewers

are

laid

at considerable

depths

or

under highways

having expensive foundations

it may be cheaper or more convenient to lay shallow rider sewers to receive the

4.3.2 Location of sewers.

following factors should also be considered:-

Adequate access to a sewer for maintenance should be allowed.

The

(a)

Location of sewers within streets or alleys right-of-way.

(b)

if topography dictates, the sewer to be located within the private properties, then adequate

access should

be provided for maintenance purposes.

(c) The position of other exsisting or proposed services, building foundation, etc.

(d)

In

relation

to

water

mains,

a

minimum

at

3

m horizontal

and

1

m vertical separation

respectively

to

be

provided.

No

sewer

line should

be

above

water

main

unless

the

pipe

is

adequately protected.

(e) The impact of the construction of the sewer and subsequent maintenance activities upon road

users.

4.3.3 Hydraulic design. The most economical design for sewer gradients is obtained when they

follow the natural falls of the ground. Sewers should, however, be laid at such gradients as will

of solid matter in the invert. The

minimum gradient to be adopted should normally be such that the velocity of flow does not fall

produce velocities sufficiently

high

to prevent the deposition

below 0.8 rn/sec at full bore. The maximum gradient to be adopted should be such that the

velocity of flow is not greater than 4.0 m/sec when flowing half or full bore in order to prevent

scouring of sewer by erosive action of suspended matter.

4.3.4

Structural design

4.3.4.1

Depths of sewers.

Sewers should be laid at depths which will accommodate not only all

existing properties but also any future properties likely to be erected within the area which the

sewers are designed to serve; in certain cases, the depth of basements may need to be considered.

The depth of a sewer will have a significant effect on the cost of its construction. The depth, in conjunction with other factors such as the nature of the ground, presence of groundwater and the

to

proximity of foundations, services etc, may influence the form and method of construction justify the adoption of alternative layouts with longer routes of sewers.

The minimum depth of invert to be adopted shall

be

1 .2

m.

4.3.4.2 Size

of sewers.

200 mm in diameter.

The minimum size of a gravity sewer conveying raw sewage shall be

15

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

~vlS1228 : 1991

4.3.4.3 Sewer

straight alignment and uniform

mm internal diameters can be laid on curves. In such cases, the curve shall be made by angling

the joints by not exceeding 80°/o of the manufacturers recommended deflection angle and the radius of curvature shall not be less than 60 m. The designer shall provide information such as vertical and horizontal alignment for proper construction.

a gradient between consecutive manholes. Sewers of larger than 600

alignment.

Sewers of

600

mm

or

less

in internal

diameter shall

be

laid

on

4.3.4.4 Joints. Joints between sewers, sewer-manhole or other appurtenance structures shall be

of flexible type and watertight to prevent infiltration and breakages due to differential settlement.

4.3.4.5 Foundation.

the weight of soil above the sewer and any superimposed load.

Foundation is needed to maintain

the pipe in proper alignment and sustain

Bedding for rigid pipes with flexible joints can be classified under two types:-

(a)

Class ~A’ bedding. Where the pipe is embedded in carefully prepared base compacted with

15

mm diameter crusher run extending halfway up to the side of the pipe. The minimum

thickness of the crusher run shall be 100 mm or 1/4 of the pipe diameter (whichever is greater). The sidefills and top of the pipe shall be of monolithic 1:2:4 concrete mix with minimum cover of

tOO mm thick.

(b)

Class ‘B’ bedding. Where the pipes are embedded

in carefully prepared base compacted

with

15

mm diameter crusher run extending halfway

up the sides of the pipe. The minimum

thickness

of the crusher run is 100 mm or 1/4 of the pipe diameter (whichever is greater). The remainder sidefills and top of the pipe shall be compacted carefully with selected backfill to a minimum thickness of 300 mm.

4.3.5 Inverted siphons. Inverted siphons shall have not less than two barrels with a minimum

pipe size of 150

and maintenance.

mm and shall be provided

with necessary appurtenances

for convenient flushing

The manholes shall have adequate clearance for rodding. In general sufficient head shall be

provided and pipe sizes selected to secure flow velocities of at least 0.9 rn/sec for average flow. The inlet and outlet shall be arranged so that the normal flow is diverted to one barrel, and so that either may be out of service for cleaning. Since siphons need more cleaning, they must be avoided as much as practicable. The siphon shall not have sharp bends, either vertical or

horizontal. The rising leg shall be limited to 15% slope, for this reason. There shall be no change in pipe diameter along the length of barrel too.

4.3.6 Service connections. Service connections should be of an adequate diameter to reduce

the problem of blockage. As it receives only intermittent flows, they are invariably subjected to intermittent stoppages during normal operation and these are removed by wave action rather than by the maintenance of a minimum flow velocity. The minimum gradient of 2% should be provided. The connection should be to the top portion of the main sewer at an angle of approximately of 45° in the direction of flow. The connection should be done with the use of tee

junction.

The

minimum size of service connection shall be

150 mm.

4.4

Testing of sewers.

The testing of sewers can be done either by air test or water test. The tests should be carried out before backfilling of the sewer trenches.

6

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

4.4.1

Air test

4.4.1.1

General. It provides a rapid test which can be carri~d out after every third or fourth

pipe laid. This could then prevent a faulty pipe or a badly made joint passing unnoticed until it

is revealed by a test on a completed length.

4.4.1.2 Procedure. The following test procedure should be adopted:-

(a)

Seal the ends of the pipe run with expanding plugs;

(b)

Attach U-tube (manometer) and a means of applying the air pressure to one of the plugs;

(c)

Apply

pressure to achieve a pressure slightly more than 100 mm. of water in the U-tube.

(d)

Allow about 5 mm for stabilization of air temperature.

(e)

Adjust air pressure to 100 mm of water.

Without further pumping, the minutes.

head of water should not fall by more than 25 mm in period

of

5

4.4.1.3 Factors

effect the apparent failure of the air test:-

affecting

the

test.

There are several possible contributing

factors that could

(a) Temperature

pipe barrel;

changes of the air in the pipe due to direct sunshine

or cold wind acting on

the

(b)

Dryness of the pipe wall;

(c)

Leaking plugs or other apparatus.

or other

apparatus are leaking. If the failure is marginal, the pipeline should not be rejected on the air test alone and the contractor should be given the opportunity of applying the water test.

If there is a dramatic fall in pressure, then the pipeline

is faulty

or

the

end

plugs

4.4.2

Water lest

4.4.2.1

General. Sewers up to and including 750 mm diameter should be tested to an internal

pressure represented by 1 .2 m head of water above the crown of the pipe at the high end of the

line. The test pressure should not exceed 6 m head of water at the lower end and if necessary the

test on a pipeline can be carried out in two or more stages. The test pressure should be related to the possible maximum level of ground water above the sewer.

When pipes larger than rna~’be needed.

750

mm

diameter are to be tested, expert advice, and special equipment

4.4.2.2 Procedure.

The following test procedure should be adopted:-

(a) Fit an expanding plug. suitably strutted

of the pipe and in any branches if necessary. The pipes may need strutting to prevent movement.

to resist the full hydrostatic

head,

at the

lower end

(b) Fit a similar plug and strutting at the higher end but with access for hose and standpipe.

17

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

(c)

Fill the system with water ensuring that there are no pockets of trapped air.

(d)

Fill the standpipe

of requisite level.

(e)

Leave for at least 2 hours to enable

the pipe to become saturated, topping as necessary.

(f)

After the absorption period, measure the loss of water from the system by noting the amount

of water needed to maintain the level in the standpipe over a further period of 30 mm, the standpipe being topped up at regular intervals of 5 mm.

The rate of loss of water should not be greater than 1 litre per hour per metre diameter per linear metre.

4.4.2.3 Factors affecting

the test. Excessive leaking may be due to:-

(a)

Porous or cracked pipe;

 

(b)

Damaged, faulty or improperly assembled pipe joints;

 

(c)

Defective plugs;

(d)

Pipes or plugs moving.

 

4.4.3

Straightness.

A sewer should

be checked for line and level at all stages construction

by

either:—

 

(a)

surveyor’s level and staff;

(b)

laser beam with sighting targets;

(c)

lamp and mirrors.

4.4.4 Infiltration. After backfilling is completed and after the groundwater level has

stabilized, the sewer should be checked for infiltration. All inlets should be sealed and the line

inspected from the manholes. Any flow from the pipeline coming into the manholes or within manholes themselves should be investigated to establish its source.

In small pipes the point of infiltration may be located visually with light and mirror or with an inflated rubber plug. When conditions justify it a television camera can be used. The rate of infiltration is dependant upon many factors; a guide to its permissible extent cannot be given; this will depend on the judgement of the engineer.

4.4.5 Freedom from obstruction. As the work progresses the sewer should be checked for

obstructions by visual inspection or inserting a mandrel or ~pig’ into the line. A television camera can also be used.

4.5

Manholes

4.5.1

,t’Ianholes location.

Manholes or inspection chamber shall be provided at:-

(a)

The upstream end of all sewers; however this may be replaced by a terminal layout:

(b)

Every change in direction or alignment

for sewers > 600 mm;

18

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

(c)

Every change in gradient;

 

(d)

Every change in size of sewer;

 

(e)

All intersections and junctions.

(f)

Distances

of

not

greater

than

100

metres

for sewers

equal

to

or

more

than

00

mm in

diameter and 150 metres for sewers equal to or greater than 450 mm in diameter. Greater

distances may be permitted in cases where adequate modern cleaning equipments for such spacing

is provided,

and

also in cases where sewers convey pretreated sewage.

4.5.2 Construction.

chamber shall be of such size and form so as to allow ready access for rodding. The struct should

be strong, durable and watertight and shall be constructed

(Typical

drawings

as

shown

in

Fig.

I).

Every

manhole

and

inspection

as follows:-

(a) Brickwork in cement mortar at least 225 mm in thickness or concrete (I : 2 : 4 nominal mix)

at least

125 mm in thickness or other approved

impervious material.

(b) Internal

as to provide

faces shall be rendered with sulphate resistant cement mortar at least 20 mm thick so

a smooth

and impervious

surface.

(c) Step irons, ladders or other approved fittings shall be of non—corrosive durable material so as

to provide safe access to the level of sewer. Cast iron or stainless steel or aluminium alloy is

recommended. The interval between steps should be 300 mm with slip prevention surface.

~d) Foundation of every manhole shall be constructed of concrete (1 : 2 : 4 nominal mix) not less than 150 mm in thickness.

(e) The channel within the manhole shall be formed with half round pipe made of the material

the largest inlet sewer

as the sewer joining

and not more than that of the outlet sewer from the manhole.

the manhole and shall have a diameter not less

than

(1) Every inlet to a manhole shall be discharge into the channel therein with properly made

bends constructed within the benching of the manhole. The benching shall have a smooth impervious finish with a minimum slope of 1:12 and so formed as to guide the flow of sewage

towards the point of discharge and to provide a safe foothold.

(g)

Manhole shall be constructed

in conjuction

with its frame and cover to be watertight.

4.5.3

Dimension and shape. Generally, manholes shall be rectangular, square or circular. The

internal

horizontal dimension shall be sufficient to perform inspection

and

cleaning operation

without difficulty

dimension required shall depend on whether it is a deep or a shallow manhole.

and a clear opening shall be provided for access

to the

invert. The minimum

4.5.4

Frame and cover.

The manhole frame and cover shall be of cast iron and shall have:-

(a)

Adequate strength to support superimposed load;

(b)

A good fit between

each other such that surface runoff or rainfall will not get

into it.

(C)

Provision for hinge and/or

locking the cover to prevent vandalism and unauthorised

access to

the manhole.

 
 

9

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

\IS 1228: 1991

Ihe following minimum a~folio w

requirements as to the weight and dimension of the frame and cover are

Type of cover and frame

Dimension

Weight

Usage

 

Light duty

460 mm x

620 mm

54 lbs

Use in domestic premises compound

 

Medium Duty

Cover 600 mm internal mm. diameter 500 mm

250 lbs

Use in domestic drives and similar areas for bearing

Frame -

760

mm x

wheel loads noi exceeding

760 mm

 

I

tonne

Heavy Duty

As above

530 lbs

Use in all carriagewavs.

4.5.5

Deep manhole

dimensions.

Where

deep

manholes

are

required,

its

internal

dimension

with

minimum internal dimensions of 0.75 metres. In such cases, a minimum headroom of 1.8 in t’rom the base of manhole shall be provided. The opening to the manhole shall be at least 0.6 in.

must be more than

1.5

metre

and

the

manhole

may

be

tapered

upwards

to

a

section

4.5.6

Shallow manhole dimensions.

Where the topography

results in a shallow

manhole that

is

in the

depth 01’ invert of

sewer being from 0.9 in

to

1.5

m, a manhole of at least

I .0

rn

in

internal

horizontal dimension and a clear opening of’ at least 900 mm shall be used.

The dimensions of the manholes at various depths shall be as follows:

Depth

Dimension

 

Less than

2’

460

mm x 620

rum

Between 2’ -

3’

600

mm x 760 mm

Between 3’ - 5’

Greater than 5’

760 mm

x

760 mm

To follow deep manhole

4.5.7 Drop rnwtholes. If an incoming sewer is higher than the outgoing sewer by 600 mm or

more. a drop manhole shall be used. \Vhere the difference in elevation between the incoming sewer and manhole invert is less than 600 nim. the invert shall be filleted at the curner~ to prevent solids deposition.

4.5.8 Connecilon

differential settlement,

bet itoeii

manhole

and

~eiver.

To

mini in se

damage

to

the

se wer

due

to

t~PC.

the joint between

the sewer and the manhole shall be of the flexible

lu acheive this, a flexible sewer pipe joint just outside the manhole ma~ be used.

20

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

SECTION 5. SEWAGE PUMPING STATIONS

5.1 General. Sewage pumping stations should not be subject to flooding and shall be located

off the right of way of streets and alleys preferably accessibility.

on land reserved

for

the purpose and

readily

The pumping station structure is a major part of the cost of the station. It is therefore essential that it is efficient from a structural standpoint, that it is economical to construct, and that the size of the wet-well and dry-well and the space requirements of all equipment to be housed, be carefully determined, with efficient use made of all available spaces.

Apart from the pumping facilities which may be required at sewage treatment plants, the principle conditions and factors necessitating the use of pumping stations shall be one or more of the following:

(a) The topography of the area or district does not permit drained by gravity into trunk sewers or treatment plants.

(b) Omissions of pumping, although possible, would require excessive construction costs because

of the deep excavation

required for the installation of a trunk sewer to drain the area.

(c) Service is required for areas that are outside the natural drainage catchment of the purposed

sewage treatment plant.

All safety and other

regulations.

requirements

should

be met as required

under other codes,

standards and

Pumping stations should be avoided as far as possible since the installation, operation and

maintenance of a pumping station is costly.

5.2

Design

details.

(Typical diagram

of small pumping

station is shown

in

Fig. 2).

The

following design details shall be given consideration in the design of sewage pumping stations:-

5.2.1

choice depending mainly on the capacity and efficiency required.

Type.

The sewage pumping facility provided may be any one of the following

type, the

(a) Wet-well type with submersible pump units

(b) Dry-well type

(c) Lift station,

using screw-pumps

or suction lift pumps.

Suction pumps mainly used in sewage

treatment plants,

and

have the

advantage

of

handling

variation

in flow

and

all

solids

without

clogging.

However,

the suction-lift shall not exceed 4.6 in.

 

5.2.2

Structure

(a)

The

pumping

station

substructure

shall

be

of

reinforced

concrete

construction

and

the

exterior wall below ground surface shall be adequately waterproofed and protected against aggresive soils and groundwater.

(b) Wet and dry

wells, shall be separated.

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

(c) Suitable facilities shall be provided to facilitate the removal of pumps, motors and any other

equipment in the pumping station.

(d) Suitable and safe means of access shall be provided to the dry wells of pump stations, and to

wet wells containing either bar screens and/or mechanical equipment requiring inspection or

maintenance.

5.2.2.1 Wet well

(a) On small pump stations the practice is to provide, between the cut—in and the cut-out levels,

a storage volume equal in litres to 2 to 3 times the

peak flow

into

the

wet

well

in litres

per

minute merely

to protect

the

starting

equipment

from

overheating

and

failure

caused

by

too

frequent starting and stopping. On larger installations, the effective capacity of the wet well

should not exceed 10 mm

serious maintenance and operation problems because of excessive deposition of gritty and organic material.

h flow. Wet wells that are too large cause

for the design average 24

(b) The wet wells should be narrow but not less than 1.2 m for ready access and should be as

deep as possible

inlet channel to the wet-well.

in order

that the cut-in

level of the last pumps will be below the invert of the

(c) Where continuity of pump station operation is important, consideration should be given to

dividing the wet well in two sections properly interconnected to facilitate repairs, cleaning and

expansions.

(d) Wet wells and suction channels should be designed so that dead areas where

solids and scum

may accumulate are avoided. The bottom should have a minimum slope of 1 .5 vertical to I horizontal to the hopper bottom in the direction of flow so that deposits and scum accumulations are carried to the pump suctions by the scouring action of the high velocities at low operating

levels.

(e) The wet well should be well lighted with fixtures that are both vapour proof and explosion

proof.

5.2.2.2 Dry well

(a)

The size of the dry well depends primarily on the number and type of pumps selected and on

the piping arrangement. (Totally submerged pumping units do not require dry wells). A good rule of thumb for those installations requiring dry wells is to provide at least 1 .0 m from each of

the outboard

pumps to the

nearest side

wall

and

at least

1.2 m

between

each

pump

discharge

casing. Sufficient room is required between pumps to move the pump-off of its base with

sufficient clearance left over between suction and discharge piping and room for on site repairs, inspection, or removal from the pit to the surface for repairs.

(b) Depending on the size of the pump station, consideration should be given to the installation

of monorails, lifting eyes in the ceiling, and ‘A’ frames for the attachment of portable hoists,

cranes and other devices.

(c)

Provisions should also be made for drainage of the dry well to the wet well.

22

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

5.2.3 Pump Unit

MS

1228 : 1991

(a) Minimum number of units. At least 2 Units of pumps shall be provided of which one shall be

a standby unit. Constant speed pumps are recommended in view of simplicity of operation and maintenance. If only 2 Units are provided, they shall have the same capacity each being able to handle the design peak flow. Where 3 or more units are installed they shall be designed to fit actual flow conditions and must be of such capacity that with any one unit being out of service,

the remaining units will have capacity to handle maximum sewage flow.

(b) Pumps handling raw sewage should be preceeded by readily accessible bar racks or screens

with clear spacings not exceeding 30 mm, unless pneumatic ejectors or screw pumps are used, or

special devices are installed to protect the pump from clogging or damage. Convenient facilities shall be provided for handling screenings. Where the size of pumping stations warrant, a mechanically cleaned bar screen or communition device is recommended. For larger or deeper stations, duplicate protection units of proper capacity are prefered.

(c) Pump openings. Pumps shall be capable of passing spheres of at least 75 mm in diameter.

Where

a

communition

or

screening

device

capability may be allowed.

is

provided,

pumps

with

smaller-sphere

passing

Pump suction and discharge openings shall be at least 100 mm in diameter.

(d) Priming. Except for the self-priming pumps, screw pumps and submersible pumps, the

gland of the puma shall be so placed that under normal operating conditions, it will operate under a positive suction head.

(e) Pumping rates. The pumps and controls of pumping stations, shall be selected to operate at

varying delivery rates to permit discharging sewage from the station to the treatment works at approximately its rate of delivery to the pumping station. The desirable range between the maximum and minimum wet-well levels is 900 mm, while the minimum range shall be 450 mm. Where 2 or more pumps are to operate simultaneously, the difference in level between the start or stop of respective pumps shall not be less than 150 mm.

(f) Pumping cycle. Pumping cycle or time between successive starts, of a pump operating over

the control range, shall be preferably more than 10 minutes for each pump.

5.2.4 Valves. Suitable shut-off valves shall be placed on the discharge line of each pump and

its suction line where applicable. A check valve shall be provided on each discharge line. All valves shall be selected such that the closure time is sufficiently provided to minimise surge pressure and water hammer.

5.2.5 Ventilation.

Adequate ventilation must be provided for all sections of the pumping

stations. Where the pump pit is below the ground surface, mechanical ventilation is required. The ventilation shall be so arranged as to provide completely separate and independant ventilation

for the dry and wet wells.

Dampers shall not be used on exhaust or fresh air ducts and fine screens or other obstruction shall

be avoided to prevent clogging. Switches for ventilation equipment shall be marked and located conveniently. All intermittently operated ventilating systems shall be interconnected with the respective pit lighting system.

Consideration should also be given to automatic controls where dehumidification equipment

where dampness, excessive moisture is a problem.

23

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

(a) Wet wells.

hour) or continuous (in

shall be accomplished by introduction of fresh air into the wet well by mechanical means.

Ventilation shall be either intermittent (with at least 30 complete air changes per

which

case at least

12 complete

air changes per hour).

Such ventilation

(b)

provided.

be provided.

Dry

wells.

For continuous ventilation, at least 6 complete air changes per hour shall be

If intermittent ventilation is proposed, at least 30 complete air changes per hour shall

5.2.6 Flow measurement. Provision shall be made to install convenient flow measurement

equipment whenever such data is required.

5.2.7 Electrical

equipment

and

power

supply.

All pump

stations

should

be

provided

with

electricity from two independent sources (looped supply) and be given priority restoration by the power authority when outages occur. When availability of electrical power supply cannot be

assured, the use of standby generators or engine drives as well as in-system storage and by-pass

should be considered.

All electrical equipment and light in the wet-well should be explosion proof.

Adequate lighting and a convenient number of equipment receptacles for power tools shall be provided.

The motor starters and controls should be located within a safe and satisfactory control unit.

Separate rooms shall be used for the electrical starters, switches etc. for larger stations. Such

control units or rooms shall be easily accessible, preferably above flood level, and shall be in accordance to the requirements of other relevant codes and regulations.

5.2.8 Alarm systems. Alarm systems shall be provided for all pumping stations. The alarms

shall be activated in cases of power failure, pump failure, or any other malfunctioning of the station. Where a municipal facility of 24 hours attendance is provided, pumping stations alarms shall be telemetered thereto. Where no such facility exists, an audio-visual device shall be

installed at the station for external observation.

5.2.9 Emergency operation. The objective of emergency operation is to prevent in the case of

power failure or pumping station malfunctions, the indiscriminate overflow of raw or partially treated sewage to any waterway and to protect the public by preventing back-up of sewage and

subsequent overflow to basements, streets and other public and private property.

(a) Emergency power supply. Provision of an emergency power supply for pumping stations

shall be made especially for stations in which interruption due to power is not desirable. This

may be accomplished by connection of the station to at least 1 standby generator, driven by petrol or diesel engines.

Where generator is used, the unit shall be provided with adequate foundation, and have facilities

Provision shall be made for automatic and manual

start-up

lighting. Where internal combustion is used, provision for ventilation of exhaust gases shall be

to remove and perform routine maintenance.

and cut-off.

The

generator housing

shall be

installed

with ventilation equipment

and

made.

(b) Portable pumping equipment. Alternatively, portable pumping equipment could be utilised. The pumping facility shall have the capability to operate between the well and the discharges side of the station, with the station provided with permanent fixtures which will facilitate rapid and easy connection of lines.

24

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

(c) Overflow. Consideration shall be given to the provision of overflow. Such provision of

overflow shall be permitted in areas in which the permitted overflow shall not adversely affect the quality of public water supplies and other receiving water bodies.

5.2.10 Instruction

complete set of operation and maintenance instructions, including emergency procedures. maintenance schedules, tools and such spare parts as may be necessary.

and

maintenance.

Sewage pumping station and shall be provided with a

5.2.1 1

Force or pumped mains design

(a)

The minimum internal diameter for pumping mains shall be 100 mm.

 

(b)

Pumping

main should be so sized such that the

velocity

in

the

suction

will

not

exceed 1.50 rn/sec and discharge 2.5 rn/sec. The velocity in the force mains should be at least 0.9

to 1.1 rn/sec.

(c)

The pumping main shall be of the following materials:

i)

Cast iron pipe

ii)

Asbestos cement pressure pipe

iii) Steel—pipe with sulphate resisting concrete lining

iv) P.V.C pressure pipe

v) Ductile iron

vi) Other materials approved by the local authority and certified by SIRIM

(d)

All joints shall be flexible and watertight

(e) The pumping mains shall be provided with such appurtenances as access/inspection chamber,

air relief valves and wash out.

(f)

The minimum earth cover for pumping mains shall be 1.0 m unless it is concrete surrounded.

(g)

The forced mains shall enter the gravity sewer system at a point not more than 600 mm

above the flow line of the receiving

manhole.

(h) The force main and adjoining piping and appurtenances on the discharge side of the pump

should be heavy enough to withstand the maximum hydraulic head on the system, including

abnormal pressures that may be produced by water hammer and surge pressures.

Screening/communiting facilities. Where conventional pumps are used, facilities for screening or communition of solids, which are capable of clogging the pumps and/or pumped mains shall be provided.

5.2.12 Control system

(a) The selection of a control

system and a specific control mode is at least as

important as the

selection of the pump. The factors to be considered in selecting a control system are efficiency. power factor, reliability, operational effects, structural costs and ease of operation.

(b) For larger installation, automatic variable speed controls are often more reliable and maintenance free than presumably simpler automatic on off controls. The overall efficiency of a variable speed system may be greater than that of an on off system despite control losses.

25

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

(c) The

:

1991

sophistication

and

competence

of

the

operating

and

maintenance

personnel

is

an

important consideration when selecting control systems which have to match their training and

experience.

5.2.12.1

Manual control

(a) Generally consist of push button stations or selector switches that energize or de—energize the

pump motor starter. Manual control systems are rarely used with anything other than constant

speed pumps.

5.2.12.2 Automatic control

(a)

controlled systems are generally used for sludge pumping.

Time.

Pumps are started at regular intervals and operate for a preset length of time.

Time

(b) Pressure.

Pressure drop is used to start the

generally served by a standard pressure switch.

pumps on plant water systems. Pressure is

(c) Flow.

Pumps are turned on as flow

exceeds a certain value or turned off when flow drops.

Influent flow signals are generally from a flow meter or weir with multivolt control.

(d) Level. Most of the automatic constant speed systems operate from level signals. Pumps are

turned on as levels rise and turned off as they fall. Level detection systems include:

(e) Automatic switch over. The controlled system shall be designed to ensure automatic switch

over of operation between available include:

detection systems

pumps in

each successive

cycle. Level

(i) Float switches using a rod or tape. Float type controls are economical, simple and reliable

when operated in effluent or clear water. When operated in raw wastewater or sludge, maintenance problems can develop from grease coating the float and rods, solids punching the floats, or corrosion of the float, roads or tapes.

(ii) Enclosed floats.

Enclosed float switches consist of an encapsulated mercury switch that may

As the liquid rises, the

be either’ open or closed when the float is in the pendant position.

position of the float changes the angle of the mercury switch reversing its condition.

(iii) Electronic probes. With the use of relays, it is possible to control a single pump or multiple pumps. Enclosed probes in a sealed tube below which is suspended a bladder type container with fluid results in less maintenance problem.

(iv) Captive air system.

Captive air systems using a diaphragm

and small diameter tubing

to

transmit pressure signals to switches that turn pumps on and off.

(v)

Pneumatic or air bubbler type control system. This system is generally used for a duplex or

multipump installation.

26

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

SECTION

6.

TREATMENT

WORKS

MS 1228 : 1991

6.1

General

6.1.1

General process design

considerations.

The

treatment works processes shall be planned

and designed to meet the following aspects:

specified

Quality (Sewage and industrial Effluents) Regulations, 1979. P.U.(A) 12/79 as in Appendix B:

(a)

the

effluent

quality requirements

as

in the

Third

Schedule

of the

Environmental

(b) the projected

and characteristics;

effluent flows and characteristics, including anticipated

variations in the flows

(c) the

habitable premise, direction of the prevailing winds, local zoning requirements, socio—economic

local

environmental

and

aesthetics

requirements,

including the

proximity

to the

nearest

aspects,

and

compatibility

of

the

treatment

processes

with the present and future land and

receiving

water uses;

 

(d) the availability of land space for the treatment works, including area for future expansion

and/or upgrading of the treatment processes;

(e)

other local conditions such as soil conditions, climatic conditions, topography, etc.;

(f)

the ultimate disposal of the treated effluents, including the access to receiving waters;

(g)

the capitai costs and the operating and maintenance costs of the works;

(h)

the reliability of the process,

including the performance of the process under normal

operating. conditions as well as during unusual or adverse circumstances (a treatment process reliability is the measurement of the--ability of the facility to perform its designated function without failure). The reliability criteria shall include the following:

(i) designing

necessary, bypasses, standby units, and protection against floods;

the

facility

for

all

anticipated

circumstances,

and

this

shall

include,

where

(ii) the mechanical equipment installed shall be easily repaired or replaced without violating the

effluent limitations for long period of time (this shall also include adequate backup service and the availability of spare—parts);

(iii) units that require to be taken out of service for maintenance purpose on a routine basis shall

be duplicated in parallel, so that some treatment can be achieved during the maintenance period:

and

(iv)

the electric power system shall be so designed to cater for breakdowns of the power supp1~i,

or

to switch

the circuitary

to standby units in the

event of

breakdown of any units.

Where

necessary, power supply shall be obtained from two sources, one of which shall be a standby generator or another utility sub-station.

(j) complexity of the processes, including the level of process controls required, and level of trained personnel required; and

(k) the ultimate disposal of the sludge.

27

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 :1991

6.1.2 Physical design consideration.

careful considerations shall be given to the planning and design of the physical facilities.

Having selected the treatment process to be employed,

6.1.2.1

Treatment works layout

6.1.2.1.1

Process units. Careful consideration shall be given to size, shape and the physical

arrangement of the process units, depending on the availability of space, the number of units and economics. In selecting the shape of the unit, due consideration shall be given to the aesthetics aspects, without compromising on the functional aspects of the process unit. Wherever practicable, multiple modules that will comprise of a single process will be preferred, as this will facilitate diversion of flows during repairs and/or maintenance of a module.

6.1.2.1.2 Conduits and their identification. In planning the conduits connecting the various

process units, provisions shall be made for future expansion, and for isolation of each unit, through the use of valves and other flow control devices. These valves and flow control devices need only have manual operators or nuts that can be controlled by portable manual or power driven operators.

Where multiple modules of a single process are employed, proper flow division facility shall be

provided so as to control both the hydraulic and organic loading on each modules, and shall be designed for easy operation, change, observation and maintenance.

All connecting conduits shall be designed to convey the maximum anticipated flows, including when flows are diverted from one Unit to another for maintenance or repair purposes. The conduits shall be designed to avoid pockets and corners where solids can settle and accumulate.

For easy indentification of the conduits and piping, colour codes:

Chlorine line -

-

yellow

Compressed air line

-

green

Fuel gas line

-

orange

Potable water supply line

-

blue

Sewage/effluent line

-

grey

Sludge line

- brown

6.1.2.1.3

Plant location

these shall be painted with the following

-

The following items shall be considered when selecting a treatment plant site:

(a)

Proximity to residential areas

(b)

Direction of prevailing winds

(c)

Accessibility by-all weather roads

(d)

Area available for expansion

(e)

Local zoning requirements

28

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

(f)

Local soil characteristics, geology, hydrology and topography available

to minimize pumping.

(g)

Access to receiving stream by gravity prefer

(h)

Water quality of the receiving water course

(j) Compatibility of treatment process with the present and planned future land use, including noise, potential odours, air quality, and anticipated sludge processing and disposal techniques.

6.1.2.1.4 Structure to be reinforced concrete

Unless otherwise required, wall, slabs, beams, columns and structure for sewerage plant shall, in

general, be in reinforced concrete. may be used in shallow chamber.

Walls shall have minimum thickness

of 225 mm.

Brickwork

Where a site must be used which is critical with respect to those items, appropriate measures shall be taken to minimize adverse impacts. The treatment plant should be located in an area not subject to flooding or otherwise ~e adequately protected against flood damage.

6.1.2.1.5 Foundation

Where

necessary,

special

foundation

(eg.

provided.

6.1.2.1.6 Quality of effluent

bakau

piling,

reinforce

concrete

piling

etc)

shall

The required degree of treatment for sewage treatment plants shall be based on the parameter

limits as specified in the Third Schedule and the objectives for the receiving waters as established by the Ministry of Health/Department of Environment. In any case the effluent must be adequately disinfected to destroy disease causing organisms.

6.1.2.1.7

Flow

The sewage treatment plant shall be designed to serve the ultimate contributary population based

on an average

Where a plant is designed to serve

an existing sewerage system, the plant shall be designed on the basis of actual flow measurements,

plus allowances for estimated future population and shall be staged as required.

of industrial wastewater and some allowances for infiltration.

daily per capita flow of 225 liters, to which must be added an anticipated amount

i) Operating equipments

A complete

be provided together with the necessary storage space.

range of tools, accessories and spare parts necessary for the plant operator’s use shall

ii)

Grading

a,zcl landscaping

Upon completion of the plant, the ground should be graded.

should be provided for access to all units.

unit.

walkwa\s

Surface water shall not be permitted to drain into any

residential areas.

Conrete or hard surfaced

is located

near

Landscaping

should be provided especially where

a plant

Lansdcaping should be provided at all such sewage structures.

plants to cover the harsh and

unpleasant sight of

29

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

6.1.2.1.8 Plant oulfalls

The outfall sewer should be designed to discharge to the for the following:

receiving waters

i) Preference for freefall or submerged discharged.

with the consideration

ii) Utilization of cascade aeration of effluent discharge to increase dissolved oxygen.

iii) Limited or complete dispersion across receiving waters.

6.1.2.1.9 Organic loading

The process design of a domestic waste treatment plant shall be on the basis of 55 grams of BOD

per capita per day and 68 grams of suspended solids per capita per day. When an existing

treatment works is to be upgraded or expanded, the design shall be based upon the actual strength

of the wastewater.

Domestic waste

treatment

plants designed

to include these industrial waste

loads

should

take

into

consideration

the shock

effects of high concentrations and diu-rinal peaks

for short periods of the time on the treatment process particularly for small treatment plants.

6.1 .2.1 .10

Flow division control

Flow division control facilities shall be provided as necessary to ensure organic and hydraulic

loading control to plant process units and shall be designed for easy operator access, change,

observation and maintenance.

6.1.2.1.11 PlaNt details

i) Installation

of mechanical equipment

The specifications should be written such that the installation and initial operation of major items

of mechanical equipment will be supervised by a representative of the manufacturer.

ii) Unit b,vpass

Bypass structure and

piping properly located and arranged should be provided so that each unit

of the plant can be removed from service independently.

iii)

Appropriate effluent

sampling

The outfall sewer should be so constructed and protected against the effects of floodwater, tide or other hazards as to ensure its structural stability and freedom from stoppage. A manhole should be provided at the shore end of all gravity sewers extending into the receiving waters. Hazards to

navigation shall be considered in designing outfall sewers. of influent or effluent as well as individual process unit.

6.1.2.1.12 Essential facilities

Provision shall be made for sampling

All plants shall

be

provided

with

an alternate

source of electric

power to

allow continuity

of

operation

during

power failures.

An adequate supply of potable water under pressure

should

be

provided for use in the laboratory and for general cleanliness around the plant. Toilets, shower, lavatory and locker facilities should be provided in sufficient numbers and convenient location to

serve the expected plant personnel. Flow measurement facilities shall be provided at all plants.

30

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228 : 1991

6.1.2.1.13

Safely

Adequate

provision shall be

made to effectively

protect

the

operator

and visitors

from hazards.

The following shall be provided to fulfill the particular needs of each plant:

(i) Fencing of the plant site to discourage the entrance of unauthorized persons and animals.

(ii) Hand rails and guards around tanks, trenches, pits, stairwells and other hazardous structures.

(iii) First aid equipment including CPR.

(iv) “No Smoking signs in hazardous areas.

(v) Protective clothing and equipment.

(vi) Portable lighting equipment.

6.1.2.1.14 Laboratory

All

and operating control tests, except in individual situations where the omission of a laboratory is

approved by the reviewing agency. The laboratory shall have sufficient size, bench-space, equipment and supplies to perform the process control tests necessary for good management of each treatment process included in the design.

treatment works shall include a laboratory for making the necessary analytical determination

6.1.3 Measuring devices. Devices should be installed in all plants for indication flow rates

of raw sewage or primary effluent, return sludge, and air to each tank unit. Where the design provides for all return sludge to be mixed with the raw sewage (or primary effluent) at one location then the mixed liquor flow rate to each aeration unit should be measured

6.1 .4

Evaluation

of

new

treatment

processes.

ifl the case of a particular new treatment

process not included in this code of practice, the designer shall obtain approval of the proposed

treatment process to the relevant approving authority.

6.2

Preliminary treatment

6.2.1

for protection against clogging and damage.

Bar screens.

Bar screens shall be provided upstream of pumps or

treatment facility

The screening device may he manually-cleaned or mechanically cleaned.

6.2.1.1 Manually or mechanically cleaned screens.

25 mm to 30 mm and shall be placed at a sloped of 10° to 45° to the vertical.

Approach velocities sho-uld—norexceèd 0.2 rn/sec and the flow through velocity should not exceed

Clear opening between bars shall be from

0.8 m/sec at velocity average rate of flow.

The approach channel should be so designed to ensure a good distribution

of velocity.

Facility for a screened by-pass to be provided in the event of clogging.

Where mechanically cleaned screening devices are installed auxiliary manually cleaned screen shall be provided.

31

Licenced to UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA / Downloaded on : 10-Oct-2008 / Single user licence only, copying and networking pro

MS 1228

:

1991

6.2.2 Fine screens.

Fine screens, where used for pre-treatment or primary treatment should

be installed to manufacturer’s specification and require prior approval of the Local Authority.

6.2.2.1 Disposal of screening.

sanitary manner.

Screenings should be removed, handled, stored and disposed in a

6.2.3 Grit removal. Grit removal facilities may be considered as optional process depending

on the nature of sewage to be treated. Grit removal systems may comprise either the Horizontal Constant Velocity Grit Chamber or the Aerated Grit Chamber or Detritor.

6.2.3.1 Horizontal constant velocity grit chamber

(a)

The flow through velocity should not exceed 0.23 rn/sec

(b)

The surface loading rate should not exceed 1500 m 2 /d/m 2 .

6.2.3.2 Aerated grit chamber

(a)

Maximum detention time to be 3 mm.

(b)

Air rates should be in the range of 4.5 to 12.5 liter/sec/rn of tank

(c)

Depth to width ratio of 1:2.

(d)

Length to width ratio of 1:2.

6.2.3.3 Detritors

(a)

The maximum flow through velocity should not exceed 0.3 rn/sec at peak flows

 

(b)

Tangential flow entry into detritor width minimum turbulence.

 

(c)

Water depth in tank to be controlled by weir outlet.

 

(d)

Reciprocating

inclined

dewatering

systems should

be

incorporated

for

washing

grit

and

reducing organic content.

6.2.3.4 Disposal of grit.

-Mechanical grit removal system of collecting and disposal of grit in a

sanitary manner should be provided.