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LD 50 Lab Collaborators Sarah Roberson, Cody Robinson, Chrissia, Alexandra Abstract The problem was how do seeds respond

to various concentrations of salt in the water. The hypothesis was. if there is more than a 25% concentration of salt in the seeds water, then they will not germinate as well as the seeds with a less than 25% concentration of salt in their water. The control group was the seeds in water with a 0% salt concentration. The experimental groups were the other five groups of seeds with various salt concentrations in the water. The independent variable was how much salt was in each solution. The dependent variable was the amount of seed germination measured in each group. Sixty lettuce seeds were grown in six groups of ten. The control was the seeds soaking in distilled water, and the other five were in a solution of different concentrations created by serial dilution. The seeds soaking in the .75 g/L (6.25%) salt water solution were drowned by accident. The results do not completely support the hypothesis because the seeds with more than a 3 g/L (25%) salt solution did not germinate less than the seeds that were in a 3 g/L (25%) salt water solution. Problem How do radish seeds respond to various concentrations of salt in the water? Hypothesis If there is more than a 25% concentration of salt in the seeds water, then they will not germinate as well as the seeds with a less than 25% concentration of salt in their water. Parts of the Experiment The control group was the seeds in water with a 0% salt concentration. The experimental groups were the other five groups of seeds with various salt concentrations in the water. The independent variable was how much salt was in each solution. The dependent variable was the amount of seed germination measured in each group. Materials 6 plastic bags Marker 6 paper towels Water Concentrated Salt Water Solution Graduated Cylinder 6 test tubes 60 lettuce seeds

Plastic dropper Methods

1. Use the graduated cylinder to measure 10 mL of the salt water solution into test tube number 1. Measure 5ml of distilled water into test tubes 2-5, and 10mL into test tube 6 (the control). 2. Create a serial dilution by measuring 5mL of test tube one in the graduated cylinder, and poring it into test tube number 2. Stir. 3. Repeat with test tubes 3 5. 4. Label the plastic bags with the test tube number, and saltwater concentration. 5. Lay out the 6 paper towels. 6. Put ten seeds on each of the paper towels. 7. Fold the paper towels in half, and put one paper towel in each of the plastic bags. 8. Take the dropper and fill it with the solution from test tube number one. 9. Put the water from test tube one into its respective bag by dropper fulls until the paper towel is damp and close the bag. 10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 with the remaining bags, then set them all aside for 5 days. 11. After the 5 days, come back and open the bags. Count the number of seeds germinated in each bag, and calculate the percentage of seeds that germinated and record the data for each bag. NOTE: If fewer than 80% of the seeds in the control sample germinate, this indicates a problem with the experiment. 12. Measure the length of the radical for each of the germinating lettuce seeds to the nearest millimeter (mm). 13. Repeat step 12 for each bag. 14. For each treatment, calculate the mean radical length of each solution. Add the total radical lengths for each salt solution, and divide by the total number of seeds germinated. DO NOT include data from seeds that did not germinate. Record the data. Data g/L % Germinated Mean Radicle length Difference in radical length (C-T) 0 4.8 -18.8 -.9 -15.9 -3.9

Control (0) .75 1.5 3 6 12

100% 40% 90% 90% 90% 70%

7.3 2.5 26.1 8.2 22.7 11.2

The sixty seeds; ten on each paper towel.

The six Ziploc bags with ten seeds and a different salt water concentration in each, labeled respectively.

Seeds in the 6 g/L salt water concentration

Seeds in the 3 g/L salt water concentration

Seeds in the 1.5 g/L salt water concentration

Seeds in the 0.75 g/L salt water concentration

Seeds in the 0 g/L salt water concentration Data Analysis The seeds that germinated in the solution from test tube six (the control) were in a 0g/L (0%) saltwater solution. 100% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 7.3, and a difference in radical length of 0. The seeds that germinated in the solution from test tube five were in a .75 g/L (6.25%) saltwater solution. 40% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 2.5, and a difference in radical length of 4.8. Only having 40% of seeds germinates indicates a problem in the experiment. The seeds that germinated in the solution from test tube four were in a 1.5 g/L (12.5%) salt water solution. 90% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 26.1, and a difference in radical length of -18.8. The seeds that germinated in the solution from test tube three were in a 3 g/L (25%) salt water solution. 90% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 8.2, and a difference in radical length of -.9. The seeds that germinated in the solution from test tube two were in a 6 g/L (50%) salt water solution. 90% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 22.7, and a difference in radical length of -15.9. The seeds that germinated in test tube one were in a 12 g/L (100%) salt water solution. 70% of these seeds germinated, with a mean radicle length of 11.2, and a difference in radical length of -3.9. Conclusion The most seeds germinated in the control group with a 0 g/L (0%) saltwater solution. There was a problem with the seeds that germinated in the .75 g/L (6.25%) saltwater solution in that only 40% of the seeds germinated. They were drowned in their plastic bag with too much water. The other groups apart from the control, the .75 g/L (6.25%) salt water solution, and the 12 g/L (100%) saltwater solution had 90% of their seeds germinate. The 12 g/L (100%) saltwater solution had 70% of their seeds germinate. The results do not completely support the hypothesis because the seeds with more than a 3 g/L (25%) salt solution did not germinate less than the seeds that were in a 3 g/L (25%) salt water solution. In the real world, salt from roads getting to vegetation can cause major problems. In plants

sensitive to excessive salt, affected foliage may scorch and drop prematurely. In severe cases, the death of twigs, branches, and sometimes the entire plant, may occur. If only 70% of the seeds germinated in a 100% salt water solution, it does not seem likely that a plant would be able to live and grow in those conditions for very long, and develop in a healthy way. 1. The LD 50 for salt for lettuce seeds appears to be more than a 100% salt water concentration because the seeds that germinated in the 100% salt water concentration had the lowest percent germination of 70%, ruling out the seeds in the 6.25% salt water concentration because they drowned. 2. Yes, the radicle data is supported by the germination data because as the percent of germinated seeds goes down, the difference in radical length goes into the negative.

Works Cited Horst, Jerald. "CATCH & RELEASE: LIVING TO FIGHT AGAIN." Louisiana Fisheries - Fact Sheets. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2014.