Sie sind auf Seite 1von 423
CENTRE FOR GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS by H.G. Poulos and EH. Davis ‘The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Ausiralic. Telephone: (02) 692 2109 Telex: AA 26169 ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS SERIES IN SOIL ENGINEERING Eeited by T.William Lambe Robert V. Whitman Professors of Civil Engineering Massachusetts institute of Technology Books in Series: Soil Testing for Engineers by T. William Lambe. 1951 ‘Soil Mechanics by T. William Lambe and Robert V. Whitman, 1968 Elastic Solutions for Rock and Soil Mechanics by Harry G. Poulos and E.Davis, 1974 ‘Soil Dynamics by Robert V. Whitman (in progress) Fundamentals of Soil Behavior by James K. Mitchell (in progress) ‘The aim of this series is to present the modern concepts of soll engineering, which is the science and technology of soils and their application to problems in civil engineering. The word “soil” is interpreted broadly to include all earth materials whose properties and behavior influence civil engineering construction. Soll engineering is founded upon many basic disciplines: mechanics ‘and dynamics: physical geology and engineering geology: clay minerelogy and colloidal chemistry: and mechenics of granular systems end fluid ‘mechanics. Principles from these basic disciplines are backed by ‘experimental evidence from laboratory and field investigations and from observations on actual structures. Judgment derived from experience and engineering economics are central to soil engineering. “The books inthis series are intended primarily for use in university ‘courses, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The editors also ‘expect that al of the books will serve as valuable reference material for practicing engineers. T. William Lambe Robert V, Whitman ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS H G Poulos Reader in Civil Engineering University of Sydney EH Davis Professor of Civil Engineering (Soil Mechanics) University of Sydney Originally Published in 1974 by: JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. NEW YORK - LONDON - SYDNEY - TORONTO Reprinted in 1991 by: CENTRE FOR GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY Details of original publication: ‘Copyright © 1874, by Jotn Wiley & Sons, ne. ‘All ght resered, Published simultaneousy in Canad. ‘No ar of thia book may be reproduced by any means, ‘ot tranamited, nor tarulated ito a mechie language without tne writen permission ofthe publisher. Umar of Congres Cataloging In Pubication Outa: Poulos G84 ‘testi solution for aol and rk mechanics, Bibiograpty: 1. Soil mechaniea Problems, exercises le. 2. Roce mechanies—Probieme,execies, = a fmm exercises, oc. ais, ELM, jos qtr. Tle. vanoper — eessia ATT ISBN O47 -8se5 Printed in the United States of Ameria wosressazy PREFACE TO REPRINTED EDITION The original edition of this book has been out of print for several years, but there have been many requests for it to be reprinted. The original publishers, John Wiley and Son Inc, New York, have been gracious in re-assigning copyright to the surviving author, and hence, the book is now being reprinted through the Centre for Geotechnical Research at the University of Sydney. This reprinted edition contains a significant number of corrections which were brought to the author's attention by a number of users, in particular, Dr John T Christian, Dr Peter T Brown, Professor M R Madhav, Mr J M Shen, Sir Alan Muir Wood, Dr K J Cheverton, Professor Michael J Pender, Dr | D Moore, Associate Professor J C Small and Mr M A Adler. | am very grateful to these persons for their interest in bringing the errors to my attention. | am also grateful for the encouragement of my colleagues within the Centre for Geotechnical Research at the University of Sydney to prepare the corrected edition, and to Ms Monica Martin, who undertook the typing of the corrections and Miss Kim Pham for correcting the figures. Harry G Poulos August, 1991 PREFACE ‘The authors have attempted to assexble as comprehensive a collection as possible of graphs, tables and explicit solution of problems in elasticity relevant to soil and rock mechanics. Many of these solutions are well known and“widely used in geotechnical practice, and are available in standard references. However, new solutions of relevance appear at frequent intervals and in diverse publications, and it is~ difficult for the practising engineer to locate, or even to Jmow of the existence of, a solution which may be of interest. The large najority of solutions are for an isotropic horo- geneous mass, but soze inportant solutions are also included for cross-anisotropic and non-hopogencous elastic materials. Because of the vast literature in the theory of elasticity and the need to keep the book to a reasonable size, coverage of solutions in this book is by no means exhaustive, and solutions which nay be considered of relevance by sone people will doubt- Jess have been omitted. In a number of instances, a reference is given even though no solution is reproduced in the book. Tt has not been found practicable to maintain a unifora notation throughout the book; where there appeared to be valid reasons for doing so, the original author's notation has been adhered to, but particularly in the more basic material, a commen notation has been used. However, 2 uniform sign con- vention has been used in that the following are considered a5, positive: compressive stress, reduction in length or volume, and displacenent in the positive co-ordinate direction. The authors have not attempted the imense task of a full cheek of all the solutions they have reproduced, but a nore Limited check has been carried out by testing solutions for selg- consistency and consistency with other solutions and this has umecvered a mmber of errors in the original solutions which have been corrected. However, it is probable that some further errors wAL1 have escaped the authors’ notice and any information on such errors vill be gratefully received by then. The book is divided into essentially four parts: (@)__an introductory sumary of tho basic equations and relationships in elastic theory (Chapter 1) and then basic solutions for problens involving concentrated loads on elastic media (Chapter 2); (©) __ solutions for loading of simple geometrical areas, both uniformly loaded and rigid (Chapters 3 to 9); (©). solutions of a nore complicated nature having relevance to practical soil mechanics, rock mechanics and foundation roblens (Chapters 10 to 15) ()__ appendices containing complete solutions for various cases of surgace loading on an anisotropic or isotropic elastic half space, As a reference for students, research workers and practising engineers, this book may be used in a number of ways: (2) as an imediate source of solutions for use in solving geotechnical problems; (®)__a5 2 source of basic solutions from which nore complicated solutions may be evaluated by the user; ()___as a source of reference solutions against which ‘mmumerical computer solutions (c.g. from the finite eleaent method) my be checked. Grateful achnowledgenent is given to the great number of persons and institutions, too numerous to list individually, who have given permission for their solutions to be reproduced. Special thanks are due to Dr. T. Willian Lambe; Edmund K. ‘Tumer Professor of Civil Engineering at ¥.1.T., for his original encouragenent of the preparation of the books Or. J.P. Giroud of the University of Grenoble, France, for his generous permission to reproduce many of his results, both published and unpublished; Drs. J.R. Booker and P.T. Brown of the University of Sydney for theix coments and advice, and Dr. C. M, Gerrard and Mrs. W.J. Harrison for permission to reproduce their papers in full as Appendices A and 8. Finally, the authors are greatly indebted to Mrs. M. Brown, who cheerfully and patiently carried out the major task of typing the mnu- seript, and to Mr. R. Brev, Mrs. H. Papallo and Miss A. Chittendon, who undertook the onerous task of preparing the diagrans. H. G. Poulos E.H. Davis June 1873 CHAPTER 1 1a 12 13 14 1s 1.6 17 18 1.9 GUAPTER 2 21 2.2 2.3 GUAPTER 3 3a 3.2 33 34 35 3.6 CHAPTER 4 42. 42 43 CONTENTS FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS snalysis of stress Analysis of strain Equilibrium equations Strain-displacenent and compatability equations Stress-strain relationships Digferential equations of isotropic elasticity Convenient nethods of considering loaded areas Superpssition of solutions for various loadings Equations of simple bending theory BASIC SOLUTIONS FOR CONCENTRATED LOADING Point loading Line loading Line loading-axial symmetry DISTRIBUTED LOADS ON THE SURFACE OF A SEMI= INFINITE YASS Loading on an infinite strip Loading over half the infinite surface Loading on a circular area Uoading on a rectangular area Loading on an elliptical area Loading over any area - DISTRIBUTED LOADING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A ‘SEMI-INFINITE YASS Vertical Loading on a horizental area Horizontal leading on a vertical rectangle Rectangles subjected to shear loading 10 2 1s 16 28 2 36 aL 43 54 ” 7 92 7 99 S. 5.2 8.3 5.4 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 CHAPTER 7 7 12 7.3 74 1S 7.6 17 78 79 CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 83 84 8.5 9.1 9.2 CONTENTS: SURFACE LOADING OF A FINITE LAYER UNDERLATN BY A RIGID BASE Loading on an infinite strip Loading on a circulsr area Loading on a rectangular area Vertical loading over any area SURFACE LOADING OF MULTI-LAYER SYSTEMS ‘Tworlayer systems ‘Three-layer systens Four-layer systems Approximate solutions for multi-layer systens RIGID LOADED AREAS Infinite strip on a semi-infinite mass Circle on semi-infinite sass Circular ring on semi-infinite mass Rectangle on semi-infinite mass Ellipse on semi-infinite mass Infinite strip on finite layer Circle on finite layer Rectangle on finite layer Rigid areas enbedded within a seni-infinite mass STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS TN CROSS- ANISOTROPIC MEDIA Concentrated loading on a seni-infinite mass Strip on seni-infinite mass Cirele on semi-infinite mass Loading on multi-layer systems Particular cases of anisotropy ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A NON-HOMOGENEOUS ELASTIC MASS Seni-infinite mass with linear variation of aodulus Generalized Boussinesq theory for non- homogeneous semi-infinite mass Finite layer with linear variation of modulus 103 un us 152 138 4s 162 162 165 166 167 168 169 im 178 180 180 183 184 185 187 ist 193 195 198 CHAPTER 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 CHAPTER 11 WL 1.2 (CHAPTER 12 121 12.2 12.5 CHAPTER 15 13.1 15.2 13.35 13.4 13.5 13.6 CHAPTER 14 ML 14.2 14.3 CHAPTER 15 Bal 15.2 15.3 1544 15.5 15.6 CONTENTS STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN EVSANENTS AND SLOPES. Enbankrent on rigid base Enbanksent on elastic foundation In€inite slope ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS AROUND UNDERGROUND OPENINGS Unlined openings Lined openings RAFT FOUNDATIONS Strip foundations on a semi-infinite mass Cireular rafts Rectangular rafts AXIALLY LOADED PILES Single intoupressible floating pile Single compressible floating pile Single compressible end-bearing pile Negative friction in a single end-bearing pile Floating pile groups End-bearing pile groups PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOAD AND MOMENT Single floating pile ‘Tip-restrained piles Pile groups MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Thick-wall cylinder in triaxial stress field Cylinder with rough rigid end plates Inclusion in an infinite region se plate subjected to moment and horizontal Stresses in a layer with a yielding base Stresses behind retaining walls 199 226 229 265 249 255 260 269 an 278 278 279 281 283 287 291 297 297 304 305 APPENDIX A STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A LOADED ORTHORHOMBIC HALF SPACE APPENDIX B CIRCULAR LOADS APPLIED TO A CROSS- ANISOTROPIC HALF SPACE AUTHOR INDEX INDEX adi 509 337 399 405 407 Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 1.1 Analysis of Stress 4.1.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS AND SIGN CONVENTION Since it is often convenient in soi] mechanics to consider compressive stresses as positive, this conventional vill be adopted here, The normal and shear stresses acting on an elesent are shown in Fig.1.1, the stresses ali being of positive sim. The normal stresses Gz, dy, dz are positive shen directed into the surface. The notation for the shear stress tzj is as follows: ‘Teg is the shear stress acting in the jf dixection on g plane normal to the ¢ axis. ‘The sign convention for shear stress is as follows: ‘The shear stress is positive when directed ina negativs Cartesian direction while acting on a plane whose cutward nomal points in a positive direction, or, when directed in @ positive Cartesian direction while acting on @ plane whose outward normal points in a*hegative Cartesian direction, ‘Equilibrium requires that w= ay Te by, =F ye Uy te 7 le For the definition of stresses in other coondin- ate systens, see Section 1.5. 1.1.2. STRESS COMPONENTS OW ANY PLANE Referring to Fig.i.2, the stress components Pre» Pays Pra on any plane with a directed normal n can be expressed in terms of the stresses in the =, y md = coordinates as oe P26.2.2 2 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS Pra coe(ny) Pay | = | Tey %y Tay | fereme? Joe GD Pra Tee Tye %p | | cosine? where cos(n,z) is the cosine of the angle between the 1 and 2 directions, and similarly for eos(ny) and cos(n,a). y vm FIG.1.2 1.1.3. TRANSFORMATION OF AXES If a new set of orthogonal axes =’, y’, 2! are chosen, the stress components in this coordinate system are related to the stress components in the original =, y, 2 system as follows: 5 =A SAT see 0.2) where S; is the stress matrix with respect to the z'y'z' axes, Sis the stress matrix with respect the zyx axes, to A is the direction cosine matrix, ine, 4 = | cos(s',z) cos(s',y) gos(s',2) eoa(y',z) costy'sy) cos(y'sz) costa!) cos(s',y) cos(a',s) AB is the transpose of A. 1.1.4 PRINCIPAL STRESSES It is possible to show that there is one set of axes with respect to which all shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses have their extreme values. The three mutually perpendicular planes where this condition exists are called the principal planes, and the normal stresses acting on these planes are the principal stresses. ‘The principal stresses, 01, 02 and os (the maximum, intermediate and minimum stresses respect ively) may be found as the roots of the equation id; #528, - Ty = 0 se G3) where Jy = 0,40,40, = (bulk strese) ie + (Leda) 5 at tet 2at,? Ta 2 0,0 y'0, 010,05 Ta Tys “Tae see Gab) Jy = 0,9,0,-0,1, 2-07, 2-0,7,2 Ley gOhyd “yas “Tyg + yytyatee 1+ 140) di (or 0), J2, Js are often known as the first, second and third stress invariants, as they remain constant, independent of the coordinate system. In terms of the principal stresses, NO antares + @.5a) Ja = 102 + 0203 + 0301 +++ (2.56) Js = 10203 see G.5¢) The directions of the normals to the principal planes are given by ses (62) +++ (1.60) % os ses Q.60) pepe? (9y-9,) rth Tytes 7 Tey ar? Neylys eal and 6, are the principal stresses 7 i = 1,2,3). « 1.1.5 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS ‘The maximm shear stress occurs on a plane whose normal makes an angle of 45° with the o; and oy directions. ‘The maximm shear stress, Tar at a point is given by ANBLESIS OF STRESS 3 = Haro) ‘nae 27 T.1.6 OGTAMEDRAL STRESSES The octahedral norsal stress pgp and the octahedral shear stress togt at 2 point are the stresses acting on the eight planes of an imaginary ‘octahedron surrounding the point, the normals to the faces of the octahedron having direction cosines of 21/43 with the direction of the principal stresses. The magnitudes of the octahedral stresses are = Titers 9 eye ves 8) oot 5 3 3 Tyo 7 F {Cor-e2)*#02-o9F #1oy-0n)*}¥ 1 2, 2 = 2 ((0,-6,)?#16,-9,)?40,-0,) Leg ter 2 leg ae Hyg IE 1.9) 1.1.7 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRESS SYSTEMS Many situations in soil uechanics con be treated 38 two-dimensional problems in which only the stresses Jn 3 single plane noed be considered. The most important case is that of plave otnain, in which the strain (see Section 1.2) in one of the coordinate @irections (usually the y direction here) is zero. Another class of problems are those involving plate stress conditions, in which the stress in one of the coordinate directions {usually y here) is zero. In tto~dimensional stress situations, the stress relationships ate considerably simplified’ in relation to the general threo-dimensional case. Referring to Fig.1.3, the stresses on a plane making an angle 6 with the 2 direction are 0g = H0,t0_J#(c,-0,Joas20+1,otnB8 ... (1.10) Ty = Tyq00828K(a, -0,)sin20 ve QT) ‘The principal stresses are given by Rb= soso) woos ye... aa The principal planes are inclined at an angle 8, 8 = dart wee (1.13) ey and 8,490" to the # axis. FIG.L.3 The maximum shear stress occurs on planes inclin- ed at 48° to the principal planes and is of magnitude ses G14) Syme Me ae? (loo) 40,,3)% (It should be noted that the sign of this maxima shear stress 1s opposite on the two planes, in order ‘to conform to the Sign convention given in Section haa). 1.1.8 MOHR'S CIRCLE OF STRESS A geonetrical solution for stresses in any dir ection is provided by Mohr's circle, shown in Fig.1.4 for a twe-dimensional stress system, The circle is drawn in relation to a set of orthogonal axes, one for normal stress (0) and the other for shear stress (tJ. The scale of these two axes mst be equal. If the principal stresses oi, 3 are known, the cirele can be dram with the centre at o=h(01403) and of radius (0;-03)/2. If the noraal and shear stresses are know, the cirele can be dravn with the centre at o=k(oxtdy) and passing through the points (o_, ,_) and (¢,5-t,) ‘The radius of the circle thus constructed is equal to the maximum shear stress tg (see Equation 114). ‘The angle 28: is twice the angle between the s-8 coordinate axes and the axes corresponding to the directions of principal stress (the i-3 axes in Fig.1.4). The direction of rotation of the radius fron its original constructed position to where the circle intersects the normal stress axis is in the same angular sense a5 the direction of rotation of the ‘axes for the a-z axes to become the principal 1 axes: ‘The stresses in eny other directions =’, a! may sinilarly be determined by draving diameter, through the contre of the circle, at an mgle 28’ to the Aianeter deseribing the stress conditions on the « ‘FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 2 axes, where 0/ is the angle between the == axes and the z’-s' axes (see Pig.t.4). Tt should be noted that shear stresses are ¢on- sidered positive if they tend to produce a clockvise rotation about a point, outside the elenent, at the plane on which they act (Fig.1.5). This convention is consistent with that previously developed for FIG.1,5 1.1.9 POLE CONSTRUCTION Tae pole construction is a useful way-of Linking ‘the stresses at 4 point in the physical plane (Pig. 1.6b) to the Mohr circle disgram for the stresses (Fig-1.6a). The pole, P, is the point on the circle such thet the normal and shear stresses on any plane & (perpendicular to the physical plane) aze given by ‘the intersection with the Mohr circle of a line through P parallel with the plane a. For example the stresses on vertical and horizontal planes are, as Andicated in Fig.J.6a and the najor principal plane is inclined at the angle @ above the horizontal, 1.2 Analysis of Strain 1.2.3. BASIC DEFINITIONS Considering first the case of two-dimensional strain (Fig.1.7), the normal strains ez and e are defined as vey (18a) ANALYSIS OF STRAIN ei 20, -3 se CLo150) where 2, Pg are the displacements in the 2 and 2 directions. A positive normal strain corresponds ‘to a decrease in length. The shear strain gz is the angular change in a right angle in a material and is related to the dis- placenents pe and pz as 2°, = -3i- ses (2.16) A positive shear strain represents an increase in the right angle and a negative shear strain represents a decrease in the right angle. ~ Considering the 2y and ys planes similarly, the six strain Components are related to the displace- ments Pz» Pys Pz inthe =, y and 2 directions as ae, 2, 2, TE ey TE GT) a, 20, = og ae y ve ee e Yee 2 Eee ute) a = ae te “Ne G6! s te thot postion (na enntiguration of the eriginc! right ngs AOR ‘Shear StrOM Yqx=-Oy~ 62 ¥IG.1.7 1.2.2 STRAIN IN A PLANE Considering again a two-dimensional strain situ- ation, the normal strain eg in a plane inclined at @ tothe 2 axis is and the shear strain is Yo = Yes 820 - (e,r€,) singe see (L189) (Note that the above expressions correspond to those for the normal and shear stresses (Section 1,1), except for a factor of in the last term). 1.2.5 TRANSFORMATION OF AXES If a new set of orthogonal axes =', y!, 2’ are chosen, the strain components in this coordinate system are related to the strain components in the original <, y, 2 system as Dy, = Adal see (1.20) where D is the strain matrix in the 2% 2 systea, he, ey Fey May pe |My Y My Hen May 5, se G21) Dy is the strain matrix in the a', y's a! system, A is the direction cosine matrix defined in Section 1.1.3. AT is the transpose of A, In matrix operations, it is convenient to use the double suffix notation and to define 4vzz as ey The strain matrix is then fsx Say See D= leye Sy Sys Fas “ya Sas] see (2.22) 1.2.4 PRINCIPAL STRAINS ‘Analogous to the principal planes of stress, there ‘axe three principal planes of strain. The shear strains in these planes are zero and the normal strains ‘are the principal strains, The najor and minor prin- cipal strains are respectively, the greatest and least normal strains at the point, For an isotropic elastic material, the principal planes of strain can be shown to coincide with the principal planes of stress. 6 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS ‘The principal strains are deternitied, in a sinil- ar manner to principal stresses, as the roots of the equation ef - het +ne,-t=0 e+ 28) where Thee, tey te, +. (24a) wt The te 4 see (1,24b) €, ze 2 Theeee, - eve. ee ays a en? ey Ves Y; eer eed see G-240) Ih, Iz, Is are the strain invariants, analogous to the stress invariants. In two-dimensional systems, the principal strains €1, €3 are as follows: 8) a pe Sale tee 7 ses 1.25) and the principal planes are inclined at an angle 6; to the = and 2 axes, where 6 cr es pom ear? ses 1.26) 1.2.5 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRAIN. Yar 7 81> es ses 1.27) where €, = maximum principal normal strain, €5 = minimm principal noraal strain, ‘maz occurs on a plane whose normal makes an angle of 45° with the €, and €3 directions. 1.2.6 MOHR'S CIRCLE OF STRAIN A geometrical solution for strains in any direct- ion is provided by Mohr's circle of strain (Fig.1.8). ‘The only difference between the circle of strain and the cizcle of stress is that, in the circle of strain, ‘the ordinate represents only one-half the shear strain (i.e. the ordinate axis is 7/2). As in Fig.1.4, the axes’ 1-3 represent the principal axes, 2-2 the horizontal and vertical space axes and ‘x'-2! the axes in direction at an angle @/ to the =z axes. The dianeter of the circle is equal to the maximm shear strain Veet Yume 7 Marg) + Yay ‘The pole construction as described for the Mohr circle of stress may be adapted for the Mohr circle of strain. wk FIG.1.8 Mobr circle of strain. 1.3 Equilibrium Equations 41.3.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES By considering the equilibrium of the elenent shown in Fig.1.1 in the Cartesian coordinate system, the following equilibriun equations are obtained: Bo, Bye HF, ae, Tere we Ge wet He ore 2.282) see (1.280) QOILIBRIUM EQUATIONS x, tye MF Elam, ye etre te te? where % ¥, % are the body. forces, per With axial symetry, these become ES ‘an unit volume, in the =, y’ and 20, a0, = directions, ny ca wer aa? With an ordinary gravity field and the 2 dir- gevton vertically dowvaris,” and) 2” are zero and et Bote the unit weight, y, of the material. ar Me Ten unit ight, Y¥, “we tat oO 1.3.2. CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 1.3.5. SPHERICAL COORDINATES (Fig.2.10) 16,1,20 +290 * ree 3p FIG.1.9 x, 26, ro “Blatt meat Considering the equilibrium of the elezent in the cylindrical (x,2, 0) coordinate syste shovn in Fig. + yy 2 Map 1.3, Be equilibrium equations are (neglecting body et 0 * Feind 39 forces: 4, 20,79 . By Moprtyh oe F a @.28¢) see 308) ee (.30b) x, IMyy Fr Tghh gore? 19,4 Poaceae) see (Sta) a, 1 May, Bratlagaylert® wee (LA31B) doy FyytPT—gorte och Me, Stee @.sie) For complete spherical symnetry these becone see Q.32) 4 ‘FUNDAMENTAL DSFIWITIONS AND RELATIOUSATPS 1.4 Strain-Displacement and Compatibility Equations 1.4.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES ‘The strain ~ displacement relationships are given in equation (1.17). "Since six strain components are Serived from only thres displacements, the strains are not independent of each other. Six further relation- ships, Kuown as the compatibiiicy equations, can be derived. These ore 95 follows: ses (380) ve, ve, WY, ‘yy ote ys ae Wye ve G35) ae, * Nex aetae * ne ss G.386) Be a, My Mee, (= ep Mee GRR CEB - ox ae, Mee |, 34 wes (1-330) ny, wy, 19-2 Zee SE-B). 35h 1.4.2 CYLINDRICAL CooRDINATES ‘The strain ~ displacement cquations are, ap, 0 e- ~-2 50 9,8 ar Yeo Te te see (34a) Pn 1 2 20, 2 ®, oR ae Tos" "ie Fao ee (548) ap, ap, 2p 5 “re vee (1-34e) ‘The corresponding compatability equations arc quoted by L'ure (1964). 1.4.3, SPHERICAL COORDINATES: ‘The strain - disptacosent equations are: 2, 1 Bn 0 Po fo ac Yo "re see (35a) wee G58) ‘The compatibility equations, for the case of axial symmetry, are quoted by Lure (1964). 1.5 Stress-Strain Relationships 1.5.1 LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS ISOTROPIC MATERIAL Strains in texm: of stress: ey 2 Eley va, +a) oe 369) ey = Zt, - vo, +6) 360) «, = bi- ve, +o see G.360) ty By ses 1.368) (2.366) 1.368), where B = Young's modulus v= Poisson's ratio @ = shear modulus —_, ee 1.357) afte) Also, volume strain e, = Ge 2% “BD where 6, = Gxttyten © = o,0ye0, = bulk stress STRESS~STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 3 K = balk modulus. Stresses in terms of strains: a, = de, + 206, s+ (1.388) oy = de, + 205, se (1.388) Go, = de, # 266, or (E380) Tyg = Mpg ete se (1.382) vhere A,G are Lame's parameters ae d= —2_ (sv) (1-20) see (1.398) Ge —2—s shear modulus 2080) see (1.386) (G 4s also often denoted as u). Fot the special case of plane stress e.g. in the az plane, oy=0 in the above equations. . For the special case off plane strain in the sz plane, ey=0 and hence 9, = Wo, #64) y vee (1.403 Equations (1.36) then reduce to (lev) e,2 OO) to,(2-0) - wa) ses G48) aro ses G.42b) 0, (2-v) ~ vo} ses Geto) ter Ft, ses (dla) Solutions for a plane strain problem can be usod for the corresponding plane stress problem provided that the following equivalent values of E and v are used in the plane strain problem: {eB ——_— eee (42a), e aw)? 8 wes 1.420) Conversely, to use solutions for a plane stress problen for the corresponding plane strain probles,_ he equivalent modeli are see (2.438) see 43) re Plane stress solutions which do not involve the elastic parameters are therefore identical with the corresponding plane strain solutions e.g. stresses within a semi-infinite plate and stresses due to line loading on a seni-infinite mss, Sumary of Relationships Betweon Elastic Paraiieters z Gforp) = wre (1.44) BC1e0) ye — Fv aes (1.45) (99) (1-89) . g- —57.atewe wae (1-46) S(i-tv) 51-40) B= 36 wee (47) see -. vy = Lk) ver (248) 20340) 2» ay i a2 see (1-49) Ny : Constrained odulus (1/my in Soil Mechanics) = WE eee (2.50) (ev) (1-20) . 1.5.2. CROSS ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL Stresses in terms of strains: Cartesian codrdinates: o, "at, # be, + 06, vee G.5la) wee (1.518) aoe GS1e) see G.518) ere C510) we G51) Oy =, Bey tae, + 05, ©, = et, tot, +c, vee G.528) see 1.52b) see (2.520) see C526) see (520) ae C528) lo FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS FT Mon! (Thy) (IV, 72, V4) ses (1530) Ex on (Fy) ‘i @.53b) Fy, Yoh Iron ses (1.85e) BCI) ass) Toon se (83a) = modulus of elasticity in the horizontal direction = modulus of elasticity in the vertical direction Vy = Poisson's ratio for effect of horizontal stress on com- plementary horizontal strain Vjy = Poisson's ratio for effect of horizontal stress on vertical strain = Poisson's ratio for effect of vertical stress on horizontal strain. It can be shown that Fa iw S ze le ve G54) 5, Mn The elastic constant f is a shear modulus and cannot be expressed in terms of the Young's modulf or Poisson's ratios. f is often denoted as Gy. Strains in terns of stresse: see G.558) c++ @-55b) see (2.55e) vee 554) see .5Se) 4 = Ge 558) In sone works (0.g. Urena et al, 1966) Viy is denoted merely a5 Vy and the use of vy is avoid- ed by using equation (1.54). ‘The fact that the strain energy mist be positive imposes restrictions on the values of the elastic parameters. For a cross-anisotropic naterial with.2 vertical axis of elastic symmetry, Hearmon (1961) gives these restrictions as aro sss 56a) a>0 ses 1.566) fro ses (1.560) at> Be ses (1.568) (atb)d > 208 se+ (1.560) ad > o® - ses @.56E) In terns of the Poisson's ratios, these restrictions impose the limits TY > My yy? OF ses (1.578) s+ (1.876) -¥,>0 Tey >0 + @.57e) ferential Equations of Isotropic Elasticity 1.6.1 EQUATIONS IN TERMS OF STRESSES Cartesian Coordinates vo, + ax, yy ge bd a ty ae ae + (1.584) vo +b Bel Beak Yay? ive wy a y see (1580) vio + POL Heh dy a2 i-v dey On os see (1.58e) vie, ¢ 280 or, eee (1.588) YF nav yas sy 2 vi +b 222k a oF = se (1.586) ay ae EQUATIONS OF ISOTROPIC BLASTICITY n ses 585) For constant or zero body forces, the first three equations of (1.58) reduce to the Laplace equation ve =o see G59) For the special case of plane stress, the equat- ions are the equilibrium equations c++ (2-608) see (2.606) eee (1.800) For plane strain, the first to of the above thee equations are again applicable, The third equation ts a 4 fo, +0,) = Le ‘at a? dev ae” 2 ave (61) 1€ body Forces are constant, the equations for plane stress and plane strain conditions are identical, Qytininteal Coordinates With zero or constant body forces: vo 2 20 Fee y cos (1.628) de ant 29 + 8 49 0, + Boga) wes (1.62) yoy) +E, L EB 12G., Figg tw ‘ras ant vee (1,626) - t+ 22D oo a iar r 36 » (2.628) ee 1 #0 woe, 2 7, 30” v0 tras see (1.62e) at, ao f09,2 Te,212° _, tn 00 Teun O08 see G.626) For the general case of non-constant body forces, the corresponding equations, in tentor form, are given dy Lure (1964), 1.6.2 EQUATIONS IN TERMS OF STRESS FUNCTION ¢ Cartesian Coordinates We = 0 = VR ses (1.63) where eof ay ae For plane stress or plane strain, ate, 236 6 248g see 1.66 be* ae78z? an* oes and the stresses are related to 6 as follows: see (1.658) ses (1.650) (1.686) Cylindrical Coordinates For axial symmetry, Ve = 0 = VN ves (2.66) where xz a pe hath + or zi The stresses are related to ¢ as = 2 ontg - BH ses (1.678) co ar® o, = zee Ley aes (1676) rie o, = 2 yew vy -B2) ess (676) az at 22 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS = 2pm y-F8] a8 or ast 1.6.5 EQUATIONS IN TERNS OF DISPLACEMENTS Carterian Ccondinates a, on) 24 ovo, - xX = 0 s+ (688) a ae, s+ (2,686) O+G) 2+ ap - 1 = 0 wy y 26, (ee) 24 avtp- 2 = 0 see (2.68) a were 2,6 are Lane's paraweters volume strain vet yrs, ts Cylindrical Coordinates For axial symerry, a ao, Grn (Ee Be 2p Es roy —2 art oan aa? ares = Rw. 69a) Ho, a, 8, 2, ove —2+22 @ +22 gy word ar ar ae tA ew) = 2... C69 Pas ar where R,2 are the body forces in the y amd z directions. Qa the 2 axis (m0) the relevant equation is Fe, ap, ap, 420) Be 2g 2 2096) Pet a? at aaa s++ (2.69¢) 1.7 Convenient Methods of Considering Loaded Areas 1.7.1 SUPERPOSITION OF RECTANGLES T€ the loaded area can be approximated by a rec- tangle, or by a series of rectangles, and appropriate influence factors for stress or displacement beneath ‘the corner of a rectangle are available, the stress or displacement at ony point my be determined by ‘superposition .of rectangles. For the simple case of a single rectangle, the stress beneath a interior point Oy (see Fig.1.11) nay Simply be calculated as Oo = pik + Xe + Ky t Xe) s+ 2,70) where Hay Hay Kay Hs are the approp- viate influence factors for areas 1,2,3 and 4, for the appropriate geometry of each receangle. FIG.2.12, For an exterior point Op (Fig. 1,11) O = Pikisataty ~Kate ~Kate +Ky) vee QD For couputer calculations, the superposition principle can be stated as (see Fig.1.11): OF = SCHL) = FOHAU,XD ~ IW EV) # SHOU, I-T) 72) where Jinn) = sign (not ml, [n]) sign fxm) dT owhen m>o a mcd a(|n|,[n[2 = stress beneath comer of a rectangle m * 1. Displacements axe calculated similarly. For horizontal and shear stresses, care wust be taken to take account of the sign of K for each xectangle, 1.7.2 REMWARK'S METHOD ‘This method was developed by Newmark (1935) and is a graphical method involving the use of an influence chart, examples of which are shown in Figs.3.68-3.78, A drawing is made of the loaded area to a scale which is warked on the chart, and this drawing is so placed on the chart that the origin of the chart coincides with the point at or beneath which the stress or dis- placement is required. ‘The mmber of blocks covered by the loaded axea is then counted and multiplied by"an appropriate factor (shown on the chart} and the applied loading to. give the required stress or displacenent. METHODS FOR LOADED AREAS ay When the area is not uniforsly toaded, the charts can still be used by considering the non-uniforn lesd- ing to be made up of several sets of uniformly loaded In using the charts, parts of blocks may be est- imated with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. Im general, the loaded area will be drawn on tracing Paper and Laid upon the chart. Several "Newmark Charts!” for stresses and dis- placemonts in a semi-infinite mass are given in Section 5.6. for a finite layer, Burmister (1956) has prepazed charts, but the use of these cherts is, more complicated a5"they mist be used in conjunction With a table of influence values (see Section $.4.1). 1.7.3. SECTOR METHOD This method has been described by Poulos (19672). For uy particular problea, a set of curves relating the stress.or displacenent influence factor beneath the apex of a uniformly loaded sector to the sector radius nay be obtained by integration of the approp- viate point load influence factors over a sector. Such sets of curves are referred to as "scctor curves", ind ‘typical examples are given in Sections 3.6.2 and 5.4.2. In onder to use the sector curves for calculation of the required influence factors for a loaded area of any shape, a scale diagram of the area is dram, and a nouber of relatively suall-angled sectors are dram to cut the loaded area, each sector emanating from an apex which Lies on the size vertical line as the point at - which the influence factor is required. The point om the surface of the elastic solid through which this vertical line passes will be termed the "surface origin". In Fig.1.12, typical sectors Og #2B2_ and 07 4:8," are shown in ptan for surface origins Oz eutside and Or inside the loaded area. For invariant stresses such as the bulk stress ©, and for the stress 0, and the displacement pz, the influence af the typical sector Op Aa: for the oxter- nal surface origin Og is I, - 1,4) 66 where J, 4s the sector influence value at 2 the required depth for 2 mean sector radius 7m, and sintlar~ ly for Ip, ‘The influence factor at Og for the whole loaded area is roe Ey, - 14, 68 ves O73) For the surface origin Oy within the loaded area, the influence factor for the whole losded area is re W,,.6 ves 1-78) then evalue ing the influence factor for a stress or displacenent ~'ich is in a dizection other thon the 2 direction, the summetion of sector influence factors must be vectorial. To calailate the horizon: tal stress cz in the direction at Op, both the tangential and radial stress influence factors for each sector are requixed, the influence value for the whole loaded area being given by fa, + Hoste = gyg,)-88-008%8 + +(oo%g,-~ o9%,,}58-sin79}..@..75) where Io, is the influence factor for due to the loaded area, Les al, opie: ople, 2 the Sector influence fact~ ors for the radial stress, for sector radii of 7; and rz respectively. o> gale ople;? agle, 280 the sector influence fect- ors for the tangential stress, for sector radii of mi, ra. ‘The influence factors for horizontal stress Cy im the y direction my be obtained similarly, = - ant Fu, 7 WG for “alos -se-eente + Gy In the same manner, it may be shown that the influence factors for the three shear stresses in the Cartesian coordinate system are a5 follows: oe7az)8®- 008°} ses (1.76) Taye” Tagg 7 Wleglos ~ gen ~ ogfan testes) .68.8in 8.008 6} ses Q.778} 1s FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS = TG Fes" take e088. 8 ses 77) = Weproa” tpgZea) + Sint 88 vee (770) where cpploys tyglay aFe the sector influence factors for radial shesr stress, for sector radii of ri, me For the displacements 9, and py in the = trid_y directions for the surface origin Op, the influence factors are I, = UG Fes ~ 9,Zoq): 6.2008 ae (1-788) Toy Lazo, ~ pjZeg) S858 «+ (2.786) where Ip, and Ipy are influence fact> ors for’ the displacements in the = and y directions due to the whole loaded area, fare the sector influence fact~ ors for radial displacement, for sector rai of 71,r2- alos? ates Waving found the infiuence factor f for the whole azes, the stresses and displacenents for Og and 0 dae to uniform loading are given in ali cases by oe fr sez (679) a ad,p = or see G80) aE ‘The accuracy of the influence fectors calculated by the sector method increases with the number of sec tors used, and the more irregular the shape of the loaded arca, the greater is the desirable mumber of sectors. For the calculation of influence fectors for stresses and displacenents which ace neither in- variant nor in the a direction, the sector angle $9. mist be small in order to proserve the accuracy of Yoth the magnitude and direction of the calculated influence factor. Stresses aid Displacements Beneath the Centre of @ Uniformly Otrele Beneath the centre of a uniformly loaded circle, ‘the expressions for stresses and displacenents reduce to very simple forms. For oz, 03 and the invariant stresses, Ios tit,, s+ @.81) where Zgq is the sector influence factor for a sector radius equal -to the radius of the circle. For the horisontal stresses cand 9, = 4, ‘6, oy wher? gyteas oplea xe settor influence factors fer 09 and Gp for a sector radies equat 20 the radius of the circle. = gy Tee * glad! oplea* ogfea ore (2.82) ‘The influence factors for all shear stresses and for the horizontal displacenents 2 and fy are zero in this case. 1,8 Superposition of Solutions for Various Loadings Solutions aze usually only available for relativ~ ely simple types of loading. If the loading pattern is complicated, superposition of solutions for simple loadings may frequently be employed. Examples of the decomposition of complicated loadings into simpler Joads have been given by Giroud (1968) in terns of four simple loading types, uniform vertical load, Linearly varying vertical 1oad, uniform horizontal toad and linearly varying horizontal load. Fig.1.15 shows the examples given by Giroud, the sigs in each case referring to the signs of the four simple loading types. ‘The foregoing is exact for generalized linear loading. The approach can be extended approximately ‘to completely general non-linear loading by division of this loading into a series of general linear ‘loadings. © ® © Wn [Ds [xa GEG) || GRE a) o Ly) Wzr| cn GIFTS) || GT) o| © ® WA ket ua (GE) || Gere) || STeTeTS) od ® oO al, | ax. GET) | GETS || Ee noe wan oo come, 0 w wa ww FIG.1.13 Decomposition of loadings (Gireud,1968). SIMPLE BENDING THBORY 25 1.9 Equations of Simple Bending Theory ‘1.9.1 HORIZONTAL BEAM arf. a where EI = flexural rigidity se G83) p = deflection (positive downwards) 2 distance along beam M = bending monent ("sagging" moments positive, "hogging" moments negative) & sige o= 2 see (88) “7 a Shear force vy =: ~ % see (1.858) & - are (for constant FI) ... (1.856) Load per uit length p= -Se s+ (1.862) - a fe (for constant EY)... (1.866) 1.9.2 CIRCULAR PIATE For axially-symetrical loading, s+ (2.87) shere p = deflection (positive down- wards) y= radial distance fron centre load intensity q = load intensity D = flexural rigidity of plate » ae 28(I-v?) E = Young’ modaus of plate v= Poisson's ratio of plate = plate thickness and My per unit length in ‘The bending nonents ‘the ‘directions are given by radial and tangent wu, = -fFt42 vee (1.888) * Gi ar and My = 0% +y 2) ses (2.888) * a ae . 1.9.5 RECTANGULAR PLATE Be, eRo Mela vee (1-898) ast tata? ay oD Le, Me= g/d see (1.898) where q = intensity of load D-= flentral rigidity of plate as before. Tho moments per mit length, i and My, in the = md y directions sre 2, 2, 4 > eee wes @.90a) 2, o wo= -D Bea yt ave (2.900) yo wee vED a.) ay Chapter 2 BASIC SOLUTIONS FOR CONCENTRATED LOADING 2.1 Point Loading 2.1.2 BOUSSINESQ ProBLEM - Point load acting on the surface of a semi- infinite mass (Fig.2.2)} 2.2.1 KELVIN PROBLEM Point load acting within an infinite elastic sass (Fig.2-1). Pp ° FIG.2.1 : re ' z R Fe h, FIG.2.2 oo RIT (AR Beppe ors Qala) o, = see (22a) 6, * pty & OSE ay]. ay oy = ge [2882 5 Geta) vee (2.20) 4 ee see (Bude) og <-SEBUE (2 Ey ses (2.20) oe gghgy Male vgn o = Ha a 38 Set Ros BB+ ee). ate) i,- Be se (2.2e) o, = PAM [s-w+Z] an 9, = PH) teri + By os G28 0, + ~ PAS vee QB) o, = Sieh ae . Genie) ve 2.20 a6 POT? LOADING 2.2.3 CERUTTI'S PROBLEM Horizontal point toad acting along the surface of a semi-infinite mass (Fig.2.3). x BGR At 1S aint (ays? ee eee (2.38) 8. * RIE + abe BO see (2.36) Pe pot, ate amaty Oy = Fea ARE + Trait GH ~*~ Fo (2.3e) - oe ass (2,58) = BG Spe ae fea Gate ote BB w+ G30) y, - Be ves GSO) tae BE a 0.80 °, = vee QSH) Poe) 2 (2. at og = pan (44 Ret Ge Tara) voy (259) 1 _ ft 2.1.4 MINDLIN'S PROBLEM NO,1 Vertical point load P acting beneath the surface of a semi-infinite mass. (Hindlin, 1936). (Fig.2.4). (i-2v) fara) _ 3s*(z-o) aE RE 4 {=B0) [Bf ara) AV 260) R 7 _ Mdtv)s* (z-0)-66 (ato) ((A-2v)z-2vel aE _ Sueatelate) | 41-v)(1-20) 2 A, (R, tate) at «0 -gamer Bl vee eda) FIG. 2.4 (tyee) _ 582-2) z 8 ae Qead) ane) R _ Slzce)?_ Sf5-40)(ate?* ~Sel ate) (Se-2) R ee - sees(ete? | vee Qede) % ae CONCENTRATED LOADING Te > OW 1 z (a0)? ain [- ap ape ep 2 - Meg __ Ma-dy)alate)~3el Sete) _ Ident ate)* a 1 RE a see (248) _ Sdetv)z(ato)~So(32r0) _ 30ex(z40)*) 6 ae R 2 4 vee (2.A8) aoe , (SHV) (a0) oe = wai |p Oye A(2w) 1-20), 85nCate) 5 aa + |... ean _ USav)elzta)-SelSzto) _ 30e2t ata)? | Re By see (2,80) 2 4 Sv)? 5-40) erates | By : ey? 2 2 _e Maes _ wo.ete ote (atu) tata)* ton , Bengt ay BE OE A " Peco) vita) | ot 2 sags Bae) Gio d Influence factors for dz, and dy and 6g on the axis have been tabulated by Geddes’ (1966). - Soeatsre) woe QA) a 2.4.5 MINDLIW'S PROBLEM NO.2. Worizontal point lead @ acting beneath the surface of a senicinfinite mses, (lindlia, 1936). wOT 0-5 oman te ae 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 os 0.2 9 2634 5.789 2566 5.567 2.569 5.508 2.706 5.611 2.986 5.902 4.292 S.4i9 9.085 10.92 $.923 7.739 5.419 6.933 $.145 6.433 5.120 6.217 5,522 6.295 6.846 7.709 13.02 14.12 oi 2575 HT07 292 5.a99 512 Sad] 2.057 5.850 2.867 5.780 5.978 5.002 6.687 8.250 ** 8.766 7.524 $.294 6.761 $.012 6.291 4.997 6.075 5.162 6.121 6.390 7.217 9.880 10.76 0.2 2400 5.436 2.538 5.267 2.352 2.444 3.272 2,620 5.445 5.253 4,165 3.753 4.764 ** $.M6 6.936 4.960 6.318 4,726 4.673 S.683 4.755 §.651 $.371 6.116 5,848 6.452 0.3 2143 5.063 2.107 2.947 2.118 2.166 2.920 2.256 2.997 2.458 5.206 1.961 2.605 “° 4,716 6.068 4.447 5.632 4.216 4,188 5.106 4.176 4.997 4.226 4.875 35,326 3.737 og EMO 2.559 1.029 2.558 1.052 1847 2.492 1,862 2.490 1,770 2.563 0,970 1.415 -* S902 5.068 $1847 sea Sole 31638 41434 31553 41272 3259 51803 Il9sa 2.275 ous 1525 25142 1.536 2.129 1.536 1,824 2.075 1.489 2.021 2.239 1.716 0.423 0.754 “9 3.240 4.080 3.206 3.992 3.112 3,057 3.759 2,937 3.565 2.452 2.947 1.183 1.476 9.6 b23 1.685 1,249 1309 1.209 1.221 1.662 1.187 1.883 0.844 1.220 0.107 0.570 "2,548 3.117, 2.599 3.203 2.568 2.817 3,079 2,590 2.919 1.868 2.308 0.754 1,045 0.7 0-954 1,302 0.989 1,349 0.989 1,352 0.955 1.513 0.879 1.228 0.559 0.867 -0.070 0.153 “" 1,937 2.314 2.045 2.484 2,037 2.533 2,026 2.486 1,910 2.562 1.423 2.820 0.499 0,808 9.8 0-721 0.99 0.759 1.008 0.760 1.019 0.724 0.987 0.647 0.909 0.350 0.590 -0.175 0.020 °Y 1.436 2.662 1.575 1.890 1.632 1.979 1,608 1,975 1.516 1.887 1.100 1.462 9.360 0,679 9.9 557 0.696 0.57% 0.756 0.575 0.775 0.541 0.767 0.470 0.679 0.207 0.409 -9.228 0.044 "1.044 2.172 1.195 1.409 1.230 1.533 4.263 1.560 1.194 1.514 0.858 1.191 0.279 0,610 yo 0-587 0.394 0,390 0.451 0,392 0.472 0.362 0.487 0.500 0.409 0.080 0.215 0.258 -0.098 0.686 0.724 0.837 0.972 0,902 1,105 0.936 1,160 0.895 1-150 0.651 0.956 0.236 0.565 qq 0-2 0.079 0,142 0,122 0.142 0.128 0.122 0.127 0.082 0.109 0.052 0.029 -0.242 -0.090 **°0,258 0.238 0.373 0.417 0.21 0.547 0.484 0.619 0.483 0.666 0,389 0.634 0.212 0.514 Lg 0-010 -0.014 9.029 0.002 0.038 0,011 0.008 0.013 -0,020 0.009 -0.097 -0.017 -0.200 ~0.056 "0,201 0.079 (0.176 0.229 0.214 0,299 0.268 0.353 6.285 0.405 0,272 0.475 0.222 0.465 j.7p0-050 -0,021 -0.027 -0,015 0,030 -0.011 0.039 0.009 -0.055 -0.009 0.085 -0.018 0.148 -0.020 “0,056 0.055 0.102 0.141 0.142 0.200 0.170 0.252 0.191 0.299 0.211 0.376 0.217 0,419. 2.0 90.042 -0.022 -0,045 -0.018 -0.067 -0.015 -0.052 -0,013 -0,060 -0.012 ~-0.081 -0.013 -0.105 -0.013 “© “oloss "0.072 0.084 0.118 0.110 0.365 0.130 0.205 0.149 0.243 0-179 0.311 0.206 0.368 2.5 ~0-025 -0-005 -0.027 -0,005 -0.050 -0.003 -0.033 -0.001 -0.036 -0.000 -0.041 0.002 -0.045 0.005 *° 0,062 0.102 6.073 0.124 0.088 0.147 0.097 0,170 0.208 0.193 0.13L 0.238 0.152 0.281 3.9 “0-010 0,005 0.012 0.005 0,015 0.006 -0.016 0.007 -0.017 0,00 -0,019 0.015 0.052 0.097 0.058 0.211 0.073 0.139 0.079 0.154 0.093 0,182 0.105 0.208 4.9 0-006 0.007 0,005 0.007 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.007 0.004 0.007 0.004 6,007 -0,000 0.c08 0.018 0.058 0.021 0.064 0,026 6,070 0.027 0.075 0.029 0.081 0.034 0.091 0.037 9.101 9 0-005 0,001 0,005 0.001 0.005 0,002 0.005 0,001 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.001 9.005 0.000 “0.008 0.017 0.001 0.018 9.001 9.020 0,002 0.021° 0.003 0.022 0.004 0.025 0,004 0.027 8.0. 0,002 -0.001 0.002 -0.001 0.002 -0.001 0,002 -0.001 0.002 -0.002 0.002 -0,001 0.002 -0.901 w=0,002- 0.002 -0.062 0.002 -0.002 0.005---0.001 0,003 -0.001- 0.003. -0.001- 0.004 -0.001 . 0.004 2nve LoannNG a TABLE 2.12 INFLUENCE VALUES Z;_, FOR HORIZONTAL SHEAR STRESS t,_, te raw = 2 Tee fe Mee 0.9 0.8 D7 0.6 2.4 0.2 o 2 Oo oo 2 0 oO oo oo oO 0 0 oo a) Ca) oo o 0 Cn) 9.1 0-143 0.295 0,164 0.195 0,219 0.254 0,509 O.515 0.447 0.448 1.051 1.026 2.914 2.906 “1 91268 0.330 0.225 0.280 0.242 0.243 0.310 0.307 0.436 0.427 1.008 0.999 2.888 2.885 0.2 0-265 0.364 0,300 0.387 0.391 0.422 0.556 0.550 0.744 0.747 1.441 1.452 2.250 2.215 +2 91496 0.617 0.416 0.468 0.439 0.453 0.582 0.537 0.72 0.710 11596 1.580 2.181 2.178 13 [+348 0.485 0.388 0.470 0.490 0.536 0.643 0.665 9.843 0.849 2,522 1,309. 1,224 1.203 “3 91666 0.830 0.554 9.630 0.563 0.588 0.657 0.655 9.820 0.803 11260 1.258 1.155 1.147 9.4 0-391 0.554 0.427 0.529 0.517 0.578 0.645 0.676 0.792 0.802 1,008 0.994 0.658 0.612 4 0.765 0.960 0.655 0.732 0.618 0.655 0.671 0.677 0.771 0.757 0.936 0.912 0.553 0.541 o.5 0-39) 0.572 0.421 0.839 0.489 0.561 0.575 0.615 0.660 0.676 0.694 0.680 0.325 0.295 “8 97798 1.007 0.660 0.775 0.610 0.866 0.617 0.654 0.645 0.640 0.617 0.594 0.227 0.215 0.6 0-367 0.552 0.385 0.514 0.427 0.510 0,475 0.524 0.510 0.532 0.448 0.435 0.185 0.122, "S 07780 0.995 0.664 0.774 0.571 0.683 0.534 0.367 0.508 0.516 0.372 0.558 0.050 0.045 0.7 0-319 0.806 0.532 0.465 0.353 0,442 0.570 0.424 0.370 0.397 0.270 0.258 0,059 0.025 "7 01724 0.953 0.606 0.740 0.511 0.599 0.844 0,494 0.380 0.404 0-198 0.198 0.048 -0.042 0.8 0-258 0.486 9.271 0.407 0.273 0.372 0.275 0.335 0.256 0,290 0.180 0.141 0.008 -0.027 “8 9.649 0.849 0.540 0.688 0.447 0.850 0.563 0.452 0.280 0.524 0.085 0.105 -0.100 -0.077 9.9 0-212 0.385 0.215 0.548 0,210 0.307 0.197 0.261 0.269 0.205 0.072 0.066 -0.018 -0.054 "9 01567 0.787 9.475 0.627 0.385 0-500 0,295 0.380 0.205 0.267 0.018 0.055 -0.124 -0.084 1.9 0152 0.305 0.148 0.274 0.159 0.254 0.119 0.185 “0.090 0.129 0.014 0,029 -0.030 0.066 *9 01460 0.636 0.382 0.544 0.512 0.438 0.226 0.329 0.139 0.222 -0.028 0.034 0.120 -0.070 1.25 0-085 0.177 0.054 0.161 0.046 0.131 0,030 0.092 0.010 0.049 -0.026 -0.028 -0.020 -0.059 “95 97285 01480 9.252 0.401 0.199 0.338 0.136 0.263 0.069 0.186 -0.050 0.049 -0.112 -0.022 4,3 0-012 0.098 0,004 0,090 0.003 0.073 -0.004 0,048 -0.012 0.021 -0.020 -0.025 0.006 -0.038 “3 g2179 01311 01157 0.300 0.127 0.268 0.087 0.223 0.043 0.174 0.038 0.080 -0.085 0.020 0. 70.015 0.051 -0.011 0.028 -0.009 0.013 -0.000 -0.013 0.031 -0.019 0.094 0.228 0.979 1189 0,028 0.359 -0.025 0.095 -0.064 0.041 2.9 0-011 0.029 -D.018 0.029 -0.010 9.026 -0.004 0.020 0.003 0.013 0.021 0.000 0,052 -0.005 *© 9.054 9.272 0,053 0-175 0.045 0.169 0.033 0.156 0.017 0.239 -0.018 0.096 -0,051 0.050 2.8 0-002 0.017 0.005 0,018 0.005 0.018 0.015 0,016 0.025 0,016 0.048 0.010 0.075 0.005 5 o.o16 0.116 0.015 0.118 0.011 0.314 0.008 0.109 -0.003 0.100 -0.023 0.075 -0.048 0.042 ~0.004 0.015 0.005 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.036 0.011 0,079 0.007 70.000 0.087 -0.003 0.087 -0.006 0.088 0.079 -0.016 0.056 ~0.051 0.031 4,0 0-007 0.012 0.018 0,012 0.025 0.011 0,030 0,010 0.038 0.009 0.054 9.007 0.070 0.004 -° 0.020 0.05 -0.022 0.043 -0.025 0.040 01057-01021 0,034 -0.039 0.025 -0.049 0.014 6.0 91007 0.007 9.012 0,006 0.017 0.005 0.008 0.027 0,004 0.037 0.003 0.047 0.001 - .0:026 0.018 -0.028 0.014 -0.029 0.013 0.012 -0.052 0-010 -0.035 9.007 -0.038 9.004 4.9 00004 0.004 9,007 0,005 0.012 0.003 0,014 0,003 0.017 0,002 0.024 0,001 0.030 0.001 “9 0.028 0.006 -0.024 0.005 -0.025 0.005 -0.026 0.004 -0.026 0.004 -0.028 9.003 -0.030 0.001 CONCENTRATED LOADING TABLE 2.12 2,3 Line Loading—Axial Symmetry INFLUENCE VALUES I, FOR SURFACE DISPLACEMENTS 2.3.1 UNIFORM VERTICAL RING LOADING OW ane koko SURFACE OF SEXI-INFINITE MASS 0, Big (ig. 2.13) HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT . ° o2 08 05 366 0.952 0.516 -0.098 ppenttengts [| The oles 01217 “0/188 {io oma? oliz7L0l2e0 —ho £ img 0.613.042 70.542 872 0.518 -0.033 -0.407 | le [743 0.438 -0.087 -0-460 . Soke 0135 “OL1S1 101499 iS56 01288 “01194-01524 ! S47 0.227 "0.223 “0.838 - = 390 0.180 -0.247 -0.537 FIG. 2.13 01237 0.084 01261-07509 01167 0.026 0.241 -0-448 : 01111 0.008 “01212 “0.384 -0} 0.074 9.001 -0.175 -0.308 On the axis G=0), 0.034 0.602 0-114 -0.210 0.012 -0.01S -0.067 -0.135 Sp2*a see (2.13a) 0002-01002 -01026 | 0.053 (atea?) s/t S000 "0:00 L0‘005 0.007 1000 0.000 °0:000 -0"000 Oy = oy = Pel tew) Cate") 204 8 atateat)/* eee (2,130) TABLE 2.35 (apse 6 = entitles we INFLUENCE VALUES Top FOR SURFACE DISPLACEMENTS (aaa?) 2? G2. 130) LINE LOAD =2 = we QL ee o see (23a) ng © PORE fact) +] o. Gut3e) vo 0.2 0.8 0.8, Blatea?) (aPeat) O.1 3.786 3.466 2.635 1.926 01221461 2.222188 0,973, a, <9 see (2.158) 9,5 1,730 11585 0.965 0.458. 0.4 (11244-1069 0.583 0.152 0.5 0.896 0.749 0.324 -0.079 0.6 0.643 (O.5TL 01145 -0.217 2.3.2 UNIFORM VERTICAL SUBSURFACE LINE LOAD 0.7 0.433 «0,347 0.085 -0,209 (Pig. 2.14) 01313 0.218 -0.057 ~0.344 O19 0.212 042-0101 -0.358 10 01126 0.059 0.239 -0.589 12 ws 7 2.0 25 310 4.0 6.0 8.0 0.025 0,006 0.146 -0.515 0012-01024 -0.112 0.254 “is “olazs “01023 “o.08e “o-a98 Sertse 5 0.017 -0.015 -0.071 -0.134 'S “olo1d "0908 “elose “0-088 50 “aloo “oL001 | “o!o14 “0.087 op] fret wos 0.002 -0.000 0.007 -0.025 =0.000 -0.000 0.002 -0.004 =0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 FIG. 2.24 ‘EINE LoaDTve Geddes (1966) evaluated the following express- ions for the stresses from Hindlin's equations: “1 aes) = RE Beds 2(2y) + 27-20) B ataonte2(a4e0) Ont - antartee(aee0) Bem * CE + By ry 2 * BY * 3 + 8 Unt + 1 + ace egg) | see (Q.1b) + + e satemtioceestne? Bab + iw Be atmo 2) = at - aT smomrRy —* 33 onPatnt 2 t420In2 2) . 400m) + da-wiew)t go - ghe) ] cee Mae) Leo wie. 4 Sgt See = we [a a2? tm 4 2 tats? yd + (pG- 3 + whe + DAD Eth ae 3 aa? am-gumt(me2)* (2) + 12 Be) + z e . at 2" mets 3 2 st Ady a . 6 -21-2) & P mn, ant s6m* (2) pe e tom timn? Eye 12% + On the axis with m=0 and md.0, st sca _ att) , st2-0) Ke en(I-) 7 ~ tmaad * Craead ey et] ves 186) -1 B+8v(I-2y) | (1-80) ao = iy [PMLEDD 4 SldeBv? _ on _ tat Coe) Tinea * Teed vee Qu14E) Xe = ses (2.148) where m= 2/D, m= 2/D Bente mt ats int + (meI)71 Be tn? + (me) *1. Keg throughout the mass, and Km aud Xog on the axis, are tabulated by Geddes (1966) ey CONCEWERATED LOADING 2.3.3. LINEARLY VARYING SUBSURFACE LINE LOAD (Fig. 2.15) e FIG. 2.15 The following expressions for stress have been obtained by Geddes (1966): 2 B¢1-20) By 862-9 ated)? aE + mem 1) F ae 2 aactnsin®15ntm- 205420) (med) fret) + 2(7-BInn?6n? 9205420) 2D a? oo 2 mn? (n8-m™}+18(2) (mei) oo 180) mS +600? (nn?) a =e to, Ct ash vee (2.15) Bey ( io = Spe ~ Fai [a (2-B0)-12m 131-0) BY (at) 2 a deme 28CI-V) FE (not) Soe P a + 2 Smet) ?—2m?+(22-svhiax?42Se2v) ) Amet) ® rr 5 atse2y) By + 4(5-v)mn* —areeere P ome?) 2202)" fed)* + = eaten at - = + (nay) log + (CGB)? 6Mos Petey yt my # B(devita-ny) GEE | vee (215) (a-20) farce > ait 2 (2-20 (B-20)46 (2-20) Y(t) 96 (3-1) a a 61-20) Be +180 F aimed) yt? 2B) * (met) ® o caayy LA mG Ct” + 2 2 26me1) *46mn*-an 6) (eZ) * ——r oe +1-20) log, CEN +f ¢1-20)*-6) «tog CB 2c-wa-ar GEL - 2] + (2.180) and, D2 Kes = Tra FO 2 2¢2-v)el 1-202 5b) 8 Telnet) . SGP Raina elattlet Grint) P 8 on B(2v)4( 1-27 afer | Bnet) Mon? - + LINE LOADING — axzaL SYmosrRY (40) i aliitd) Sant sr nerd Fete) BP a nf 201-20) Be ta Seva e + 8 x (et2) 5-6 %, tenet) #2 20°n* a at gmt eB no + tata ee | ses (2154) On the loading axis with m1,0 = aerthay [2 ~ Seay + Seooaee = accept faa = Getter |? “treet 2) (mea )® 1 be + tyr - eteviteg, C4 coe (2180) Xo fog Bar [pese-a9caoco) + log EB (1-20) tog AS ~siog' CE n + a Bay Hoh 181 Zp got 2a? +2 - Gn ve Q.15Q) =0 vee (2188) where n= 1/D, m= 2/D Bante Ae oe (m1)? Bie inte (med) 2 Yaiues of ag whroughout tie nays, and ten and gg on the axis,are tabulated by Geddes (1968). 35 Chapter 3 DISTRIBUTED LOADS ON THE SURFACE OF A SEMI-INFINITE MASS 3.1 Loading on an Infinite Strip 3.1,1 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.3.1) PIG.3-4 1, = 2 [e+ etna coelare6)] + Gala) re = B [a ~ ina coe(w26)) Gap) o, - Bve ses Ge) Yq = Boi sinta25) ve Gd) 0, = Elat ein} ve Ble) az = B [a sin] vee GAY Twat E etna : ws BAD Loci of constant o1 and oz are circtes passing through 0) and 02. Loci of constant yar are circles passing through Oy and 03. ‘Trajectories of 9; are a family of confocal hyper- bolas, foci at 0: and 02, These curves bisect the angle, a, at all points. Trajectories of 02 are a family of confocal ellipses, foci at 0, and 02. Trajectories of thar are two orthogonal famili equiangular spirals intersecting the ellipses under 45°. Maximum tax = P/", occurs at all points af the soni- ‘cisele’ through 0) and. O>- Maximua 01 = Py Cecors at points (2,0), -dtexb. Minimm y= 0, " " (2,0), -b>a>B. Values of Og, Og, Tes, 1 02 and Tyor are tabulated in Tabl6 3.1, and contours of 0, and oar are given in Fig'3.2 (Jorgenson, 1934). As for Line loading, displacements due to strip loading on or in a semi-infinite mass are only mean= ingful 1f evaluated as the displacement of one point relative to onother point, noither point being located at infinity. The vertical displacement at the sur- face, relative to the centre of the strip, is given by PIG.3,2 Stresses beneath @ strip (Jurgenson,1934). Kwerurte 97a7P 0,(5,0) - 0,(0,0) = BN (2. )2nle-| 78 ~teeb)an|rb| + bend) (See plot in Fig.9.28, Chapter 9) vr G2) TABLE 3.1 STRESSES BENEATH A UNIFORMLY LOADED STRIP (Jurgenson, 1934) Bo afo Ojo OfP tal? B Cyy/P OafP on/p oo 1.0000 1.0000 0 oO 0 1.0000 1.0000 ws 18584 14498-02548 «9594 14498, iY lexes [iee7 00 “318s ‘e1es L817 1.5 6673 0805 © 012937 16678 .0805 2" 13508 “ozo 0 «02545. 15508-0410 2.8 las? [0x28 0 © 0 295 [467 “0228 3 [39s [onze 001908 “3954 cox38 3.5 ‘3457 Lovs1 9 = 1683. 13457 ‘0082 4” T3050 ‘oost 9 §=—@ ‘2499 ‘3050 ‘oven 0.5.0 1.0000 1.0007 © =~ 9.__1,0000 1.0000 125 la7e7 “ezid 0522 8P35¢ 1871 19871-6129 {5 ‘9028 13920 11274 1317" “ede ‘9325 ‘3629 i) 17552 “aes "1590 laes2" ‘3ise 17763 Lasse 2.5 le078 loasa <1275 1318" 2847 1¢370 0677 215107 “0542 ‘0989 11+25" ‘2479 15298 10357 2.5 lasre lossa 10721 9°49 2143. lae93 "0206 -25 4996 4208 3154 151587760 144d 3 4969 3472 .2996 + 30BB 7308 «1153 ‘4797 ‘2250 ‘2546 i267 les7i 10677 1.8 14490 11424 2057 26034" 12546 15498 “o408 2° “aons “onde ‘1592 22°50" ‘22s ‘a7si ‘ozas 2.5 <3701 [0595 11243 19°20" ‘1969-4137 ‘o159 15.28.0177 .2079 .0606 75°47" 112.2281 .0025 1S 0892 2950 D (3.16) ‘The radial distribution pf tpg beneath the surface of the circle is shom in Fig.3.26 for various values ‘The surface displacements ere as follows: 24) navy Bat) (a(r-v)E(a/a) - LB | Ps A- "| (fas)... (3.178) spCievte (Poa?) 0, = we pay ed gay (ofa? 1)... 3.17) yp = 8 Glas... B17) = Geatnema airy « dt Fy Gar. (8.178) where x(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind, E(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind, Surface displacenent profiles are shown in Fig. 3.27 for both a frictionless and fully rough circular ares. For v=0.5, friction has no influence on displacenent. ‘The influence of v on the central vertical surface displacenent is shown in Fig.3.28. %% Redlat Disterce r/o oon os Oo 02 04 O06 08 1-0 ° oe oe 1° é Sly NS vs 0-4 “Adhesion tvs 0), on v. poses wo Ee ae on Asai (405) oN L/ oa 20 2 3 \ 3 Poa t |] tote, 2 / | os I mo ea, — fide, on as] 0 o so ¥16.9.26. distribution of shear stress t,, tens surface (Schiftnan, 1968) fa) Vertical stress 6, %y, Rashet Ostance fa a +0 20 o o2 04 08 08 10 ° 02 on v0) ieee ios) os| 20 ok ol Aaron gk vol “wee Bo 12 ; rictoness on “ - " y saline) vs me () Radial stress o, ae FIG.3.25 Distribution of stress on axis of circle. FIG.3.27 Vertical displacement profile along surface. (Scniféman, 1968) . (Schizsman, 1968). 34 SUREACE LOADS ON SEMT-INPIUITE MASS Palgson's Ratio ¥ wef #16202 os estes efor 1s —— 1h8 L. oe 1 FIG.3.28 Influence of V on p, at surface on axis. (Schiffman, 1968). 3.3.6 OTHER TYPES OF LOADING (4) Paxabolic loading - see Harr and Lovell (1963) and Schiffman (1965). (ii) Linearly varying vertical stress = see Appendix B. (411) Linearly varying torsional stress = see Appendix 8. 3.4 Loading on a Rectangular Area 3.4.1 UNEFORM VERTICAL LOADING py Urilore vertiot | stress pjseit oreo. FIG: 3.29 Benesth tho corner of the rectangle (see Fig. 3.29), Hoil (1940) gives tho following expressions for stresses for v = 0.5: sre Go288) vee G18) ses G80) see GBel84) ses BeBe) se G18) where y= Pat) fa = (at) Ry = (22a, Influence factors for the normal stresses have been presented by Giroud (1970). These stresses are expressed as follows: Under the corners: o, = PX ves (Bela) 0, =P (Kye (20082) see (3.198) =P thee (A-2v)th see G9) e influence factors Ko(# I in Fig.3.30), KayKts Layla are reproduced in Tables 3.1¢ to 3.13. Influence factors for og beneath the cornez are shown in Fig.3.30(Fadun, 1948). For points other than the comer, the principle of superposition may be employed. - Beneath the comer of a rectangle (see Fig.3.29), Harr (1966) quotes the following expression for Vertical displacement at depth a: = Bava EB) ve (8.20) 1 (ism em wnete An Lene Teme Cig e nied fim bet a Vitmi tn - ECTANGUEAR AREA ss (sroud, 1970) = ST it 00 Lh us 1s 10 © 0.009 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0.000 O:137 01208 1254 01240 0.249 0.2493 9:249 0.249 0.249 0.248 014 91000 0.076 01186 O:i87 0.202 0.244 0,244 91244 01244 01244 0.248 8.§ 01000 0.061 0-15 01164 0-181 0.235 01240 01240 01240 0.240 0:240 0.6 01000 0.081 0.096 01145 0.161 9.283 0.234 01254 01284 0.254 0.284 018 0.000 0.037 0.071 0.141 01127 0.218 0.219 9.220 0.220 0.220 0,220 1" 0000 02028 0.088 0,087 0/101 0.200 9:202 0/208 1204 0.208 0:205 h.2 01000 01022 0-045 01069. 0081 9.182 0.185 01187 01189 01169 0.189, 1.6 01000 0018 0-035 0.056 0.066 Ori64 0.168 9.171 01176 01174 0.174 453. 01000 01016 0.081 0.081 0.060 0.186 0.161 01164 01166 L167 0.167 118 0,000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.085 Ores Olist Olis7 Ol16) 01360 0-160 18 01000 0.012 91026 0.039.046 OL1SS 0.140 01145 9.147 01148 01148 2° olo00 01010 92029 0.033 01039, 05120 0.127 01151 61156 01137 0.157 2.8 01000 91007 9.013 0.022 0.027 0.095 0.108 01106 O-11§ OLS 0.115, 5° 91000 0.005 9:010 0.016 0.019 OL075 0.081 0.087 01086 0.099 0.009 4 ploon 02003 0.008 9.009 0-011 01048 0.085 0.060 9.071 0.076 0.076 S 01000 0.002 0.004 0,006 0.007 0.038 0.059 0.043 01085 0.061 0.062 io 91000 0.000 0001 9.002 0.002 0:009 0-011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032 1S 91000 0.000 01000 0:001 0:001 0-004 9.005 0.006 9-010 0.026 0-021 2 01000 0.000 9:000 0.000 6.000, 8.002 01005 0.004 9.006 0.010 0.016 50 0/000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 000 0:000 0.001 91001 91002 0.008 TBE 3.15 VALUES OF Ke (Gixous, 1970) moO 02 MS 04 08 2S 1 LS 2) RS SUSU 0 0,000 0.259 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.280 0,2 01900 01069 0-116 0.149 9.159 0/169 0177 0/188 OL187 Olles Qlies 0.188 0.4 01000 0.081 0,056 L085 109s 01206 01118 01128 Oliss Ose O.1s8 0.134 Os oLao0 01022 0.085 0.084 O.07S OL08s 0.094 01205 9.110 O.112 9.112 0.112 0:6 8.000 0.017 0.0582 0-049 01086 01065 0.075 0-086 .091 0.095 0.095 0.094 0:8 01000 01009 0/018 0-029 0.05% 01040 0.047 0.087 01062 0.084 0,064 0.065 1" 01000 0.008 0.011 0-018 4,021 01025 0.050 0.087 0,042 0.044 01085 0-045 1.2 01900 01003 0°007 0.011 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.029 O.081 0.082 0.082 LI 01000 0.002 0.004 0,007 L008 0-010 0-013 0.017 0.020 0-022 0-025 0.025 1's 0:90 0.002 01008 0.006 0.007 01008 0.011 0.014 OL017 OL019 0.019 0.020 16 0.000 05009 01012 0.015 0.016 9.017 9.017 18 0.000, 0,006 0.008 0.011 0.012 0.012 0.013 2 0.000 01008 01006 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.010 2.5. 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.908 0:005 6.005 0.008 3° 0.000 05601 0,002 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.003, 4 0!000 0.000 0:00 0.001 0:201 0.001 0.001 501000 0600 0000 0.090 0.000 0.001 0.002 to 0.000, 01000 0:00 0.090 0.000 0:00 0.000 1s 0,000, 0,600 0:00 0:000 9.000 0.000 0.000, 20 0.000, 0000 05000 0:009 0.000 0.000 0.000, 500.000, 05000 0:000 0.000 9:00 0.000 0.000, 56 SURFACE LOADS OW SSMI-INPINITE "ASS TABLE 5.16 VAUIES OF Ka (Giroud, 1970; 202 WS 04 08 2/5 1 10 0.074 0.061 0.051 0.031 0.016 0.000 9.067 0.056 9.048 0.030 0.016 0.000 0.069 0.051 0.045 0.028 0.015 0.000 9,056 0.049 0.043 0.028 0.015 0.000 0.03 0.047 0.041 9.028 0.015 0.000 9-254 0,219 0.199 0.189 0.176 0.156 0.125 0.059 0.097 0.138 0.121 0.122 0.118 0.103 0.026 0.048 0.069 0.075 0.082 9.086 9.083 0.019 0.036 0.054 0.960 9.067 9.073 0.074 O.015 0.028 0.043 0.049 0.086 0.067 9.066 0.009 0.018 0.029 0.033 0.039 0.046 0.052 0.047 0.043 0.038 9.026 0.015 0.000 0,007 0.013 0.021 0.024 0.029 0.035 0.042 9.042 0,033 0.035 0.025 9.014 9.000 0.005 0.009 9.018 0.018 0.022 9.027 0.084 0.037 0.037 0.035 0.052 9.024 0.014 0.000 0,004 9.007 0.012 9.014 0.017 0.021 0.027 0.032 0.033 0.032 0.030 0.023 0.014 0.000 02003 0.006 0.010 0.012 0.028 0.019 0.025 0.029 0.031 0.039 0.029 0.022 0.014 0.000 0,003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.613 0,017 0.023 0,027 0.029 0.028 0.027 0,022 9.013 0.000 0.002 0.005 9.007 9.008 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.024 0.025 0.026 0.025 0.021 0.013 0.000 0.002 0.004 9,006 0.007 9,009 0.012 0.016 0.025 0.023 0.020 0.013 0.000 0.001 0.002 0,004 0.005 0.008 0,008 0.021 9.028 0.019 0.017 0.012 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.003 9.003 0,004 0.006 0.008 9.615 9.015 0.015 0,012 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.002 0.002 0.003 0.00 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.011 9.022 0.010 0.000 9-000 0-001 0.001 9.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.096 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.009 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.001 0,001 9.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 9.003 0.000 0.000 0.900 9.000 9.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.000 9-000 0,900 0.000 0,000 6.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 TABLE 5.17 VANES OF be (Giroud, 1970) TE ahh 0.2 V3 04 us Ls 2.5 10 0 0.090 9.250 0.250 0,250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250° 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0,000 0,010 0.045 0.094 0.112 0.134 0.158 0.184 0.201 0.208 0,211 0.214 0.217 0.218 0.219 0.4 0,000 0.002 0,010 9,032 0.045 0.064 6.091 0.128 0.156 0.169 0,176 6.179 0.186 0.188 0.189 0.5 0.000 0.003 0.006 9.020 0.029 0.044 0.058 0,105 0,136 0.151 0.159 0.164 0,172 0.175 0.176 0° 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.023 0.019 0.051 0.051 0.086 0-118 0.134 0.144 0.149 0.158 0.163 0.164 0-8 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.006 9.009 0.016 0.029 0.057 0.087 0,106 6.117 §.124 0.135 0.141 0.143 1" 0.000 9.000 0.001 9.003 0.005 0.009 0.017 0.037 0-064 0.083 0.095 0.103 0-116 0.125 0.125, 1.2 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.005 0-005 0.011 0.025 0-047 0.065 0.077 0.085 0.100 0-108 0.112 14 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.017 0.035 0.051 0.052 0.071 0.087 0.095 0.059, 1.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.001 0.00 0.005 0.005 0.014 0.030 9.045 9.056 0.064 0.081 0.090 0.094 1.6 0,000 0.000 0,000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.012 6,026 0.040 0.051 0.059 0.076 0,085 0.089 18 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.001 0.001 0.903 0.008 0.020 0.031 0-041 0,049 0.066 0.077 0.081 2” 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.00 0,001 0.001 0.002 0.006 9.015 0.025 0.034 0.042 0.058 0.069 0.074 2.5 0.000 0:00 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.003 0.008 0.914 0.022 0.027 0.083 0.055 0.061 3°” 0.000 9.000 0.000 6.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0-004 0.008 0.013 0.018 0.952 0.085 0.051 4 0.000. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0-080 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.018 0.031 0.039 5 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.000 0.000 9.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.011 0.022 0.031 10 0.000 9.000 9-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0-006 0.015 15 01000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.011 20 01000 0.000 9.009 0.009 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 2.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9-000 9.001 0.008 50 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.090 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9-000 9.900 0.000 0.000 0.003 RECTANGULAR AREA TSE 3.18 VALUES OF 3 V3 0.4 05 2/3 (Giroud, 1970) 1 152 2503 3 10 ® 0.051 0.061 0.176 0.189 0.199 0.219 0.254 0.250 0.041 0.049 0.148 0.160 9.269 9.188 0.203 0.219 0.032 0.039 9.222 0.133 0.141 0.159 0.174 0.189 0.029 0.034 Q.11 9.121 0.129 0.161 0.176 0.025 0.050 0.200 9.110 9.118 9,149 0.364 9.020 0.023 0.082 9.091 9,098 0.127 0.145 0.035 0.018 9.067 9.075 9.082 0.119 0,125 0.012 0.015 9.056 0.065 9.069 91096 0-111 0.010 0.012 9,046 0.053 9.058 ° 0.084 0.099 u 0.009 0-011 0.083 0.089 0.084 0. 0.079 0.098 1 9.008 9.010 0.039 0.045 0.080 9. 0.074 0.089 1 0.007 0.008 0.023 9.059 0.043 0.055 0,066 0.082 2 0.006 0.007 0.029 0.033 0.038 0.048 0.059 0.074 2. 0.008 0.005 0,020 0.924 0.027 0-036 0.047 0.061 a 6.903 0.003 9.015 0.018 0.021 0.028 0.038 9-051 4 0.008 9.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.018 0.026 0.039 S 0.000 0,009 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.013 0.019 0.031 19 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.002 0.092 0.002 0.004 0.007 9.016 18 0,000 0.000 0.090 0.000 0.000 0.001 9.001 9.001 0.002 9.003 0-011 20 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.200 9.001 9-001 ¢.002 9.008 50 9,000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 m m ons Be eto oa cal co on] 2 3456810 2 9455000 °oara 3456807 FIG,3.30 Vertical stress beneath comer of uniformly Joaded rectangle. (Fadun, 1948). ca my Aen tnt Explicit expressions and influence factors for the vertical displacement at the surface (20) have been evaluated for four points beneath the Tectangle, and for the wean displacenent om, by Giroud (1968). These influence factors are shown in Fig.5.31 and are tabulated in Table 3.19. For all points, < Sxpsr s+ G2) where bis the length of the shorter side b M is the centre of the longer side N the centre of the shorter side © the comer 0 the centre of the rectangle the mean 58 SURPACE LOADS OW Sirxt~TNFINITE MASS TABLE 3.29 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT BENEATH RECTANGLE (Giroud, 1968) £ a ee ee 101000” so 1 ¥IG.3.31 Influence factors for vertical surface @isplaceent benest' rectangle. (Giroud, 1958). For a point on the centre-line of the rectangle, @istance = from the centre (Fig.3.32), Giroud (1959) gives the following expression for the horizontal Suréace displacement Pz! 2452 po, = GLG=BV) op [2 yy Stew) edt = one ae 4nt+ b? +81 - Sareten pepoy - GE aetm 2} ser G2) Froa this expression,the solution for Oe ‘Deneath the corner of a rectangle of proportions may be obtained by taking half the value of Py obtained from equation (3.21) when sat. FEG,3.32 RECTANGULAR AREA 59 ‘At the corners = Ciavtph 3.4.2 LINEARLY VARYING VERTICAL LOADING °. FT Ag bet. (5.248) Gig. 3.33) : ox 3435. (324d) | where I, = - Fir? + tn Atte wea) lb | see B.240) ¢ M cs tina + Fea} x 0 le - : see G.24d) t Ice atm, 710.3.33 # : o, 7 Speer, if Pe. sete) or The normal stresses are expressed as follows by tov? 0b Gixeud (1970 Gaile yy Af 2b og = 0 at points MH and 0 Under the comers: waa TABLE 3.20 = ERM, se Gotta) INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT ‘DUE TO LINEARLY VARYING COMPRESSION TO TENSION 5, = © PL Me ~ (2-208 see B-22b) LOADING (Gixoud, 1968) bee 226 oe, = © af Fa: - (1-20mi] vee Gite. qi : . 7 y bn t,t, |Yb tg Ty BTS oy Under the centre: 9, = 0 ses (3.238) 0.169 0,263 35.785 1 0.262 9.282 20 0.872 =o wes G2) 20.174 0,500 25 0.940 30.187 0.517 30 0.995 =o ses G.230) 4 0.198 0.354 40 1084 S$ 0.210 0,349 50 1.154 6 0.221 01568 60 2.211 where © #2 at Cy and ch, and, 7 0.252 0.379 70 1.259 - 2 8 0.243 01392 80 1.501 tat Cy and Ch, 9 0.255 0.806 90 1.335 Mo,Ma,Mi,Ha,M2 are influence 0.263 0,418 100 1.371 2 0.282 01442 200 1.590 factors which are given in 4 0.300 0.465 300 2,719 Tables 5.21 2o-3.25. 0.307 0.475 400 11810 . 01349 01524 $00 1.882 Influence factors for the vertical surface dis- 5 01386 0.566 600 1.939 placomont beneath various points have been obtained by 01418 0.603 700 3.988 Giroad (1968), and are tabulated in Table 3.20, S 0,448 0,636 800 2.032 Explicit expressions for the displacoments are given 01475 01666 909 2-068 ‘by Giroud, 0.524 0.739 10% 2.101 0.566 0.765 io" 2.834 0.603 0.804 105 3.567 0,636 0.840 30° 4.300 0.666 0.872 = 60 SUREACE LOADS ON SMEATUELHETE MASS TSE 5.21 VALUES OF Mo (Giroud, 1970) 27 20 od O28 Ok OSB SS 0 0.000 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 0.280 0.250 0.250 9,250 0.2 0-000 0.160 0.180 0.183 0.186 0.187 0.188 0.186 01186 ol1as 014 0.000 0.085 0.111 0.118 01126 0.152 ‘01154 0.154 01255 0.155 0:5 0.000 0,060 0.085 0.082 0.100 0.207 1121 0.112 Ons O11 016 07000 0.044 0.068 0.072 0.078 0.087 0.092 0.093 O04 0.098 018 0,000 9:02 0.038 0.043 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.064 0106s 0.065 1" 0,000 0.018 0.025 0.026 0.051 0.055 0,042 0.045 O.o8s 0-085 1.2, 0.000 0.008 0.024 9.017 0.020 0.024 0.029 0.051, 0.032 0.032 14 0.000 0.006 9,009 0.011 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.022 01023 90.025, 15 0:00 0.005 0.007 9.009 0.011 0.013 0.027 0.019 9.020 9.020 116 0.000 0,004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.011" 0.018 01017 0.017 18. 0.000 9.003 0-004 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.010 o.013 0.013 2° 0.000 9.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 2.8 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 9.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.605 0.006 0.006 0.006 5°” 01090 01000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 01001 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 01003 0.003 0.005 4 02000 9:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 S 02000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Jo 0.600 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.090 0.000 45 01000 05000 9.000 0:00 0:000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 26 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0:000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 50 01000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 TABLE 3.22 VALUES OF Me (Giroud, 1970) Fo 03 02 3 08 05 28 1 LS 2 25 3 5 We © 0,000 0.250 0.250 0,250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 9.2 02000 0.026 0.040 0.046 0.046 0.046 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.042 01042 0.042 0.062 0.042 0.042 024 01000 0.002 0.003 01092 0.003 -0:000 -0.002 - -0.008 -0:008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 0:5 0.000 -0.001 -0.002 6,005 -0.006 -0.008 -0.010 -0.013 20.016 “0/016 -0.036 -0.036 0.016 -0.016 076 0.000 Zol008 £0007 <0:009 “0/010 -0:013 70,018 “0019 “0020 -0020 0.020 +0020 0:8 0-000 79:05 “0.007 0.009 -0:010 -0.015 ~* “0/019 “07019 -07019 “0.019 0.019 -0.019 19.000 70.003 70.006 0.007 -0.008 -0.010 ~ 70.015 -01026 -0.016 0.036 0.016 -0.016 1.2. 0,000 Zol0n2 “0004 “02005 70.006 20.007 ~ 70.012 “0/012 20.012 “0.013 -0.013 -0.018 a4 01000 “9092 0.003 -0/003 -0:004 -0.005 ~ 29008 “01009 “0003 -0:020 -0.010 -0.010 1s 0/000 0/001 “0002 “0003 0.003 -0.006 ~ Ze!0n8 “07008 “0008 0.008 0.009 0.009 1s 0-000 0/001 “0002 0002 “0.005 0.008 = “0007 0007 “0.007 -0007 “0008 “0.008 18 9.000 701001 0001-0002 -0:002 -0.005 = 70!008 =0:008 -0:006 -0:008 -0.006 -0 006 2° 0.000 “07001 “0001 0001 <0:002 0/002 = Zoloe4 70008 “0.008 0.005 -0:005 -0.00 2.s 0.000 70/000 “01000 -0.001 0.001 -0:00 ~ 201002 “01002 “0.002 -0003 0.003 -0.00 3° 0.000 Zp!000 “0000 0.000 0,900 0.002 ~ Zo:001 -0:00L -0:001 -0002 -0.002 -0-002 4 01000 -0:000 -0-000 -0:000 0.000 =0.000 0.000 = “0.000 -0:001 -0-001 -0:001 -0.001 -0.001 § 0.000 -0.000 =0.000 =0.000 -0.000 -0:000 -0.000 “01000 “0000 -0000 0000 0000 -0 000 30 0.000 -0.000 -0:000 0.000 -01000 -0:000 -0.000 - +0000 -07000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 15 0.000 -0000 -0:000 =0:000 =0.000 -0-000 -0.000 ~ “02000 “0000 £0000 0000 0009 ~0 000 20 0.000 -0000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0. =02000 -07000 -0:000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 50 0.000 -0-000 =0.000 =0:000 -0:000 =0.000 =0:000 =0:000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 =0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 RECTANGULAR AREA a TABLE 5.23 VALUES OF Mi (Giroud, 1970) Po on 02 Ms 04 08 278 1 18 2 25 3 5 1 © © 0.000 0.161 0.115 0.077 0.063 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2 0.000 0.025 0.037 0.036 0.055 8.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4 0.000 0.007 0,012 9-015 0.015 9-004 0.002 0.002 9.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.5 0.000 0.004 0.008 0.010 0.910 0-005 0.002 0.901 0.001 0.000 0-000 0.000 9:6 0.000 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.007 9-003 0.002. 0.002 9.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.8 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.005 0.008 9.002 0.001- 0.001 9.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 1” 02000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.902 9.002 0-001 0.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0-900 1.2 0,000 0.000 0,901 0.001 0-901 9-001 0.001 0.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.4 0,000 0-000 0.000 6.001 0.001 92001 0.001 0.901 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 1:5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 2.001 0.001 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 156 0.000 0-009 9.000 0-000 9.000 9:901 0-001 0.000 9-000 9.000 0.000 0.900 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2-001 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.900 2° 01000 0.009 0-009 @.000 0.900 9.009 9.090 0.900 9.000 9.000 0:00 9.900 2.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0-009 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 7 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 9-000 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0-000 9.000 $0,000 0.000 0.000 9.090 9.000 9-000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0-000 0.000 10 0.000 0.000 9.000 ©.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0-000 0.000 15 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 .000 0.000 20 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.900 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 50 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.000 9.900 9.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 TABLE 5.24 NAHIES OF He (Giroud, 1972) az, sha Ol 0.2 WS 04 O88 43 2 LS 2 25 5 SW ® © 6.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0,250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.2 0.000 0.008 9.034 0,067 0.078 0.090 110 0.114 0.114 0.215 0.115 0.115 0-115 0.115 0.4 0.000 0-001 0.006 0.018 0,024 0.033 0.056 0.061 0-062 9.063 0.063 0.063 0.065 0.063 0.5 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.010 0.014 0.020 0.040 0.045 0.047 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0:6 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.006 0.008 0.013 0.028 0.034 0.036 0.036 0.037 0.057 0.8 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.015 0.019 0.021 0.022 0.022 0.023 1" 0.000 0-000 9,000 0.001 0,001 0.002 90.008 0-011 0.025 0-016 0.014 9-015 3.2 0.000 0-000 0.909 0.000 0-001 0.001 0.008 9.007 0.008 0.009 0.008 0.010 1:4 0.000 0.009 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.004 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.007 325 01000 0.000 9.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.006 156 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.900 0,001 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.008 005 1.8 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0-008 2° 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 9.000 0-001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 2.5 0.000 0.000 9.009 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 3° 9000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0-001 4 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.09. 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.900 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 $0,000 0.009 9.000 0.609 0.090 0.000 9,000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 19 0.000 0.009 9.000 9.090 -0.900 0.000 0.009 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 0.000 YS 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.009 0.000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 20 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.990 9.000 0.000 50 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.090 0.000 9.000 0.000 -0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 62 SURFACE LOADS ON SEMI-INFINITE "BSS TABLE 3.25 oe VALUES OF Ne (Girovd, 1970) wks SSS SS oO 0.000 0.039 0.135 0.173 0.187 0.202 0,219 0.2355 0.249 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0,000 0.022 0.042 0.062 0.070 0.079 0.091 0.103 0-414 0.135 0,115 0.115 0.4 0.000 0.009 0.018 0.028 0.053 0.038 0,045 0.054 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0:3 01000 01006 0.015 0.020 0,023 9.027 0.035 0.040 01047 01048 0.048, 0.068 0.6 0.000 0,005 0.009 0.014 0,017 0.020 0.024 0.029 0.036 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.8 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.017 0.022 0.023 0.023 0.023 1°” 01000 01008 0.005 0.004 0.005 9.006 0.008 0.010 0:01 0.015 0.018 0.015 1.2 0,000 9.001 0.002 0.003 0-003 9.004 0.003 0.006 0:00 0:010 0.010 0-010 14 0.000 9000 0.001 9.002 9.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 9006 0.007 0.007 0.007 11S 02000 0.000 0.001 01001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 01005 9.096 0.005 0-006 1.6 0,000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004.,0.005 0.005 0.005 1.8 0.000 0,000 0.000 0,001 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 2° 0,000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.902 0.003 0.008 0.003 2.5 01000 0.000.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0001 0001 0.901 0.002 3” 01000 9:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.001 9.001 0.001 0.001 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.000 0.000 19 9.000 01000 9.000 0:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 01000 :000 0.000 0.000 15 9.000 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.000 29 9,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.000 19:000 0.000 9.000 -0.000 50 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 ¢.000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.000 -0.000 For 4 point at a dittance = fron the edgo 3.4.3 VERTICAL EBANOENT LOADING che, on the axis HOY (Fig.5.33), Glroud (1969) (Fig.5.54) gives the following solution for the horizontal Vertical surface displacements pz have been displacenent py! ED) PD ayy, Mest *s ME a tate BF - Ra-Placta B+ aera se 2 + Pprlerotan % + archon MES) ) By wee ($28) As in Section 3.4.1, the solution for the comer of a rectangle of proportions 22/b may be obtained by taking half the value of G2 for z=b. ‘The xesults in this section cam be combined with those in Section 3.4.1 to give the results for a ‘trapezoidal distribution of loading, For the par- ‘thoular case when the loading varies linearly across the rectangle to zero st one edge, expressions and graphs for the vertical stress are given by Gray (1943,1948), expressions for the horizontal and shear stresies by Anbraseys (1960) and graphs and expressions for vertical displacenant by Stazatopoulos (1959). evaluated for several points by Giroud (1968). Influence factors Ko, Xe ete for the seven points marked in Fig.3.5¢ are shown in Figs. 3.35 to 3.4L. Im all cases, dwt = iM paz ae 3.26) Expressions for the influence factors Xo(eentre) and Kg(oornen) are as follows: ty = Bl ben car Gey Ban Dt Mot _ facee)? g, anae + Mern2a)? + (an2)* 8 1-28 (o-26)* 1-28 + M928)" + (nap) - eB py a-28 RECTANGULAR AREA Pa _ eu For the point 4, Ee y= Z| Em counlieaaty + 22 og sefhsset on | 2B 8 20 1[i viet Ee [E mm conlieats +B pn Le ee! 1 ,, Alma ase 3728 ¥a-1 8 ty Eaeibetoral? — Lemct)® , aca=2py eaten B)*s48- 2001 2 BHBMe(I-B) 2488 Vitisde*)- (2420) LAL y, fasteetin-a)*+ 28-7 ~ 4-28)" Ya874(7-28)*-28 te -1 28 Vir=26) 44 (a8) 2 (8a) wt Aiea tee + esl ay Sai er Tia en 8 [i-28)¥ +4 (a-B)*428-1 . 2 — facwl? g, ABP rate 8) e980 ane cere! | v8 Parse?) -(140) see (3.276) 2 Tara _ ast, eee In the above expressions, 8 1-8) +(0-8)?e6-0 a= of oe? 4, Arto os Be ofa 8 Tia)? Hon8) 48-1 +28 snt243] see (3.278) + 4 ee ae i FIG.3.36 SURFACE LOADS ON SBMI-INFINITE MASE 66 2 2 1960) . ‘e FIG.3-35 Digphacenent Influence Factors K,. (Gizoud, 2.97. ploplacerent Influence Factors i. (Girovd, 1560). FIG.3.36 Displacement Influence Factors %,- (Giroud, 1968}. Frc. RECTANGULAR AREA 6s FIG.3.38 Displacement Influence Factors X,. (Girowl: 1968). FIG,3.29 Displacement Influance Factors x". (Gizoud, 1968). 3° + « s 2% os i 16-3.40 Dlgplaceneat Infleenoe = actors i (soa 1568)» = os Sel 2 2 UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING (Fig.3.42) = ES 34.6 PIG, 3,42 Holi (1940) gives the following soluions for the stresses beneath the comers Cz and Cj of the rectangle: ee (3,28a) FIG.3.42 Displacement Influence Factors X,'. (Gérow’, 1968). Z feort . 2b te eS front on aR BR soe (3.288) =f eke ated . a Gage aee ] .. G28 we Q fgp Ratt (Rac (Lay ty 1 & {en ae - +g wl] . vee 288} where Ry = (2%22)" Ry = (bYegt yt Ry = (1247402) Ie should be noted that the values of Tea, tys snd 9 for vaifom horizontal loading corsespend £0 the values of Gz, Tay and Tqg for uniform vertical loading (fron the reciprocal thedren). The principle of superposition may be applied to determine the stresses at points not beneath the comer of the rectangle. Influence factors for the normal stresses have been obtained by Giroud (1970). The stresses are ‘expressed as follows: . Under the corners, seek see (3.29a) Q Mk ~ (120K ses (3.290) q Ws ~ (1-20)K2) ves (3.298) PERSE Soa See |S S8a5 VALUES OF _{, {Giroud, 1970) . FY in Boban BalED BOSUNN EEE EES oODS S8u5 RECTANGULAR AREA where € = #1 at Cy and Ch (see Fig.3.42) “tat C) amd Ch. and, 82828228228 9.000 9.000 Hy, Xs, Ei, Ke, 2 are influence factors which are given in Tables 5.26 to 3.50. o. 0.159 oco71, 0.037 0.028 0.023 0.015 0.010 0.007 0.005 0.008 0.004 9.003 0.002 9.001, 90001, 0.000 0000 92000 0.000 0.000 9.000 On 0.107 0.037 0.023 0.026 0.007 0.008 0,002 0.001, 2001 0.001 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 ‘000 +000 0,000 0.000 0.2 0.189 ou 0.067 0.054 0.043 0,029 02020 0.014 0.010 0,009 0.008 0.006 0.004 0,003 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 9,000 0,000 90.000 ge8828833° v3 0.8 0.159 0.140 0.105 0.089 0.5 0.159 0.145 9.115 0.100 0,08s 0.082 0.045 0.033, 0.028 0-021 0.018 esscccss00 S8S8288888 Under the centre, ‘TABLE 3,26 VALUES OF _k, 2/3 0.159 0.149 0.125 O.a1L 0,097 9.073 1054 0.080 0.030 0.026 0.023, 0.018 0.014 9.008 0.005 0,002 0.001, 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 1 0.159 0152 0.133 0.221 0.109 02086 0.057 0.051 0.040 9.035 0.031 0.024 0,019 OL0LL 9.007 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.000 9.000 000 TABLE 3,27 23 0.332 0.150 9.104 0.074 02038 3888 8838 g o,-0 oo a0. 1s 0.159 olass 0.136 o.125 ects 0.093 0.075 0.059 0.047 0.042 0.038 0.030 0,025 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 90.000 Babue*|h REEEES BBB288 SSBSSSSSSRSSSSSERIEE 38 geeeeeseeee © 9992922292 99~p0S9009 288288 SB28c8 33 eoeecesee S88888282 ‘7 SURFACE LOADS ON SEMI-INFINITE MASS TABLE 3.28 wes oF zou, 19 e wR 0 Od 2 SOM 2st Mso2) 2s) 35 © 0,000 0.143 9.128 0,109 0.100 0.088, 0.047 0.027 0.017 0.011 0,008 0.005 0.001 9.000 9.2 0.000 0.025 0.048 0.033 0.021 0.014 0.019 0.007 0.095 0.001 0.200 0:4 0,000 9.009 0.026 01023 0,016 0-011 0,008 0.006 0.003 0.001 9.000 915 0.000 0.006 0.020 0.019 0.014 0.010 0.008 0.006 0.003 0.001 4.000 0.6 0.000 9,004 0.015, 0.036 0,012 9.009 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.c00 0.8 0.900 9.002 9.008 0.011 0.009 0-007 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 1 0,000 9,002 0.006 9.008 0,007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.000 1.2 0.000 0.001 104 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:4 0.000 0.003 0.005 9.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:5 0.000 0.000 9.002 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:6 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.003 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.093 0.002 0.601 0.000 18 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 6.003 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 2° 0.000 9.000 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 9.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 2.5 0.000 0.000 0.008 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.901 0.001 9.000 0.000 5” 9.000 0.000 9.000, 9.001 0.001 0.002 9.901 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 4 6,000 9-000 0 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0.600 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.009 9.000 10 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 9,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 15 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,009 0.000 20 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9,000 0.000 0.000 50 9,000 .0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 9.000 0.000 TABLE 3.29, VALUES OF Ks (Giroud, 1970) bn a0 SSS 2S ¢ 000 = © - 8 2 « -@ 9.2 0.000 0.005 0.027 0,218 0.254 0.242 0.247 0.255 0.4 0,000 0.001 9.005 118 0.133 0.143 0.145 0.155 9.5 0,000 0.000 9.005 0.090 0.108 0.111 0.116 0.123 046 9,000 0.000 0.002 0.070 9.082 0.089 0.084 0.101 0:8 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.082 0.055 0.059 0.063 0.070 1 0.009 0.009 9.000 0.027 0.035 0.040 0.044 0.051 1.2 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.038 1,4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.016 6.020 0.025 0.029 1:5 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.015 0.017 0.020 0.025, 1.6 0.000 4.000 0.000 9.007 0.012 0.025 0.017 0.022 1.8 6.090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.017 2° 6,090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.009 0,001 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.030 0.015 2.8 0,000 01000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.001 0.001 0.003 6.004 0.005 0.008 3 0.000 0.000 0 0.001 0-091 0.002 0.003 0.005 4 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.200 0.001 0.001 0.002 3 0.000 0.000 0.009, ° 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.001 300.000 -0:000 00 8 000.000 01000 0.000 0.000 150.000 -0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 20 0.000 -0.000 30.000 ~ ° 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.900 50° 9.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0.090 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 RECTANGULAR AREA 6 TABLE 3.50 1 NAKIES OF Ks (Giroud, 1970) Ot 0.2 5 04 05 23 1 1S 2 25 3 5 1 0.036 0.225 0.256 0.244 0.248 0.255 0.258 01036 01127 0.337 01183 0.187 on 01100. 0.309 9.128 0.127 2009 0,080 0088 o.102 0.105 0.005 01053 0.059 . 0.071 0.074 0,003 0.056 0.041 2.052 9.054 0:02 91025 0.030 0.038 0.042 9.002 91018 61022 0.030 9.032 0.001 92016 0.019 0.025 0.028 0-001 0.014 0.016 0.025 0.025 0.001 a:o10 0,015 0.019 0.020, 0:01 0.008 0.010 0.015 0.017 0000 003 0,005 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.012 0,000 002 0,003 0.004 0.006 0,008 6,008 0.000 001 9.002 0.092 0,005 0,004 9.05 07000 (000 0.001 0.001 01002. 01005 0.083 0.000 (000 9,000 0.000 9,000 9.000 0.001, 9.000 (000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 000 0.000 9.000 0:00 0;009 0,000 0,000 000 9000 0,000 0,000 0.000 0.000 1 Explicit expressiens and influonce Factors for or Miewiheet Ib yyy vertical displocenent pz beneath the points Ci, Cay 5 2 By and 82 of the rectangle havo been evaluated by we 310) Giroud (1968) and are given in Table 3.31 (refer Fig. 3.42 for definition of & and b). Giroud (19692) gives the following expression At Oy, p, = SOBA To ie pap for the horizontal dleplacenent pz of a point on at = E = ‘the centre-line 5382 (Fig.3.42), distance = from = (3.30a) BE ‘ Miticah TE or SGA ETE ie yoy tg > Gath ot [tase ~ Han Bees z = 1 2a) coe (8.506 1 lak (508) 2 yy WHERE, , by, Meslay where T= (anetoes ate 8) (3.206) pee te eee and a = b/d vee (3.32) lia a For the corners ¢; and €2, Giroud (1969b) Tok (weten 2 = (330d) gives and ae fh Cae 4 [even AEB, B oy sl + @.53a) G33) aviv) JE At Be, p, = titevitteova BID ce py UN) aaah Jeb?) at 7 e see G.31a) ( for C1 and 6; * for €, and ch), 70 SURFACE LOADS OU SENT-INFINITE MASS TABLE 5.51 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT ‘DUE TO UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING (Gixoud, 1968) bee £26 *A,! Se ig tp te 1 0.180 1 0.276 18 0,590 0.701 1.2 0.185 aa 0.290 20 0.656 0.746 1.2 0.190, 12 2.303 25 ol671 0.782 13 0.196 13 0.515 30 0.701 0.811 14 0.197 ua 01326 40 0.746 0.857 1s 02200 us 0.337 30. 0.782 (0.892 1.6 0.203 Me 01347 60 0.811 0.921, 1:7 0.206 “7 0.356 70 0.835 0.946 1.8 0.208 ne 0.365 80. 0.857 0.967 1.9 0.210 1s 0.375 90 0.875 0.986, 2" a.212 2 0.581 100 0.892 1.002 2.2 9.215 22 01396 200 1.002 1.113 25 0.219, 24 0.410 300 1.067 1.177 3 0.228 23 01416 409 L113. 1.225 3.5 0.228 3 01448 $00 1.168 1.259, 4" 0.230 3.8 0.469 600 1.177 1.288 4,5 0.252 4 0.481 700 1.202 1312 Ss 0.254 48 01508 800 1,225 1.333 7 0.239 5 01526 909 1.242 1.352 10 9.242 6 0.555 10° 1.259 1.369, 15. 0.245, 01879 10 1.628 1.735 20 0.246, 0.601 10 1/991 2,102 40 0,248 01619 10 2.388 2.469 = 0.250 0638 =e 3.4.5 LIMEARLY VARYING HORIZONTAL LOADING (Fig.5.43) 8 % 4 cx & 22 fo o - oF FIG.3.42 Influence factors for the normal stresses have been obtained by Giroud (1970). The stresses are expressed as folloxs: Under the corners? oath wes GMa) 0, = gla « (2-2vKG] see (B.34b) ais — (1-20)M31 wee (3340) Under the centre, 2qlks~ Mh) sss G.38a) = Bg ikem Uae Cta tv) = MA] we (5.350) Oy = Palen Mae (2-B0) (85~ 15)1 see G.35e) ‘The influence factors MMa,ME,is, i in Tables 3,52 to 3.36, Tables 3.26 t0'3.30, are given KisKy,K3,Xs,X$ are given in~ Explicit expressions and influence factors for teal displacement pz; beneath the points 0,4,C1, C1,21,02,C4,B2 of the rectangle have been evaluated by Giroud (1968) and are shown in Table 3.37. Influence factors for the mean settlement py are also given. = rey t-2v)g Tp At ad Dy ? GERYL (3.368) 1 or saNBUEETS se 45 p soe (8,360) and similarly for points 2, and 31, GS. 36e) pe : e vee (8.360) and a= f/f At 0, (ae) otto ss ae vee (3.37a) ox Hevit-pyab a if 20 wee (3.370) and similarly for point A and the mean Settlement. Ppp Giroud (19696) gives the following expressions for the horizontal displacements at the corners of the rectangle: Hh q [ban keene p, = Sy Bb - Hen teeny = ’ y me Te B 2 ae 2 EE oa. (5.580) vex (3.308) (+ for Gy and Ch, - for C2 and ch) ( for cf and cl, = for Cy and ¢2). TABLE 3,32 VALDES oe oF Me (Gitow, 1970) et 0 Ol 02 MS 04 OF 2S 2 18 2 2S 3 § 1 @ 0 0.000 0.359 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 9.2 0.000 0.085 0.075 0.076 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0-4 0.000 01021 01027 0.029 4.030 0.031, 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.8 0.000 o.0n1 0.016 9.017 0.017 0.015 0.015 9.015 0.6 0.000 0.005 0.007 0.008 0.007 0.005 0.003 0.005 8.8 0,000 0.000 0,001 -0.002 -0.003 0,006 -0.007 -0.007 1 9.000 +0002 02004 -0:005 ~0.006 0.071 -0.011 0.011 1.2 0.000 -0.002 02004-01005 -0.007 0.011 -0.012 -0;012 1:4 0.000 0.002 0,004 “0.008 0.021 20012 1's 0000 “0.002 201004 0.006 70.010 -0.011 -0,011 326 0.000 =0.002 -0°005, 20-005 “02010-91010 -o!a1r 1:8 0.000 -9.005 30.004 +9009 <0:009 -0.010 2° 0.000 70.002 01008-0005 0.008 -0.008 -0.009 2.8 0.000 0.901 -0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 -0.006 -0.006 0.006 70.006 3° 0-000 70.001 “0-001 -0.001 -0:002 ~0.003 0.004 -0.004 ~0 004 0.005 70.005 4 01000 0-000 -0:001 -0.001 -0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 -0.003 “0.003 5 0.006 0.009 0.000 -0.000 -0:001 +0001 -0.002 ~0.001 -0-002 -0.002 Yo 0.000 0.000 -0:000 -0.000 ~0.000 0,000 -0:000 0.000 0.000 9.001 15 0.000 0000 -0:000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 0,000 20 0.000 02000 “0:00 ~0:000 -0.000 0,000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 0.000 0° 0.000 0.009 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 02000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -9.800 FABLE 3.33 VALUES OF Ms (Stroud, 1970) Be sft 9 102 SAS SS SS 0.0.00 Oe ee © & 8 © © © «© » @ 0,2 0.000 0.013 9.017 9,008 0,092 -0.006 -0.035 -0.019 -0.020 -0.021 0.021 -0,021 -0.022 -0.021 0.4 0.000 -0.006 -0.012 01024 -0.028 -0.035 0.042 -0.046 -0.047 0.047 -0.048 0.048 -0.048 -0.048, 9015 0,000 -0.006 -0.012 0.022 01026 -9:031 -0.037 ~ ». 0.043 90.6 0,000 -0.005 -0.010 0.018 -0.021 0.026 0.031 -0.036 9:8 0.000 0.003 -0.006 “0.011 -0:013 “9.916 “0.020 0.023 10,000 0002 -0.003 “0-006 -0-008 -0.008 -0:012 -01015 1.2, 0,000 -0.001 -0:002 “0-004 “9.004 0.006 -0.007 -9:010 1.4 02000 -@-001 -0.001 -0:002 +0003 0.003 -0.004 -0.005 375 0,000 -0.000 0,001 -01002 0.092 0.003 +0004 -01005 356 0.000 0.060 -0.001 0.001 +0092 +0002 +0003 0.004 18 0.000 -0.900 -0.000 0.001 -0:001 -0:001 -0.002 -0.003 2° 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 “0.001 -0.001 “0.001 “0-001 “21002 2.5 0,000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 0,000 -9.000 -0.000 -0.001 3” 0.000 -0.000 -0-000 +0:000 “07000 01000 -0-000 =0,000 -0.000 4 0.000 -0.000 -0-900 70.000 -0-000 -0,000 -0.000 -01000 “0.000 § 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 -0:000 -0.060 -0:009 -0:000 Je 0.000 ~0.000 -0:000 =0,000 -9.000 -9.000 -0.000 “0.000 0.000 15 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 9-000 0-000 -9.¢00 -0.000 -01000 0.000 20 0.000 -9.000 ~2-050 0.000 ~0.000 -0000 -0.000 “0.000 0.000 50 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,000 0.009 "0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 SURFACE LORDS OW SBME-TNFIVTTE MASS TABLE 5,34 aus OF (Sire, 1970) _ bf wt oko SSS Law 0 0 0.017 0.009 0.001 -0.006 -0.009 -0.007 -0.005 -0.003 -0.001 -0,000 0.000 8.2 9 01001 01001 -0.003 -0.006 -0.007 0.006 -0-004 -0.003 “o:001 0.000 0:0¢0 2. 0. 0,002 -0,003 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.004 -0.003 -0.003 0,001 -0.000 0.000 3 “e002 -a1003 “0003 -0.004 -0.008 -0-004 -0-003 -0.002 “oioat <2:000 0-000 a6 0 0002 “01002 “01003 -0.008 -0.004 -0.008 -0-003 0.002 Zole0t “0000 07000 0. 0, 0,001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 ~0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 0.001 -0.000 0.000 1 0. 0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0,002 +0,002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 001 -0.000 0.000 Lz 0 e‘bot “000i “0001-0001 -0.002 0.002 -0-002 -0-001 ole01 -0:000 9.000 1 0. 0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0.001 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -9.000 0,000 is 6. [0000 “0.00 0-001 -0.001 -0:001 0.001 -0-001 Zote0i “0000 0:000 1, 0. 0.000 -0,000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 - 0.000 0,000 . Ta‘e00 0000 “0:000 0-001 =0.001 =0:001 ol000 0.000 2° 0.000 -9,000 0.000 -0.000 0-000 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 ole0o 0:000 2.8 91000 -0.000 “0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 -0.000 -9.000 0.000 -0.000 o%e00 0.000 3 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0,000 -0,000 -0,000 +0,000 0.000 — of000 -0:000 -0-900 -0:000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 “0000 9.000 s 0.000 -0.000 -0.090 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 10 0,000 -0,000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,000 -0.000 0.000 1S 01000 -0,000 0-000 -0000 -0-000 -0-000 -0,000 -0-000 -0:000 e000 "0-000 0.000 20. 9.000 -0.000 701000 “0.000 -0:000 0.000 0009 0:000 i) 0.000 -0.000 0.000 +0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 0,000 TABLE 5.35 VALUES OF Ms BFR aft ° 1 02 V3 0.6 05 2s 1 Ls 2 0 000 ell le lll 0.2 0.000 0,005 0.015 0,031 0.036 0.042 0.1 0,045 0.040 0.036 9.034 0.032 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.4 0,000 0.000 0,001 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.006 0.002 -0.002 -0.004 -0.005 -0.008 -0.009 -0.009 0.5 0.000 0.000 0,001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.001 -0.004 -0,007 -0.009 -0.010 -0.013 -0.014 -0.014 0.6 0.000 0.000 0,000 9.002 0.001 2.001 0.000 -0.002 -0.006 -0.009 -0.011 -0.012 -0.014 -0.015 -0.016 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 0.001 ~0.003 ~0.006 -0.009 -0.010 -0.012 -0.014 -0.015 -0.015 0.000 0.009 =0:000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,002 ~0.002 - 0.000 -0-000 -0:000 -9-000 -0:000 -0:001 - 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.009 -0.090 -0.001 - 79.000 -0,090 -0.000 ~0.006 -0.009 -0.001 -0.002 0.903 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -0.000--0.001 - -02000 -0.000 -0-000 ~0-000 -0:000 -0,000 - 000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 ~9.000 -0.000 -9.000 -0.001 -0.001 ~0.002 -0.003 -0.003 -0-004 =0,000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 ~ ~8,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.00¢ ~0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 70.000 ~0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~0.000 -9.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 =0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 - 0.060 - +0000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~9:000 -: ~0.090 =0.000 - 0-000 -0,000 - 9.000 -0.900 ~0.000 - 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -9. 002 ~0.002 -0.005 -0.007 0.009 -0.010 -0.012 +0.013 -0.013 004 -0.005 -0.007 -0.008 -0,010 -0.011 -0.011 +005 -0.004 -0.005 -0,006 -0.008 -0.009 -0.009, -002 - 0,003 -0.004 0.008 ~0.007 =0,008 -0.008 .001 ~ 0.002 ~ 0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.006 1-001 ~ 0.002 -0.002 -0.003 ~0,006 -0.005 -0.005 000 = 1.000 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 ~0.005 000 ~0.000 -0,000 0.000 -0.000 -.000 ~0.000 - 0.000 00 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 - 0.000 -0.000 +000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 - 0.000 100 -9.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 73 00.000 oe = 2 «@ 9.2 0.000 0 0.045 0.048 0.088 0.035 930 0.029 0.028 014 0.000 0 0006 0.005 -0.000 -0.003 -0.008 -0.009 ~0.009 0's 91000 9, 0000-07002, 70014 =0.014 016 01000 -0, 0.005 0008 20008 20030 “o‘oas “0:016 028 0.000 -0.001 -0.001 70002 “0/003 0:00 01008 -0:009 Zolors “0l01s 1° 0.000 -0:001 -0.003, 70002 “0/003 0:00 “01013 -0.018 1,2 0,000 -0.000 -0.001 201002 “01002 “0003 “o:011 -0:011 154 01000-0000 -0%002 0001 -0:002 “0:02 0.003 =01009 20009 1's 0.000 -0000 -0:001 001 -0.002 -0002 -0:003 20/008 “0-008 1101000 “0000 -0.001 700% -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 201007 0008 1/8 0:00 -0.000 -0.000 So.001 “0/003 =0:006 02006, 2° 0,009 0.000 -0.000 -0.00% “9.002 “o!008 02005 2.8 0,000 +0000 0.000 0.002 70/003 0004 3° 9000 -07000 0.000 °0.000 +0003, “o!002 “0/003 4 ~0,000 0000 0000 70:000 “01000 201001 0.002 3 -0,000 01000 -0000 “0000 “0:60 70/001 0002, “2000 0.000 0000 ~0:000 “0000 70000 -0000 “0-000 0000 =07000 “9:00 =0/000 -02000 -0.000 -0'000 = =0.000 -0000 “0-000 -0:000 702000 “92000 70-000 -0:000 -0:900 “0000 -0:000 “0000 =0000 “07000 “0000 2090-02000 “0:000 “0/000 “0000 “0000 =0:000 702000 =0:000 -01000 -0.000 TABLE 3.37 TINPLUENGE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACENENTS LANEARLY VARYING HORIZONTAL, LOADING (Giroud, 1968) bed a2b fe ee ee ee ho 1 0.159 0.080 | 2 0.021 0.057 15 0.288 0.590 | 1 0.159 0.080 la Origa 0.083 | 1.1 01024 01064 zt 01350 Orass | 2-2 01166 0.085 12 01376 0.087 | 2:2 0.028 0.071 25 0.363 0.468 | 1.2 our) 0.087 us 02383 0.090 | 1:3 0.032 0.078 30 01390 0.497 | 1.3 01176 0.090 14 O.389 0.093 | 114 0.085 o.0m 40 01484 o.sal'| 1.4 01281 0.095, us ovis 9.086 | 1:8 0.039 0.090 so arse | 1:5 01185 0.095 16 0.201 0.098 | 1.6 0.043 0.086 60 0605 | 1:6 O1188 0.098 17 9.206 0.100 | 3-7 0.046 0.102 70 0.629 | 1.7 02191 9100 ra 0210 o.102 | 1.8 0.050 a.108 60 o.6sa | 1.8 0194 0/102 19 aiais otc | 19 0.083, 30 o.ss9 | 1.9 0:197 0.104 2 a:219 0.306 "| 2%. 01087 100 o.sss | 2 0:19 0.306 2.2 01226 0.110 | 2.2° 0.064 200 0168s 0.795 2.2 0.208 07108, 2's 01258 0-11 | 2/6 0.071 300 0.749 0.859 | 2.5 0.209 01113 3 o.2a7 ong | 215 0.074 400 0.795 0.905 | 3° 0.009. 0.081 0.215 0.119, 35 025s 1124 | 5° 0.090 500 01830 01940 | 3.8 0.007 0.028 9.220 0.424 4 01262 01127 | 3.5 01105 600 01859 01969 | 4° 01007 0.025 124 01127 5 ol27s buss | 4° asiis 300 o18sa 01994 | § 01008 01020 0.229 31135 7 0.285 119 | 4.5 0.152 800 0.905 3015 | 7 0.008 0.015 0.255 0.140 10 0.204 o.1ss | 5) 0.146 909 0.924 1.034 | 19 0:003 9.010 0259 01146 15 07302 0.189 | 6 0.165 aot 01940 101 | 45 9.002 0.007 0:243 9.151 20 01306 O11s1 | 7 0.185 10° 11507 1.817 | 20 0,001 0.005 01245 gigs 50 O1sI3 1156 | 8 0.202 308 1673 1.784 | 500,001 0.002 01248 01161 100 O.31g O88 | 9 0.217 30" 2059 21150 | 100 9.000 0.001 01249 0.365 : 0:38 0.159 10 0.282 ~ ee le 0.250 0.167 74 SURFACE LOADS OM SEMI-INFINITE ASS 3.5 Loading on an Elliptical Area Tne! 3.5.1 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING ot O82 29 os os Stresses and displacenents at the surface and on the axis of the ellipse have been obtained by Deresiewicz (1960) (Fig,3.44), Expressions are derived for the stresses and dis- 1 placements on the axis vithin the mass, and on the surface. The variation of maximm shear stress with depth for various ¢ values is shom in Fig.3.45. Stress distributions along the axis for four values of ¢ 2 are given in Fig.3.4@; | ty all cases, w.3, and #9 is defined as e=(1-a8/4)5, f-we a8 y , . 099) ‘ 1 5 fl FIG.3.45 Maxim shear stress dovn axie of ellipse. (meresiewicz, 1960). Values of the horizontal stresses on the axis are tabulated in Table 3.38. ial Peasitess FIG.3.44 TABLE 3.38 HORIZONTAL STRESSES ON AXIS OF ELLIPSE (0.3) Qeresiewicz, 1960) e a 0.3 0.6 0.9 9.99 fes/a on/p y/o oe/p ay/p Ge/p _%y/p ae/p yp Salp yd 9.8000 90,8000 0.8047 0.7953 0,822 0,7778 0,8786 0.7214 0.9636 0.6364 OS 0.7852 017351 9.7404 0.7330 0.7585 0.7244 0.8157 0.6875 0.8987 0.6158 10,6711 0.6711 0.6765 0.6716 0.6954 0.6716 0.7535 0.6538 0.8343 0.5954 2 0,$488 0-5488 0.5542 0.5542 0.5744 0.5604 0.6338 0.5875 0.7100 0.5551 4 0.3428 6.3428 0.3488 0.3531 0.5681 0.3894 0.4236 0.4647 0.5003 0.4849 70,1488 0.1488 0.1524 0.1599 0.1668 0.1999 0.2094 0.3137 0.2587 0.3839 0 0.0875 0.0575 0.0600 0.0648 0.0673 0.0949 0.0928 0.2060 0.1235 0.3105, Ss 0064 0.0064 —0,0067 0.0090 0.0086 0.0229 0.0154 0.0997 0.0179 0.2270 0.0037 -9.0085 0.0017 -0.0050 0.0457 -0.0277 0.1721 0.0067 -0.0078 -0.0054 -0.0115 0.0080 -0.0604 0.1095 0.0084 -0.0058 -0.0046 -0,0092 -0.0021 0.0723. 0.0761 0.0050 -0.0038 -0.0080 0-006 -0.0030 0.0783 0.0566 0.0001 -0,0020 -0.0015 0.0023 -0-0018 0.0898 0.0252 -0.0050 -0.0050 0.0064 -0.0064 0.0046 ~0.0046 0.0033 -0.0033 0 -0.0009 -0.0009 % oe ot oe 10 ay o o oe oa 26 0 2, | , ! %, A i | { A ; | : a 5 a0 e068 crows : : er © w % 002 04” og 08 ° 3 i soa6 4 7 O82 a e 4 308 a dra A e089 sere z © FIG,3.46 Variation of normal stresses with depth on axis Of ellipse. 0.3, (Deresiewicz, 1960). wo 75 % SURFACE LORDS ON SEMI-INFINITE MASS On the axis the displecenents are given by op, = —tfevtipe x9) vee G.308) 1 2 0 wee Be 0, = by (3.390) where K(e) = comsete elliptic integral of the ‘first bind. Relative vertical displacements /o,0n the axis of the ellipse are shown in Fig.5.47 for w=0.3. ‘The variation of 0/9, along the bemdary of the ellipse with position is given in Fig.S.48, wiiile Fég.5.49 shows the variation of the displacements st the extremity of the major axis (py) and the nino axis (oq). Pg_ is expressed in sll cases as a ratio of the surface displacement 2p. 208 ae s FIG.3.47 vertical displacement on axis as ratio of surface value p,. (Deresievice, 1960). ool 222% 2-08 eo, oe) ¢ e065 Phy o4 — to J Fre.4. to centre value p, with position along boundary. (Deresiewier, 3960). +o oa Omji oe P10 Bal Po. nai o2 ° ¢ oF oF os oe 10 exantricity, FIG.3.49 Variation of ratio of displacement ot extremity of Rajor ads, 0, and minor axis, Pye to that at centre, 0," Weresiewice, 1960). 5.5.2 VERTICAL SENI-ELLIPSOIDAL LOADING ‘This type of loading has been used to simulate wheel loading on road pavements. Vertical stresses and vertical displacements within the mass have beet: evaluated by Senbon and Yoder (1967). LORDING OVER ANY AREA 3.6 Loading over Any Area 3.6.1 "NENMARK CHARTS" ‘The basis for, and use of, "Newmark Charts", is described in 1.7.2, Charts for vertical stress g, horizontal stress, bulk stress @ and shear stresses tog amd tzy (all as a function of the applied stress), originally presented by Newmark (2942), are reproduced in Figs. 5.50 to 3.34, Fig. 3.85 gives correction factors for when Poisson's ratio is different from 0.5, while Fig. 3.56 gives part of the correction factor for cy. When v#0.5, oy is given by the value of Gg for v0.5, plus (2-20)/6 ‘tines the value of @ for W=0.6 (Fig. 5.82) plus (1-2) times the quantity obtained from Fig. 3.56. Similar charts for vertical displacement pz on the surface and below the surface were obtained by Newmark (1947) and are shown in Pigs.3.57 and 5.58, A chart for correcting the vertical subsurface dis- placenents in Fig.5.58, which are for v0.5, for other values of v, is given in Fig.3.59. Figs. 3.50 to 3.59 are for vertical surface loading. Charts for the horizontal normal stress due to an applied surface horizontal shear loading have been prepared by Barber (1965) and are given in Figs.3.60 to 3.63. Stresses parallel to, and perpendicular to, the applied loading are considered for both v=0.5 and WJ. As pointed out by Barber (1966), the Vertical stress due to shear loading is, by the reciprocal theorem, identical to the shear stress due to a vertical load and may thus be determined from Fig.5.55. 3.6.2, SECTOR CURVES The sector method and the use of sector curves have been described in 1.7.3. Sector curves for ‘the normal and shear stresses due to vertical loading, obtained by Poulos (1967a), are shown in Figs.3.64 and 3.63, For the vertical and redial displacomants pz and ‘pp, plots of the curves are unnecessary, as the sector curves have the following simple explicit form: a) @. e, = 2.80. ‘s see G39) ase (3.306) ° oo 62 63 On OF Pov to on 0 Aw FIG.3.64 Sector Influence Values for 0, and t_, : A See “S @.2-toomy sap eb toonany ref L ’ * ° © | : [ ml ° ° "0291 02 09 04 05 s oso ” FIG.3.65 Sector Influence values for © and Up. 78 SURFACE LOADS OM SEMI-IWFINITE MASS = ot Ostaper 8: Br Bicexso-eo Depth sat whien Stress 1s) Computed P1G.3.50 Influence chart for vertical stress 0, ‘(Newmark 1942) (ll values of v) o, = -OOINp * vhere Neno.of blecks. Hy [ be TT! go : Innueige she Sep o omer 00 + Sa Eatetbo, ap Pe wen Seen | Carenfed FUG.3.51 _tnfluence chart for horizontal stress o, (tlewmark, 1942). 0.5 a.m .colip where tano, of blocks. SURPACE LOADS OW SEMI~INPINITS MASS Foe 0 parce Of eain 2 #3G.3.52 Influence chart for bulk stress @ (Newmark, 1942) (for all values of v) ee 2049 comp 3 ‘where Yeno.of blocks. seysotd Jorouen OT gy amcor = ox. (a 30 conten rye 303) steven Paxeuneny -?*) seaxqe avous 203 32¢y9 eOuNTIUT eS"E“OTa ‘uBis(-) snupu D Aq pazooypul ave_7 TS SoQUONYU! 2ANDBIN “100-03 S$! T - = pojq wed anja aduen|jul - = [> x” - - = Te a = _ | == ok - = > 21D2g - - = qaby> Aq S| et LESAN ssh aS SETI SURFACE LOADS OW SEMT-INFINTTE KASS “tay “Ox 203 “p 09 woYROuIZ09 30 Ted “yDy> Aq uaAlB [/ Sh / ye i @S-L) S| UORDB1I0D LY [Ty ‘poo; ie THY Dl OA - Ubu LT nue iN WX ACTH ARS ALR eis ns Ky law FIG.3,57 Influence chart for vertical displacement: ‘surface. (ewmark, 1947). HY AIT OT ou SHES OSs LO SH oe SS SO \\ 1\ Ti Ht oH {~~ FIG.3.$8 Influence chart for vertical displacement at depth + (Newmark, 19871, 20S ot oot gas soon) ALITY Teh LH a <7 sen OO i BS Oy < VEO. 5. 2 below surface. SURFACE LOADS OW SEMI-INFINITE wASs KSA POO ARATE SSS si SK 8% LSS f PDO} JO Ud}}IBIG 219s Buntold=2 asa ¥ $SNS'JO LODD JO Bur 4 Depth 7. Plotting scale U OSS Ohi 4 SSS SSS SSeS o Stat ‘an applied shear load, ress, parallel to a SX Se S WO My Marg ES emergent sim bance: = %o txoqrea) ‘oma “peOT ZROYs sc cay Seno Sowekngan ee" qWlog 552.35 Jo UOROD 4) Co 40 U7, [rr S 0 io EEE j eget ee Ye % ° CPi Q SOZ} Coco Chapter 4 DISTRIBUTED LOADING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A SEMI-INFINITE MASS 4.1 Vertical Loading on a Horizontal Area where Ri = eben) Rog alab e(eth)® rio a'efek* ork = a*etaen)® 4.1.1 RECTANGULAR AREA vhs Beta-n? eh © b*eree* ‘The Mindlin point load equation (Section 2.1.4) x for vertical stress Oz has been integrated over a rectangular area by Skopek (1961). The following ‘expression has been ebtained for % beneath the ‘The stresses at other points within the mass may comer of a rectangle ax (Fig.4.1): be obtained by use of the principle of superposition. Influence factors for the vertical displacement of the comer of a rectangle are shown in Fig.4.2 {Groth sd Chapamn, 1968), The displacement {5 glven os et ses 2) where a is the shorter side of the ‘rectangle, ‘The influence factor I is given by ies males weeded + intpe/eest) | Ey = —2— | 1-v) faretan prt _y g, w) + Kal tn da 2° gultv) (e-WR of ne tt 3 wag .-3 ((4-e) (Ba-t). + ob) , (ahem | ata-t)* Babee? (2) + dante (ei fBaatyy (athe Bri thst Py hee + apy tor? Ly 4 —Ss! g Usesvlalath) (Sack) jaRy ‘eat st tedute?) atatilbae -f2et- 4] vex (6.28) wo “ _ UGatv)at eth)? -h(eti) (sch) a dey Re where ky = gfe ¢ DaslzthlaRe , SheaRerl _ helzrhi%e He on Bh (athibere Bry Re Ky = S-laveNt a= vb _ eet wee ed 8 = ba oe : BE VERITCAL LOADING OW SORTZONTAL AREAS eo = feat t= IH) Stresses and displecenents beneath a rigid rect- angle eabedded in a semi-infinite mass are given in Section 7.9. 93 For the limiting case of a uniformly loaded strip (b/em), Skopek gives the following expression for the vertical stress on the central axis of the strip: 2 o, + 2 fereten 32° + archer 3, ale), at avian Blare(a-R)*](d-v) Bhat (ath) (2-v) + Hate 1 see Gea) a+ (wth) ?3* (av) wes wane Youealor pe -—f-—_| | ee os = — 0-5] a = h — on a 1 on o 08 fo 88 BB on os 02 or 0 * % ig.4.2 vertical displacement factor for corner of embedded rectangle. Fox (1948b) has obtained solutions for the relat- ionship between the mean vertical displacement f,, of a rectangle beneath the surface to the mean displace- Bent my of a tinilar rectangle situated at the © n/oag is plotted against h/va5 and vaiph im Fig.4.3 for various values of b/a and for 3. IN 16.4.3 Ratio of mean displacenent Of rectangle at depth h to that of rectangle at surface. W605. (Pox, 1948). 4.4.2 CIRGILAR AREA {Fig.4.4) T taste “ FIG.4.4 Psy Nishida (1966) has derived the following expressions for vertical stress cg aid vertical displacenent p3! (@) Beneath the contre o,, = 2 | ate) 1 70 aft-v) { Ge (atoy® ~pist-ty} Weise]? me ate = ies” Brim} ite, ° : +2- (8, 2 fat+(a-c)* — (zt)? wef » (as | se 3) = BU) (avy (Ue Camel (a-0)} 1) + (sotbvnevt)(Yebelare)® ~ (ara)} + (2-2) _ —fanel* _, (3éy) (she) 208 AP t(a-0}* ate _ —2ezlato)* Boa atetato)*)" (ata) _ (tuldsted? = 20a APs (ate) see 44) pal, Pao. sre ha) VERTICSL LOADING OW HORIZONTAL AREAS 95 (©) Beneath the edge (ra) Values of ¢_/p beneath the centre and edge of the circle given by Nishida are tabulated in Table See Nishida (1966) for explicit expressions. 4.1, Influence factors I, and Ig for the vertical displacement beneath the centre and edge of p, beneath the edge is given by the circle are tabulated in Teble 4.2, pat, oe GS z (5) TABLE 4.1 VERTICAL STRESS oj, BENEATH CIRCULAR AREA e ~ (itishida, 1966) Feo? (contre) se’? (edge) 2 v 4% o 1 2 3 ° 0 1 2 3 . 0.00 ° 1.00 0,70 0.56 0.54 0.50 9.50 0.53 0,30 0.28 0,25 1 (0.64 0.35 0130 0127 0.25 9.34 0.21 0.18 O27 0.13, 2 0.28 0,17 0.33 0112 0.10 9.20 9.12 0:10 0.09 0.07 4 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.12 9.05 0.34 0,03 0.01 0.25 0 1,00 0.71 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.50 9,38 0.31 0.28 0.25 1 064 0,46 0.39 0.29 0.26 0.54 0.24 O18 0115 0:13 . 2 0.28 0:18 0.18 0113 0.11 9.20 0.13 0-11 0.09 0,08 4 0,09 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.80 o 1.00 0.75 0.58 0.54 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.52 0.28 0.25 1 0,64 0145 0.38 9.55 9134 0.54 0,29 0.21 0.19 0.16 2 0.28 0:22 O11 9.18 O14 0.20 0.17 0:13 0.41 9:10 4 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.04 0.12 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.08 The centze displacement may aiso be obtained TABLE 4.2 fron INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR = Flo, we (666) ‘VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT OF CIRCLE ‘20 Nas (ishida, 1966) Z, (centre) T, (edge) where (92), is the surface displacement given aja» 950 0.25 0.00 © 0.50 0,28 0.00 ¢ in Section 3.3.1, and 7y_-—s«is a reduction factor, plotted in 0.00 1.875 2.000 0.955 1.194 1.273 Fig.4.7. For this case, S 995 0.909 5.00 0.947 0.862 0.586 0.649 0.585 Rema. 100 0.750 0.883 0.750 0.478 0.530 0.478. 3000 0.750 0.833 0,750 9.478 0.530 -0.478 = 2, er as GENERAL AREAS SUBSURFACE LOADING Sector curves for bulk stress © aro shown in Figs. 4.5 and 4.6 for ved and 0.5 Sector curves for the ratio Aisplacenent of a sector at depth face to the vertical displacement of, the sane sector of the vertical below the sur- situated at the surface, are shown in Fig.4.7 (Poul 10s, 19672). Hin cast 9p See res re ert | FS + PS |— Ha I. | , Pt (Poulos, 19674). FYG.4.6 Sector curves for bulk stress 0. Xo. v0.5. +0 | 4 v0 a o: |__4 0-9 (2). FIG.4.7 Ustio Fy of Afsplaceaent at apox 08 Ot sector Fat depth d to that Of sector at surface: a O7 & So6 tee. ¥ a gos foo on || ! . oye 3 «8 SO HORIZOUTAL LOADING OW VERTICAL. RECTANGLE, ” 4,2 Horizontal Loading on a Vertical Py = 28, in (A) + rel & ‘Tete Rectangle ean (——Ceatte The honizontal displacement hg at the upper DTC, Head and lower comer of a rectangular area (Fig.4.8) has been obtained by Douglas and Davis (1964). = ty (CMDR?) | OH) RHR) 4 XAT (nek ~ KOE = Hy) pone tn earl ats t14eK Hy)™ srt 10 fet rr + Ohya) an (RAE HTS | oe (RyRy) e, L j§“4, + Gata. el (Ry #Ke) Ke x Py = 2kz tn = RAR) x 7 ord FrG.4.8 x tn Gf /GH(Ky #K2 )? At the upper corners A and B, for a uniform (Kyte Modan KAKI?) (Kyte horisontal prezause Py +m Cai era (tly 20a#/ 14K) 4 he = wo { (8-40) Fy +Pyt# (2-2y) (1-0) Ps} WEE Ke)® = Ota) = Be lie ER) ve : At the lover comers D and 6, ang the displacement ne other points in the seme e, the principle of superpositi Pg = ER faery trees (rat) (1-024) Bapleyed. Principle of = sion say be S2nG{T =v) wee 4.8) Values of F; to Fs are plotted in Figures 4.9 v0 4.11. Be where i (Ry-Ka) y= Cir) tn Ceti 2 -2 tm (— Goulet? - 20+ feet) P= @ ml + liy-Ka) x (Ky He AVE HK) x ty 2+ Get), are? 93 Gea _ Fy (ye) ky SUBSURFACE 98 and Ps 16.4.9 Factors Fy (Douglas and Davis, 1964)~ ree os o4 oO = = HI Ra \ . , FINN ; a : ot }2- — zt as SAIN ; 2 sy z F ne Ee | ¥ | i ° i ANAS: at ¥ 2 [ts 3 [al ee ‘ 3 Ig 5 | Pe 5 riled o| on RECTANOLES WITH SHEAR LOADING 4.3 Rectangles Subjected to Shear Loading ‘Three cases have been considered by Groth and Chapman (1969), as shown in Fig.4.12, of the corner displacements in the direction of uniform loading applied to subsurface rectangles. Influence factors for the displacements are shown in Figs. 4.15 to 4.17. In all cases, the displacenent is expressed as qar o = 48 wee (4.9) case 1 Top Comer Ai 1 = xolongen) tnt HEB + oxy 22 EB) + Ghasie) in CRED) + Bravealee tal) = Baits ta GE) + a8 tn (2 . 08 mabe me Teele), a2 - 6e}} were a = E eek 3 = Yiest(teda)? | t = vinta? gt ww Be Raw) Ks bay Botton Comer 8: Tw telat CEE) © omer mn /ia-8) (28 (140) +8) Hive) in + amabtava) mn(—4#2 3 28(240) it = KebltHI) Inf ‘B(z#20) + Bite) mn(2) - t(D +0 = BE 204.062 (440)? Teaa 7 g{t#28? (140)) * Street (140) (1420) }} where c, 8,! «= Visas (ata)® 6 = Aisbti40)* yas above case 2 ‘Top Comer A: Tom xoffxyen) (8 2 Cees + Br1¥8e) gn (EE ~ 2B en (ES + CBE + xy tn Onley + 8(4-v) (1-20) [BCA +80) (o-8¢1+23)) = s3B(t-208) + ty (EBLE) where ,B,Ko,k, as above @ = Anstey t= Miedo B 2 = 28 Bottom Corner B: Fos Kol 0x41) ( mn By + 2140) bn (geht = (120) on GE = Xan co aBt B+ tn SEBO nacre) 2-2 - 284240). Biteas _ Bfis20. a) + 2CL-vi(1-Bv) [28(deae-B¢i+20)¢ 200 SUBSURFACE LOADING where 4,6,X»,%; as above Ka = 4-0) (1-29) : 2 = Vis (THe?) = BP (20006 8 CT¢ 0)? + tn GEESE) t = Viega*8* where 6,8,%),%; as above u © B/IH0? 1 8 = f1+68* (140)? t= See eae)? 1 | THT of Ea 7 SESE 0.4.12 tonating cases for hovizenead loading on tad = S2] TF receangle, 2 = =] z Sosed Sate Sse Yuca fooge Sea ee "ras ero 20 18 1s oH v.08 case 3 ta b—veoe To kof [en (oefiest) + oan HY r \ +0 + BCE HL) Bas eee oe + Ceti) in BZ) + atn ES) on { - MC t~2) 2 oe == ¥ Rab Bear” (Fares) ~ toe at =. oe + BE ter gh = ot } ataetatory ~ Kotor Ge) tale eapeay) ~ tor) pt puedo + Ba Gira))) Id comer An. case or RECTANGLES WITH SHEAR LOADING srr 8869. -y reus09 x0€in 103 sorVey auesveTSTP waloztIoN ety ora ° tz ps09 “q xotz0n ROMOY 303 TOROET AUeMDSETATTD THOTIIOA FT -P'DKE Sq % CV 10 FO $0 wo ro 60 70 82 on go 04 SUBSURFACE LOADING 302 cru oFe3 srr eseg “a xeuzeo saxguze 10g tox0e3 auoMoRTdesp TeauoeyzonT"p°OL snot 94 soxany auouese aE Ae tte gos 4 % 0 to £0 70 go ° or si os 0 20 2orn--—— $o-4—— eo low Chapter 5 SURFACE LOADING OF A FINITE LAYER UNDERLAIN BY A RIGID BASE 5.1 Loading on an Infinite Strip S.1.1 WREPORN VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.5.1) PTF ope Influence factors for the vertical displacensnt eg and the horizontal displacenent 92 beneath the edge of the strip, obtained by Poulos (19670), are shown in Figs. 5.2 and 5.3. Tafluence factors for the vertical stress dz, Dulk stress € and shear stress tex beneath the edge are shown in Figs. $.4 and 5.5, for four values of ¥. The interface between ihe layer and the base is rough ("adhesive'’). ‘The horizontal stresses oz and og, may be evaluated as follows: a, = 5-4, vee Gal} 2 Tw Se oy = vlo,s0,) s+ 2) 103 = “30o1 02 63 OF % Ye 23 ws 10 os 0 FIG.5.3 strip curves for p,. tod FINITE LAYER +8) we 2 +2 ow In o-| Ste nuance Factors ‘arta Stress oy veo oe dete 0 or 08 Os OOS FIG.5.4 Strip curves for 0,. veo. FIG,S.S Strip curves for 9, “Th "| is ZS val xd In o8| Sir Ditence Faces, onl 22] eekly o7| OF 0203 0a OS z an oy 6 Strip curves for o,. va0.4, FIG.5.7 Strip curves for ,. v=0.5. 105 20 ¥ } + % ’ * “, rn o. wi Z I on ee 9 1 o¢| ost od sre, muon rocor | om suo © og, Sip names cers —| of eb od wor ¢ coo YO OF OF ta OS od em Powe 1 08 0 . Me ° oor G2 OF 0 OF ¥IG.5.8 Strip curves for ©. ve. % were yo os 8 ¥IG.5.9 Strip curves for ©, v00.2 ao af 2 le é 204 = ‘Sto otuwnee Fesors oa Seen +0 an °, 0 01 02 09 os 95 *% r % 2 1s 10 os ve Ms FIG.5.10 Strip curves for 8. WO.4. FIG.S.11 Strip curves for 8. wa0.5. 206 FINITE LAYER +0 on f stip tntowen Fecuws | on ‘Seo Sees te | a Bie | opt b ors! os 4 ani ? / “EE “Ae AT LA Ji 3 Oo oF 02 03 04 O85 ea . ts 0 08 0 % % ‘3 10.5.3 stip curves for Tye WO. 10.5.3. Stetp cutis for tyqe MOR. ta val, Ste fe [ Yt we he 7 wee : 7 sore | 7 oy} Beth eg o “ Te o24t——t o o ° f o tt © we ol oa] 93) ] Pry °. / a ° IZ Ka os os [TRIANGULAR LOADING ON STRIP Ueshita and Meyerhof (1968) have also obtained influence factors for .p, beneath the edge of the strip, considering both a rough rigid base (adhesive interface) and a smooth rigid base (snooth interface). ‘These influence factors, reproduced in Fig. 5.16, show that the effect of the interface is considerable for 0.5 but almost negligible for v=0. Displocement Intuenee Value. Iye 01 02 03 04 05 06 207 o2| | S |, -FYG.5.16 Displacement factors for edge of strip (Ueshita and Meyerhof, 1968). Thiemness Factor." 5.1.2. ‘TRIANGULAR VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.5.17) Rough Rib Base FIG.5-27 Solutions for the stresses within the layer have Deen obtained by Giroud and Watissee (1972). Some Solutions for 0z,0z and Tz, beneath the centre and gd of the loading ure shown in Figs.5.18 to 5.20 OF V=0.35 Giroud (1970) oxpresses the vertical surface dis- placement as Pa. py, 2 Bey + 6.3) Values of ry are plotted in Figs. 5.21 to 5.25 for five values of v, ‘The solutions for triangular loading may be superposed to determine solutions for “eabankment” or trapezoidal loading. 208 “oust feeeezzen pur pnozzo) feo 80 20 00 60 FO fo 26 10 ny “(ust ‘eosey9eH pue pnozyD) ebpo yateueg (q) « exyweo weeueg {6} [p aeex3e TequczTI0q BT'S‘DId “hp TRIANGULAR LOADING OY STRIP 409 Xe a” FIG.5.20 Shear stress <_ beneath edge (Giroud and ) Watkseee, 1972), ° vr09 % Kinceo e i+ ot | Ly s Each nipiicomne fate Hy, =a Saou 4 . LM , : ¥3G.5.22 Displacenent factor ry. 60.2. (Giroud, 1970). ¥IG.5.23 Displacement factor x. V0.3. (Girowd, 1970), FIG.S.24 Displacement factor x4. Vand. (Girout, 1970), ¥IG.5.25 Displacement factor Ty. V=0.5, (Gizond, 1970), CIRCULAR AREA 5.2 Loading on a Circular Area (Fig. 5.26) my —T : (ee Rigié Base PIG.S.26 For four velues of A/a and three values of v (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45) Milovic (1970) has tabulated Solutions for the stresses and displacements beneath tie the centre (1/a = 0, (r/a = 0.5), and the edge (z/a= 1) for the case of uniform vertical loading. Solutions for 6, snd Op beneath tho contre and edge, and tpg beneath the edge, are shown in Figs. 5.27 to $.31 for v= 0,50. 4IG,5.28 ¢, beneath edge (iilovic, 1970). # 0m 0:20 030 9-49 0-50 060, es thes ¥10.5.27 @, beneath centre (iilovic, 1970} + FIG.5.30 0, beneath adge (Hilovic, 1970), ui 2 FIVITE LAYER FIG.5-31 T,, Benoxeh edge (t{lovic, 1970). For other cases, stresses and displacements beneath the centre of a uniformly loaded circular ‘area may conveniently be obtained from the sector curves described in Section 5.4 and shown in Figs. $.52 to $.75. The use of the sector method is described in Section 1.7.3. Influence factors for the vertical displacenent bz beneath the centre of the circle have been obtain ed by Ueshita and Meyerhof (1968) for both a rough underlying base (adhesive interface) and a smooth interface. These factors are shown in Fig.5.32. Approximate values of the influence Zactor for vertical displacement at the edge of the circular area have been quoted by Harr (1966) and are show in Table 5,1 for both an “adhesive interface” and 4 “smooth interface". For various points within the loaded area, Milovic (1970) has obtained solution for the vertical surface displacerent, and these are shown in Table 5.2, These results are for an adhesive Anterface, TABLE S.1 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT AT EDGE OF CIRCULAR AREA (Egorov, 1958) Tg SMOOTH: ADHESIVE n/a TNTERFACE —INTERPACE - (Ql) (0.5 only) 0.2 9.005 9.04 ons 0112 9.10 L 0.23 0.20, 2 0.38 0.34 3 0.45 0.42 5 0.52 9.50 7 0.56 9.54 w 9.58 0.57 = 0.64 0.66 Edge di splacenent TABLE 5.2 INFLUENCE FACTORS Ip FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT WITHIN CIRCULAR AREA (Rough Rigid Base) (After Milovic, 1970) va » aya 0 2 46 BO 2 0.464 0.458 0.441 0.408 0.348 0,208 ois, 2 9-684 0.674 0.645 0.593 0. VIS 4 0,812 0,800 0.768 9.710 0. 6 (0.839 0.827 0.794 0,736 0, 1 0.397 0.392 0.379 0.35] 0.30 2 9-615 0.604 0.578 0,532 +824 0.740 0.732 0.703 0,652 6 0.770 0.762 0.733 0.681 1 0.278 0.276 0.267 0.250 0.213 0.109 2 0.489 0.482 0.461 0,422 0.361 0.229 9.45 4 (0.612 0.608 0.585 0.541 0.472 0.340 6 0.637 0,635 0.612 9.568 0,499 0.374 [RECTANGULAR AREA rector, "Ye ‘rickoes 3 ve! 5.3 Loading on a Rectangular Area 5.5.1 ROUGH RIGED BASE (Fig.5.33) ae F1g.5.33 for uniform vertical loading p/unit area, a nM Thickness Factor, FIG.5.32 Displacenent factor for centre of circle (veshita ana Meyerho£,, 1968). ua smooth rectangular area and a rough (adhesive) inter- face, between the layer and the bese, Burmister (1956) has evaluated the vertical stress ¢z beneath She corner of the rectangle at various depths in the layet for v0.4. These results are shown in Figures 5.3¢ to 5.38. The value of wv hes little influence on these vertical stresses, expecially near the top of the layer. PIS.5.34 Burmister layer theory- 0, ab 2-0.zh. v0.4. (Burmister, “1996). beneath corner FINITE LAYER ae S6T, “TSTEMA) “POA “YD"OWE IE “iaset, "Joxepama) *p-o=n “upon ae "5 +kso0yy seAUT x0;sTEME 9E°S*OLT xeuros wyeoueq “op *Axosya TexCT xeagTUME se°S*OTS oy sided Yee suteo F MU TE WE H atm 20 }-|~|—| ---4—— }—|-- 20-0 “af Pt Pe fp or 0 _ Ht P, | fff |p | 8 ~ Jn-}e= © f- of A000 cao 7 HS TH 2-0 us RECTANGULAR ARER S(9S6T, F038TEME) “Pro “YOTHE ae *(9563 ‘2030 q=ING) “y-O-K *UB"ORE 3P xoux0a wyvotieg 7p *Kzoouy xeXet xoqQUTuE gF°S‘OTT xona0s ypveusq “o *Azooyy zeker z03eTmME 1C°S‘OTd 4 eney wero % ew isa 0 pov oz 01 so ro 20 19 900100 0 100, S409 oy 02 01 040 29 10000 109 29 1004 | 1 2 Jo-0 he 10-0 ° ° 0-0 16 FINITE LAYER Influence factors for the vertical displacement of the comer of a rectangle loaded with a uniforn vertical stzess p per unit area have been presented by Ueshita and Meyerhof (1968) for a rough rigid base (adhesive interface). These influence factors Ino are shown in Figures 5.39 to 5.44 for 6 values of “v. The actual displacement is given by PBI, “0 ws 4) Influence factors for both vertical and horizon- ‘tal surface displacenents at the corner of a rectangle have been presented by Davis and Taylor (1962) for a rough rigid underlying base. Both uniform vertical leading gz per unit area and horizontal loadings Gz and gy per unit area, have been considered. Referring to the key diagram in Figure S.45(a), for corner 1, i.e. the corner contained in the posit- ive zy quadrant, displacements are expressed as eae (wT, s+ 6.5) w = 0M, tym, .vtam, inere Ip = oft, stam, svta ‘ts i,j are any of =,y,2. For example, for vertical displacenent due to uiform horizontal loading in the y direction, OP) - 6.6) Petes ee Pee nok ens appromitate only as shey flve Hlen'abraisla by use of EE Selavremes approcinction (ove section 678-1. The influence factors «mij, for comer’ are plotted" in Figutae’s des Br Should aise'he noted thatsSbecause of the approxinate oe ape eer ae yy. For corner 1, the total displacement in direction 4 due to combined loading is given by PD) = beg(B) + ogy(D) # Psg(D) BN) Calin + Wty + a0) se 6D For the other three corners the displacements can be obtained from the displacenent components pig(2) as follows: 2 + - + Pz | 8) = + pal) + O(1) = Pag(1) .. (5-88) 4 + - - 2 - + 5 sle S # Pye) + By (2) = PyglD) ..+ (5-86) 4 = + + | + - + °, | T= Oyg(U) = Pyy(1) + 9,,(0) v2. (5.80) = + + Another series of solutions have been presented by Milovic and Tournier (1971) sho have evaluated stresses and displacements beneath the centre and corner of the rectangle. The stresses evaluated are defined as follows: (a) Uniform Vertical Loading p ses (6.98) see (5-90) see (6-9e) (®) Uniform Horizontal Loading 2, see (5-100) ses (6-108) c++ (5.100) For the centre of the rectangle, the stress influence values Igp and Ip for vertical loading and the influence values Izgq for horizontal loading are given in Tables 5.3 to 5.5; for the centre, Tazpe Zag, 4 Jaq are all zero. For the comer of the rectangle, the stress influence values I, and Izgp for vertical loading are given in Bhiee 5.6 to §c8 and Tag, and Izeq for horizontal loading are given in Tables 5.9 to 5.11. RECTANGULAR ARER a7 Displacement Inftonce Value Ire 2.03 oO “05 og, FIG.5.39 Displacement factors for corner of rectangle. V=0.5. (Ueshita and Hoyerhof ,1964 | % oval NJ \ —~ Boustnasa Case — §] Meet Mere 3 “Tneaness. Factor Displacement Infuence Vawue Ire oor 0209 Od 05" 06 07 __ 08 FIG.5.40 Displacement factors for corner of rectangle. v=0.4.(Yeshita and Heyernof ,1968). Thexness Factor "Y hee a 2 2 030 os 09 | FIG.S.41 Displacement factors for corner 7 < 2 of rectangle. 0.3. (Ueshita and £ £ Meyerhof, 1968), 5 o4 ja 3 g é é | o6| Ps oe em 10 ue o2| Therness Factor Vp gf 3 2 8 ‘Teanass Factor Ye, 8 placernent Inence Value tog o1__o2 03 oa 05 vrwrrs Lavan os oy 08 09 VE B fred Theaness Facer Ya, Se Nest Gonsnasg Gone — a] ers FIG.5.42 Displacement factors for comer Of rectangle. Ve0.2. (Ueshite and Hoyerhot , 1960) FIG.5.43 Displacement factors for comer ‘Of rectangle. ve0.1. (Ueshita and Meyerhot ,1968). FIG.S.44 Displacement factors for corer of rectangi . Weshita and Heyerhof 1968). ‘RECTANGULAR AREA U9 Ye & em @ co) FIG.5.45 Rectangle displacement factors (Davis and Taylor, 1962). £6 od ts ef od 8 ol «oft OTS cop =o oe May : Se ea iy Or aan OF oa? eM Ger am aly? @ j6 Rectangle displacement factors (Davis and raylor, 1962). Tee oh or ame er amy? «© 120 fy U0 othaad z Uf or oP) g g & FINITE TAYER i Ee Bice cees PIG,5.47 Rectangle divplacenent factors (iste that. Pry 79) @avis and Paylor, 1962). ES Es & g geeeee py Mtar amy? 8%, C06 oe? ry te) FIG.5.a8 Rectangle displacenent factors (Oavis and Taylor, 1962), RECTANGULAR AREA aan ARLE 5.3 INFLUENCE VALUES Tap, Tgp ANDI, 3? “@ “Onisovié! and Tournier, 1971) (173) = 1.00 Centre yn 0.35 v= 0.30 v= 04s “ a. 4, 1, a a ee ee 0.00 0.441 = 1.000 0.549 = 1.000 0.658 = oni 0.510 0.738 0.974 01425 0.739 0.974 0.520 8.740 0:20 0.214 01544 0.965 0.503 0-545 0.947 0.397 01548 0140 0.060 01276 0.842 DLI15 0.275 0.855 0,192 0.274 0:60 0.005 0.167 0.690 0,062 0.164 0.712 0.149 0.166 S120 0.013 0-152 0.570 91095 9.122 0.595 0.211 9.116 100 0.033 0.317 01468 01201 9.096 0.478 01391 91067 0.00 0.689 = 1.000 0.786 — O10 01300 0.726 0.970 01500 0.726 0.20 01585 01522 0/981 a14eg 01522 0:49 01322 0.255 0.808 0.181 0.257 2.80 01003 0.062 0.489 0-034 0.065 220 -01005 0.035 01294 0.027 9.033 360 0-020 0.028 0.215 0.057 0.025 200 0.087 "= 0.261 0,132 0.011 0.00 = 0.672 - 1.000 0.795 0:10 01970 0.400 0.724 0/970 0-502 0.726 0.970 0-655 0.724 0:29 01830 01275 01518 01950 0.570 0.519 0.930 0.464 0.519 0:40 9.799 0.070 01230 0.799 0.151 0.250 0.799 0-191 0.251 0180 01452 -01024 0052 01485 01005 01052 01454 01050 0.085, 2.20 0.263 -0.025 0.020 0.264 -0.009 0.920 0.266 0.007 0.021 260 9/170 “1018 0/015 0.172 -0:008 0.013 0:175 0.007 0.018 2.00 0.122 0.011 9.012 9.324 0.000 0.012 0.129 0.013 0.012 250 0.091 -0:001 0.01 01095 0.011 0.011 0.093 0.020 9.010 5.00 0.073 0.015 0.012 9.075 0.051 01009 0.0076 0.065 9.006 0.00 0.555 - 1.000 0.688 - 1.000 0.8 - 0.10 01452 9.725 9,970 0.521 9.725 0.970 0.625 0.725 0:20 0.282 0.517 9,950 0.580 0.517 0.950 0.475 0.517 O10 0075 01228 0.798 0.158 01228 0.798 01200 9.223 0:80 -0.020 01048 0.450 0.007 0.043 01450 0.054 0.048 1:20 “1023 01015 0.258 -01009 0101s 0.258 01006 0.015 1.60 “oloi7 9007 0:162 “0.003 0.007 0.165 91000 0.007 2/00 “01013 0.008 0.111 “0.007 0.005 0.112 0.000 0.005 2's0 75/008 9:004 0:075 “0-004 0.004 01077 0.001 0.008 5.00 “p10 0.004 0.056 -0.002 3.80 0.043 -0.004 0.004 0.044 0.000 4200 =0:002 05005 0.057 0.003 3'50 {9.001 0.005 0.032 0.005 0.004 9.034 01015 0.004 5.00 00s 0:005 9.027 0.012 0.005 0.029 0.025 0.002 TABLE 5.4 INFLUENCE VALUES Ipp, Inp AMD Taq (Qitovie and Tournier, 1971) (2/3) = 2.00 Centre veossee BRaaRER v= 0.15 vs 0.89 1,000 0,511 - 1.000 G.992 0,364 0.775 9,992 01976 0.248 0.589 0.977 0.919 0.047 0.337 0.924 01821 -0.006 0.233 0.827 9.732 0,020 0.198 0.734 0.651 0.115 0.282 0.638 Bsessees 1048 Sessass REE 1,000 0,691 = - 1.000 01982 0.508 0.781 0.982 0.961 0.350 9.546 0.962 0.872 0.102 0.261 0.872 0.598 ~0.052 9.073 0.599 0.403 =0:080 0.033 0.405 -0.016 030 9.024 0.299 -0.001 0.217 -0.019 9.023 0.220 0.000 SS8S8SSS8S8888 | 8S 0.168 -0.002 0.024 9.171 0.020 0.137 0.026 0.024 0.137 0.059 1,000 9.710 - 1.000 0,795 0.981 0.525 0.750 0.981 0.605 0.961 0.366 0,544 0.961 0.436 0.870 0.114 0.287 0.870 0.170 0.594 ~0.024 0.066 0.594 0.009 0.393 -0.086 0.024 0.394 -0.014 0.270 -0.030 9.012 0.271 -0.015 0,195 -0.025 0.009 0.195 -0.012 01138 -0.017 0.008 0.139 -0.008 0.104 -0.001 0.008 0.105 -0.004 0.083 ~0.007 0.008 0.085' 0.000 0,070 -0.003 0.009 0.072 0.005 02060 0.002 4.009. 0.062 0.012 0.03 0.009 0.009- 0.053 0.023 RECTANGULAR AREA 423 $ seeskes TABLE 5.5 INFLUENCE VALUES ZgpJz5 AND Zag Qlilovic and Tournier, 1971) (0/8) = 5.00 Centre v= 0.18 v= 0.30 v= 045 Jap Tap Teg Top Top Teng Typ Top 3 1.000 0.525 = 1,000 0.566 = 1,000 0.592 ' -. 01996 0.565 9.796 0.996 0.425 0.796 0.996 0.462 0.797 01980 0.252 0,610 0.981 0.303 0.608 0.983 0.558 0.609 01920 01050 0.367 0.922 0.117 0.360 0.930 0,200 0.358 0.380 0.005 0.271 0.832 0.081 0.257 0,845 0.199 0.246 0.753 0.022 0.259 0.751 0.138 0.212 0.760 0.307 0.183 0,688 0.221 9.222 0.672 0.288 0.171 0.665 0.544 0,108 Babssess BRBREB brresess 2,000 0.715 = 1.000 0.745 = «1.000 0.760 0.990 0.S05 9.772 0.990 0.568 0.772 0,990 0.590 0.75 0.971 0.362 0.565 0.971 0.390 0,365 0,972 0.410 0.568 02889 0.104 0.290 0.890 0.135 0.290 0.895 0.163 0.295 0.667 -0.040 0.119 0.670 0.004 0.118 0.677 ¢.039 0.120 0.526 -0.043 0.092 0.528 0.002 0.088 0.559 0.063 9.088 0.441 -0.008 0.092 0.845 0.054 01082 0.455 0.144 0.072 0.385 0.068 0.088 0.377 0.162 0.064 0.379 0-310 0.032 1,000 0.778 = 1.000 0,812 = «1.000 0.836 = 0.999 0.541 9.767 0.990 0.610 0.767 0.990 0.649 0.768 0,969 0.408 0.556 0.969 0.436 0.556 0.970 0.458 0.557 0.884 0,137 0.272 0.884 0.165 0.275 0.885 0.188 0.274 0.649 -0.027 0.089 0.650 0.000 0.089 0.653 0.026 0.091 0,489 -0.069 9,052 0.492 -0.022 0,052 0.498 0.008 0.054 0.391 -0.043 0.045 0.395 -0.015 0,044 0.404 0.020 0.046 0.829 -0.029 0.046 0.335 0.003 0.044 0.344 0.045 0.043 0.278 -0.002 0.049 0.281 0.058 0.043 0.292 0.099 0.038 01241 0.042 0.047 0.238 0.102 9.034 0.242 0.198 0,016 aesessesy 1.000 0.819 - 1.000 0.889 - 1.000 9,895 ~ 0.990 0.603 0.765 0.990 0.642 0.765 0.990 0.703 0.765 01969 0.442 0.521 0.475 0.851 6.969 0.503 0,552 0-881 0.164 0.264 0.194 0,264 0.882 0.221 0.265 07641 -0.010 0.075 9.075 0.642 9.039 0.076 01033 0.476 0.003 0.034 0.474 -0,040 0.035 0.367 -0,042 0.021 0.021 0.370 -0-003 0.023 0.294 -0.037 0.018 0.038 0.299 -0.001 0.019 0,285 -0.029 0.017 0.017 0.239 0.005 0.018 0.191 -0.022 0.018 0.018 9.199 9.013 0.019 0,162 -0.014 4.019 0.018 0.172 0.024 0.019 0.141 -0.006 0.07 0.018 0.152 9.040 0.018 0.018 0.135 9.062 0.016 9.015 9.117 0.096 0.008 0.126 0.005 0.022 0,113 9.020 9.021, 226 FINITE LAYER TABLE 5.6 INFLUENCE VALUES 1, ND Ips *P °°? “Cuitovie'and Tournier, 1971) (L/8) = 1.00 Corner ve 0.15 v= 0.30 v= 0.E5 A/B 2/8 I i, z sp Tap Teep Tap Fesp Fep Fup Fea 0.00 0.250 0.083 0.000 0.250 0,212 0,000 0.250 0.134 0.000 0°20 0.250 01061 0-122 0.250 01921 0.139 01250 01122 0.134 1.0 0.40 0.250 0.039 0.105 0.250 0.072 0.103 0.250 0.110 0,098 0.60 0,250 0.028 0.079 0,250 0.064 0.079 0.250 0.112 0.075 8180 1241 01028 01098 01738 0.072 0.004 01253. 01153 0.070 1,00 0.227 0.040 0.056 0.220 0.215 0.176 0.096 0.250 0.151 0.000 0.250 0.163 0.000 0,250 0,089 0,135 0.250 0.117 0-136 0.243 0.052 0.128 0.244 0.076 0.239 0.010 6-080 0.211 0.928 0170 0.003 0.044 9.172 0.016 0.161 0.005 0.028 4.142 0.025 0.118 0.021 0.019 9.117 9.050 BByeeee 0.250 0.146 0.000 0.250 0.181 0.249 0.200 0.158 0.249 9.129 0,241 0.060 0,131 0.241 9.083 0.205 -0.013 0.084 0.203 9.028 0.187 -0.003 9.008 0.121 -0.007 0.003 0.096 -0.005 0.004 0.077 0.001 0.012 0.066 0.012 0.027 0,00 0.250 0.156 0.000 0.250 0.192 0.000 0.250 0.227 0.000 0.20 0.249 0.207 0.158 0.249 0.137 0.158 0.249 9.167 0.138 0,40 0,241 0.066 0-132 0.261 0.090 0,132 0.240 0.113 0.132 0:80 0.200 9.016 0,086 0.200 0.032 9,08 0.201 0.047 0.085 1120 0.152 -0:001 0.051 0.153 0.009 0.051 0.153 0.019 0.081 1.60 0.114 -0.006 0.030 0.114 0.001 0.030 0,115 0.008 0.030 $.0 2,00 0.086 -0.007 0.019 0,087 -0.002 0.039 0.087 0.004 0.018, 2,80 9.06$ -0-006 0.011 6.064 -0.002 0.011 0.065 0.003 6.011 3.00 9.049 -0.008 9-007 0-050 -0.901 0.006 0.051 6.004 0.006 3.50 9.040 -0.003 0.008 9.040 0.001 0.004 0.042 6.006 0.008 4,00 0.034 -0.001 0.003 0.034 0.093 0.003 0.036 0.009: 0.003, 4150 0.029 0.001 0.002 0.030 0.006 0.002 9.032 0.014 0.002 $100 0.026 0.005 0.002 0.026 0.011 9.002 0.027 9.022 0.003 TABLE 5.7 INFLUENCE VALUES apy Top AND J, %P °° “uutovie and Tournier, 1971) (6/8) = 2.00 Corner BeB588 v2 0.18 v= 0.30 v= 0.45 tap 1 P 0.250 0.085 0.250 0,062 9.250 0.041 0.250 0,029 0.248 0.030 0.241 0.042 Ssesers 0.280 0,147 0.250 0/100 0.248 0,059 0.230 0.032 9,205 -0.002 0.183 0.005 01163 0.029 Bsesssssa 0,250 0.172 0.250 0.118 0.246 0.072 0222 0.017 01190 -0.004 9,162 -0,009 0.139 -0.007 0,119 9.001 0.103 0.018 sysbeseebesee 9,250 0.189 0,250, 0-131 0,245 0-085 0:218 0.023 0.183 -0.001 0.151 -0.009 0.124 -0-01r 0.099 -0-010 0.081 -0.008 0.068 -0.005 0.059 -0.002 .0s3 0,002 0.047 9.008 0.250 0.250 0.250 0,250 0.247 0.239 PINETS LAER TABLE 5.8 INFLUENCE VAWES Iyy) oy AND” Leo (iilovie'and Tournier, 1971) (1/8) = 5.00 0.082 0,062 0.041 0.029 02030 0.042 9.000 113 0.103 079 9.061 0.060 L, ze 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.244 9.235 v 2 0.103 0.088 0.072 0.967 0.076 02100 Corner 0.50 Leap 9.000 0.117 0.103 0.081 0.069 0.08t 8388888 | 888888 BeESE8 8 0.250 0.250 0.247 0.230 9.207 0188 172 0.250 9.249 0.245, 0.224 0.197 0.173 0715 0.139 0.126 0.146 0.101 0.062 0.012 0.001 0.006 9.030 0.177 02124 0.077 0.019 0.004 -0,010 9.008 0.002 0.022 9.000 90.138 0.120 9.086 0.052 0.032 0.028 0.000 0.138 0.133 0,093 0.060 0.038 0.025 0.016 oco1a 0.250 0.250 0.247 0.230 90,208 0.188 0,168 0.250 0.248 0.246 0.225 0.197 0.174 0.156 0.138 0.123 D.1s4 9.112 0.073 0.029 0,020 0.035 0.072 9.182 9.331 0.086 0.023 0.008 0.004 0.009 0.024 0,083, 0.000 0.134 0.138 0.085 0.052 0.034 9.035 0.000 0.137 0.133 0.092 0.059 0.038 0.025, 0.017 0.018 BeEeERERERBERB 0.250 9.249 0.245 o.221 0,191 O.164 0.162 9.122 0.107 0.096 0.088 0.081 0.978 0.203 0.146 0.095 0.031 0.002 0.009 201012 -0.012 0.010 0.007 0.002 0.004 9.013, 0.000 159 0,135 9.036 0.068 0,043 0.030 0.020 9,013 0,009 01007 0.005 0.005 0.280 0.249 0.245 9.223 L191 0,164 alas 0.123 0.108 0.097 0.089 0.082 0.078 0.209 9.183 0.102 0.038 0.010 0,002 01008 0.004 0.001 0,004 0.010 0.019 0.052 ‘0.000 0.139 0.135 0.096 01064 9.043, 0.030 9.019 0.03, 0,009 9.007 9.006 0.007 Baus Bs R8S3288R RECTANGULAR AREA 127 TABLE 5.9 INFLUENCE VAWES Igqg Inq AND J, ‘@ 7 “(uiiovie “and Tournier, 1971) (L/S) = 1.00 Corner v= 0.15 v= 0.30 Teg Tap Tusq Taq eq 1 i, a Oe BSs85)/ 8sssss 0.157 0.496 0.223 0.157 0.807 0.223 0.152 0.303 0.200 0.151 0.313 0.200 0.142 0.126 0.157 0.143 0.136 0.155 0,130 0.053 0.126 0.131 0.064 0.125 0.118 0.022 0.108 0.118 0.038 0.102 0.108 0.019 0.100 0.105 0.045 0.090 0.155 0.527 0.217 0,155 0.537 0.217 0.150 0.328 0.188 0.150 0.337 0.189 0.133 0.146 0.135 0.133 0.153 0.135 0.089 0.033 0.069 0.089 0.037 0.069 0.057 0.007 0.042 0.058 0.010 0.041 9.040 0-001 0.035 0.041 0.005 0.031 0.031 0.006 0.029 0.031 0.013 0.024 0.155 0.531 0.216 0,155 0.543 0.216 0.150 0.332 0.186 0.150 0.342 0.186 0.132 0.150 0.131 0.132 0.156 0.130 0.087 0.036 0.061 0.087 0.039 0.061 0.052 0.009 0.031 0.052 0.011 0.031 0.032 0.002 0.019 0.033 0,003 0.019 0.022 0.000 0.015 0.022 0.001 0.015 0.015 0.000 0.014 0.015 0.001 0.013 0.012 0.002 0.013 0.012 0.005 0.010 0.155 0.533 0.215 0.185 0,545 0.215 0.150 0.334 0.185 0.150 0.344 0.185 0.132 0.151 0.129 0.132 0.158 0.129 0.086 0.037 0.058 0.086 °0.040 0.058 0.051 0.010 0.027 0.051 0.012 0.027 0.031 0.003 0.014 0.031 0.004 0.014 0.019 0.000 0.009 0.019 0.001 0.009 0.012 0.000 0.006 0.012 0.000 0.006 0.008 0.000 0.005 0.008 0.000 0.005 0.005 0.000 0.005 0.006 0.000 0.005 0.004 0.000 0.005 0.004 0.000 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.004 0.003 0.000 0.005 0.003 0.001 0.004 FINITE LAYER ee (QGlovie“and Tournier, 3971) Corner v= 0.35 v= 0.30 v= 0.45 Bssaes 0.230 0.158 “0.S1S 0.229 0.158 9.517 0,229 0.210 0.155 0.318 0.208 0.155 0.323 9.207 0.172 01148 0.140 0.168 0.150 0.149 0.165 0.145 0.139 0,068 0.139 0.142 0.082 0,152 0.128 0,130 0.042 0.119 0-133 0-066 0.018 0.121 9.120 0.051 0.206 0.118 0.096 0.039 Neresso sessass 0.222 0.156 0.856 0.224 0.156 0.858 0.223, 0.195 0-181 0.352 0.195 0.181 0.354 0.196 01145 0.187 0.163 0.145 0.138 0.165 0.146 0.084 0.200 0.042 0.083 0.102 0-045 0,084 9.058 0.072 0.011 0.057 0.074 0.016 0.056 0.049 9.056 0.007 0.045 0.059 0.015 0.041 O1045 0,045 0.019 0.036 0.046 0.037 0.025, ENNeasse BESssssss 0.220 0.156 0.191 0.351 0.138 0.136 0.072 0.096 0.042 0.084 0.030 0.084 0.025 0.032 0.023 0.024 0.022" 0.019 Bees é é 5 eeessposs B88 2 g g B88 s Seeeaeessesys 0.219 0.156 a. 0.189 0.151 0.362 0.169 0. DL13S 0.136 0.172 0,135 0. 0.066 0.096 0.048 0.066 0.096 0.034 01065 0.015 0.034 0.063 0.016 0.035 0.042 0. 9, 9. 0. e 0.020 0,082 0.005 0.020 0.014 0.028 0.002 0.013 9.010 0.018 0.000 0.010 0.009 0.013 .'0.000 0.009 9.009 9.010 "0.000 9.009 -0.008 9-000 9.009 0.006 0.001 0.009 9.005 0-002 oes 8 2 TABLE 5.11 INFLUENCE VALUES oq Tigg AND Z, 2 “24 ‘ysiovid and Tournier, 1971) (1/8) = 6.00 comer v= 015 v= 0.30 v= 04s 0,158 0.514 0,230 0.158 O.15S 0.318 9.209 0.155 0.148 0-140 9.269 0.150 0.140 0.067 0.240 0.145 0.122 0.082 0.107 0.120 Bsesee 0.156 0.556 0.224 0.156 0.182 0.382 0.197 0.252 0.338 0.163 9.149 0.138 9,102 0.042 0.090. 0.103 0,075 0.011 0.066 0.077 0.060 0.007 0.055 0.063, 0.050 0.021 0.045 0.051 0,156 0.567 0,222 0.156 0.151 0.361 0.193 0.151 0.137 0.171 0.142 0.137 0,098 0:046 0.078 0.099 0,068 0.014 0.050 0.068 0.049 0.004 0.038" 0.050 0.038 0.001 9.034 0.039 9.030 9.002 0.030 0.031 0,025 0,011 9.025 0,025 0.156 0.573 0.220 0.156 0,151 0.367 0.91 0.151 0:36 0.175 0.137 0.136 0.097 9.050 0.070 0.097 0.065 9.016 0.039 0.066 0.045 0.005 0.026 0.045 0.032 9.002 9.020 0.033 0.023 0.000 9.017 0.023 9.017 9.000 9.016 0.018 0.014 “0.000 9.016 0.014 0.012 9,000 9.016 0.012 0.010 0.001 0.015 0,021 0.009 9.008 0.013 0.009 230 5.3.2 FINITE LAYER ‘SMOOTH RIGID BASE ‘The corresponding case for 2 smooth rigid base © ° on wy has been considered by Sovine (1961). A layer of finite lateral extent rather than one of infinite [I extent is considered by Sovine, but the calculated values of stress and displacement are for @ layer of 7 sufficiently large lateral dimensions that they may ‘be considered a5 applying to a layer of infinite lateral extent. The distribution of vertical stress od, beneath the centre of the rectangle is shown in Figure 5.49 for various layer depths. Values of 62/p at various points beneath the rectangle, abstracted from values tabulated by Sovine (1961), are shown in Table §.12- Influence factors for vertical displacement 9, ‘points on the rectangle are shown in at various Figure 5.50. oa ? og oe bo Tm all cases, v0.5, FIG.5.49 Vertical stress beneath centre of rectangle (Sovine, 1961). TABLE 5.12 VERTICAL STRESS BENEATH A RECTANGLE ON A FINITE LAYER WITH SNOOTH 8ASE (Sovine, 1961) Values of on/p Centre Centre oF Cente of comer Bf0.5 1 sfhed.8 1 sfte.8 1 af. oT 1 1.783556 4STL 58354571 w3BIS + - 2.5 12498 1217 11938 [i105 1193811205 - - 5 0746 «0325-0695 0517-0595 - -0317 .0616 0782, 2 1 8808-7610 4412 3842-5359 S110 .2678 «2636 2 13097-3219 2925 12197 13881-2804 12256 +1921 5 11355 10622-1050 loses 11242-0605 10988 ‘0852 5 2.5 4847 345920521675 3930-3199 .1826 «1541 S 12294-1346 1239-0894 12004 11516 11208 0875, 12.5 052610286 © L0806 02a = ~ - ‘RECTANGULAR AREA te) te O75 toes 5 202 05 0751012518 ‘ 1 8 2 28 - 3 ane 3 + 1 i A 7 x } Bl \ = a} 2 * ® 8 q 7 a 3s ! 7 @ ©) o__o2s os 1 2 3 % gt 4 | 1 6 iS 7 @ FIG.5.50 Vertical surface displacenent at various points on rectangle. v=0.5. (Sovine, 1961). 131 132 FINITE LAYER 5.4 Vertical Loading over Any Area 5.4.1. "NEMARK CHARTS" Burnister (1956) has presented charts for the 4 horizontal stresses Gr and dys the shear stress ‘Ty and the shear stress Taz. These charts are 1-9} used in conjunction with tables giving influence fac~ | tors for various depths in the layer. Values of v oy of 0.2 and 0.4 are considered. oa 5.4.2, SECTOR CURVES on Sector curves for the normal and shear stresses, and the vertical and horizontal surface displacenents, o have been presented by Poulos (1967b) and are repro- 8 duced in Figures 5.51 to 5.72. The use of the o sector nethod is described in Section 1.7.3. 3 In all cases, the stress beneath the sector is given by o o = 268.7, wee (SID on 8 Gy Where 68 is the sector angle and the displacement by ° = P88 7, 5.12 p= Ee Te (6.22) 5.4.5 ANALYTICAL EXPRESSIONS FOR GENERAL PLANE STRAIN CASES For any generalized surface loading, Holl (1939) re gives expressions for the stresses at the rough rigid TTT T = base, the maximm shear stress on the axis, and the +0} sector infumee Factors vertical surface displacenent. jrosat suroce ° neon foie v ° Lt a onal & -0-2| -0-4} ny \ v “val ‘0 04 02 03 04 08 3 % 1S 10 08 0 »” FIG.5.52 Sector curves for p,,. SECTOR CURVES 133 1 MM v0 att o9| ia oa| oa L | oe os ; o-| (0 | Sector Infivance Roctars o8 “Sector Intuence wakes oa ertcn! Stress o oe eee oy on Seer OT CT OW ts to os 0 Coo OF OF OLE ag % i *% 71G,5.53 Sector curves for 9. Vo0. £1G.5.54 Seotar curves for @,. Ve0.2- ot ¥ 1 14] + 09] O-} £5 oe oe o7 07 °. os oa| Nos be x, os oat Ae 08) oF aa Tae ve | oF oe eee | on on ° ° over of ba oF pg oer 02 03 o4 95 #3 xs 10 05 0 3% is vo os 0 | * Me % % | 56 Sector curvas for 0. V0.5. FIG.5.55 Sector. curves for 0,. w0.4. 136 FINITE LAYER — , ares oa{t"rnt ner ‘veo, LF a ° C 4 ° _— a 7 os on 7 35 or oF 05 OF pF cence 20 15 10 05 0 02 15 10 05 0 % % %, 710.5157 Sector curves for o,. Wo. ¥16.5.88 sector curves for 0. 0.2, e T TTT sal Ste inter Por 4 Rodiol Stress ML Miter k 10] 129 os oor 02 03 04 OF 2 8B 1s 10 05 0 ty % 710.5.59 Sector curves for 0,. Vs0.4. 71G.5.60 Sector curves for 0. W¥.5. esr tt 37—T T_T sectee Tastee Fosters ya ‘sectee reweree Factors Teoeta Sess “goa stress Go v0 woe o2| oe z a oy on, % " Beal Le ° |_| = RS oie soar son wo Pt 04 ere OE ve wo oF 0 ZT ve yo os 0 %: % % 5.62 Sector caret for 9p. WO. 1705.62 Sector cures for Gg. W0.2. A oa oe Ltongentot stress cy vi0'8 0-7] 07, > os} er theres Poss T os Promina, Sires 6 f os os] ; = o-| on i 2 os oe Heal on oa ° ° “oy -o -09] -09| +09 sal : “0 001 02 03 4 O85 “a 07 02 03 O4 08 25 1s +0 05 0 8 % % FYG.5.63 Sector curves for 9, veo. FIG.5.64 Sector curves for’ 0g. veo. FINITE LAYER “OTT EE 1. a , oe | of 7 t 1s | ” | 1 i" + $ oe aa] ve i — i a owl wl f oul ba iz gree So 7 ne of m3 od Z| eth, oe os og oH 9 OO OF EF Oa SS 23 Bois 10 05 © é 3 » 5 F1G,5.65 Sector curves for 0. WO. PIG.5.66 Sector curves for 6. W0.2. 39) - 2 f “1-0 @ T ba, Beal | { /| 2al a 20) } 2 ‘| 4 " 2 ZA . ' +. O on love i ° ‘Sector Influence _votues: wes ey °. HAL ‘Soe of Praag Reeser gg %, 83 oe 10 0s 0 , 3 1s ° %, % %, 31G.5.67 Sector curves for G, vmod. FIG.5.68 Sector curves for ©. V0.5. 19) LI otpatrabl pari — oo per eof |—|-f ° 1 : ° h 7 on L od ° ie oly Ok ° aa onl ane on _ O OT G2 O3 b4 OF 8 Onor O2 03 04 OF % » ‘6 % F4G.5.70 Sector curves for T.-M. vol wees t= | - os oe} | f} | __} et FIG.5.71 3% °o Os 08 O03 04 OF S 1s 10 08 0 % Sector curves for t),. W0.4. SEE 15 10 08 0 & FIG.5.72 Seetor curves for T_,. ¥=0.5. a7 Chapter 6 SURFACE LOADING OF. MULTI-LAYER SYSTEMS 6.1 Two-Layer Systems febuleted Torhabie Sb Goss beaecys me layers are Unless otherwise stated, the results given in this chapter azo for adhesive interfaces between mins ity ays es ! F 6.1.1 UNEPORM VERTICAL LOADING ON A CIRCULAR AREA (Fig. 6.1) E71 pin we | Leer ey > Fi ee Pectectly ierm mam | Toomer ata Layer 2 Ea ve ‘ ‘sche Eicon | fo, ver interes 2 eo ¥iG,6.2 Vertical strese in uniform mass and tor layer system (Fox, 2948a). F1G.6.1 Contours of vertical stress 0, in a two-layer system, with B,/Ez=10, vieve=0.§ Gnd h/anl, have ‘been obtained by Fox (19484) and are shown in Fig. 6.2. These contours are compared with those for the Boussinesq case (Fi/E1=1). ‘The influence of the ratios #i/B: and h/a on tho vertical stress on the interface, obtained by: Fox (1948a), are shown in Fig.6.3. a ar We Se Reso. 20TH x ‘The variation of vertical stress 0, on the axis at the interface, with 2,/B; and r/h, is shown in Fig.6.4, * x 100 a3ss3ssssd Values of o, and (og-dp) on the axis (Fox, 1948a) are tabulated in Table 6.1. It should be + *, noted that all the above stresses are for s perfectly ees rough interface between the layers. & 160" 700, FIG.6.3 Vertical interface stress on axis Corresponding values of o, and (og-cp) for Wwox, 194e5). ~ ~ 138 TWO-LAYER SYSTEMS 138 The complete distribution of stress within the two layer system, obtained by Fox (19484), is shown in Figs. 6.5(a) to (c) for the case a/hel and for three values of 21/E2. It should be noted that in Figs. 6.3 to 6.5, and in Tables 6.1 and 6.2, viev2=0.5. HM on s © 100 1000 &:/e2 FIG.6.4 vertical stress along interface for fa = 1 (Fox, 19484). a yg, eecnfte" ae YE," 100 M2205 Maver os ® 5 FIG.6.5 Stresses in two-layer system (Fox, 1948a) Note: tension positive 140 MULEICLAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.1. PERFECTLY ROUGH INTERFACE AND Og-Gp AS PERCENTAGE OF APPLIED LOADING, 1N THE LOWER LAYER OF A THO-LAYER SYSTEM (19484) AXIAL STRESSES o,70,, 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 1 Ey/b2 TABLE 6.2 PERFECTLY SMOOTH INTERFACE AXIAL STRESSES oz AND z-op AS PERCENTAGE OF APPLIED LOADING, IN THE LOWER LAYER OF A TWO-LAYER SYSTEM (4, 19480) 10 100 1000 st 10 100 1000 1 2i/Ee 0.00 0.00 2.61 0.51 B SER 8.2 8 25 0 ORFRES 8 TROLAYER SYSTEKS aa £1G.6.6 Buxister layered systen theory. Vertical displacenent at centre of circle. vy0.2, ¥z00.4. Burmister, 1962) [4 F16.6.7 pumister layered system theory. Vertical Aisplacenent at centre of circle. ‘varvae0. (urmister, 1945). 190. — a a a 3 4 ¥1G.6.8 Vertical displacement at centre of cixcle. ’ 2 vinv200-25. (Thenn de Barros, 1966), 0 i od : i 2 S04, . QO g 2 on) ! on ~ oor oF Of 04 060810 20 90 6080 242 Influence factors for the vertical surface dis- placement at the centre of the circular area are shown in Fig.6.6 for the case vie9.2, vim0.¢ (Burmister, 1962), in Fig,6.7 for the case vy=vy00_5 (Burmister, 1945} and in Fig.6.8 for visve=0.35 (Thenn de Barrys, 1966), An alternative intexpretation of the results in Fig.6.7 has been given by Ueshits and Meyerhe€ (1967), who plot an equivalent value of Young's sodulus” (8_) which aay be used with the dis Placement influence factor for the centre of a cir- Gular area on a semi-infinite mass (see Section 3.3.2). The variation of Fe/S, with iva and S1/Ey is show in Fig.6.9. FIG.6.9 Equivalent modalus #, of two-layer system. ‘Vievzm0.5. (Ueshita and“Meyernof, 1967). p= SBS A couprehensive series of solutions for the stresses, strains and displacenents at selected points within » two-layer system has been obtained by Gerrard (1969). The following combinations of var- iables have been considered: Ev, 2, $, 10 Wa 0.8, 1,2, 4 oy 0.2, 0.35, 0.5 Va 0.2, 0438,, 0.8, MOUEIALAYER sysTEKs i 6.1.2 UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING ON A. CIRCULAR AREA (Fig. 6,20). Etat tae [Pes Sart ; Perecty nese ! Eee Gorm i 16.610 ‘This problem has been considered by Westman (1963). polar diagram showing contours of inter- face normal Stress are given in Fig. 6.11 for E2/Ei=0,6, Vreverd.5 and h/awl. Influence factors for the vertical stress oz st the interface are givem in Figs, 6,12(a) and 6,12(b) fox two ratios of Go/G ond for v=ve~0.5, and for various h/a values. Influence factors for the shearing stresses Typ. and Tyg are given in Figs. 6.13 and 6.14. Influence factors for the vertical surface dis- placotent pz are given in Fig. 6.18 and for the horizontal tangential displacement 99 in Fig. 6.16. A comprehensive series of solutions for the stresses, strains and displacenents at selected points within 2 two-layer system have been obtained by Gerrard (1969), for the same combinations of var- fables as outlined in Section 6.1.1. As well a3 uniform horizontal loading, the case of a linear}y increasing inward shear load, from zero at the centre to a maximm at the edge, has been evaluated, } +9 lek 4 | 34] seed = i a — 20] % SOON carte vaste +9 val ° e00. a % FXG.6.11 Contours of interface vertical stress Giestmann, 1963). 243 TWO-LAYER SYSTEMS steset ‘ummsen) 97, sone aeous sovszeauy 20 sx02907 soueNTZUT CT+9*OTE “(eget ‘wummasoy) ssozs ‘Yeoraxaa sowzzequy so sxOR0NF soUBNTEUE 7T"9"DTE “ I | % r ovr pou (MULTILAYER SYSTEMS ae (e96t ‘wuews0H) auowooetderD ceaet ‘wrmqaen) “7, enone WwoqaTen soesANE 70; exoIoeF oouantgU ST'9*DTE ese sougzoquy #03 sx030e7 SouONTSUT PT"9"DTE osors ere rin to @ = al 13% 7 CW « AY x fe) ete a fo § : 3% a Cae le Pret : Cf ot a ay, ween | — fo Oe, a fa a In to 19, le iG Pe Ie vt % le & jon pe a oz a ‘THREE-LAYER SYSTEMS 145 gE BRB x10? Tyg PIG.6.16 Influence factors for surface tangential @isplacenent (Westaann, 1963). co © 6.2 Three-Layer Systems 6.2.1 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING ON A CIRCULAR AREA (Fig.6.17) FIG.6.17 Stresses ‘&n extensive tabulation of the stresses at the layer interfaces, on the axis of the circle, has been presented by Jones (1962). Peattie (2962) ‘has presented these stresses graphically to- gether with factors for the horizontal tensile strain at the first interface. Mitchell and Shen (1967) extended Peattic's graphs to include the horizontal stress at the first interface in layer 2 and the hori- zontal tensile and compressive strains at the lover interface. An oxtensive tabulation of the radial stresses within the uppermost layer is given by Kirk (1966) for a wide range of elastic modulus ratios and for various values of v in the layers. ‘The tables of stresses presented by Jones (1962) are reproduced in Tables 6.3 to 6.50. Again Vi=v2=03=0.5. In these tables, a = fhe a = hifi ky = Bi/Be ke = Be/Es ‘The organization of these tables is as follows: Stresses for all values of ai appear in a block, each table containing four blocks in ascending order of kz. The tables are for ascending values of k,, and each set of four tables are for ascending values of z. In all cases, the stresses are expressed as a fraction of the applied stress p. ‘The first three colums of stresses in the tables refer to the upper interface; the last three to the lower interfac Compressive stresses are positive. 246 JMOLET-LAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.3 (ones, 1962) Hx 0.125 jaz 008 a Saxe, Sze Sex Pry Fae" Tne D1 0.66085 0.12438 0.62188 0.01557 0.00332 0.01659 0.2 9.90249 0.13546 0.67728 0.06027 0.01278 0.06391 dg wong Of 0.95295 0.30828 0152141 0.21282 0.04439 0.22150 2 9.8 9.99520 0.09012 0.45053 0.56595 0.10975 0.54877 16 1.09064 0.08777 0.43884 0.86258 0.15755 0.68777 312 0.99970 0.04129 0.20645 0.94145 0110147 0.50736 9.1 0,608 0.12285 0.61424 9.00892 0.01693 0.00846 0.2 0.90157 0.12936 0.64582 9.05480 006558 0.03279 ta < 2.9 0-4 9.98120 0.08115 0.40576 0.12656 0.28257 0.11629 a= FO 97g 0.99235 0.01825 0.09113 0.37507 0.62863 0.81432 16 0.99918 -0.04136 -0.20680 0.74038 0.98754 0.49377 5.2 1.00032 “0.03804 -0.19075 0.97137 0.82102 0.41051 0.1 0.66255 0.12052 0.60361 0.00256 0.03667 0.00183. D2 0.90415 0.11787 0.58933 0.01011 0.14336 0.00717 jg 2 20,0 P-4 , 9.98138 0.03474 0.17370 9.03858 0.52691 0.02635, 27 20-0 g'g © 9.98778 -0.14872 -0.74358 0.15049 1.61727 0.08086 16 0.99407 -0.50S33 -2-52650 0.56442 3.58944 0.17947 5.2 0199821 -0.80990 -4.05023 0.76669 5.15409 0.25770 9.1 0.66266 0.11720 0.58599 0.00057 0.05413 0.00027 0:2 0.90370 0.10495 0.52477 0.00226 0.21314 0.00107 ky = 200.9 0-4 0.94719 -0.01709 0.08543 0.00861 9.80400 0 00402 2 = 9000 g'g 9.09105 -0.34827 1.72154 0.03259 2.67934 0.01340 156 0.99146 1.21129 6.05643 0.11034 7.55978 0.03680 5.2 0.99532 -2.89282 -14.46908 0.52659 16.2830 0.08118 TABLE 6.4 (ones, 1962) = 0.125 Kye 2.0 a oy, Say, FayF py 2, ©." 0py 954 9.1 0.43055 0.71614 0.35807 9.01682 0.00350 0.01750 0.2 0,78688 1.01561 0.50780 9.06511 0.01548 0.0674T kn =o.g 4 9198760 0.85924 0.41962 0.28008 0.04669 0.23346 2=%% gig 1101028 0.63961 0.31981 0.60886 0.11484 0.57818 1.6 1.00647 0.65723 0.32862 9.90959 0.13726 0.58630 52 0199822 0.38165 0.19093 0.94322 0.09467 0.47335 9.2 0.42950 0.70622 0.35305 0,00896 0.01716 0.00858 0.2 0.78424 0.97956 0.48989 0.05493 0.06647 0.02324 kno 9:4 0.98044 0.70970 0.35488 0.12667 0.23581 0.11766 229 9'g 9199434 0.22319 0,11164 0.36932 0.65005 0.31501 16 0.99364 -0-19982 0.72113 0.97707 0.48853 5.2 0.99922 -0.28916 0.96148 0.84050 0.42015 O.1 0.43022 0.69352 9.00228 0,03467 0.00173 0.2 o.7ea14 0.92086 0.00899 0.13541 0.00677 ke = 20,0 24 0.97493 0.46583 0.03392 0.49525 0.02475 "9 0.8 0.97806 -0.66535 Q.113s0 1.49612 0.07481 16 0.96921 -2.82859 9.31263 5.28512 0.16426 3 -98591 -5.27906 0.68433 5.05952 0.25298 0.4 0.42525 0.67488 0.53744 0.00046 0.04848 0.00024 0.2 0.78267 0.85397 0.42698 0.00183 0.19045 0.00095 ke = s00,9 Of 0.97369 0.21168 0.10582 0.00711 0.71221 0.00356 ‘= 2000 97s 9.97295 1.65954 -0.82977 0.02597 2.52652 - 0.01165 16 0.95546 6.47707 -3.2385 0.08700 6.26638 2.03135 32. 0196877 -16.67376 8.53691 0.26792 _14.28971 __0.07128 THREE-LAYER SYSTENS TABLE 6.5 (ones, 1962) T= 0.185 ky= 20.0 a 5, ,.-6, Ses un _ FaF ae aaa Ot 0.14648 1.80805 0.09040 0.01645 0.00322 0.01611 0.2 0.39260 3.75440 0.18772 0.06407 9.01249 9.06244 0.4 0.80302 5.11847 0.25592 0.23255 0,04421 9. 22105 Fa = 02 g's 2106594 5.38600 0.16950 0.64741 0.21468 0.57342 156 1592942 1181603 0109080 1100811 0.45687 0.68436 312 0199817 1.75101 0.08786 0.97317 0.0787 0.37890 0.1 0.14529 1.81178 0.09059 0.00810 0.01542 0.00771 0.2 0.38799 5.76886 0.18844 0.03170 0.06003 0.05002 O14 0178651 5.16717 0.25835 0.11650 0.21640 0.10820 Fe= 29 97g liozgig 3.43631 0.17182 0.34941 0.60493 0.30247 1.6 0.98060 1.15211 0.95761 0.69014 0.97146 0.48573 312 0198893 -0:06804 -0.00345 0193487 0.88558 0.44179 0.1 0.14447 1.80664 0.09033 0.00182 0.02985 0.00149 0.2 0138469 5.74573 0.18729 0.00716 0.11657 0.00585 Old 0.77394 5.08489 0.25274 6.02710 0.43263 0.02163 Ky = 90.0 973 9.98610 2.92533 0114627 0.09061 1.33735 0.06687 116 0.93712 -1.27093 0.06355 0.24328 2.99215 0.14961, B:2 0.96330 -7.55384 -0,36762 0.55490 5.06489 0.25524 0.2 0.14422 1.78941 0.08847 9.00033 9.04010 0.00020 0:2 0138388 3.68097 0.18405 0.00131 0.18781 0.00079 018 0.77131 480711 0.24036 0.00505 0.52391 0.00297 Hq = 200.0 9°3 9.9701 1.90825 0.09541 0.01830 1.95709 0.00979 156 0.91645 5.28803 -0.25440 0.06007 $.25110 0.02626, 5.2 0.92662 -21,52546 -1.07627 0.18395 12.45058 0.06225, ‘TABLE 6.6 Gones, 1962) B= 0,295 Baz 200.0 a 4, Sey 7m 921% Pee Sey%r Sa"Srs 0.1 0,05694 2.87554 0.01438 9.00201 0.01005 0.2 0.12527 7.44285 0.03721 0.00788 0.03940 da = 0.2 0-4 —9,36529 15141021 0.07705 0.16785 0.02913 0.14566 "2 0.8 0.82050 19.70261 0.09851 9.85144 0.08714 0.43568, 16 1.12440 7.02380 0.03512 1.03707 0.15705 0.68524 3.2 0.99506 2.35459 0.01177 1-00400 0.06594 0.32971 0.2 0,05481 3.02259 0.01511 9.00549 0.00969 0.00485 0.2 0.11491 8.02452 0.04012 0.02167 0.08812 0.01906 keg = 2.0 0-4 0.38218 17.64175 0.08821 0.08229 0.14285 0.07145 0.8 0.7269§ 27.27701 0.13659 0.27307 0.45208 0.22604 1:6 1500203 23.38638 0.11693 0.6316 0.90861 0.45430 3:2 1100828 1.87014 . 0.05935 0.92560 9.91469 0.43735, 0.1 0.03336 3.17763 0.01589 0.00128 0.01980 0.00099 0.2 0.10928 8.65097 0.04550 0.00509 0.07827 0.00391 Ka = 20.9 9-4 | 0.31094 20.1259 0.10061 0.01972 0.29887 . 0.8 0.65934 36.29945 0.18150 0.07045 . 1.01694 1.6 0.87952 49.40857 0.24704 0.20963 2.64313 3:2 0.93303 S7.84369 0.28923 0.49938 4.89895 0.1 0.05307 3.26987 0.01635 0.00025 0.02809 0-2 9.10810 9.02669 0.04513 0.00098 0.11136 9.00056 ka = 200.0 9-4 9.30639 21,56482 0.10782 9.00385 0.43035 0.00215 0.8 0.64383 41.89878 0.20949 0.01485 1153070 0.00765 26 0.84110 69.63157 0.34816 0.05011 4.56707 0.02784 32 0.86807 120.95982 0.60481 0.15719 11.4245 9.08710 “7 8 MOLEI-LAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.7 (Jones, 1962) = 0.25 Kya 0.2 a Soy S5y%ry 921%, Soe 5x Sry FCs Onn 0.27115 0.05598. 0.27990 0.01259 0.00274 0.01370 0:2 0.66109 0.12628 0.63138 0.04892 0.01060 0.05302 kaw 0.g 4 0.90808 0114219 0.73096 0.05744 0.18722 2 " 0.8 0.95659 0.12300 0.61499 0.09839 0.49196 1.6 0.99703 0.10834 0.52669 0.15917 0.69586 3:2 0.99927 0.05063 0.25317 O.11116 0.55569, 0.1 0.27103 0.05477 0.27385 0.00739 0.01409 9.00704 0.2 0.66010 0.12136 0.60681 0.02893 0.05484 0.02742 Ke 22.0 0-4 0.90120 0.12390 0.61949 0.10664 0.19780 0.09890 2= 20 9'3 0.94928 0.06482 0.32410 0.32617 0.56039 0.28019 1.6 0.99029 -0.00519 0.02594 0.69047 0.96216 0.48108. 3:2 1,00000 -0.02216 -011080 0.95608 0.87221 0.43610 0.26945 0.05192 0.25960 0.00222 0.03116 0.00156 0.66161 0.11209 0.56046 0.00877 0.12227 0.00611 0.90102 0.08622 0.43111 0.03354 0.45504 0.02275 0.94012 0.07351 -0.36756 0.11658 1.44285 0.07214 0.97277 0.40234 -2.01169 0.33692 3.37001 0.16850 0.99075 -0.71901 -3.59542 0.73532 5.10060 0.25503. -1 0.27072 0.04956 0.24778 0.00051 0.08704 0.00024 :2 0.65909 0.10066 0.50330 0.00202 9.18587 0.00093, 74 0.89724 0.04248 0.21242 0.00792 0.70524 0.00353. 78 0.93596 0.24071 1.20357 0.02961 2.40585 0.01203. 6 0.96370 -1,00743 -5.03714 0.10193 6.82481 0.03412 2 0.97338 2.54264 -12.71320 0.30707 15145931 0.07730 o 0 ° ke = 200.0 3 L 3 ‘TABLE 6.8 (ones, 1962) 2 OG, Fy, Fy-Ty, a, Ss a sym %a)Fny Sap 2 ny 0.1 0.15577 0.28658 0.14329 0.01548 0.00277 0,01384 0:2 0.43310 0.72176 0.36088 0.05259 0.01075 0.05377 Ka=o.g 04 9-79851 1.03476 0.51738 0.19094 0.03842 0.19211 2= 0-2 978 1.00871 0.88833 0.44416 0.54570 0.10337 0.51687 156 1102425 0.66438 0.33219 0.90563 0.14102 1510 3.2 0.99617 0.41539 0.20773 0.93918 0.09804 0.49020 0.1 0,18524 0.28362 0.14181 0.00710 0.01353 0.00677 0:2 0.42809 0.70225 0.35112 0.02783 0.05278 0.02639 kg = 2.0 0-4 0.77939 0.96634 0.48517 0.10306 0.19178 0.09589 "0 0.8 0.96703 0.66885 0.33442 0.31771 0.55211 0.27605 16 0.98156 0.17331 0.08665 0.66753 0.95080 0.47540, 3.2 0.99840 -0.05691 -0.02846 0.93798 0.89390 0.44695, 0.1 0.15436 0.27580 0.13790 0.00179 0.02728 0.00136 0:2 0.42462 0.67115 0.33857 0.00706 0.10710 0.00536 kg = 20.9 4 0.76647 0.84462 0.42231 0.02697 0.39919 0.01996 0:8 0.92757 0.21951 0.10976 0.09285 1.26565 0.06328, 1.6 0.91393 -1,22411 0.61205 0.26454 2.94860 0.14743 3.2 0.95243 -3108320 -1.52160 0.60754 4.89878 0.24494 0.1 0.15414 0.26776 0.13388 0.00036 0.03814 0.00019 0.2 0.42365 0.63873 0.31937 0.00143 0.15040 0.00075 Ka = 200.0 0-4 0.76296 0.71620 9.38810 0.00557 0.57046 0.00285 “? 0.8 0.91600 -0.28250 -0.14125 0.02064 1.92636 0.00963, 1.6 0.88406 3.09856 -1.54928 0.07014 5.35936 0.02680 3.2 0.89712 9.18214 ~4.59107 0.21692 12.64518 0.06522 TABLE 6.9 Gones, 1962) Rs 0.25 wi 200 ata Sern Samy One Sap rg es ony 0.1 0.04595 0.61450 0.03072 0.01207 0.00202 0.01011 0.2 0.15126 1.76673 0.08834 0.04357 0.00793 0.03964 0.4 0.41030 5.59650 0.17983 0.16337 0.02931 0.14653 0.8 0.85464 4.58848 0.22942 0.51648 0.08771 0.43854 1.6 1.12013 2.31165 0.11558 1201062 0.14039 0.70194 3.2 0.99676 1.24425 0.06221 0.99168 0.07587 0.37934 0.1 0.04381 0.63215 0.05162 0.00530 0.00962 0.00481 0.2 0.14282 1.85766 0.09188 0.02091 0.03781 0.01891. ko = 2.9 0-8 (0.57882 5.86779 0.19339 0.07933 0.14159 0.07079 222 9.8 0.75904 S.50796 0.27540 0.26278 0.44710 0.22555 1.6 0.98745 4.24281 0.21213 0.61673 0.90115 0.45058 - 3.2 1.00064 1.97494 0.09876 0.91258 0.93254 0.46627 0. 0.04236 0.68003 0.05250 0,00125 0.01950 0.00096 0. 0.13708 1.90693 0.09535 0.00488 0.07623 0.00381 ka = 20.0 ° 0.35716 4.13976 0.20699 0.01888 0.29072 0.01454 2 = 2000 9 0.68947 6.48948 0.32447 0.06741 0.98565 0.04928 1 0.85490 6.95639 0.34782 0.20115 2.38231 0.12762 3. 0.90325 6.05854 0.30293 0.48667 4.76234 0.23812 0. 0.04204 0.65732 0.03287 0.00028 0.02711 0.00016 0.13584 1.93764 0.09688 0.00095 0.10741 0.00054 ha = 200.0 © 0.35237 4.26004 0.22300 0.00372 0.41459 0.00207 “7 0. 0.67286 6.94871 0.34743 0.01599 1.46947 0.00735. 1 0.81223 8.55770 0.42789 0.04830 4.36521 0.02183 3, 0.82390 10.63614 0.55181 0.15278 10.93570 0.05468 TABLE 6.10 @ones, 1962) B= O25 ky= 200.0 a Say faim Syn, ee 96,7, 52 9.01139 0.86644 0.00433 0.00889 9.00090 0.00451 0.04180 2.71354 0.01357 0.02334 0.00357 0.01784 ke = 0.2 9.14196 6.83021 0.05415 0.09024 0.01365 0.06824 2 Oe 0.42603 13.1966 0.06598 0.51785 0.04626 0.23118, 9.94520 13.79154 0.06896 0.83371 0.10591 0.52955 1.10738 2.72901 0.01865 1.10259 0.08608 0.43037 9.00809 0.96555 0.00483 0.00259 0.00407 0.00203 0.08269 3.10765 0.01584 0.01027 0.01611 0.00806 ke = 2.0 0.10684 8.37852 0.04189 0.04000 0.06221 0.03110 2 = Bu 0.30477 18.95534 0.09478 0.14515 0.21860 0.10930 0.66785 31,18909 0.15595 0.42840 0.5853 0.29277 0.98447 28.98500 0.14493 0.84545 0,89191 0.44595 0. 0.00776 1.08738 0.00544 0.00065 0.00861 0.00043 0. 0.02741 3.59448 0.01797 0.00287 0.03421 0.00171 ke = 20.0 ° 0.08634 10.30925 0.05155 0.01014 0.13365 .00668 2 = 20.0 9 0.23137 26.41442 0,13207 0.03644 0.49135 0.02487 1 0.46835 5746409 0.28752 0.13148 1.53833 0.07692 4 9.71083 99.2905 0.49645 0.37342 3.60964 0.18048, 0.1 0.00744 1.19099 9.00596 0.00014 0.01511 9.00007 0.2 0.02618 4.00968 0.02005 0.00056 0.05223 0.00026 Ke = 200.9 O-# —9.0B14E 11.96408 0.05982 0.00224 0.20551 0.00103. 2 “9 0.8 0.21295 52.97366 0.16487 0.00871 0.77584 0.00388 166 0.40876 8277997 0.41390 0.03234 2.65962 0.01520 3.2 0.56615 289.37439 0.94687 0.11049 7.60287 0.03801 MULTI-LAYER SYSTEXS TABLE 6.21 (ones, 1962) os Sey P ry Fare Fee S227 p2 Tas Sm 0.1 0.07943 0.01705 0.08527 9.00914 0.00206 9.01030 0.2 0.27189 0.05724 0.28621 0.03577 0.00804 0.04020 hg o.g 94 9.66575 0.15089 0.65444 0.15135 0.02924 0.14622 2 0.8 0.81143 0.15514 0.7571 0.38994 0.08369 0.41843, 1,6. 0.96334 0.25250 0.66248 0.72108 0.23728 0.65647 5.2 0199310 0.06976 0.34879 0.89599 0.12674 0.63572 9.1, 0.07908 0.01617 0.08085 0.00557 0.01074 0.00537 0.2 0.27048 0.05375 0.26877 0.02190 0.04206 0.02103 ky 2.o 0-4 0.65847 0.11770 0.58848 0.08222 0.15534 9.07767 2 0.8 0.89579 0.11252 0.56258 0.26429 0.47085 0.2352 1:6 6.94217 0.04897 9.24486 0.60357 0.90072 0.45036 3.2 0.99189 0.02580 0.06900 0.91215 0.94585 0.47192 D.1 0.07862 0.01439 9.07196 0.00175 0.02415 0, 00121 0:2 0.26873 0.08669 0.23345 0.00692 0.09519 0.00476 ig = 20.9 4 0.65188 0.09018 0.48089 0.02676 0156008 0.01800 0-8 0.87401 0.01260 0.06347 0.09552 1.19251 0.05958 116 0.89568 0.26336 -1.21680 0.28721 2195409" 0.14770 3.2 0.95392 2.66100 0.66445 4.86789 0.24339 0.1 0.07820 0.01245 0.06213 0.00041 0.03682 0.00028 0.2 0.26803 0.03912 0.19558 0.00165 9.14576 0.00073 0.4 0.64904 9.32029 0.00643 0.56051 0.00280 Ke = 200.0 9's 9 86406 -0152234 0.02438 1.96771 0.00984 16 0.86677 3.35768 0108540 5.77669 0.02888 312 oLes703 9.30628 0.25667 15163423 0.06817 TABLE 6,12 Glones, 1962) A= 0.8 kee 2.0 a Say, %2\"%rg Fae Saxon, 82x 0.1 0.04496 0.08398 0.04199 0.00903 9.00181 9.00906 0.2 0115978 0.28904 0.14452 0.03551 0.00711 0.03554 0.4 6.44528 0.72513 0.36156 0.15514 0.02634 0.15172 Ky = 3 9.8 0.85298 1.03605 0.51802 0.42199 0.07992 0.30962 1.6 1.05462. 0.83675 0.41737 0.85529 0.15973 0.60865 5.2 0.99967 0.45119 0.22560 0.94505 0.10867 0.55336 0.1 0.04330 0.08250 0.04225 0.00465 0.00878 0.00439 0.2 0.15325 0.28518 0.14159 0.01855 0.03454 9.01727 O.4 0.42077 0.70119 0.55060 9.06974 0.22984 0.06477 Ke = 2.9 0.8 0.75683 0.96681 0.48341 0.25256 0.41187 0.20594 1.6 0.93847 0.70726 0135363 0.56298 0.85930 0.42965 5.2 0.98601 0.33878 0.3699 0.88655 0.96353 0.48176 0.2 0.04193 0.08044 0.04022 9.00117 0.01778 9.00089 0.2 9.14808 0.27574 0.13787 0.00464 0.07027 0.00351 0.4 0.80086 0.67174 0.33587 0.01799 0.26817 0.02341 Hy = 20.0 6.8 9.69098 0.86191 0.43095 0.06476 0.91168 0.04558 LG 0.79538 0.39588 0.19794 9.19603 2.38577 9.11919 5.2 0.85940 ~0181078 -0.20539 0.49238 4.47022 9.22351 0.2 9.04160 0.07864 0.03952 0.00024 9.02515 0.00015 012 0114675 0,26853 0.15426 0.00095 0.09968 0.00050 014 0139570 0168503 0.52152 0.00374 0.38497 0.00192 % > 200.9 g'g 9.67257 0.74987 0.37474 0.01416 1.36766. 0.00686 116 0.74106 0.02761 -0.01581 0.06972 4108937 0.02045 312 0.75176 -1.88545 -0.94275 0.15960 10.25631 0.05128 THREE-LAYER SYSTEKS TABLE 6.15 : 4208 (ones, 1962) ye 20.0 Sy Sey" %2;%re See Saxe Sa2"Pry 9.1 0.01351 0.16526 9.00826 0.00595 0.00088 0.00488 0:2 0.05073 0.S8918 0.02946 0.02361 0.00386 0.01929 Kae 0.2 0-4 0.16972 4.66749 0.08537 0.09110 0.01474 0.07369 2 9.8 0.47191 3.23121 0.16156 0.31904 0.04967 0.24834 116 0.97452 3.84853 0.47743 0.82609 0.11279 0.56395, 3.2 1.09921 1.27534 9.06367 1.08304 0.09527 0.47637 0.1 0.01122 0.17997 9,00900 0.00259 0,00440 0.00220 0.2 0.08172 0.64779 0.03259 0.01028 0.01744 0.00872 Rex 2.0 0-4 015480 1:89817 0.00491 0.03998 0.06722 0.05361 “018 0.35175 4109592 0.20480 0.24419 0.25476 0.11758 1:6 0.70221 6.22002 0.31100 0.42106 9.62046 0.31025 3.2 0.97420 5.41828 0.27091 0.82256 0.93831 0.46916 0.2 9.00990 0.19872 0.00994 0.20083 9.00911 9.00046 0.2 0.03648 0.72264 0.03513 0.00251 0.03620 0.00181 Kom 20.9 Of 9.11443 2.19520 0.10976 0.00968 0.14116 0.00706 9 018 0.27934 5.24726 0.26236 0.03751 0.51585 0.02579 1.6 0.50790 10.30212 0.51511 0.12684 L.S9341 0.07967 5.2 0.70803 16.38520 0.81926 0.35807 3.69109 0, 18435 0.1 0.00960 0.21440 0.01072 0.00013 0.01555. 0.00007 0:2 0.03526 0.78493 0.03925 0.00054 0.05395 0.00027, Kar 200.9 0-4 0-10970 2.44430 0.12221 0.00214 0.21195 0.00105 “70.8 0.26149 6.23424 0.51172 0.00851 0.79588 0.00398 16 0.45078 14.11490 0.70574 0.05070 2.67578 0.01388 312 0157074 29195615 1.49791 0.10470 7.61457 0.03807 TABLE 6.16 B= 05 Genes, 1962) kas 200.0 a 3, 7a s.r, er ny 0.2 0.00563 0.27588 0.00112 9.00256 0.00033 0.00165 0.2 0.01414 0.81903 9.00410 0.01021 0.00130 0.00648, kes 0.2 O-4 0105255 2.52558 0.01265 0.04014 0.00506 0.02529 "0.8 0.18107 6.11429 0.03057 0.15048 0.01844 0.09221 1.6 0.55465 10.82705 0.05414 0.48201 0.05399 0.26993 312 1104537 9134212 0104671 1.00671 0.08624 0.43122 0.1 0.00215 0.28620 0.00133 0.00024 0.00128 000064 0.2 0.00826 0.98772 9.00494 0.00373 0.00509 0.00284 kas 2.0 C4 0.02946 5.19580 0,01598 0.01474 0.01996 0,00998 0.8 0.09508 8.71973 9.04560 0.05622 0.07434 0.03717 Lis 0.27138 0.10079 0.29358 0.23838 0.11919 Biz 0162599 0.17126 0.52912 0.54931 0.27466 0.2 0.00169 0.00159 0.00025 0.00257 9.00013 0.2 0.00564 0.00598 0.00094 0.01025 9.00051. 014 0.01911 4102732 0.02014 0.90372 0.04047 0.00202 O.8~ 0.05574 12.00885 9.06004 0.01453 0.15452 0.00773 116 0.13946 32177028 0.16385 0.05599 0.83836 0.02692 3.2 0.30247 77,2943 0.38815 0.18091 1.56409 0.07820 0.1 0.00133 0.37065 0.00185 0.00005 0.00387 0.00002 0:2 0.00498 1.40493 9.00702 0.00022 9.01544 0.00008, kee 200.9 9-4 0.01649 4.96215 0.02431 0,00086 0.06118 9.00031 0:8 0.04555 15135902 0.07670 0.00340 0.25698 9.00118 1:6 0.10209 45.93954 0.22979 0.01315 0.86345 0.00432 312 0118358 128.15051 0.64065 0.04854 2.80877 0.01404 ast 2UITI-LAYER SYSTEAS TABLE 6,15 ge10 ~ (Jones, 1962) Kae 0.2 a FF, Fey Fy ame %e5°S, 0.1 0.02090 0.00464 0.02320 0.00541 9.00128 9.00638 0.2 0.08028 0.01773 0.08865 0.02158 0.00803 0.02515 faa og O-4 0.27495 0.05975 0.2987 0.05125 0.01903 0.09516 +2 0.8 0.67330. 0.15818 0.69092 0.26887 0.06192 0..30960 116 0.92595 0.15978 0.79888 0.60229 0.13002 0.65010 3.2 0.95852 0.09722 0.48612 0.82194 0.14348 0.71742, Q.1 0.02085 0,00410 0.02082 0.00356 9.00687 0.90343 0:2 0.07845 0.01561 0.07805 0.01410 0.02715 0.01387 kas 2.0 Of 9.26816 0.08166 0.25828 0.05427 9.10381 0.08175, *® 0.8 0.65090 0.11111 0.55555 0.18842 9.54703 0,17351 216 0.88171 0.10364 0.51819 0.48987 0.79986 0.39993, 3.2 0.94183 0.06967 0.34835 0.81663 0.99757 0.48879 0.1 0.01981 0.00306 0.01529 0,00128 0.01591 9.00080 0.2 0.07587 4.01145 0.05726 0.00471 0.06310 0.00316 Ka= 20.9 0-4 0.25817 0.03840 0.17702 0.01846 0.24396 0.01220 "9 0.8 0.61544 0.05163 0.25817 0.06859 0.86114 0.04306 1.6 0.78884 -0.07218 -0.36091 9.21770 2.36054 0.11803 3.2 0.82936 -0.25569 -1.27847 0.53612 4.28169 0,71408 0.1 0.01952 0.00214 9.01068 0.00028 0.02412 0.00012 0.2 0.07873 0.00777 0.03883 0.00110 0.09587 0.00048. Hex 200.9 0-4 0:25368 0.02076 0.10382 0.0043 0.37417 0.00187 +7 0.8 0.59855 -0.00538 -0.02690 0.01679 1.36930 0.00685 1.6 0.73587 0.28050 -1.40250 0.06020 4.25805 0.02119 3.2 0.70248 0.90965 4.54826 0.19489 10.36507 0.05183, TABLE 6,16 Belo Gones, 1962 hye 8.0 Pa Sey Ory Sere See Spry 92375 0.1 0,01241 0.92186 0.01093 9,00890 0,00095 0, 00478 0.2 0.04816 0.08396 0.04198 0.01943 0.00378 0.01890, ken o.g 0-4 0.17203 0.28866 0.14435 0.07496 0.01448 0.07241 “3 9.8 0.48612 0.71684 0.35842 0.25193 0.04924 0.24620 1.6 9.91312 0.97206 0.48603 0.67611 0.11558 0.57790 3.2 1104671 0.60091 0.30046 0.95985 0.12527 0.62637 0.1 0.01083 0.02179 0.01090 0.00241 0.00453 0.00227 0.2 0.04176 0.08337 0.04169 0.00958 0.01797 0.00899 0-4 0,14665 9.28491 0.14246 0.05724 0.06934 0.03467 0.8 0.39942 0,71341 0.35670 0.15401 0.24250 0.12125. L.6 0.71032 1102680 9.51340 0.38690 0.63631 0.31815 5:2 0.92112 0.90482 0.45241 0.75805 0.97509 0.48754 0.1 0.00963 0.02249 0.01124 0.00061 0.00970 0.00046 0.2 0.03697 0.08618 0.04309 0.00241 0.03654 0.00183, kaw 20,0 9-4 0012805 0.29640 0.14820 0.00950 9.14241 0.00712 +9 0.8 0.33263 0.76292 0.38146 0.03878 0.51815 0.02591 1.6 0.52721 1.25168 0.62584 0.12007 1.86503 0.07825 3.2 0.65530 1.70723 0.85361 0.33669 3.81128 0.17556 0.1 0.00928 0.02339 0.01170 9.00013 0.01319 0.00007 0:2 0.03561 9,09018 0.04509 9,00051 0.05252 0.90026 fax 290.9 0-4 9-12548 0.51470 0.18755 0.00202 0.20609 0.00103 90.8 0.31422 0.83274 0.41657 0.00783 0.76955 0.00385 1.6 0.46897 1.53521 0.76760 0.02874 2.53100 0.01265 3.2 0.51161 2.76420 1.38210 0,09751 6.99283 0.03496 ‘THREE-LAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.17 #10 Gones, 1962) ky= 20.0 a o,,°o,, 0.1 0.00417 0.04050 9.00202 0.00271 0.00039 0.00195 0:2 0.01641 0.25675 0.00784 0.01080 0.00155 0.00777 fax og 9-4 0.06210 0.55548 0.02777 0.08281 0.00606 0.05028 a= 0-2 9's 0.21087 1155667 0.07683 0.15808 0.02198 0.10991, 1.6 0.58218 2177359 0115868 0.49705 0.06527 0.51635 3.2 1.06296 2155195 0.12760 1.00217 0.09908 0.49525 0.1 0.00263 0.04751 0.00258 0.00100 0.00160 0.00080 0:2 0.01029 0.18481 0.00924 0.00397 0.00637 0.00319 fox 2.9 0-4 0.05810 0.66727 0.03536 0.01565 0.02498 0.01249 a7 2.0 973 0.12173 1.97428 0.09871 0.05938 0.09268 0.04634 1.6 0.51575 4.37407 0.21870 0.20098 0.29255 0.14626 312 0.66041 6.97695 0.34885 0.53398 0165446 0.32725 0.1 0.00193 0.05757 0.00287 9.90024 0.00322 0.00016, 0:2 0.00751 0122418 0.02221 0.00098 0.01283 0.00064 jax 20.0 0-4 0.02713 0.82450 0.04121 0.00387 0.05063 0.00255 2 20-0 9° 0.08027 2.59672 0.12984 0.01507 0.19267 0.00963 116 0.17961 6.77014 0.33851 0.05549 0.66526 0.03516 512 0734355 15.25252 0.76163 0.18344 1.88654 0.09452 0.1 0.00176 0.06733 0.00357 0.00006 0.00478 0.00002 0:2 0:00683 0.26401 0.01520 0.00022 0.01908 0.00010 tax 100.0 0-4 9-02443 0.98546 0.04917 0.00088 0.07557 0.00038, 2 200.0 9's 9106983 3.25164 0.16158 0.00348 0.29194 0.00146, 116 0.34191 3.28148 0.46407 0.01339 1.05388 0.00527, 3.2, 0.22685 24.85256 1.24262 0.04911 3.37605 0.01688 TABLE 6,18 B10 Gones, 1962) i= 200.0 St Fay Say Pry Fay Pny Seg Pag Py Pag Poy 0.1 0.00117 0.05507 0.00028 0.00097 0.00010 0.00051, 0.2 0.00464 0.21467 0.00107 0.00388 0.00041 0.00203 veo.2 0-4 0.01814 0.78191 0.00391 0.01538 0.00160 0.00801 20-2 973 0.06766 2.38055 0.01190 0.05952 0.00607 0.03037 116 0.22994 5.57945 0.02790 0.21214 0.02028 0.10140 5.2 0.62710 9.29529 0.08688 0.60056 0.04847 0.24256 0.1 0.00049 0.06883 0.00034 0.00029 0.00035 0.00017 0:2 0.00195 0.26966 0.00155 0.00116 4.00138 0.00069 wee 2.9 0-4 0.00746 1.00151 9100502 0.00460 0.00545 0.00275 +0 9.8 0.02687 3.24971 0.01625 0.01797 0.02092 0.01046. 116 0.08556 8.92442 0.04462 0.07333 003668 3.2 0.25186 2.85387 0.10417 0721288 0.10644 0.1 0.00027 0.08869 0.00042 0.00007 0.00062 0.00003, 0:2 0.00108 0.33312 0.00167 0.00028 0.00248 0.00012 tex 20.0 0-4 0.00384 1.25495 0.00627 0.00110 0.00985 0.00049 *° 9:8 0.01236 4126100 0.02150 0.00436 0.03825 0.00101, 1.6 ” 0.03379 12:91809 0.06459 0.01685 0.13989 0.00699 5.2 0.08859 56.04291 0.18021 0.06167 0.45544 0.02277 0.1 0.00021 0.10075 0.00950 0.00002 0.00087 0,00000 0:2 0.00082 0.39741 0.00199 0.00006 0.00347 9.00002 fax 200.9 04 0.00298 1.51254 0.00756 0.00025 2.01381 0.00007 = 200-0 95 9.00893 5.28939 0.02643 0.00100 0.05403 0.00027 116 0.02065 17.01872 0108509 0.00392 0.20250 0.00101 $12 0104154 5225625 0.26118 0.01505 0.70098 0.00350 4153 MOUTIOLAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.19 #220 (Jones, 1962) fa= 0.2 0.1 0.00540 0.00121 0.00608 0.00242 0.00060 9.00302 0.2 0102138 9.00677 0.02386 0.00964 0.00240 0.02202, fax 0.2 24 9.08209 0.01821 0.09196 0.03770 0.00959 0.04695 = 0-8 9.8 0.28150 0.06106 0.30531 0.15852 0.03422 0.17112 1.6 0.68908 0.15660 0.68299 0.40850 0.09826 0.49131 3:2 0.98105 0,12899 0.64495 0.73496 0.1575 0.78523 9.1 9.00502 9.00098 0.00494 9.00180 0.00359 0.00170 0.2 0.01986 0.00389 0.01953 0.00716 0.01550 0.00675 fox 2.0 Of 9.01650 0.03485 0.07449 0.02818 0.08288 0.02644 “018 0.26196 0.04977 0.26875 0.10525 0.19467 0.09755 256 0163535 0.10924 0.54641 0.53075 0.57811 0.28905 3:2 0.87028 0.12296 0.61462 0.68388 1.00199 0.50100 0.1 0.00444 0.00056 0.00282 0.00065 0.00825 0.00041 0.2 0.01758 0.00221 0.01105 0.00260 0.03286 0.00164 hye 20.0 0-4 0.06705 0.90819 9.04097 0.01030 0.12933 0.00647 = 20-9 9'g 9.22561 0.024310, 12355 0.03955 0.48595 0.02450 4.6 0.51929 0.05070 0.15582 0.15745 L.sSan4 0.07790 5:2 0.65700 0.00926 -0.04682 0.37409 5.39885 0.16994 9.1 0.00414 9.00032 0.00160 0.00015 9.01235 0.00006 0.2 0.01633 0.00124 0.00621 0.00058 0.04922 0.00025 tax 200.9 0-4 0.06251 0.00436 0.02180 0.00232 0.19850 0.00097 "9 0.8 0.20787 9.00955 0.04774 0.00908 0.74286 0.00371 1.6 0.45550 -0.02172 -0-20861 9.03363 2.52847 0.01264 3.2 O.4BE42 -0.15589 0.77944 O-11K0S 6.69935 0.03849 TABLE 6.20 Gones, 1962) a. Say Oy Sayre Sam Sa9" Fry 0.1 0.00356 9.00545 0.00272 0.00216 0.00041 0.00203 0.2 Q.0TIS 0.02158 0.01078 0.00861 0.00162 0.00809 fan 0.2 0-4 0.05493 0108266 0.08135 0.03386 0.00634 0.05172 2-9-2 o'g 0.19661 0.28226 0.14125 0.12702 0.02349 0.11744 16 0185306 0.67844 0.53922 0.40376 0.07109 0.35545 5:2 0196647 0.79593 0.59696 0.85197 0.12583 0.62923 0.1 0.00259 9.00555 9.00278 0.00100 0,00385 0.00094 0:2 0.00991 0.02199 0.01099 0.00397 0.00780 0.00375 Kex'p.0 0-4 0.05852 0.08465 0.04251 0.01569 0.02950 0.01675 nO 9.8 0.13516 0.29565 0.14683 0.05974 0.11080 0.05540 1:6 0.35644 0.75087 0.57542 0.20145 0.35515 0.17757 5.2 0.67384 1.17294 0.5647 0.51156 0.77438 0.38717 0.1 0.00181 9.00682 0.00526 9.00025 0.00378 0.00019 0:2 0.00716 0.02585 0.01293 0.00099 0.01507 0.00075 tax 20.0 9-4 0.02746 0.10017 0.05007 0.00394 0.05958 0.00298 a= 20-0 9/3 9.09395. 0.35661 0.17821 9.01835 9.22795 0.01140 1.6 0.23068 1.00785 0.50592 0.05599 0.78347 0.03917 3:2. 0.37001 2-16035 1.08017 0.17843 2.13215 0.20661 0.1 0.0016¢ 9.00778 9.00389 0.00005 0.00842 0.00003 0.2 9.00647 0.03090 0.01544 9.00021 0.02163 0.00011 ken 200.9 Ov% 0.02870 0.12030 0.06014 0.00085 0.08578 0.00045 “7 9.8 0.09826 0.43595 0.21847 0.00535 0.35214 0.0016, 1:6 0.19224 1.32870 0.66454 0.01283 1.19190 0.00596, 32 0.25526 3.40664 1.70582 9.04612 3.67558 0.01838 ‘TABLE 6.21 B= 20 Gones, 1962) Kas 20.0 3, ne ey Ser See Pag 95, n, 0.1 0.00134 . 0.00968 0.00048 0.00108 0.00014 0.00068 0.2 0.00533 0.03839 0.00192 0.00429 0.00085 0.00273 0:4 9.02100 0.14845 0.00741 0.01702 0.00216 0.01078 0:8 0.07950 0.52414 0.02621 0.06576 0.00820 0.04101, 1.6 0.26613 1.43720 0107085 0:23185 0.02740 0.13698 5.2 0.67882 2.38258 0.11913 0.63008 0.06384 0.31919 @.2 9.00059 0.01719 0.00061 0.00033 9.0001 0.00025 9:2 0.00238 0.04843 0.00242 0.00350 0.00203 0.00101 04 0.00922 0.18457 0.00943 0.00818 0.00803 0.00401 18 0.03432 0.68382 0.03419 0.02023 0.03093 0.01547 1.6 0.10918 2.04154 0.10207 0.07444 0.10864 0.05432 312 0.29183 4160426 0.25021 0.25852 0.30709 0115354 0.1 0.00035 0.01568 0.00078 0.90008 0.00094 0. c0008 0:2 0.00130 0.96236 0.00312 0.00031 0.00374 0.00019 fox 20.9 O-4 0100503 0.24425 0.01221 0.00123 0.01486 0.00074 a= 80.0 q°s 9.01782 0.90584 0.04850 0.00485 0.05789 0.00289 16 0.05012 2.91994 0114600 0.01862 0.21190 0.01060 S.2 0.11581 7.95108 0159755 0.06728 0.67732 0.03387 0.2 0.00027 0.01927 0.00096 9.00002 0.00131 0.00001 0:2 0.00106 0.07675 0.00384 9.00007 9.00524 0.00003 xa= 200.9 9-4 0.00806 0.50182 0.01509 0.00028 002085 0.00010 oO o'8 115555 0.05678 0.00110 0.08180 0.00041 156 0.03552 5.85254 0.19163 0.00431 0.30676 0.00153 3.2 0.06182 11-55403 0.57770 0.01644 1.04794 0.00526 ‘TABLE 6,22 B= 20 ones, 1962) y= 200.0 a oy, SO, 8, F. yO, 8g, on 0.02350 0.00007 0.00033 0,00003 0.00015 oz 010536 0.00027 0.00130 0.00012 0.00058, tex g Ot 0.20911 0.00205 0.00518 0,00046 0.00252 a= 0-2 q's 9.02231 0.76035 0.00380 0.02038 0.00180 0.00901 116° 0108215 2129642 0.01148 0.07675 0.00549 0.05244 5.2 0126576 © §128589 0.02643 0.25484 0.01912 0.09562 9.1 0.00011 0.02737 0.00009 0,00008 9.00009 0.00008 0.2 0.00045 0.06913 0.00035 0.00035 0.00036 0.00018 rge 2.9 4 0:00179 0.27205 9.00155 0.90151 9.00142 0.00071 9 9.8 9.90685 1.00808 9.00504 0.00820 0.00553 0.00277 - 116 “0.02441 8.27590 0.01638 0.02005 0.02043 0.02021 5.2 0.08061 9.02195 0.04511 0.07248 0.06638 0.03319 0.2 9.00005 0.02160 0.00011 0.90002 0.00014 0.00002 0.2 0,00038 0.08604 0,008 0.00007 0.00058 0.00003 0.4. 0.00071 0.33866 0.00169 0.00030 9.00229 0.00011 Far 20-0 9/3 “9.00261 1.27835 0.00639 0.00119 0.00901 0.00045 1.6 0.00819 4135511 9.02177 0.00467 0.03390 0.00170 3.2 0.02341 13.26875 0.06654 0.01784 0.11666 0.00585 0,1 0.00003 0.02587 0.00013 9.00000 9.00019 0.00000 0.2 0.00012 0.10310 0.00052 0100002 9100075 9.00000 rex 200.9 9-4 0.00047 0.40676 0.00205 0.00007 0.00300 0.00002 “79.8 0.00165 1.54951 0.00775 0.00026 0.01185 9.00006 16 0.00445 5.43705 0.02719 | 0:00104 0.04515 0.00023 3.2 0.00928 17.38810 0.08794 0.00409 0.16107 0.00081 AUUTT-LAYER SYSTEMS TABLE 6.23 8 z (ones, 1962) ky a 8, Cy, Sy Oo, Oye, aay xm Serra San zene Faas 0.00139 9.90028 0.00141 0.00086 0.00023 9.00114 0.00555 9.00112 9.00562 0.00345 0.00091 9.00454 0.02198 0.00444 0.02220 0.01371 0.00360 0.01801 0.08435 0.01686 0.08428 0.05323 0.01394 0.06968 0.28870 0.08529 0.27647 0.19003 0.94909 0.24545 0.70074 0.11356 0.56778 0.51882 0.12670 0.63352 0.1 9.00125 0.00025 0.00131 0,00073 0,00130 0.00065 0.2 0.00491 0.00104 0.00521 0.00283 0.00518 0.00259 0.4 0.01942 0.00412 0.02059 0.01126 9.02057 0.01028 0.8 0.07447 9.01574 4.07869 9.04388 0.07977 0.03989 1:6 0.25649 0.05311 0.2655¢ 0.15904 0.28357 0, 14178 3.2 0.62074 0.12524 0.62622 0.45455 0.75651. 0.37825 0.1 0.09087 0.00018 0.00090 0.00028 9.00325 9.00016 0.2 0.90366 0.00072 0.00558 0.00112 0.01298 0.00065, kee 20,9 9-4 0.01567 0.00285 0.01417 0.00445 0.05159 0.00258, "7 0.8 0.05207 0.01089 0.05444 0.01741 0.20134 0.01007 1.6 017567 0.03790 0.18949 - 0.06525 0.73322 0.03666, 3.2 0.39985 0.10841 0.54203 0.20965 2.13566 0.10683, 0.1 0.00069 0.00019 0.00097 0.00006 0.00487 0.00002 0.2 0.00274 0.00078 0.00389 0.00024 0.01947 9.00010 fax 200.9 9-4 9.01079 0.00309 0.01544 0.00095 0.07752 0.00039 "9.8 9.04074 0.01199 0.05995 0.00378 0.30432 0.00152 1.6 0.15117 0.04352 0.21758 0.01456 1.13373 0.00567 FL2 0.26403 0.14845 0.72224 0.05161 3.59608 0.01798 TABLE 6.24 - H=40 Gones, 1962) Rye 2.0 a oy Say my Fenn ae Saar 22 Fra 0.2 0.00103 0.00128 0.00064 9.00078 0.00014 0.00071 0.2 0.00411 -0.00511 0.00256 0.00312 0.00057 0.00284 Kes 0.2 4 0.01651 0.02022 0.01011 0.01241 0.00226 0.01129 0-8 0.06319 0.07722 0.03861 0.04842 0.00877 0.04384 16 0.22413 0.25955 0.12977 0.17617 9.05133 0.15666, B.2 0.60654 0.58704 0.29352 0.50917 0.08500 0.42501 0.1 0.00087 0.00147 0.00074 90,0008 0.00065 0.00032 9.2 9.00228 0,00S87 0.00293 9.00137 0.00260 0.00130 kes 2.0 O-f 0.00905 9.02524 0.01162 0.00544 0.01032 0.00SI5 "2 9.8 0.03500 0.08957 0.04479 0.02135 0.04031 0.02015 116 0.22354 0.31225 0.15608 0.07972 0.14735 0.07368 312 0.34121 0.81908 0.40954 0.25441 0.43632 0.21816 9, 9.00201 0.00101 0.00008 0.00128 9.00006 0. 9.00803 0.00402 0.00034 0.00510 0.00026 ke= 90.0 % 0.03191 9.01596 0.00154 0.02032 0.00102, ne 0.12427 9.06213 0.00532 9.07991 0.00400 1 0.45100 0.22550 0.02049 0.29991 0.01500 3. 4.36427 0.68214 0.07294 0.97701 0.04885 0.1 9.00023 0.00263 0.00132 0.00002 0.00180 9.00001 9.2 0.00081 0.01050 0.00525 0.00007 0.90720 9.00004 Ke= 200,9 9-4 0.00369 0.08179 0.02090 0.00029 0.02870 0.00014 0.8 0.01360 0.16380 0.08190 0.00115 0111334 0.09057 116 0.08409 0-60898 0.50449 0.00451 0.45251 0.00216 3:2 0.09323 1.98899 0.99449 0.01705 1.49306 0.00747 THREE-LAYER SrsTENs TABLE 6.25 Gones, 1962) oa Say ry Cay %re Soe Sang Feary 0.00042 0.00233 0.00012 0.00037 0.00004 0.00022 0.00366 0.00932 0.00047 0.00148 0.00017 0.00085 eats 0.00663 0.03692 0.00185 0.00588 0.00068 0.00340 7 0.02603 0.14242 9.00712 0.02319 0.00266 0.01351 0.09718 0.49826 0.02491 0.08758 0.00985 0.04914 0.31040 1.31627 0.06581 0.28747 0.02990 0.14951 0.1 0.00013 0.00512 0.00016 0.00010 9.00015 0.00007 0:2 0.00058 0.01245 0.00062 0.00059 0.00059 0.00029 fax 2.9 0-4 0.00214 0.04944 0.00247 0.00154 0.00235 0.00117, 0.8 0.00837 0.19247 0.00962 0.00610 0.00924 0.00462 116 0.03109 0.69749 0.03487 0.02358 0.05488 0.01744 312 0110140 2.09049 0.10452 0.08444 0.11553 0.05776 0.1 0.00005 0.00413 0.00021 0.00002 0.00025. 0.00001 0:2 0.00021 0.01651 0.00083 0.00009 0.00099 0.00005 rex 20.9 0-4 0.00083 0.06569 0.00528 0.00035 0.00396 0.00020 0.8 0.00321 0.25739 0.01287 0.00138 0.01565 0.00078 116 0.01130 0.05622 0.04781 0.00542 0.05993 0.00300 0.05258 3.10980 0.15549 0.02061 0.20908 0.01045 0.1 0.00003 0.00535 0.00026 0.00000 0.00033 0.00000 0:2 0.00014 0.02056 0.00103 0.00002 0.00131 0.00001 ex 200.9 9-4 0.00054 0.08191 0.00410 0.00008 0.00524 0.00003, *? 918 0.00206 0.32231 0.01612 0.00030 0.02077 0.00010 156 0.00683 1.21587 0.06079 0.00120 0.08034 0.00040 312 0.01590 4.14395 0.20720 0.00468 0.28961 0.00145. Be 40 TABLE 6-26 (Sones, 1962) k= 200.0 Se Sarr 92x Cre Se Sey", ears 0.1 0.00010 0.00334 0.00002 0.00010 0.00001 0.00004 0:2 0.00042 0.01333 0.00007 0.00039 0.09003 0.00016 yax 0.8 0-4 0.00167 0.05295 0.00026 0.00157 0.00013 0.00065 9:8 0100663 0.20621 0.00103 0.00625 0.00051 0.00256 0.02562 0.74824 0.00374 0.00195 9.00975 0109166 2.25046 0.01125 0.00660 0.03298 0.1 0.00003 0.00437 9.00002 0.00002 0.00002 0.00001, 0.2 0.00011 9.02746 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00005 Kas 2.0 0-4 9.00042 0.06947 0.00035 0.00036 0.00035 0.00018 0.8 0.00168 0.27221 0.00156 0.00142 0.00144 0.00072 116 0100646 1.02140 0.00506 0.00560 0.00553 0.00277 0.02332 3.28915 0.01643 0.02126 0.01951 0.00975 9.1 0.00001 0.00545 0,00003 0.00000 0.00003 0.00000 0:2 0,00003 0.02178 0.00011 0.00002 0.00014 0.00001, fax 20.0 9-4 0.00013 0.08673 0.00043 0.00008 0.00054 0.00003 0:8 0100050 0.34131 0.00171 0.00031 0.00215 9.00011 156 0.00186 1.28773 0.00644 0.00124 0.00833 0.00042 3:2. 0,00612 4.38974 0.02195 9.90483 0.03010 0.00150 0.1 0.00000 9.00652 0.00003 “0.00000 0.00004 0.00000 0:2 9.00002 0.02606 0.00013 0.00000 0.00017 0.00000 = 200.0 9-4 0.00007 0.10389 0.00052 0.00002 0.00068 0.00000 99:8 0.00025 0.40997 0.00205 0.00007 0.00269 0.00001 16 0.00086 1.56284 0.00781 0.00027 0.01049 0.00005 3.2 0100225 $.48870 0.02744 0.00107 0.03866 0.00019 (MOLPI-LAYER SYSTEMS ‘TABLE 6.27 a= 8.0 ones, 1962) faz 0.2 a nm Fa 9, s,m Pay Fy 0.2 0.00035 0,00006 0.00028 0.00027 0.00007 0.00036 90:2 0:00142 9.00023 0.00123 9.00108 0.00028 000142, tax 0.2 2-4 0.00566 0.00090 9.00449 0.00452 0.00113 0.00567 a= OF 9.8 0.02240 0.00384 0.01769 0.01711 0.00849 0.02246 1.6 0.08589 0.01335 0.06673 0.06610 0.01725 0.08624 3.2 0.29318 0.04270 0,21550 0.25182 0.05907 0.29535 .1 0,00030 9.00008 9.00038 0.00023 0.00041 0.00021 0.2 0.00220 0.00030 0.00152 0.00091 0.00165 0.00083 kas 2.0 9-4 0.00879 0.00121 0.00608 0.00364 0.00660 9.00550 0.8 0.01894 0.00480 0.02399 0.01446 0.02616 0.01508 16 0.07271 0.01841 0.09208 0.05601 0.10080 0.05040, 3.2 0,24933 0.06307 0.51534 0.19828 0.35008 0.17504 0-1 9,00016 9.00010 0.00049 0.00009 9.00105 9.00005 9.2 0.00065 0.00040 9.00198 9.00037 0.00421 0.0021 = 0.0 %S 9.00260 0.00158 0.00799 9.00149 0.01673 0.00084 *? 9.8 0.01026 9.00629 0.03843 0.00594 0.06664 0.00335 5.6 0.03926 0.02465 0.12314 0.02320 0.25871 0.01294 3.2 0.15335 0.09123 0.45615 0.08510 9.92478 0.04624 0.1 0.00003 9.00015 9.00074 0.00002 0.00162 0.00002, 0.2 9.00038 9.00059 0.00294 0,00008 9.00648 0.00003 Fax 200.0 94 9.00148 0.00235 0.01176 9.00052 0.02887 0.00013. “? 9.8 0.00873 0.00938 0.04690 0.00127 9.10287 0.00051, 116 0102160 0103710 0.18549 0.00503 0.40238 0.00201, 3.2 0.06038, 14225 0.71130 0.01912 1.48097 0.00740, TABLE 6.28 a= 6.0 (ones, 1962) Kan 2.0 Sa eta; ce, Pie 0.2 ~0,00028 0.00028 0.00014 0.00024 0.00008 9.00022, 0.2 0.00213 0.00111 0.00056 0.00096 0.00017 0.00087 fav og 0-4 0.00852 0.00484 0.00222 0.00384 0.00069 0.00547, -? 9.8 9.01786 0.01752 0.00876 0.01522 0.00275 0.01373 1.6 0.06895 0.06662 0.03331 0.05800 0.01060 0.05298 312 0.24127 0122014 0.11007 0.20949 0.03693 0.18466 9,2 0.00013 0.00039 0.00020 0.00010 9.00020 0.00010 0.2 0,00053 0.00157 0.00079 9.00041 9.00078 0.00039 04 0100213 0.00628 0.00314 0.00164 0.00311 0.00156 Hr 29 9/6 o.onsda 0.02487 0.01244 0.00653 0.01237 0.00618 2G 0103269 0,09597 0.04798 0.02856 0.04802 0.02401 5.2 0111640 0133606 0.16805 0.09405 0.17188 0.98594 0.1 0.00098 0.00061 0.00080 0.00002 0.00057 0.00002 0:2 0100019 0100242 0.00121 0.00010 0.00149 0.00007, tye 20.9 0-4 0.00075 0.00967 0.00484 0.00040 0.00596 9.00030 018 0.00300 0.05845 0.01922 9.00159 0.02368 0,00118 1.6 0.01154 0115010 "0.07508 0.00630 0.09274 0.00464 $12 ol0go0s 0.54962 0.27471 0.02409 0.34255 0.01712 9.1 9.00003 0.00082 0.00041 0.00001 0.00052 0.00000 0:2 0100011 0.00528 0.00164 9.00002 0.00206 0.00001 tax 200,904 0.00042 0.01510 0.00655 0.00008 0.00825 0.07004 900629 0.20491 0.20248 9.00135 0.12933 0.00065 4 8 0,00267 0.05216 0.02608 0.00034 0.03287 0.00016 6 2 0.02620 0.76769 0.38584 0.00527 0.48719 0.00244 ‘THREE-TAYER SYSTEMS 459 ‘TABLE 6.29 B= 59 (Jones, 1962) Kye 20.0 ay bc ee Sage 22 ry Q.1 0.00012 0.00086 9.00003 0,09011 0.0¢006 0.2 0.00047 0.00225 0.00011 0.00044 0.00025 Kas 0.2 9-4 0.00190 0.00889 0.00044 0.00176 0.00020 0.00099 0:8 0.00758 0.03522 9.00176 0.00701 0.00078 0.00393, 1:6 0.02947 0.15563 0.00678 0.02746 0.00306 0.01528 3.2 0.10817 9.47240 0.02362 . 0.10145 0.01105 0.08524 41 9,00003 0.00079 0.00004 9.00003 0.00004 9.00002 0.2 0.00013 0.00316 0.00026 0.00011 0.00075 9.900008 kex a9 0-4 0.00050 0.01260 0.00063 0.00043 0.00064 000032 0.8 0.00200 9.05007 9.00250 9.00170 0.00255 0.00127 1.6 0.00786 0.19496 0.00975 0.00673 0.00993 0.00496 3.2 0.02944 0.70709 0.03835 0.02579 0.03678 0.01839, 0.1 0.00001 9.00108 0.00005 0.00001 0.00006 0.00000 9.2 0.00004 0.00425 0.00021 0.00002 0.00025 0.00001 ka= 20.0 0-4 0.00014 0.01696 0.0008 0.00009 0.00100 0.00005 0:8 0.00056 0.06751 0.00338 0.00037 0.00388 0.00020 16 0.00217 0.26466 0.01323 0.00147 0.01565 0.00078, 312 0.00791 0.98450 0.04922 0.00576 0.05892 0.00295 0.1 0.00000 0.00135 0.09007 0.00000 9.00008 0.00000 0.2 0.00002 0.00531 0.00027 0.00900 0.00032 0100000, kes 200.9 0-4 0.00006 0.02122 0.00106 0.00002 0.00128 0.00001 9:8 0.00025 0.08453 0.00423 0.00008 0.00509 0.00003, 156 0.00096 0.35268 0.01663 0.90052 0.02009 0.00010 3.2 0.0039 1.25614 0.06281 0.00125 0.07660 0.00038 TABLE 6.30 Hs 8.0 Gones, 1962) Ky= 200.0 an Sa? Sara Tae Sax, Saar 0.1 0.00003 9.00083 0.00000 0.00003 0.00000 0.00001 0.2 0.00011 9.00330 0.00002 0.00011 0.90001 0.00005 kaw 0.2 0-8, 0.00046 0.01320 0.00007 0.00044 0.00004 0.00018, 0.8 0.00182 0.05242 0.00026 0.00175 0.00014 0.09072 1:6 0.00720 0.20411 9.00102 0.00693 0.00056 0.00282 512 0102751 0.74013 9.00370 0.02656 0.00212 0.01058 0.1 0.00001 9.90109 9.00001 0.00001 9.00001 0.00000 012 0100003 0100438 9.00002 0.00002 0.00002 0.00001 Has 2.0 0-4 0.00010 0.01748 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 9.00005, 0.8 0.00041 0.96956 0.00035 0.00038 0.00037 0.00028 116 0.00362 0.27262 0.00136 0.00149 0.00145 0.00072 312 0109628 1.01522 0.00507 0.00584 0.00547 0.00273 0.1 0.05000 0.90136 9.00001 0.90000 0.0000 0.00000 0.2 9.00001 0.00546 9.00003 0.90001 0.00003 0.00000 wax 20.0 9-4 9.00002 0.02181 0.00011 0.90002 0.00013 9.00003 0.8 0.00010 0.08687 0.00043 0.00008 0.00052 0.00003, 46 0.00039 9.34202 0.00171 0.90032 0.00204 0.00010 5.2 0.00149 1.29190 0.00646 0.00127 0.00777 9.00039 0.2 0.00007 9.00165 0.00001 9.90000 0.00001 0.00000 0:2 9200000 0.00654 0.00003 9-90000 0.00004 0.00000 a= 200.0 9-4 0.00001 0.02613 0.00013 0.00000 9.0016 0.00000, 0.8 9.00903 0.10417 0.00082 0.00002 0.00065 0.00000 256 0.08013 0.41121 0.00206 0.00007 0.00249 0.00001 3.2 0.00087 1156863 0.00784 0.90027 0.00957 0,00005 160 MULTI-IAYER SYSTEMS Displacenente Ueshita and Meyerhof (1967) have evaluated the vertical surface displacenent at the centre and edge of the cizcle. Influence factors have been computed for the folloving parameters: By /Ez EY/Es View = vs = 0.5 = 2, 10, 100 #2, 10, 100 t/a = w/t = ‘The symbols are defined in Fig.6.17. The influence factors are shown in Fig.6-18. The centre displace- ment is given by 0.5, 1, 2 4 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 ep, = er + 6D) By The edge displacement 9, = 2222p... (6.2) a 1-0 o| os ow o2 & Fig Bos Sos i é § 02 g | OD 02 Oa 06 08 Toh (a bbe tet Lo o_ tS 09 4340 Thickness Ratio ¥1G,6.18 Deflection factors FL, and F,, fora three-layer system (Ueshita and Meyerhof,1967). Further influence factors for vertical displace- ment at the centre of the circle have been presented by Thenn de Barros (1966). The following parameters have been considered: m = Ey/E: = 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 me = Bo/Bs = 2, 5, 10 Vi = Va = Va = 0.85 Influence factors F are tabulated in Tables 6.31 to 6.35. The actual centre displacement of the circle is given by = 225500 p By see 6.3) Dettection FOGtOr, Fea ond Fea THRES-LAYER SYSTEMS 6t TABLE 6.31 TABLE 6.32 DISPLACEMENT FACTORS P DISPLACEMENT FACTORS F mae (After Thenn de Barros, 1966) _m = 5 (After Thenn de Barros, 1966) 1/0 tala Ma pgAA 0-186 0.512 0.625 1.25 2.5 5S Me PA 0156 0.512 0.625 1.25 25 5 0.312 0.858 0.789 0.662 0.510 0.394 ~ 0,512 0.830 0.733 0.556 0.372 0.246 0.625 0.772 0.717 0.616 0.489 0.387 0.325 0,625 0.745 0.669 0.522 0.359 0.242 0.174 2 1.25 0.669 0.633 0.560 0.460 0.375 0.319 2 1:25 0.648 0.593 0.476 0.339 0.235 0.172 28 = (0.864 0.508 0.428 0.360 0.314 25 = 0.528 0.430 0.313 0.224 0.168 5 = "= 0470 0.400 0.343 0.306 5 - "= 0,384 0.289 0.211 0.163 ° 0.505 0.352 0.240 - ° 0.598 0.427 0.268 0.162 = ° 0.438 0.324 0.231 0.171 ° 0.497 0.378 0.250 0.157 0.101 5 1 0.359 0.284 0.215 0.166 su 0.387 0.312 0.223 0.148 0.0989 2 0.287 0.240 0.198 0.158 2 0.298 9.249 0.188 0.154 0.0944 8 = 7s 01238 0.202 01172 0.148 5 = "= 0,202 0.388 0-116 0.0871 0,512 0,664 0.559 0.415 0.274 0.174 - 0.312 0.626 0.508 0.350 oz - 9.625 0.500 0.436 0.346 0.246 0.165 0.112 0.625 0.469 0.401 0.301 0.118 0.0712 10 1.25 0.348 4.515 0.267 0.207 0.150 0.108 10 1.25 0.325 0.291 0.236 0:109 0.0691, 25 0.221 0.198 0.165 0.130 0.100 28 "= 0.206 0.174 0.0954 0.0649 5 = "2 01149 0.128 0.198 0.0903, s - = 0.130 0.0779 0.0579 ‘TABLE 6.33 TABLE 6.34 DISPLACEMENT FACTORS F DISPLACEMENT FACTORS F ms 10 “(After Thenn de Barros, 1966) m = 20 (After Thenn de Barros, 1966) tala’ Swe me pPA 0-186 0.512 0.625 1.25 2.5 5 Me P0186 0.512 0.625 1.25 2.5 5 0.312 0.811 0.687 0.485 0.298 0.181 - 0.312 0.789 0.629 0.411 0.259 0.136 - °. 7 0.457 0.290 0.178 0.116 0.625 0.711 0.583 0.394 0.234 0.135 0.0809 21 0.420 0.275 0.174 0.115, 2 1.25 0.523 0.365 0.224 0.152 0.0802 2 0.379 0.255 0.166 9.112 25 = 0.465 0.351 0.209 0.127 0.0788 5 = "= 0.346 0.236 0.156 0.109 $ = "=" 0.300 0191 01120 0.0764 0.312 0.689 0.853 0.369 0.217 0.125 - 0.312 0,662 0.501 0.313 0.175 0.0953 = 0.625 0.553 0.467 0.334 0.207 0.121 0.0720 0,625 0.535 0.435 0.290 0.169 0.0939 0.0528 S 1125 0.416 0.367 0.281 0.187 0.315 0.0706 5 1:25 0.404 0.345 0.250 0.157 0.0909 0.0521 2:5 "= 0.284 0.225 0.160 0.305 0.0679 215 = 0.267 (0.202 0.136 0.0846 0.0506 5 = "= 0-181 01130 010922 0.0629 5 = "= 0.161 0.112 0.0742 0.0475 0.312 0.601 0.467 0.302 0.172 0.0946 - 0,312 0.575 0.419 0.254 0.139 0.0740 - 0.625 0.405. 0.376 0.267 0.163 0.0924 0.0525, 0.625 0.434 0.349 0.252 0.134 0.0729 0.0396 30 1:25 0.312 0.275 0.214 0.144 0.0876 0.0514 101.25 0.301 0.260 0.195 0.123 0.0705 0.0380 2:5 = 0.195 0.159 0.117 0.0782 0.0489 28 "= 0.184 0.145 0.102 0.0645 0.0377 5 = "= 0,117 “0.0885 0.0642 0.0482 3 = "= 0.186 0.0779 0.0542 0.0348 362 TABLE 6.35 DISPLACEMENT FACTORS F m= 50. (After Them de Barres, 1966) AULEI-LAYER SYSTRHS Values of Ford Fx 3 red 0.312 0,625 1.25 28 § a Me RN 0-186 0.538 0.508 0.461 0.411 0.326 0.514 0.297 o.271 0.245 0.178 0.175 0.170 9.161 0.148 0.0960 ~ 0.0883 0.0832 0.9840 0.0528 0.0815 0.0522 0.0868 0.0809, 0.421 0.378 osu = 0.281 0.248 0.233 9.208 9.173 0,137 9-131 0.128 9.0687 ~ 0.0681 0.0364 0.122 0.0667 0.0361 9.110 0.0637 0.0354 0-0935 0.9575 0.0538 0.348 0.308 0.287 > 0.169 0.197 0.187 0.104 0.0539 - 0,102 0.0834 0.0280 0.164 0.0966 0.0523 0.0277 0.128 0.0847 0.0496 0.0272 0.0926 0.0664 0.0436 0.6258 10 6.3 Four-Layer Systems Some solutions for a four-layer system, subject- od to uniform vertical Icading over a circular area, have been obtained by Verstracten (1967). Contours of the major, intermediate and minor principal stresses and the maximm shear stress for » particular geometry and various modular ratios have been given. A brief examination of the influence of uniform hori- ‘zontal leading on the radia] stress has also been made. 6.4 Approximate Solutions for Multi- Layer Systems 6.4.1 STEINERENYER'S METHOD This method, first suggested by Steinbrenner (1934), enables the vertical surface displacement of Toaded’ area to be estinated on the assumption that ‘the stress distribution within the layered system is identical with the Boussinesq distribution for a * homogeneous semi-infinite mass. It was originally applied to the problem of 2 single: ayer mderlain'by a rough rigid base, and for the case of 2 uniformly Joaded rectangular area, the resulting spproximate influence factors for vertical surface displacement at the comer of the rectangle on a layer of depth i fare shown in Fig.6.19. The displacement at the comer is given as Pp, = ar, wes G4) where I, = (I-VIP AI) _B = shorter side of rectangle. FIG.6.29 Factors Fi and Fz approximate method of calculating vertical Gisplacenent (Steinbrenner, 1934). for steinbrenuer Steinbrenner's method for 2 single layer may be extended to any mmber of layers as follows: for the vertical surface displacenent of a rectangle on layers? mal (T, -I) v= wf Sea ay “1 t n see 6.8) where Zz, Vi are the elastic para- meters of layer t I, is the vertical displace- nent influence factor (Fig. 6.19) corresponding to a depth factor Aj/E, where he. is the depth botow the ground surface of the top of layer ‘The method can be adapted to the calculation of displacements in directions other than the vertical and for loadings other than vertical. Investigations of the of Steinbrenner's nethod have been nade by Davis and Taylor (1962) and Poulos (19675), who concluded that, for a single layer underlain by a rough rigid base, the vertical displace- ment is underestinated by about 10% except for very thin layers for 0.5, when this method overestimates ‘the vertical displacement considerably. Devis and Taylor (1962) have also show that Steinbrenner's method cannot accurately be spplied to the calculation of the horizontal surface displacenent Of @ layer due to vertical loading or the vertical displacenent of a layer due to horizontal surface. APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS 163 loading. For horizontal displacement due to horizon- ‘tal loading the method gives reasonably accurate solutions. Steinbrenner's approximation is most satisfactory for layered systems in which the modulus increases rather than decreases with depth. 6.4.2 PALMER AND BARDER'S METHOD For a general two-layer system, Paluer and Barber (1940) assume that the upper layer, of thick- ness hy modulus; and Vev1, aay be replaced by an equivalent thickness ig of lower layer material (Gedulus Ez, vev2) as follows: ws a, = 4 (lw) se 66) is Ba (I-v47) The vertical surface displacement is then obtained by adding the vertical displacement of the equivalent layer between 2=0 and Zhe to the vertical dis- placement at a depth he ina seni-infinite mass. For example, for the case of a circular footing (radius a) ona two-layer system having vi-va70.5, the vertical displacement p: at depth he is 1.5 pat e ales 6D ‘The displacement within the upper layer, p2 is pz = Be {hEPe. py) + 6.8) ites The vertical surface displacement pg-pt92 p, = See @ (1-25 4 By By (ater (Ex) 2/*)* BOB 5 see 6.9) Comparisons between the above approximate solut- ion and the correct solution given by Durmister (see Section 6.1) show excellent agreenent. Palmer and Barber's method can be extended to multi-layer systens by repeated replacement of over- lying layers by equivalent thicknesses of the lower most material. 6.4.3 ODEMARK'S METHOD ‘This method, developed by Odomark (1949), may be used to estimate the vertical surface displacement of a three-layer elastic system in which v=v2=V3= 0.5. For the centre of a uniformly loaded circle, the displacement pz is (refer to Fig.6.17) (6.10) F, on and Hq = an equivalent modulus of elast- icity of the composite under- layer. ‘The value of £2 is determined by solving the last equation iteratively. Faq determined, may then be Ueshita and Meyerho£ (1967) show that Odenark's nethod is in good agreenent with rigorous analysis if Ey/? ay Gawbasfe (otestey?? Se see Bb) abs rr(vtestey? www, (rtiate)/* ° vo (826) $te-fie trtvate) 72 —t, GPestoyt ses (8.2K) ves (8.20) te vee (8.28 wtrtezte) _ Os)peaoe0) were p= Ole Danaea? _ dey oo ° Os prt) ee 8 _ feceeatoO® Ma a ° 164 CROSS@ANTSOTROPIC MASS 2B. (8-208) Y5(8-200) 4% (2u#8) @p(B-C) (8-28) 008-200) 41 (2048) 8p(B-C) e = 2 Yil8-290) ro) fp an 2 tena) an @o(B-C) ‘An indication of the influence of anistropy on the stress distribution is given in Fig.8.1 (Koning, 1957) which shows the distribution of cz for the isotropic case and two anisotropic case: os oe! ap 02 ‘to B i ri cove Th 2 Row © a 1 Ms % 0.67 (isotropic) b 2 8 & 0.89 e 3 8 2 128 FIG,8.1 Influence of anisotropy on vertical stress ue to point load (Koning, 1957). Barden (1963) derived solutions to this problen ‘based on earlier solutions by Michell (1900). However, a8 pointed out by Dooley (1964), Barden made the implicit assumption that the shear modulus for a pair Of axes inclined at 45° to the xz-axes is the sane as that in the direction of the z- and z-axes. The validity of Barden's solutions is therefore limited. 8.1.2 VERTICAL SURFACE LINE LOAD ig.2.73 de Urena et al (1966) give the following solutions: = 2% (t-te o, = et let ato) + 50) see (8.30) see (8.3¢) 8.1.3 ‘TANGENTIAL SURFACE LINE LOAD (Fig.2.9) de Urena et al (1966) give the following solutions: (.4a) see (B.4b) see (Bode) 200-8 ‘an (2068) (VB-V) and B and ¢ are defined in Section 8.1.1. where R = 8.2 Strip on Semi-Infinite Mass Gerrard and Harrison (1970a) have given complete solutions for the stress, displacement and strain dis- tributions within the mass. This paper is reprinted in full as Appendix A, It contains solutions for the following cases: {) uniform vertical pressure (b) uniform vertical displacement (c) Linear vertical pressure (@) Linear vertical displacement (e) uniform lateral shear stress (© uniforn lateral shear displacement (g) Linear lateral shear stress (3) Linear lateral shear displacement. 8.3 Circle on Semi-Infinite Mass Gerrard and Harrison (1970b) have given complete solutions for the stress, displaceneat and strain dis- ‘tributions within the mass. This paper is reprinted in full as Appendix B. It contains soluticas for the following cases: (a) uniform vertical pressure ()) unifora vertical displacement (2) linear vertical pressure (@) linear vertical displacement {e) linear radiel shear stress (€) Linear radial shear displacenent (Linear torsional shear stress (h) linear torsional shear displacement G) ~ wniform unidirectional shear stress G), uniform unidirectional shear displacenent. Some indication of the effects of anisotropy on the distribution of vertical stress and vertical dis- placement beneath a uniformly loaded cirele is given by the results of Koning (1960), reproduced as Figs. 8.2 to 8.4. Similar results for a rigid circle are shown in Figs, 8,5 to 8.7. It should be noted that the distribution of vertical contact stress in the latter case is unaffected by the anisotropy. ° 2 4 a . 9 Yo aF os Fo Fa 8 ny 2 En ww E A 1 i? 1/2 3/2 0.67 (Boassinesa) Bo 2 a/e afe aft 0,89 C4 ate ae fe 1.28 FIG.8.2 Vertical strese on axis of circle (Roning, 1960). aes a 2, ‘uh “we le A 1 t/t 1/2 1/2 0.67 (Bonssinesq) B 2 2/8 sfe a/e 0,89 C4 fe ae 1.28 FIG-8.3 Distributions of vertical displacenent of Surface (Koning, 1960). oof os oa os 10 18 ta 40 & 4, , 24, v= he =a, ya af Bee te Nye MAE iy FIG.8.4 Mean displacement of cixele (Koning, 1960). 286 CROSS-awrsomROPTC Mass ° 2 ome ee + 3 =e o yf i 3 1 a a a Fe 2, oy e BD ‘uk ‘aw YA OED 1 1/2 i/2 1/2 0.67 (Boussinesa) 2 ft 3 2/8 gas C4 sfte afm a/e 1.28 ¥4G.8.5 Vertical stress on axis beneath rigid circle (Koning, 1960). va 6 byt V6 Wea, yo te FIG.0.6 Vertical displacement of rigid circle (ening, 1960), 2 e Bae ak A 1 1/2 2/2 1/2 0.67 (Boussinesq) Bo2 s/s afm ifs 0.89 Co 4 Bf afe ft 1.28 Do 4 $/16 afu aft 0,32 a Am on Foi. oe ifs a/s 9.80 G2 ise Ws 3/9 @.90 7 “Vertical displacenent of rigid circle (oning, 1960), MOLEI-IAYER SYSTESS 8.4 Loading on Multi-Layer Systems For general loading of an infinite strip or a circle on the surface of a half space consisting of any mmber of anisotropic iayers, mathematical solut- ions, (without mmerical evaluation), for stresses tnd dUsplaceasats, are given by Gerrerd and Harrison 1971). 8.4.1 VERTICAL UNTFORM LOADING ON STRIP This problem has been considered by Gerrard (1967) who obtained a Limited number of solutions indicating the effect of anisotropy on the stress dis- ‘tribution beneath the strip. The cases considered by Gerrard are sumarised in Table 8.1. All cases involve one or two layers overlying a rough rigid base 187 — cole Lover at a total depth of Gb (see Fig.8.8). y tere BH The complete pattern of stresses for Cases 2 and 3 are shom in Figs.8.9 and 8.10, indicating the ‘Rowgn Figs ‘Bose effect of inserting a softer overlying layer in Case 3. ¥16.8.8 ‘The distributious of normal stress along the axis are show in Figs.8.11(a) to (¢). TABLE 8.1 CASES CONSIDERED BY GERRARD (1967) Layer A Layer B Hy 3 (E,) PROBLEM soapmre 80. 0F 3a 2g Bylq rumpen SEOMETRY wns Fb ey, wf yy yk EL yy a i Plane Uniform L Strain Normal L 6 - - 1.5 0.9 0.25 0,30 0.20 - - - - - ‘Stress . ® 2 " 1 6 - = 50 10 02 09 0300 - = - = - 3 ” ” 2 24 WA 1S 0.9 0.25 0.50 0.20, 5.0 1.0 0.1 0.9 03 ‘ 2 22 4 5.0 1.0 01 0.9 03 18 0.9 0,25 0.50 0.20 5 " . 1 6 - = 40 0.7 045 0.43 043 - - - - = (isotropic) 188 CROSS-ANISOTROPIC MASS 5 g 93:6)37.5_97.1|52.7_49.5|31.6 5 “Qcfas.0 16.4|81.6 35.8478 75.8|7.0 47.1|15.1_ 25.6|20.2_10.9/18.8 1 “Q.oes.8 %-4[45.9 25.2]25-2 15-2111 2 p.gha0.8 5 als ‘ 22.0|7.4 A * tal’ 5 20.9/11,3 nee figoces given sre percentages of the 6 ezlie.2 M.6lM6 Penning Sesess, b Fig. 8.9 Complete Stress Distribution for case 2 (Gerrard, 1967). 2 3 0.0|-19.5_ 0,0]-9.5 0.0]=6.8 0.0|=2.5 Sorte 0.7/5.8 2.5 5.2/8.7 Interface 5.6 20.7/11.5 2]108 23.0|8.7_ 15.7/11.0 BAS Tse 22,1/12.2 14,6|12.5 20.4|20.4_14.5|14.5 Lower 3-0|20-4 9.1] ia. Boundary Pig. 8.10 Completa Stress Distribution for Case 3 (Gerrard, 1967). 289 | MULEI-LAYER SYSTEMS “u96t ‘Pxezx0p) woashs pozeket oydoxzosyue uo dyx3s popeot ATmIOsTIM WAEOUNG Sfx Uo sosseI3S TT"s‘DTE © % @ % «@ BREE aoRET or oo KIBICE RA che > oz 190 CROSS-ANISOTROPIC KASS 8.4.2. LOADING ON CIRCULAR AREA Gerrard (1967) hes considered a linited mmber 9€ cases involving uniform vertical stress and Lin- early varying invard shear stress on the circular area. The cases considered are sumarised in Table 8.2. All cases involve a single layer of depth +0 L.Ste(romctzcle radius) overlying another layer (generally softer) of infinite depth. 1s ‘The vertical and radial surface displaceneats are shown in Fig.8.12. The distributions of nomal 20 stress dow the axis are shown in Fig.8.13. 20 460 te ¥16,8.12 surface deformation profiles for circle on Layered anisotropic system (Gerrard, 1967). wr 8.13 stresses on axis of circle on layered ‘anisotropic systen (Gerrard, 1967). PARTICULAR CRSES OF ANISOTROPY an TABLE 8.2 CASES CONSIDERED BY GERRARD (1967) Tayer A yer Rage’ SSOMETY LOO Rees % eA Th OF yw, uy kD vA Eg, 8 “he oh Bog YR Yaw Yon oF Uniform 6 pxisym formal «= 2 sLSro = $1.0 0,8 0.25 0,25 0.25 2.0 0.9 2, fetrie Stress Eb S25, 07 © 0.9 2,25 0,35 0.175 tp) 7 " Hiner 2 Lsree $10 9.8 0.35 0.28 0.25" mw - sotropic Stoees (isotropic) ro ww? 8 " Uniform 2 1.5% 2 $ 3.0 1,0 01 0.9 0.3 ” " * 0 . Normal Stress @) 9 ” linear 2 Lsre s 5 3.0 10 Ot 9.9 03 4 oH www Strgss te Pe 10. " ieigore 2 isre 2 1 1.0 0.8 0.25 9.25 0,25 1.4 0.8 0.25 0.25 0.25 ioraal isotropic Serese (Gsotrepic) (isotropic) fp) = (x) (eg BAY see B50) . . my ie 8.5 Particular Cases of Anisotropy = 8.8.1 REPEATED LAYER SYSTENS © ty) (CH ey 50 ‘It can be shown that a mass of material consist- ivy dev,’ ing of an altemating system of individnally homogen- cous layers is equivalent to one homogeneous mss of cross-anisorropic material, provided the thickness of the group of layers forming the repeated system is small with the governing dimensions of the problem being considered. The anisotropic elastic Constants of the equivalent material in tems of the elastic constants and thicknesses of the individual layers are given by Salamon (1968). Further trest~ ment is given by Wardle and Gerrard (1972). For the case of an isotropic, two-layer repeated system, with a layer 2} of thickness 7 and moduli Bi, Vil and a layer 2 of thickness hz and-mduli Ea, Va, _ the equivalent cross-anisotropic properties are as follows: Bry | A=0B, 4 Fs we? / 6 by?” tev? s+ (B58) a pee BdB Ma a (Geta. Bin ea oy By” eve Pie + ayy, | see (Sd) Fn a = was we- (8-50) = Bact te) , BbfT4v2) A a (8-58), os hy where ¢ =e. Jat 392 8.8.2. REINFORCED MATERIAL A special case of the repested Layer system is that of only two repeated layers, one of which is very thin bus has a high Young's modulus so that it forms are sheet. In terms of equations (8.5), if layer 2 is the reinforcing layer, the special case is obtained by putting 7 and Bite, and letting t82/2,-i, which is in geneval a finite quantity (uarrison and Gerrard, 1972). The cross-anisorropic material equivalent to the material with the reinfore- ing layers has only four independent elastic constants instead of the usual five, 8.5.3 THE WESTERGAARD MATERTAL Westergaard (1938) considered the particular case im whieh the semi-infinite mass is assumed to be homo- geneous but reinforced internally such that no hori- zontal displacements can occur. Harrison and Gerrard (1972) show that this material is equivalent to a re- inforced material having K (Section 8.5.2) equal to imfinity, The Nestergaard material is equivalent to ‘2 cross-anisotropic material with only three independ- ent constants, The following solutions apply for 9, 4) Surface point load P (See Fig.2.2). =f Zz wae (8.6) 1 8.8) (Gi) Surface Line Joad p/umit length, and of length y. For a point in plane of end of load, aS a aah Bare! en Tas wrere nV, and v= v1, Poisson's ratio of the material between the reinforcement, Influence factors for tg due to point loading have been plotted by Harr (1966) while influence factors for og duc to line loading of finite lengen have been plotted by Fadun (1948), ° Influence factors for the vertical stress og ‘beneath the corner of a uniformly loaded rectangle (Fadmm, 1948) are shown in Fig.8.14 for the case of ee. It should be noted thst since lateral strains and displacesents are zero, the stresses on a horizontal Plane are fmetions of’ vertical displaceasat only, viz. (CROSS-ANISOTROPIC MASS 202-76 Bon, 1, = Bult 2 see (G88) = oC (6.80) a= OZ ses Be = G22) 8.8 ay = OG vee (B86) where ¢ is the shear modulus. ‘Thus, vertical displacement py may be obtained by direct integration of 2. SEPPLLTS SIRE Rs FIG.8,14 Vertical stress beneath comer of rectangle on Wostergaard material (Fadun, 1949) Chapter 9 STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A NON-HOMOGENEOUS ELASTIC MASS 9.1 Semi-infinite Mass with Linear Variation of Modulus 9.1.1 UNIFORM STRIP LOADING ‘This problem has been solved by Gibson (1967) who considered an elastie half-space where Poisson's ratio remains constant but the shear modulus G incresses Linearly with depth 35 follows (Fig. 9.1): Gz) = G00) + me se QD PIG.9.1 ‘Two limiting cases my be recovered from the general oxpressions for v0.5: (mo (Gm) Ae. constant GaG/0) with depth. This is the classical homogeneous case. (i) ¢(01=0 (B00), This is the case of a Linear inerease in @ with depth, starting from zero at the surface. : Considering the vertical displaconent 0, for each case, it is found that for case (1), the actual displacenent is infinite (see Section 3.1), but the difference between the displacement of a point and the central surface displacenent is finite, and equal to =p (a2) = sie re)*) 9460, 0)-9,(,2) = SH felt 3) tn [ESTE] oe G2) Values of (9,(0,0)~p,(z,z)) are plotted in Fig.9.2(2). For case (ii}, the vertical displacement is now finite, and given by 0g = Be lear es + tn 3] ss 3) Velues of 3 for this case are plotted in Fig. 9.200). It is-noteworthy that the stresses are identical for both cases (i) and (ii) ive. non-homogeneity has no influence on the stress distribution. | This result suggests that stresses for finite values of 6 nay not differ appreciably from the values for the Liniting cases, provided v=d.5. ‘An important conclusion reached from a study of case (ii) is that 2 material whose modulus varies Lnearly with depth from zero at the surface behaves as 8 “Winkler” material i.e. tho vertical displacement at any point on the surface is directly proportional aa core - = 196 to the intensity of vertical stress at that point. Tnis may clearly be seen from the curve for £/b=d in Fig.9.2(b). The coefficient of subgrade reaction ke inthe Winkler material is related to 1 as Kg=dn. Tt should be noted that the above conclusion is exact only for W=0.5. HON-HOMOGENEOUS MASS The conclusion regarding the identical behaviour of an incompressible (v=0.5) mass whose modulus varies linearly with depth from zero at the surface, and a Winkler medium, remains valid for this type of loading and indeed, for any type of surface loading os 210) [ P,(0.0)- 9, (x,2) x {a) Relative displacenents of strip on uniform mass. V0.5. GaG(0). (b) Displacement of strip-on mass with linearly Increasing G. V=0.5. 6(0)*0. FIG.9.2 (Gibson, 1967) 9.1.2 UNEFORM LOADING OVER CIRCULAR AREA, Profiles of vertical surface Jisplacenent in terms of the value at the contre have been obtained by Brown and Gibson (1972) for three values of v and are shown in Figs. 9.3 to9.S. In these figures, r is the radial distance from the contre, a is the radius and @ is as defined in Fig. 9.1. ‘The variation of central surface vertical dis- placement: pg(r-0) with 8 and v is shown in Fig. 9.6. os Prired Pine 0-0: os: +0 FIG.9.3 Surface aisplacement profiles for v=0.5 (Brown and Gibson, 1972). FIG.9.4 Surface dlsplacenent profiles for v=l/3 ‘wromm and Gibson, 1972). 10. PP FIG.9.$ Surface displacement profiles for v=o (erown and Gibson, 1972), GENERALIZED BOUSSINESQ THEORY 195 © we! seo) 3 iy Rw i 3 ee o Oe oF 1 PIG.9.6 Central surface displacement of circular area. (Brow and Gibson, 1972). p 7 applied pressure go» radius 9.2 Generalized Boussinesq Theory for Non-Homogeneous Semi-infinite Mass 9.2.1 VERTICAL POINT LOADING ON SURFACE Hol1 (1949) developed 4 general form of Boussinesq!'s classical equations, based on earlier solutions of Griffith (1929) md Frohlich (1935). The solutions for a vertical point loading (Fig. 2.2) are: n o = = see (Seda) 2, 0, = Mt s+ 640) Oy = 0 see (9.40) 1 S t ome wee (8254) The above solutions are valid for n>2 and satisfy equilibrium and compatibility requirements for ‘the following restricted class of material: = ea B= Ez aes (9-5) where Ey = modulus at unit depth demsadz. When n=S, A-0 and Va.5, the above solutions seduce to the classical Boussinesy solutions for v0.5. When ne, Aad and V=l/3, the modulus F varies Linearly with depth. Thus, this case corresponds to thet considered by Gibson (1967) (Section 9.1) except that Gibson considered W0.5. . Provided the sbove restrictions on v and mod- ulus variation axe obsorved the generalized Boussinesq solution may be used to study the stress distribution in a nonchonogeneous mass for all types of surface loading. . 9.2.2 HORIZONTAL POINT LOADING ON SURFACE Holl (1940) gives the following solutions (refer Fig. 9.7): o, = MOEBIP cosy sinh coos we (9-68) ama? o, = MELE cosy cin’ cose... (9.60) oat = ROBIP og"1y gin% coad gin . (9.60) ana? 1, = BOWE coals sin? sind cose ... (9.6d) ya” ana? a, = MALE coals sin® 0082? —... (9.60) sy ona? = MARIE coq"1y gin? ind cos*® . (9.62) amt 196 NON-HOMCCENEOOS WASS Note that. the sane restrictions on the relatiouship ‘between modulus variation and v apply in this case as in the ease of a vertical point load (section 9.2.1). 9.2.3 LINE LOADING ON SURFACE (Fig. 9.8) 16.9.8 (a) Vertical Loading 0, = Bx cole ses (7a) a, = 2x cos sinty s+ 7) Tyg = BX cos" sind ss 78) Values of K are tabulated in Table 9.1. (b) Horizontal Loading = tnea)e L coe" sind ses 88) 9, = (metre S cod) winty se (9.86) Tog = (mB) Leos" 1p oin?y ves Be) Values of X are tabulated in Table 9.1 (same as for vertical loading). 23 Rg @ wi WT 9.2.4 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING OVER CIRCULAR AREA Beneath the centre of a circle of radius ay loaded with @ miform surface stress p per uit 3, = pit - ovste] eee (3.923 ae . Oe Flee ae) - cr cones vere fe = car Values of dg are tabulated in Table 9.2 for red and §, Holl (1940) also gives expressions for Gq and q, due to parabolic vertical loading. TABLE 9.2 GENERALISED BOUSSINESQ PROBLEM VALUES OF oz/p BENEATH CENTRE Uniorn Vertical Loading $i ter_Hare, 1966) 2 cinele Rectangle Infinite nx 2 Radius ‘Strip a ee ee o Fr 2 2 a4 1 0.25 0.996 9.942 0.950 0.957 0.970 0.984 4 015 0.960 0.792 0.874 0.852 0.876 0.884 1 0.750 0.426 0.547 0.581 0.603 0.625, LS 0.518 0.255 0.372 0.404 0.437 0.457 2 0,360 0.142 0.250 0.281 0.316 0.357 3 0,109 0.074 0.135 0.275 0.214 0.245 S 0.077 0-025 0.048 0.063 0.125 0.150 oor fot book r 25 0,998 0,984 0.987 0.988 0.991 0.993, 5 9.982 0.859 0.830 0.902 0.922 0.925 8 0.817 0.508 0.625 0.657 0.676 0.686 9.429 0.164 0.249 0.294 0.353 0.411 0.229 0.089 0.150 0.192 0.243 0.282 9, a. L 1.5 0.591 0.298 0-404 0.463 0.480 0.510 2 5 5 0.096 0.032 0,062 0.088 0.141 0.162 (Reproduced with permission of ticGraw Hill Book Co.) GENERALIZED BOUSSINESQ THEORY 4197 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING OVER RECTANGULAR AREA (Fig. 9.9) Unitorm pressure ¥IG.9.9 Beneath the comer of the rectangle,for n=4, ‘ Liar B 3, = a+ 23 arctan mG f 2a® A see (9.102) » greta 2 - SE | Bae see (e100) 2 b 1 z © croton b+ meh - ae a Ge peel ses (9.208) est)? 1 ah BY Sey 7 2 er vee (9.108) Holl (1940) also quotes expressions for 71 values of 3 (homogeneous mass, see Chapter 3), 5,6,7 and 8. Values of Gg for med and 5, given by Harr (1966), are reproduced in Table 9.2 for various values” of —mb/a. 9.2.6 UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING OVER RECTANGULAR AREA (Fig. 9.10) Unitorm stress a/unit area. FIG.9.10 For nef, = Marotan 2 2( +24) arctan 2 ~ -2°b8) co. 2a eat A 2atc s+ (9-1a) croton 2 2 arcten b= ba(h~ 2 i zA A @ ! see (QeLIb) = Larctan t~ % arctan % ar 2B 2 aa see (e116) ___ Holl (1940) also quotes solutions for n=3 (homo- genous case,see Chapter 3) and m=5. ‘The values of Togs Tyg and 0g for a horizontal Joading correspond to the Values of Oz, Tay and Trg for a vertical loading, multiplied by the factor (2). 198 NON-HOMDGENEOUS ASS 9.3 Finite Layer with Linear Variation of Modulus (Fig. 9.11) . Dome) 3 > co ‘This problem has been considered by Gibson, Brom = Siroeiem and Andrews (1971). Profiles of vertical surface ls displacenent due to uniform strip loading are shown in » 4 Fig: 9.12 and due to uniforn circular loading in Fig. 9.13. In both figures, G(0)-0 and w=0.5. In | this case the vertical displacement of the loaded area $s stsietty uniform only when h/b. or h/aen; a5 the AEE layer thickness decreases, the non-uniforaity of so Ap settlenent, inside and outside the loaded area, increases. F1G.9.11 fe F1G.9.12 surface d{splacenent profiles @ue to uiiform strip leading 20 23) (Gibson et at, 1971). fe ; & Rist | rrc.ss setae atamacmant sete T 2a gue to uniform circular loading (Gibson et al, 1971). Surface Oisplacemant + Chapter 10 STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES 10.1 Embankment on Rough Rigid Base (Fig. 10.1) FIG.10.1 ‘This problem has been studied by Clough and Wood- ward (1967) and Poulos, Booker ard Ring (1972). It is important to distinguish between the classical def- inition of displacement, which is referred to a fixed datun, and assumes the enbankment to be created instantaneously, and the displacenent of a point in ‘the embankment which would be observed during incre- mental construction of the enbankment. These dis- placenents are terned the "single-lift" and "observed" displacenents respectively. Referring to Fig.10.1, for a point 2, height z above the base of the eabankment of height h, the "single-lift" displace- ment is denoted as (zsh) and the "observed" dis- placement as v(z,h). ‘These displacements are related as follows: v(z,h) = plazh) ~ plz,2) + 00.1) where (zz) is the single-lift displacement of the point Z when the top of the enbanknent is at the level of 2, i 2 above the base. 199 Thus the observed displacements may be calculated from the "single~1ift" displacements for enbanknont heights of hand 2 and therefore in this section, all solutions for displacements refer to the single- lift values. The stresses are unaffected by incre- mental construction, Stress and displacement contours for a 30° embankment having V=0.3 are shown in Figs.10.2 to 10.6. Five embankment heights are considered. Influence factors for the vertical displacement on the axis of the embankment are given in Figs.10.7 to 19.12, for three enbankment slopes (20°,30° and 40°) and’ two Poisson's ratios (0.3 and 0.48). relationship between displacesent influence factor I and relative height of the point above the base, 2/ll, are plotted for five values of relative enbanknent height h/#, where # is the maxinun possible height of the enbanknent. The actual displacement is od, By = 18, By B se (10.2) where y= unit weight of enbankment material. The observed settlement v(s/li,h/ll) may be calculated from equation (10.1). For a particular embankment (Fig.10.15), Clough and Woodward (1967) give contours of stress, displace- ment and strain factors. These are shown in Figs. 10.14 to 10.16. The effect of incremental construct- ion on displacements is shown in Fig.10.153 incremental construction, the "observed" displacements are zero at the top of the enbanknent, whereas the “single-lift" value of vertical displacement is a maximum at the top. Clough and Woodward also investigated the effects of departures in v and side slope fron those of their "standard case". The results of this investig- ation are presented as multipliers for the stresses, strains and displacements for the standard case, and are shown in Fig. 10.17. [EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES “LET ‘Te 39 SoTnoa) E*Omn ‘odoqs OC seaySTou quouyEqus sNOFIEA Foz BsOXZE TeOTZIOA FO SMO9UOD “ZOT*OIT oul ‘1 e A 4 ‘] ° : f i j c A & wo: Heo 8 7 : 20-l i a ————> “ “ol A 10 seman a20 ssnowoo 201 ENBAWIOGNT ON RIGID BASE “(zest ‘Te 38 sotnoa) E*O=n fedoTs oe ‘equbyou quomyuequa snoTzeA Zz ssex38 TeIUOZIOY Jo BNOWUOD “¢-OT “OIE H oy oor Hor cord 20+ Hi SSS 5 HA YE yo sem 210 sunowos EMBANEXENTS AND SLOPES 202 ssaybyoy suomjveque snoyzt Key ord 19 SOTHO) E*OMA *BdOTS OE 93 BEATE XWOYS JO SmOIUOD “P-OT-DIE Hoy coro eseis 3 £8ae CSS BA 0 semen aso s.no3s my = EMBANKMENT ON RIGID BASE S(2L6T ‘Te 39 soqnoa) Crom t0d0TH got *sqysyoq auemtiegue snopsea 303 queMeDeTdsTD TeOTaeA JO BINOGLD “SOT “OTE corto ° 0 o «| or| ® ox] 4 ror Han acl : 8 33] $I 20 =H) exo ° 1 33] » oz ean eve “ne 0m04 840 $.n010D EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES “(Ze6T 'TW 39 soTMOa) ErO=A ‘odors QF sequbToy quomyueque snopsUA Z0g quomeoUTdeyP TeauOZFAOY Jo BINOWUCD —9'OT“OTE onto sorter EMBANKMENT ON RIGID BASE teyrom ‘odors oz ‘ex0q003 quousoetdeyp Twoyaz0A suouYWEGET GOT ‘DIE f ovo # 20 / or.0+k woe 92 wo Lent v0 quomooetdeyp TeoyaT0A quomyUEqUA .¢°OT “DIE saptomn todote og ‘ex03003 *Br*Onn ‘edots gop *ex0x007 uomsoeTdeyp TeoTax0A guomeqUE *OT“OTE on ¥ 0 90 ro 20 0 Jor-0+4 08 ,o¢ grora woe Orly aun stores serom rods ox *exoa0e3 quommoetésyp THOTATOA YWwomyTEqET ZT-OL “STs *erom ‘edots of “#202905 sctoan fedata op “ex030e3 Quomoutdeyp TeoTATeA AuomeqUE TT‘OT*P1a _—-WeuvouTaey TeoTIAVA auemAEGET OT“OT “Ord oro. so =p eS oo ~ Corn 0G oF br EMBAMIOENT OW RIGID BASE 207 ¥1G.10.13 standaxd eubankent (Clough and foodward, 1367). FIG,10.15 Displacenent factor contours for standard ‘eobanknent (Clough and Woodward, 1967) FO, 7 ee? ET oF 0, 7 M82 BE Ty any 2 | ers 7 Tee 7 TER | rio.14 serene factor contours for standard —«FUG.10.16 strain contour (ln pereamt) for standard ‘eabsakment (Clough and Woodvard, 1967). ‘mbanknent (Clough and Woodward, 1967). 208 EXBAIOENTS AND SLOPES $v Piss. a Rte a PTT Boe ol Me Z oe Yer 1 ¥ i” 3f * i oe ee i | e i * oo g 8 Bos zi ° on 02 03 O4 O28 o8 TO +2 Poatons Ratio Site Slope FIG,10.17 Multiplying factors for departures from ‘Standard embankment (Cloagh and Woodward, 1967). 10.2 Embankment on Elastic Foundation ‘SEMI-INFINITE FOUNDATION (Fig. 10,18) ‘This problem has been considered by Perloff et al (2967), who have compared the stresses within the system, due to the weight of the eabankmenc, with those obtained by assuming the exbankment to apply a purely vertical stress, proportional to the eabankment height, to the surface of the foundation. Stresses from this latter procedure, termed the “normal load~ ing approximation”, have been discussed in Chapter 3. Verraijt-(1969}- has observed ‘that there “is “some 10.2.1 fa a end v same for embankment ‘and foundation. FIG.10.18 inaccuracy in the results of Perloff et al because of ‘the incorrect implicit assumption in their analysis that the biharmonic equation is invariant for confor~ mal transformations. Contours for the vertical stress 03, horizontal sttess Og, shear stress tog and maximum shear stress Tz within the embankment and foundation are shown in Figs.10.19 to 10.22 for the case a=d5*, Lfim3. These figures show that the “normal loading approxisation" way considerably overestimate all the stresses and that consequently, displacements will generally also be overestimated. Figs.10.19 to 10.22 are sli for WW.5, except that Fig10,2% shows some contours for Ty, for \0.5 also, The Vertical stress o, is however virtually independent of v. An example of the influence of Von og is shown in Fig.10.23, where the distributions of G_ with depth beneath the centre and the edge of the enbankment, for both W0.$ and 0,5. The effect of v is mest pronounced for small Yalues of 1/2. Distributions of o, and tz, along the base of the enbankuent, for various values of L/¥ and slope angle @, are shown in Figs. 10.24 and 10.25. Distributions of Og, Og and tz along select ed vertical sections have also been obtained for var- ious slope angles and values of 1/#, and for ‘v0.3. These distributions are show in Figs.10.26 t0 10.30 (Gq), Figs.10.31 t0 10,35 0m) and Fig.10-56 (tras It should be emphasized that in all the above solutions, the foundation is assumed weightless and only the effect of the exbankment is considered. The stresses in vicinity of 3 cutting of trapez~ oidat shape can also be obtained from the above solutions by considering the material above the level Of the base of the cutting to be a pair of wide embankments. EMBANKMENT ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION suoyaemprordde ,Suypeot Teaz0UL, AYE xe, PUTT Pouisea “(Z96T "Te 30 3z0TI04) ‘9 e0x38 YequoZFx0Y Jo BmOqOD Oo; suoyaeapxordde ,6uypeot Teuzou, nous 220Urt peueea *(c96T ‘Te 90 330r704) fp sHOIIe TwOTAIOA JO OAROGLOD GT-OT DIE ‘AND SLOPES 210 swoyaeuyxoxdde BUTPEOT Teuou,, MoUs SOUT wou, POUFYD *(L96T ‘TE 39 ZZ0TIOa) ‘ zwatis ummpxe Jo SAMOWUOD zz"OT“DTE -. *us6t "Te ae.zz0Tz04) 'L we0x39 xe0ys 30 sanoquog TZ*OT“DTa 2a ‘EMBANKMEVS' ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION “ug6t ‘1e 30 330TI0a) UOTIepuNo; uy ™%p ssor;e TeQUORFZOY UO A JO SoUOMTZUT —EZ“OT‘OTE cron a som () Why Wy ry ty V0 in 80 no 20 0, 00 90 40 0 0g «927020 0, 80 90 ro 20 212 EXBANIOENTS AND SLOPES YIG.10.24 Distribution of vertical strese at base of esbaskment for various slope angles Gand i/x ratios (Perloff et at, 1967). 213 FIG.10.25 Disteibution of shear stress Ty at base of esbanknent for var= ious slope angles @ and L/¥ ratios (erlofé et al, 1967), ve03 @ 214 EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES of 62-05 10°20 50 OOO ia aH of G2 05 10 20. 30 10 20 BO 10 @ J ro) Seats TRACT 12] 12} re iH vob | omen LH! ol [2teneceanien | oalt™ ott ng ma 6 ool on o- oa o2| of oz. OS 10 20 ae 10 20 ‘50 100 of Oz OS TO 28 947° 10 20 5d 100 © @ FIG.10.26 Vertical stress along selected vertical sections. an15°, vad.3 (Perloff et al, 1967), EMBANKMENT OY ELASTIC FOUNDATION 25 aH @ pa (LM ot ape vay ro] a o-| Spm O65} oval og 1 OOF oe Os 10 20 sow OO y © FIG.10.27 Vertical stress along sel of 02 0S 10 20 5D 0 20 50 00 ° oF STOTT ETE by rma La 02 05 10-20 50 0 2 50 100 aH ) TONLE a 02 05 10 20 50 0 = 50 100 aH @ icted vertical sections. G=30%, v0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 26 EXGANKHENTS 28D SLOPES ae ra ae lunar! PH tee ATURE ° CHAR STI 1 Pom “ 8 rit 02) * 7 Oe O85 10 20 sO 0 so 100 Cor oF oS FO 20 so 1 2 nO 1 a fa (b) ot 2} Se" Sor oz 05 to 20 50 © 20 SD 100 oro os 1 70,50 00 p 2 © FXG.10.28 Vertical stress along selected vertical sections. a=45°, v0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 300 ‘EMBANKMENT OW ELASTIC FOUNDATION ay remap T sa val [ae HET +9 voll cise 09 os ee ng yy ih po 0-8} ot ai Ee on on a 0: oa 7] tL ° or oe oF 10 20 50 © w sO O14 OF O95 10 20 0 20 sO 100 4 fa) ‘ tb) Wee Sy wef as 19 9 B6 on oe “ot 02 05 10 20 BO 1 20 50 KO So 02 05 10 80 50 DO aM co) @ FIG.10129 Vertical stress along selected vertical sections. ex60", We0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 218 EMBAWRGUTS AND SLOPES cr 2 05 18 23 50 eB to of 02 0% 10 20 50 0 2 50 100 ¥ ae @ &) Tae (Leneseanh tL — le 02 05 to 2 so 10 2 50 100 a a a ae ape ( a FIG.10-30 Vertical stress along selected vertical sections. 875°, W0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). EMGANKYENT OW SLASTIC FOUNDATION 219 1, Haneef 0 a a H «) 19) 0-0) o-9| ee) ot lo ° ° “hr ez 05 10 20 50 0 2 TO POT OE 08 ORG FO I HO aH (> (a FIG,10.31 Yorizontal stress along selected vertical sections. ‘Gn1s*, 00.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 220 Ihe ween ae br 2 i F «ay @) SPRCRER OT oe tious ape a ba “Oe OF 0S 10 20. SO OOO so KO 2H te @ FIG,10.32_ Horizontal stress along selected vertical sections. an30", v0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). EMBANKMENT OW ELASTIC FOONDATION 221 xPetceHeot | t “oT oz 0S «FO 20 50 10 2 50 100 “DT Oe Os TO 70,22 © me @ ) [Haat fe vo} os 35 a aM oy @ FIG.10.33 Horizontal stress along selected vertical sections. ‘wa0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 222 EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES Cea iy a rq ool Bycneaayan «” a on o4| : ° “or oe OS FO 70,52 1 2 50 Wo br oz os 1D 29, 30 10 25 50 to «@ ® Tren — al " 10} * OFT sumecrarint og Fo os 02] 9. ° Oo oe os ro FO ye? OO “ORL O2 OS 10 20 50 10 20 50 100 eH te @ FIG.10.34 Horizontal stress along selected vertical sections. a=60", WH0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). EMBANKMENT ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION 223 ROACH ? ‘ 1 10 od o- ° o- yu oy ° ‘ox oa on ° ° i a) “br of os 10 20 50 0 20 50 100 iH 1 @ ® a 19 +o} ost oe od o¢ 0 A on ov o2| Oo ° sot br ez 05 10 20 50 wm 2 50 100 or 08 10 Fo so ee 2 ah co) fa F1G.10,35 Horizontal stress along selected vertical sections. x75", V0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). 224 EXDANKNENTS AND SLOPES x8) ARTS eset ooltey call | i os rn pn 0° HTM ole tam mH ee O- ov ova a ° oy So oe 0s 10 70 ee mn 2 BO 100 Cor oe os 10 eae eo 2 sO co 1 fa) ) Pog oe TRC 030 aM 0-25 0-29} Tay ons onto a OB 10 20, SO 1 a BO WO oF G2 08 10 20 30 1 2 100 aK 2H to @ 2IG.10.36 shear stress along selected vertical sections. a=d5*, va0.3 (Perloff et al, 1967). EMBANKMENT ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION eel 10.2.2. FOUNDATION OF FINITE DEPTH Clough and Woodward (1967) have considered the particular case of an exbankment-foundation system shown in Fig.10.37. While only one geonetry is con- sidered, the influence of varying the foundation mod- ulus on’the stresses and displacenents are investigated. -2a4__pyeon Lapp ; “a foes ME Siow FIG.10.37 Enbanknent on layer considered by Clough ‘and Woodward (1967). ‘The distribution of stress at the base of the enbankment, expressed in dimensionless form, is shown in Fig.10.38 for various values of £/E2. "It should be noted that the vertical stress oz is independent of this ratio, according to the results of Clough and Woodward. This may not however be generally true. ‘The distributions of horizontal and vertical dis- placement at the base of the eubanknent are plotted in dimensionless form in Fig.10.39. ‘Another case has been considered by Dingwall and Scrivner (1954) in which an embankment and a found- ation having identical elastic properties are consid- ered. and contours of average normal stress (oxt0z)/2 fd naximim shear stress Thar within the systen are ven, An approximate method for obtaining the normal stresses within and beneath an enbanknent resting on a semi-infinite mass or a finite layer, has been described by Mirata (1969). FIG.10.38 Stresses at base of embankment (Clough and Woodward, 1967). —— a SSS Sees a fe iD 1 a} {a) Horizontal Displocament + let maa L ° es u + 2| : 1 verte Dapceerent a erent or oa 03 os 05 G6 OF 05 ae To Ye ae r1c.10,39_blaplacmeate at tate of extemaent ‘South ta teats 30h" b+ 35 z 226 EMBANKMENTS AND SLOPES 10.3 Infinite Slope OA & vertca! 08 is bsactor FIG.10-40 ‘This problea was solved by Fillunger (1912) in ‘terms of the more general problen of a semi-infinite wedge (Fig.10.40). Solutions were obtained for Stresses due to the weight of the wedge and for stresses due to external loading, increasing linearly with radius, on one side of the wedge. Stresses due to weight: 0, = rY[(ateosalcosy + (besinalsiny =e cossied sinsy) aes (10.3a) Og = FYIfsatecea)eosy + (Sbtsina)siny +e cossied cindy) s++ (20.56) = ry(a sinh cosy + © sindy - d cossy) see (20.3e) where q = - Svea singh B(sinvateinsva) b = —Sine cosdn 2 (e08¥-c085¥,) cosa, cosh, eine. Bein'V he e= Stresses due to external Loading: 6, 'e g0(a casi sinte cosspd singh) (10.48) = r¢0(3a cosyeab sinvte cossied sindy) vee (20.46) Tye = Mola sine cose sindied coesy) ves Q0.4e) wh = —oh ere 8 = Testes ee 16cosy, sin "yy ems L Ts008*y, -—1 Sie slope 0:1 (ae + erecta 0) Unit Weight «¥ For the specific case of sn infinite slope with a horizontal surface (Fig.10.41), Goodman ond Brown (1963) obtained the following solutions, in terms of Cartesian coordinates: Y = latte h 40) (2407) 2 tar Dasa? P "a 2 + at(ovas)in =F (attesa% (eta)? + (10-5a) tts 3h + axli-a*}) sin GA } INFINITE SLOPE a FIG.10.42 Vertical stresses in infinite slope (Goodman and Brown, 1963). a a re) ™% FIG.10.43 Horizontal stresses in infinite slope (Goodman and Brown, 1963). yale a BER 6 OS 0 OS SB aT % FIG.10.44 shear stresses in infinite slope (Goodman and Brown, 1963). 2-4 16 08 (0 08 Se tO % 228 LEMPANKNENTS AND SLOPES = e- moa? = {az( ita?) fat 2) (1402)? 2 = (etaz)in as se + (atta (ataa] = ax{Sta*]Jeix s++ (10.50) Tag = fa 20a? rats te (ar Deasat) (stax)? “1 2 + (a1) (taa)ein” (>) : et +++ @0.5e) 0, = — yf fewer lar autor 2) (sn420 —Hertas) -(42walat Fein” (2 tea? + Geletes) (Sita) 4 etea)™ iy ¢qq24) 22404) mae Ste. rayatin(etea?) + mutacin) ee see (0.Sa) 2 * hate Dana pris ae 2) our = (aossPandace) + 2S) (14402) 2(1+a*) + autit2aty) = Onew EE alarms KF3* + (nian) til4a"#6a"47) 12 (2a*450"45) 2(t4a?)* oo yt Ot) (2otas)atin ave?) seat ~ eCesbw Cotes)” yy atest 2(dta*)* (ohaa)* ses @0.5e) where A, y are Lane's parameters =e a (140) (1-20) z we 6 = Fe) Dimasionless plots of the stresses for various values of slope a and dimensionless coordinates 2/2 obtained by Goodman and Brown are shown in Figs. 10.42 to 10.44. Note that the stresses are independ- end of the elastic parameters. Goodsan and Brown suggest that the above solutions may be used to determine the stresses in a slope which is constructed inerenentally. Referring to Fig-10.45, the overall stresses at a point o after construction of a layer (2) on the top of the original slope (1) can be caloilated, using coordinates (z2,22) of © referred to the top of layer 2. The original stress- es at @ can be calculated using coordinates (1,21) of C referred to the top of the original slope. The stresses due to the construction of layer 2 may then be obtained by subtraction of the original stresses from the final values. Using the above approach, the stresses (and hence the displacements) due to construction of a slope in any number of increments may be determined. Layers of different densities may be considered also, although the resulting solutions will only be approx- imate as a variation of density implies avariation in moduli, and such a variation would in fact render the solution for a homogeneous slope invalid. Coordinates of C tor erignat topes. 25) Coorainetes of C for final contigurotns(x,2—) FIG.10.45 Application of theory to incremental construction (Goodman and Brown, 1963). Chapter 11 STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS AROUND UNDERGROUND OPENINGS 44.1 Unlined Openings 11.1.1 CIRCULAR TUNNEL IN AN INFINITE MASS (Plane strain) (Fig.11.1) LUI D> TIT FIG.11.2 Due to uniform vertical loading p, per unit area, a, = PE (r+ Be + BE 4 coos arte) oy = 22 (t+ 8) - Fr + 8S) cots ++ 1.2) to 77 EG a 252) oinae .- G13) Due to uniform horizontal loading pz per unit area, = Foy. Peg 4 Sa _ at a, = Ett - Sy - Be + SE - Saat +. (1.4) Dera Pa oy = 30 + 3+ Fe + Jeos20 ... (11.5) Tye 2a. E+ My ointo + G16) It should be noted that the above solutions apply ‘to the plane stress problem of a plate with a circular hole as well as the plane strain problem of a tunnel. Terzaghi and Richart (1952) have tabulated and plotted the norma) stresses along the = and axes. Stresses for three combinations of loading are tabulated in Table 11.1 while stresses for ¥ = pz/ps 0.25 are plotted in Fig.11.2.. ‘The influence of the ratio Non the circumferential principal stress is shown in Fig.11.3 Stresses above the tunnel along the the line 2=a are shown in Table 11.2, ‘At any point, the vertical and horizontal stress components are calculated as follows: yt, Ser, %, = gp +g 00820 + TygeinZe ... (11.74) Oop 6, 2 20n _ See a 9, = OOP. OOF oat = tygtint® «4. (11.70) oom typ = ~ PE Bointe + x,o0028 + 1.76) 230 UNDERGROUND OPENINGS TABLE 11.1 STRESSES ON AXES OF CIRCULAR TUNNEL (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952) For p,=1.0, py=0 For pz#0, pyAl.0 For pg=l.0, pa=0.25 {iie0..25) ‘Along a-axis ‘Along 2-axis Along z-axis Along axis Along z-axis Along a-axis (80) A (620) GP (820) © zg, 6, % % 9% 6 % o oy 1.00 0 0 5.000. 0 3.000 0 1,000 0 -0.250 0 2.750 1.05 -0.034 0.127 2.688 0.127 2.688 -0.034 -0.781 -0.002 -0.109 0.118 2,493 110 -01042 0.218 21438 0.215 21488 -0.042 -0.611 +0.012 0.002 0.208 2.285 129 0.013 01318 2.071 0.318 2.071 -0.013 -0.576 0.067 40.142 0.515 1.977 ao sons 01375 164301375 11646 +0.115 0.155 0.209 0.275 0.404 1.612 1.70 0.315 9.339 1.353 0.339 1,353 0.315 -0.007 0,399 0.332 0.418 1-351 2100 0.469 0.281 L219 0.281 11219 0.469 +0:031 0.559 01386 0.398 1.227, 3.00 0.741 0.148 1.074 0.148 = 1,074 0.741 0.037 0.778 0.306 0.333 1.083 3.00 0.902 01058 11022 0.058 1.022 0.902 0.018 0.917 0.273 0.283 1.027 TABLE 11.2 STRESSES ABOVE A CIRCULAR TUNNEL ALONG oma crerzaghi and Richart, 1952) B 99 te Cy Teh A. For vertical load only 3.000 0 3.000 7 0.18 2781 -0.020 ns (Pp1-0. Prd) 0136, 2.221 -01137 2074 0.58 1547, 20.352 1516 0.78 Lor 20/827 11263 1.00 0.750 -0.625 1125 138 0.463 -0.634 0.978 as 0.528 -0.568 -0:141 0.891 278 0.160 -0.384 -0.028 0.849 5.67 0.088 0.181 0.009 0.935 ° ° 0 01,000 =1.000 0 0 1.000 Sc ee 0.18 =0.810 0.020 -0.007 0.796 0.6 70.387 01137 0.035 -0. 388 (p20, pipt-0) 0.58 0.203 0.352 0-391 0.141 aoe 0.78 0.580 0.527 0.812 -0.113 1.00 0.750 0.625 1.125 -0.125 13s 0.883 0.634 1.296 -0.081 . 1.73 0.922 0.568 1.265 -0.016 2.75 0.957 0.384 0.062 5167 0.985 0.181 0.009, 1.000 0 ° : 2.7500 2.750 . For biaxial loading 0.18 2/578 -0.016 21514 (pz51-0, 70-25) 9:36 21136-01103 197 aaa oss 1s98 “0.264 1480 s 0.78 1.209. -0. 395 2 100 o1958 “0.469 Los 13s. 0.684 70.475 0.132 0.958, 1:73 01559 -0.426 0.176 0.887 2.75 0.399 -01288 0.251 0.864 5.67 0.291 -0.136 0.264 0.944 ° 0.250 9 0.250 1.000 ‘UNEINED OPENINGS 232 “oom Wi om Gone Be so #0 a FIG:11.2 Stress aistribution around a circular ‘eumnel. Na0.25. (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952). Mt e The following expressions for displacenents are quoted by Obert and Duval (1967) for combined uniform vertical and horizontal Loading: HM 2, Pat, dial atop oo, = CHG of e a 42 coos} ~ ie ° 2 - rT oe 21 8. CEPR - Spaez0} 7 2 roe z E 0 wee (1.8) ial dis it Ley? PsP ot = tangential dteplacenent og = EM 4Ps 75 woh " 2a? ay, 140)4 Pa? 7 peel + +22 4 Doing} ~ VisEO = (4 a ; 2g 20s v0 15 BO BS SO SS FO ofr - 224 sinzo} wee G19) ° . ete FIG.11.3 Circumferential principal stress at surface At the surface of the tunnel (ra) of circular tunnel as function of W Werzaghi and Richart, 1952). °, = 2% falp 4p.) + 2alp_-p,Jooe20} e = PLP (PgrPg) 0088 see 1.10) oy =~ PN 20tp_o7,J0int0} ss GLI) 232 ONDERGROUND OPEXEBGS 11.1.2. CIRCULAR TUNNEL IN A SEMI-INFINITE MASS (Fig.-11.4) FIG.12,4 Mindlin (1940) considered the above problem for three eases of applied loading: at depth 2 (reaote fron the tumel), Py oe me Lie. isotropic gravitational pressure whore v= unit weight of mass. Case I: Case ZI: at depth 2 (remote from tumel), P, = U2 » Pa In this caso, there is no lateral deformation tenote from the tunnel. Case ZIT: at depth 2 (tesote from tunnel), p,m eR ye Ae. uo lateral restraint of the mss Fenote from the tunnel. ‘The solutions obtained by Mindlin were in terms of bipolar coordinates a and §, which are related to the Cartesian = and = coordinates as follows: A sin8 eo fee = costa -cos8 (aivi2ay a = Asia ses GLIZ) cosha ~ cook and 4 = © tows = a einhay where ¢, is the value of a correspand- ing to the boundary of the tunnel, eosin, vee (11226) als 4 Case I On the circular boundary (oras), = Bitleosta,— cob), 2-2onha, e008 ‘cok ‘sinhar (eoeha,-e0e8)* = etka, ~ (2-88) 2006 yo 1 say) cinta, PF = cosns| wee UL: net on} (1.13) where R= ane gw 727 (ein coshreny-nsinhaycoshay) n sinh?no,-n*stnh a, ‘The distribution of og around the tunnel 55 shown in Fig.11.$ for two values of oy. The variation of ag/vD at the highest point of the tunnel (oruy,f=x) with the ratio e/a is show in Fig-11.6. This figure shows that the disturbing influence of the upper free boundary is only effective if o/acl.5. Volues of og around the tunel are tabulated in Table 11.3 for three values of v. Ie should be noted that for v0.5, Cases I and If are identical, Gases II and IT For those cases, the solution for legla-w, is obtained by adding the solution for Case I to ‘the following expression: wh (cosh, ~coz8) {Soothe asahn,+cach*a,cosB + dointoy J t,ooent} + ouchaschor cha feospricosha,costyroos3y) eee GLA) where S,ptntn?1)_e 7 UNLIWED OPENINGS 233 “2 -«9) a [ “10 al -20 = a SI =10 ved & ° 2 eaz0-4 warz0 wos +0 a ml Sart FIG.11.5 Tangential stress around tunnel seg (uindlin, 1940). eh . 3 20 2 3 (e)Case +2 $e 5 oy] x0 2-9] a = Ss 2 = 3 MN 10 =" oltorcasg m 30 7 2 3 4 vane of 4-0. FIG.11.7 Variation of tangential stress at highest ‘ 7 < 3 * Point of tunnel vs. c/a. Cases II and III. Vaues ot og (iindlin, 1940). FIG.11.6 Variation of tangential stress at highest. point of tunnel vs. c/a (Mindlin, 1940). Case 1. aA 5, = eh Leiniem _ The variation of ag/uD at the highest point of % cink*na,-n*einh*a, the tunnel (asm, Bem) “with c/a is shown in Fig.1.7. y= ont eitimsinsy Values of og around the tunnel are tabulated ‘eosha,-cos8 in Table 11.4 for three values of v. ¢ = ER gor case 1 sa) or G = for Case IIT. 180 160 (Qindlin, 1940) 140 80100 120 wd TABLE 11.3 60. UNDERGROUND OPENINGS 40 fog], vatues oF 2° (case 1) 20 a VALUES OF 9 (See Fig.11.5) CORRESPONDING TO 8 FOR POINTS ON CIRCUMFERENCE = 4 > case I case £ 234 120 «40160180 100 40 60 20 oy, a UNEINED OPENINGS tasué 11.4 cA vaunes of “280-01 (cases 11 AND 111) c) Qlirdiin, 1940) 8 a ee ee ee vr0 0.2 1622 1.93 0.17 -0.98 -0.98 -1.76 -3.0% -4.41 -5.47 5.87 Oa itlkz tee Vise 9.70 “0120 c), ami vertical tosding p, a 2 2 oy B eee fooshaisez-sne**c(1-272%)) + $22808 ooehzoet-t86"*c(1-<"2)) + SEIS aetnntild-contsh+ sce"™*(z+e0088} see (2.17) {-sinhSa{2~coeaa} - de“? {1400026} = A+ 2Be"*ooo2g}] + EAB (-coshoa) 1+ ape"? + (6 #4) + Sfooatbl-ecehon-ce”*ynz6 #0} -+-Continued ONLINED OPENINGS 237 0 or ‘Net. oo HILT " tornes Soy2 Py 2 ov wl Hl my ~ 7-0 | Las] t leo 9 torneo consBcrhy, ow ‘Stress scate. a FIG.11.9 Stresses about elliptical tunnel (a/e-) FIG.11.10 Circumferential principal stress at surface of elliptical tunnel (a/c=). ‘in homogeneous stress fields (W=0.25). (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952), (erzaghi and Richart, 1952). TLV d feovste 50 He J if = ! «0 “0 & wi 2 i sof. 30 “ = ; & Mle ! | SSE = 30 =o 0 a aces FIG.11.11 Stresses about elliptical tunne! (a/c=2.0) in homogeneous stress fields (N=0.25). (erzaghi and Richart, 1952). 238 UNDERGROUND OPENINGS + coshta- ce?) vee (1.18) 2ein2h 7 sind ne ]. E { {-2einh2a~4ae"2°42Ce 2%} + [etnhaaliteosh2a~236"?* > Cf1-8°7%)) -sinhaa-co*a + costi{sinkza-ce”*?42B2 24) s+ GLI) where A = -I-coehay 2 = Jetten a c= 1+ e700 and the distortion factor h is determined by W = sinktateos®B. At any point of the surface of the elliptical hole, a is equal to ap, hence (og) = Petsinhtas-t-e°**cos26] Ps ons ‘At the top of the hole, for which Beo, (o=-p, while on the z-axis, 6/2 and ey cs) (21.20) (og) = plit2oothas) = p(1va 2)... (1.2) aay : &F For Case b (a and the elliptical coordinates are related to the Certesian coredinates as, 2 0 cosht coon B= 0 simhE ein on the surface of the crack, §20 and com =%. For the case of a crack subjected to pure shear @ per mit area, . = q(cooh2§-1) (a-n?)einzn 9 se 1.27) & 9, = ala*loosht§-1)-a(a0ah26+1)\etnan (a1.28) = qlacos2n-a? (1-eosmn)IsinkaE ... (21.29) En For sn uniaxial stress field p perpendicular to the plane of the crack, the vertical displacement at the surface of the crack is = 288 feta * 9, 2 see 1.30) 111.6 SPHERICAL CAVITY IN AN INFINITE MASS (Fig. 11.16) FIG.11.16 UNLINED OPENINGS 24d Terzaghi and Richart (1952) quote the following solutions obtained by Neuber (1946) for uniform ver- tical loading pg per unit are: - EB, (BHC rgenteyy 4 268. 2A y= (ee, - “gs tga letntonp,+ “Fs - - Sore + aL.sy ® 2IB , (1-0), 29, 123. oy = [pg + e+ Fewe Jointe. HR + 4, . {20-1)¢ see (11.32) = 15B , S(I-a)C) . 26 128 A, (2001) BEB y SEOE) giq2g. 128, A, (20r1IE 9 RG Deine Se at see (11,33) op 4 2B, (at) . ng (Pa + Be + PPE) eintooets Toye; taye0 + (11.34) in which 2,8, and § are the poler co-ordinates a= 2(1-v) pet the uniformly distributed vertical stress =. (2450 C 2(446a) P* Bo Se asa ca be 50 The results from the above equations for the uni- axial stress field may be superposed to obtain the results for biaxial or triaxial stress fields. It should be noted that, in contrast to the plane strain cases of a circular or an elliptical hole,-the stress- es in this case are dependent on v. ‘The influence of v on the tangential stress 09 has been evaluated by Terzaghi and Richart for a point A on the equator, at nid-height of the cavity, and at the centre C of the roof of the cavity. The results are shown in Table 11.7. TABLE 11.7 INFLUENCE OF VON STRESSES ‘AROUND SPHERICAL CAVITY Se/Ps O8/Pz Vota ac Oo 1.929 -0,214 0.20 2.000 -0.500 0.30 2.045 -0.682 0.50 2.167 | ~1.167 The stresses along the axes of the cavity are given in Table 11.8 for 0.2, The case of uni- axial loading (pz=1, pa-py-0) and triaxial loading for W=0.25 (peel, prt 25) are considered. TABLE 11.8 STRESSES ALONG THE AXES OF A SPHERICAL CAVITY (v=0.20) Along the z-axis Along the x-axis (@=0) (=H Boy ogre, 9, (@) For the case pynl.0, papy-0 1.09 0 -0.500 9 2.0000 1.05 -0,025 -0,352 0.080 1.804 -0.020 110 [0.012 70.245 0.130 1.654 0.035 1120 “0.068 -0:115 0.177 11446-0044 1.40 0.279 -0.004 0,179 1.231 -0,045 1.70 0.530 0.031 0153 1.108 0.033 2100 0.688 0.031 0.094 1084 0.023 2150 0.829 0.022 0.058 1.024 0.015 3.00 01897 0.014 0.034 1.012 -0.008 00 0.985 0.002 0.005 1.001 -0.001 1.000 oO oO 000 0 (b) For the ease pg=l-0, parpya0.25 (10.25) 1.00 0 0 ° 1.875 0.375 1.05 0,016 0.094 0.094 1.711 0.343 1.10 9.053 0.158 0.160 11584 0.320 1.20 0.156 0.238 0.258 1.407 0.289 140 0.368 0.295 0.248 1.219 0.262 1.70 0.597 0.298 0.299 1,103 0.281 2.00 0.738 0.289 0.289 0.248 2150 0.855 0.274 0.274 0.248 3.00 0.914 0.270 0.267 0.249 6.00 0.989 0.252 0.252 0.250 © 1,000 0.250 0.250 0.250 (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952) Stresses above the spherical cavity, along the Line oma, have been tabulated ty Terzaghi and Richart (1982) for v0.2, and are reproduced in Table 11.9. The stresses above a spherical cavity for the case H=0.25 and \=0.2 are plotted in Fig.11.17. 2a ONDERGROUND OPENINGS TABLE 11.9 STRESSES ABOVE A SPHERICAL CAVITY ALONG THE LINE x=a (v=0, 20) (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952) 9; 9, *, * h v ‘wh 'P (a) For the case 2.000 0 0 0 2.000 0 1.605 -0.051 -0.086 0.165 1.511 -0.375 PynlO, PEDO 1.324 -0.193 0,183 1.261 -0.330 0.970 0.357 0.067 1.046 -0.242 0.626 0.496 -0.073 0.927 -0.189 0.402 0.506 -0.082 0.877 -0.160 0.287 -0-460 -0.048 0.875 0.121 0.182 -0.383 -0.015 0.901 -0.069 0.125 70.323 0.929, 0.030 70.165 0.988 ° o 1.000 00 8 = 0 __—-0.500 0 0 -0.500 0 05 0.32 -0.085 -0.144 0.086 0.025 -0.182 -0.032 10 0.46 0.088 0.193 0.171 0.074 -0.153 20 0.66 0.364 9.387 0.510 -0.046 -0.260 40 0.98 0.601, 0.496 9.908 -0.077 -0.195 1701.37 0.733 0.505. 1.054 -0.081 0.064 001.73 0.759 0.460 1.058 -0.017 -0.034 50 2.29 0.863, 0.383 1.034 0.007 0.009 00 2.83, 0.902 0.323 1.019 0.02 0.009 00 5.92 0.974 0.165 11002 0.004 0.001 = 1000 0 110000 ° (©) For the case ° 0 2.0000 ° ° ° 32 0.080 -0.020 1.804 0 0,071 -9.011 0.029, 46 01033 1.654 00.102 0.004 0.062 66, 70.044 1.446 0 = 0.109 0.023 0.102, 98 201043 1.231 9 0.069 0.065 0.112 37 70.035 1.104 0 © 0,024 0.078 0.079, 73 701023 1.054 0 0.006 0-065 0.051 29 01013 1.024 0 += -0.003 9.043 0.025 83 “01008 1.012 0 —-0.004 9.030 0.013 92 0.001 1.001 0 —-0.001 9.004 0.009 7° 0 1.0000 ° 0 ° (@ For the case 1.00 0 0 1,875 0.3750 0 1,875 0 0.087 1.560 0.520 -0.065 0.187 1.463 -0.374 O.156 1.337 0.292 -0.145 0.251 1.242 -0.353 0.213 1.080 0.274 -0.268 0.222 1.041 -0.281 0.330 0.765 0.277 0.372 0.171 0.924 -0.210 0.S77 0.282 -0.380 0.188 0.883 -0.157 0.623 0.481 0.279 -0.345 0.218 0.886 -0.111 0.763 0.395 0.270 -0.287 0.243 0.914 -0.060 0.842 0.349 0.264 -0.242 0.251 0.940 -0.034 0.968 0.273 0.252 -0.124 0.252 0.990 -0.003 0.250 0.250 0 0.250 1.000 0 vperrosse 3 UNZINED OPERTHCS 743 12.1.7 SPHEROIDAL, CAVITY IN AN INFENITE MASS Detailed treatments of this problem have been nade by Neuber (1957), Sadowsky ard Sternberg (1947), Edwards (1951) and Terzaghi and Richart (1952). Stresses are tabulated and plotted by Terzaghi and Richart (1952) for two cases: a/o=5.0 and a/o-60.0 (see Fig.11.20 for definition of a and a) Jn doth cases, = is the major semi-axis of the ellipse and \0.2. Stresses on the z-axis are tab- ulated in Teble 11.10 while stresses above the equator of the spheroid (i.e, at su) are tabulated in Tables HLM and 11.12, ‘The distribution of stresses along various vert- ical lines is plotted in Figs. 11.18 and 11.19. ‘The variation of circumferential pal stress at the roof and at mid-height on the cavity with a/o is shown in Figs, 11.20 and 11.21 which also show the stresses for the elliptical tunnel : FIG.11.17 stresses above a spherical cavity. TABLE 11.11 W=0.25, (Perzaghi and Richart, 1952). ‘STRESSES ABOVE EQUATOR OF SPHEROTD (at za) 2 22 5,0, v0.2 2 oh (@) For the loading 0 0 conditions, 0.05 1,185 TABLE L110 Peel.0, 9.07 70.690 STRESSES ALONG THE 2-AXTS ABOVE SPHEROIDAL CAVITIES 0.15 702404 (0,20) 0.21 20.375 0.50 701334 For paat.ds For pals For penl.0 0.40 70.305 rey peeled Bouse 1.05 701366 182 =0,075 z 5 %, 2 ° a e ia 2 th ee For the loadin 0 @ G-59) © Graltionss 010s <0-323 201383 0.20 0 ° 1.32 0 -0.325 Pad, 0.07 7 0:30 -0.012 9.902 11255 -0,007 0.154 Perpynt.0 oa cote 0:40 0.008 0.003 17193 0.009 “o-o1e 2 roe 0:60 0.238 01005 1.105 0.139 0.175, oe30 cotbas 100 0.536 0.004 11028 0.537 0.288 ard O08 130 0.763 0.005 1.010 0.768 0.278 is ecole 1000, o 32000 0.250 2 3 2 = 50) (6) For the loading 0 ° © G9) ‘conditions, 0.05 1.27 0.02 0 -0.698 0 1.037 0-047 Pext.d, 0.07 -0.728 0.10 -0.001 -0.572 9,000 1-032 -0.001 -0.512, 50.25 on13 -02444 0.20 0.007 -0.425 0.000 1.025 0.007 0.169 0.21 20.387 0:45 0.081 -0-188 0.000 1-015 0.081 0.066 0.30 202346 0.60 0.250 -0.045 0.000 1.008 0.280 0.207 0:40 20.31 1.00 0.595 0.037 9.000 1.002 0.595 0.288 1.05 +0161 1.30 0.795 0.029 0.000 1.002 0.793 0.280 ez 20.071 = 10006 © 15000 1.000 0.250 : 0 (lersaghi and“Richare, 1952)" 244 ONDERGRODND OPENTSGS “Con Vaal LUI Ss TATE ee \ \ % | as eo v0 soso "| a oh Be [ f % °F aator wowed * tena 0s Se perl ro 40 ie 10) 30 100 2 10.11.18 stresses above 9 sgheroian. caty. 0.11.20. ctecondecontia) peineiPsl streoe 6, a/ce5.0 (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952), at centre of roof of cavity (Terzaghi and Richart, 1952). Wb = 5 *», Set ey PIGALI9 Stresses above a spheroidal cavity. FIG.11,21 Cixeunferential principal stress ,, ‘B/erhO Terzaghi and Richart, 1952), ‘at Rid-height of wall surface of cavity . (ferzagh{ and Richart, 1982), LIWED OPENINGS 245 ‘TABLE 11,12 ‘STRESSES ABOVE EQUATOR OF SPHEROID (at 2=a) Z = 50, v0.2 z a9 So Toh (a) For the loading 0 0 63.5370 conditions, 0.01 1,081 4.787 -1.648 Pgrl.0, 0.08 0.317 2.580 -0.738 P=Py=0 1.287 ~0.267 0.841 -0.147 0.948 -0.031 1,000 0 () For the loading 0 = 0 -0.987 0 conditions, 0.01 0,693 0.142 -0.050 ard, 0.04 0,950 0.030 -0.046 Parpy-t.0 0.31 0.973 0.001 -0.010 1.03 ‘0,009 -0.001 2.43 0.000 0.001 ° o (©) For the loading ° ° conditions 4.823 -1,61 Pan 2.573 -0.750 0.25 1,256 -0.269 0.843 0.147 0.984 0.031 1,000 0 (erzaghi and Richart, 1952) 11.2 Lined Openings 1.2. coma nies 1 me ss Ga RS LLELLI : | | : » ff GAe-__4]. : : CTT | Note: Boundaries are fer away from tunnel PIG.11.22 ‘This problez has been considered in detail by Burns and Richard (1964) and Hoeg (1968), and is relevant where stresses are applied after tunnel ‘excavation. ‘The stress. and displacenent solutions are as follows: = Wola [a 8") - 1-0 [2-3028)" o,* = 4as (2) *Jooe20) see @1.35) 9 = ewUCa4t) [2401 84] + (2-10 [2-302 9)" Joos20) 1.36) Tyg — $UA-K) [24302 8)" + 2038) ]oinze see Q1.37) = wh [re 2 7] - ay EY 0, = we aww [+ A B*] - aw Ee + 4(1-v)a1 2" ]00020} ses (11.38) = phy 7 % = WEES a-wlt-a@) + 20-2v)as 9)" Jeinzo se (11.39) where v = Poisson's ratio of mass M = one dimensional modulus of mass - —El-v) Tew) (1-20) Fs, = Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of material in tunnel wall D = average tumel dianeter= 28 t = thickness of tunnel wall = compressibility ratio 1 G-v2) MQ (av) Bye F = flexibility ratio 1 1-9) (2) 4 (Note that a system with both C and P zero ‘The values ai,a2,a9 are constants which depend on the boundary condition at the tunnel-nass interface. ‘Two cases are considered: (a) no slip (i.e. full adhesion) on interface, for which +++ (@1-40a) ea ca-o - 4a-tv)teve ae (ea-tueci-aelte(d -eeF 06 bs -++ @1.40b) 246 UNDERGROUND OPENINGS aeceavar - a-ane2 [(S-20)#(1-20) 0] F4(S-~ BU6V2)CH8-B0 1.40e) (0) free sip on interface, for which . eae s+ (L41a) a= Meee ss GL.41b) a= 3E-1 eee (11.41e) 2FH-60 ‘The variation of the radial contact stress is shown in Fig.11.23 for @=0 and 90° and for both no slip and free slip, The variation of radial stress op with radial distance fron the cylinéer is shown in Fig.11.24 for Feld and 0=0.03. ‘The variation of radial deflection at the tunnel crown with flexibility ratio F is shown in Fig. 11.28. Distributions of stress, displacement, maximum moment and thrust eround the tunnel have also been presented by Burns and Richaré (1964) for a number of specific cases. Krizek et al (1971) have summarized the results of Burnsand Richard's calculations, and dinensioniess plots of deflection, thrust, moment and Shear forces are shown in Figs. 11.26 to 11.29. The sign definition is given in Fig.11.26. In’all cases, the solutions are for a undirectional uniformly dis- tributed pressure acting at an infinite distance from the opening, i.e. ke in Holg's notation, and for ¢ small. LINED OPENINGS 27 xs loro 9°90" prc.11.23 Radial contact stress versus flexibility Eo. ex, Fatio (Hoég, 1968) a NS] OH & o2 o| -02 INSeNo Sippage. Ie s-Free Sippoge. ‘8 + ; a | l am T Insl [1 @ovse] ra 7IG.11.24 variation in stress with distance! fron Tes ineertace (ios9, 1968). Baas t 75 Ee a v5 yegeger an ae 3 Radi Osten trom heriace I i rs. | - NS. _ FIG.11.25 Radial cylinder deflection versus Li] Flexibility ratio (loég, 1968). os ; on ot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 Ww. Flexiiity Ratio F ‘UNDERGROUND OPENINGS 248 “(oxen *4e2824 pus Asx) Aavrvarvors snszoa sieuas Gees 62°TT' OT 3805 os Ou 201, Sp +g 30 sono *Cx6r xezTH pue key) Ad¥1qTKOrs snsyea asnqyL cZ°TT"OTA a an *(ocer ‘97723 pur ‘Aey) Aayryayxorg snsz9K 3uowom Buypuog sz" TTo1g *(OL6T ‘49772X pus ey) AaprTaysorg snszoa woyseasosed 92°11" OT a cen ‘eeu unos> pun| uae 0 vorou0;29| Chapter 12 RAFT FOUNDATIONS 12,1 Strip Foundations on a Semi-infinite 12.1.1 BEHAVIOUR IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTTON (a) Smooth strip Subjected to iniform Presence Borowicka (1939) has obtained solutions for ‘the distribution of contact pressure p beneath a strip subjected to miform pressure q. ‘These solut ions are shown in Fig.12.1. The relative stiffuess K is defined as LAs") Bp ty? te eee 22.2) were Epp = elastic moduli of strip © = strip thickness B = half width of strip Eg.vg = clastic moduli of mass. ©) Smwoth Strip Subjected to Central line Load Borowicka (1939) has obtained the shown in Fig.12.2 for the contact pressure solutions Sisteibut- ion p beneath the strip. Pay-P/2b where P is the line load per unit length, and X is defined in Equation (12.1). (2) Rough Strip Subjected to Untform Preseure ‘Lee (1963) obtained solistions for ‘the contact normal and shear stresses and the bending coments and the shear forces within the strip, For vg of the soil =0, the contact normal stresses are shown in Fig.12.3, contact shear stresses in Fig.12. distrib- utions oF bending coment in Fig.12.S, and distributions of shearing force in Fig.12.6. In these figures the relative stiffness X is defined as ee eR Gaye gp? see (2.4) 249 were Epp, = the elastic mol of 8/12 = Ty © moment of inertia of strip By © Young's modulus of soil > = halfwidth of strip. ‘The veristion of muima shearing force, nacimm vending nouent and maxima differential settlement with K is shown in Pigs.12.7, 12.8 and 12.9 respectively. Tt should be noted that if Ve-0.5, the. solutions for a rough strip are identical with those for 2 smooth strip. % ° % ¥IG.12.1 Contact pressure distribution beneath ‘uniformly loaded smooth strip (orowicka, 1939), 250 APT PooNDArroNS os F1G.12.4 Contact shear stress beneath uniformly vs loaded rough strip (Lee, 1963). 20 ° 1 % 2 Contact pressure distribution beneath gmooth strip with line load (Rorowicka,1939). FIG. ¥IG.12.3 Vertical contact stress beneath uniformly ¥1G,12.5 Bending mments in uniformly loaded zough Joaded rough strip (Lee, 1963). strip (Lee, 1963). STRIP FOUNDATION ON SEMI-INFINITE ¥ASS 252 Os O06 08 Ore 44 K FIG.12.8 Maximum bending ponent in uniformly loaded strip (Lee, 1963). SS] Oa 06 08 1042 K PIG.12.9 Maximim differential deflection in imiformly loaded rough strip. V,w0. (Lee,1963). ool ace 7 "ane 08 (0-08) i /| 7 on y 7 on ~ oe ons 02 Os O68 O68 +O % EF rrr ars ceca ee — malts eeeseret ow : os on oa so oa son 0 Om 4 width of strip. The average contact pressure q=l/éba (for unit applied load). Brown has found that the ratio a/b has a relatively small influence on the moments. STRIP FOUNDATION OW SEMI-INFTUTTE MASS FIG.12.11 Moment in atrip. a/b=25, Knd.1x10 (Brown, 1969¢). os 2 o-3}-— s 2 Moment -0. FIG.12.13 Moment in strip. ‘afoa25, Ked-1x10.? (Brow, 1969¢). rc % FIG.12-12 Moment in ateip. ‘afb=25, Fed. 1x10. (Brown, 1968¢). % FIG.12.14 Moment in strip. ‘a/b=28, K=4.1x10-? (Brown, 19690). W360 253 254 “(06961 ‘unoza) LOD psx ‘Gzea7e ayae Bul voya90Zeq eT*eT “OTE abignenn2/*a hos a re.atively suall effector ‘ip. Fos Sytsusss pees) the absplacenent due to the pile, is within #51 of the es value duo to a point toad P acting on the axis at a 5 distance 25/3 below the surface. ~ 4 PS PSE MT iit «0| | 1 10 = 38 = 2 — — a! ° 2 20 s + = ee ~ « Percemage 0t Loos Correa by Bete 3 | | PIG.13.12 Displscement influence factors for Compressible floating pile (Mattes Sit ot Poulos, 1969). ro ‘00 10000 waDNO FIG.13.10 Effect of pile compreasibility on load tronsferred to pile base (wettes and Fosloa, 1969). 8 9 7] 4 7] ares | yr 08 4 aj-—J— |—|- ay TF We Se ™~ ©3 04 03 02 oF 0 Un FIG,13.13 Effect of finite Layer depth on pile Glaplacenent (Mattes and Poulos, 1963) FYG.13.21 Top and tip displacoments of compressible Moating pile (attes and Poulos, 1969). 273 SINGLE COMPRESSIBLE PILE soot ‘oot = p/I ‘eTFd oF ‘onp auoueseTdsyp 103 sx030eg OT ET “OTE % 4 Y% *o0oTet ‘oot = B/T -orrd 03 onp quoueoeTdeyp 303 sxoyoRd ST*ET “Ora n Y oso t soe 0 ho 60 20 10 0, so00dzex ‘OOT = P/T “TT 03 ‘onp auaweoeTdsyp 10x s1019e4 PT“ET*OTS ie % oso 1 om 2 Gm ono carsselsanecee - i S00 haan = . E L ° ; yu ant ease 1% 08s z eaten 0-% i 7 sorte s 008 + 006+ cea 7 7 AXIALLY LOADED PILES 274 tootex ‘62 = P/T “oTTd 09 enp quoweovTdsyp 107 sx0qeZ ET“ET“OTT n” *000T=_'s2_= P/T “oTyd 09 ‘onp juswsseTdsyp x03 8303383 OT -ET“Ia sooo ‘sz = P/ teryd 09 ‘onp yuowsoetdeyp 703 sx020ea | LT“ET*OTa Mu 4 y, ry VY oso 1 sz oso 1 we oso 1 ot 2 £0 60 60 20 10 0, do v0 0 20 10 144 $0 0 60 20 10 O99 50-0 $0.0 = | s0-0 0 vo eee = . 8 4 Fz + fe SS eit co FSI <0 = ‘ L cn uw 2001 8 eons» oy sock ff cork SO FI BI Ysa . 27% 0 92-% o 275 ‘onp quomsseTdsyp x03 sxoj08d Zz"ET"DIE 50 FO £0 20 10 0,0, *O0OT=X ‘OT = R/T *eTTd 09 onp queeoeTdsyp Joy sx03Deg Tz*ET“OTE ” oso 1 oH fot = P/T sorta 04 onp auomoutdayp 20g ax0n00a o7*¢T‘Ord fo v0 60 20 10 0, Peel ‘SINGLE COMPRESSIBLE PILE ‘001 » sor Bee or 100 90.0 +0 4 1 30 276 AXIALLY LOADED PILES rootex 's = P/t "eTrd os fonp auewsoeTdsyp 303 sx030ed $z“ET ‘OTE ~ 0 20 v0 90 80 + soootex ‘sg = P/ ‘oTTd 03 ‘np suoueaetdsyp 303 sz00e2 peET‘OTE 4 Ms 0 20 90 9080 + {20 90 #0 20 0, scocozex '§ = P/T *8TTd 02 ‘np ausmsoetdsyp zos sxo39es E2*CT "OTE ” % © 20 v0.00 60 129 90 v0 20 0.5 T 27 SINGLE COMPRESSIBLE PILE soot 2x ‘T= P/T “oTHd oF ‘onp sueweoutdsyp X03 sxo308Z (7°ET"OTE 4 % © zorosogo + 1 60900200 soot zx ‘2 = P/T “erTd 03 onp 3uameoeTdsTp tos sx0x0¥g Sz"ET“DTE ”~ 0 20 v0 90 80 | % 1 T 1_s090 50 20 0 Tt TT 7 x sore vo teal jon 278 AXIALLY ZOADED PILES 13.3 Single Compressible End-Bearing Pile This problem has been considered by Poulos and Mattes (19698). For a rigid bearing layer, the distribution of axial load within the pile with depth is shown in Fig.15.28 while the proportion of load transferred to the pile base is shown in Fig.13.29. The displacement Of the top of the pile is shown in Fig.15.30. ° Lees 2 | wos — ed Ws — o-« % Ke100 / os oof + 10, i oa 0408 08 10 Lood in Pie /P FIG,13.28 Load distribution in end-bearing pile. 5 [| sts | aS 3. 8 Ts z ak 0255075100 “ 3 T 5 0 75200 Proportion of Load Transferred to Bose ° FIG.13.29 Proportion of load transferred to base ‘Of end-bearing pile. FIG.13.30 Displacement at top of end-bearing pile. 13.4. Negative Friction in a Single End- Bearing Pile This problem has been considered by Poulos and Mattes (1969b).. For a layer underlain by a rigid base which is subject to a vertical displacenent which varies linearly fron S$, at the surface to zero at the base (seb). Influence factors for the maximum load Pir induced in a pile (at the tip) are shown in Fig.13.31. Distributions of load along the pile are shown in Fig. 13.32. PIG.13.31 Influence factors for downdrag load at pile tip. FLORTING PILE GROUPS 779 on oe o8 os 10 F1G.13.32 Distribution of downdrag load along pile. FIG.13.33 Interaction factors for two incompressible Piles in a finite layer. 13.5 Floating Pile Groups 13.5.1 INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO IDENTICAL PILES The increase in vertical displacesent of a pile due to an adjacent identical pile has been considered by Poules (1968e) and Poulos and Mattes (1971b) in ‘terms of an interaction factor a where @ = ratio of increase in displacesent due to adjacent pile to displacement of single pile only. ‘The variation of a with cohtre-to-centre pile spacing s/d is shown in Fig,15.35 for two incompress- ible piles ina finite layer. An example of the effect of Ve on a is shown in Fig.23.34. Curves of a vs,0/d for two compressible piles in'a semi- Infinite mass having Vg=0,5 are shown in Figs. 15.35 (a) to (c) three values of £/d. For compressible piles with a rigid circular cep resting on the surface, interaction curves are given ‘by Davis and Poulos (1972). 2 ° 12, Interaction Factor f FIG.13.36 Effect of v_ on interaction factors for ‘two Eleating piled in a semi-infinite mse. 280 10 oe os o- AXIALLY LOADED PILES oe os on oz 19 oe os os oz | oust ot « | ! SL 1000 [wo iti ty 5 ce os 01 oc 0 a Ys [ned «] a2 ros Ne | | Peet PSs Ta , oz om 01 005 0 ws ” ST SEL ~ = Ne | 0 = ; 5 | = a % fa (a) Was 10 () 1/a = 25 (©) Wa = 100 FIG.13.35 Interaction factors for two floating piles ina ‘Seni-infinite mass. PILE cRours 281 13.5.2 ANALYSIS OF GENERAL PILE GROUPS ‘The two-pile interaction factors in Figs.13.33 and 13.34 may be used to analyze the displacement and load distribution in any general pile group by using ‘the principle of superposition, which has been found to apply closely for pile groups. For any pile i ina group of k piles, the displacement is k = lS 2 ayy +2) ve 3.3) é i displacement of single pile under unit load interaction factor for ‘spacing between piles fand f = load in pile j. I£ the above equation is written for all the piles in the group, and use is made of the equilib- ‘rium equation s+ (5.4) where Pg = total group load, the resulting equations may be solved for two limiting cases: (4) equal displacement of all piles. This corresponds to a rigid pile cap, and the distribution of load and the uniforn dis- placement of the group may be computed. (i) equal toad in ail piles. This corresponds to a uniformly-loaded fiexible pile cap, and the distribution of displacement in the group ay be computed. Typical solutions for the settlement and load distribution in various pile groups are given by Poulos (1968c) and Poulos and Mattes (1971b). Similar solutions for pile groups having a pile cap resting on the surface are given by Davis and Poulos (1972). 13.6 End-Bearing Pile Groups For two identical piles resting on a rigid base, interaction factors a are plotted against centre-to- centre spacing in Figs. 13.36(a) to (c). As for floating pile groups, superposition may be used to analyze any general pile group. Typical solutions for the displacement of load distribution within groups of end-bearing piles are presented by Poulos ané Mattes (19716). 282 AXIALLY LOADED PILES 10 os ae ye 0S os fa) /a = 10 10 | or Tgs28 ne eae “e () 1/a = 25 SN % “CI | oth lomo « Teo Sr 108 o6 BSR: us (ce) L/a = 100 « ke > owt [03 oa 200. — _— as 0 FIG.13.36 Interaction factors for two end-bearing piles resting on a rigid bearing stratum. Chapter 14 PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOAD 14.1 Single Floating Pile 14.1.1 HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS AND ROTATIONS (Fig-14.1) FIG.14.2, This problen has been cag7ia). Influence factors for the displacement and rotat~ ion at the top of a pile in a uniform semi-infinite elastic mass are given in Figs.14.2 to 14.5 for two casest considered by Poulos (4) a free-bead pile i.e. free rotation at the top, Gi) a fixed-head pile i.e. no rotation at the. pile top. a3 AND MOMENT For the free-head: pile, the horizontal displace- ment 9 at the pile top is’ given a¢ Z 0 Tay ot tay Zhe vee (4.2) where Ipq and Ipy are plotted in Hags.1f02 and 14,5 aginst Xp whose Ag = pile flesibiliey factor Er = ses (24.2) Be Bplp = pile stiftmess By = soil modulus. __ The rotation @ at the top of a free-head pile is z Tog rt see O43) wae Tee where Igy is plotted against 2m in Fig, 14.5 Top = Zpy (Fig.14.3). For. a fixed-head pile, the displacement et the pile top is x lw ar see (14-4) where Ipp is plotted against PP in Fig. 14.4. ® In Figs. 14.2 to 14.5, v of the soil is 0.5. This er has a relatively small effect on ‘the displacement and rotation factors. 284 IATERALLY LOADED PILES 50; Votes of 4 20 ¢ ! W058 rm 2 1 ‘oe 0? 1" 0 0% oT 1 10 rr er *e Ka ¥IG.14.2 Influence factor Ip, for free-head pile, FIG.1.3 Influence factors Ig, and I,, for free~ head pile. 10" 20} | 13 wos vatwes ot I Tem to Tor 104 | 10 ‘ | = IN ; | — : Woe? 0" 10>? GT 1 a KR Kr ¥UG.14.4 Influence factor 1. for fixed-head pile, FIG.14.5 Influence factor Ip, for free-head pile. oF 285 ‘aorta pepeot AttexeeT Gudte suoTynqyx3syp emssead TeIUOZTIOY TeOTUAL 9°PT-OTa N \ T ad AUD ROOT IOWOIHOH - Pig PODH PEX14 {P) | Bild Post E44 -AIUD 0 s00% + se & po 1 e-0 ont os 1 | ° 7 1 , waHIOH (2) d loo + fh f= Awa. peer rewertoH (0) o.0 Hl 5 vale i Pid POH OAs lo s0-f + 0+ % 2 co: seek / 1nd SY, ort] r “ ayes poe 7 a 00m a oe 286 TATERALLY 14.1.2 HORIZONTAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION ‘Typical horizontal pressure distributions are given in Figs.14.6(a) to (4). 14.1.3. MOMENTS IN PILE ‘Typical moment distributions along a free-head pile are shown in Fig.14.7 and along @ fixed-head pil in Fig.14.8. The maximum monent in a free-head pile subject to horizontal load only is plotted against Ka in Fig.14.9. For a pile subjected to moment only, the maximm nosett always occurs at the pile top. The variation with Xp of fixing moment at the top of a fixed-head pile is shown in Fig.14.10. Me mt O28 010 015 020 wD t nn ov t fae ove “ ees 08 y 105 ertzntal toad Only w4H1_1 (a) Me * 7 2 04 08 08 40 | 02 t “10 | o- z nt os} dees oof 4+ u-os | Moment. Onty 10) ‘TOADED PILES et +0) 1 — FIG.14.8 Typical soment distributions along a fixed ad pile. FIG.14.7 typical moment distributions along a free- ‘head pile (a) subjected to horizontal load only (b) subjected to moment only. ong) ona] onan} ° FIG.14.9 Maxinua moment along a free-head pile ‘TIP-RESTRAINED. PILES 287 cd Maximum Moment Free aod File sorontat Loos Onty % 05 we cr] Kn Subjected to borizontal lead only, 0 14.2 Tip-Restrained Piles For a pile whose tip rests on « rigid base and does not nove horizontally, influence factors for the aisplacenents and rotation at the top of the pile are given in Figs.14.11 to 14.14. The actual displace~ ents md rotations are again given by equations (14.1) to, (14.4). Two boundary conditions at the top of the pile, free-head and fixed-head, and two boundary conditions at the pile tip, a pinned tip (no displacenent, free rotatin) and a fixed tip (no dis- placement, no rotation) are considered. These figures show that the tip boundary condition dogs not influence displacenent or rotation unless >207*. For fixed head piles, the fixing mowent at the pile head is shown in Fig.14.15. " For fixed tip piles, the fixing moment at the pile tip is shown in Fig.14.16 for applied horizontal load and in Fig.14.17 for applied moment. For free-head piles, the macimum moment in the pile is plotted against 7 in Fig.14.18. ‘The force at the tip is show in Fig.14.19 for free-head piles and in Fig.14.20 for fixed head piles. yrs +0-5|}— Fixing moment at roa of i) td-hood Bie soa] -03 Kp FIG.14,10 Fixing monent at head of a fixed-head pile. 288 EATERALLY LOADED PILES 100 10] OSE a aS ae SE Te Ke FIG.1¢.11 Influence factor 1,,, for free-head pile. ee 01 1S 3? 1% 1 WF wT 1 1 A FIG.14.13 Infturace factor Ipf for Gxedhead pie. lotus of 100 ° Toes z ee = — Pomes-ie a on Be Ty on ; 0° ton 71G.1432 Influence factors Ip, and Igy for H 10 \ : 4 0 a0? 1% 7 a0? Ke FIG.14.24 influence factor Ig, for free-head pile. ‘TIP-RESTRATNED PILES 209 FIG.14-15 Pluing ponent at head of fixed-head pile. FIG.14.15 Pixing sonent at tip due to horizontal load only. 17 Fixing moment at tip due to applied ‘moment only. one| ° T TN OF eo 290 ° ° fo a 7 ov [A vet, Prmse-tn Ce | ° ) FIG.14.18 Maximum moment in free-head pile subjected to horizontal load only. IATBRALLY LOADED PILES 1 TO Het () FIG.14.19 Tip force for free-head piles. 1 3 FIG.14.20 Tip force for fixed-head piles. PILE crows: 292 14.3 Pile Groups 14.3.1 INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO IDENTICAL PILES (Fig.14.21) FIG,14.22 ‘This problem has been considered by Poulos (971d). Increases in displacement and rotation of the top of a pile due to the presence of an identical adjacent pile can be, as with axially-loaded piles: expressed in tems of an interaction factor a where a = yatio of increase in displacement (or rotation) due to the adjacent pile to ‘the displacenent (or rotation) of @ single pile. Five interaction factors are considered: Gag 7 interaction factor for displacement due to horizontal load only gy = interaction factor for displacenent éue to mosent caly = interaction factor for rotation due to horizontal load only (ogy = Gy) on Ggy = interaction factor for rotation due to _mepent only (the above factors apply to free-head piles) Gyp = interaction factor for displacement of fixed-head pile Values of 9, cy ond app are plotred against Sinensioniazs Ste stleing “f/d in’ Fess Mi22 to 14.3? for various valuss of Bq and 7/dh Interaction factors are plotted for values of Blangle between the line of the piles end the dizectfon of Toading ) cf O° sod 20", For other values of, it Gs sufficiently secorate to interpolate linearly between the curves for 0" and 90°- 14.3.2 ANALYSIS OF GENERAL PILE GROUPS As with floating axtally-loaded pile groups (Section 15.5.2), the principle of superposition may be used together with the two-pile interaction factors to compute the loads and displacement within the group for the cases of equal displacement of all piles, or equal loads in at} piles. ‘The horizontal displacement of a pile 7 in a group of k piles is given (for the case of free- head piles) by: x + = ig Eas ay 8d i : By (2 My oye +H, fy Oy F Somes * Me ae ses 04,5) where Hj = horizontal load in pile 3 iggeq = Value of pg for spacing e843 “ and value of 6 between piles and J = horizontal movement of single pile due-to unit applied horizontal load Mz 7 moment in pile J ij 7 values of apy for space ing and values of 8 between piles Zand j fy. = Norizencal movenent of ingle pile due vo unit soplied aceone, A similar expression may be written for the rot ation of pile 2, or for the displacement of pile ¢ for a group of £ixed-head piles. Application of the above equation to all piles in the group, together with the equilibrium equations enable solutions to be obtained from the load and noent distributions and the displacenent and rotatior of a group for the equal displacenent case, or for the displacedent and rotation distributions ina group for the equal load (and moment) case. For aonent loading the effect of the axial pile loads must be considered. ‘Typical solutions for the displacement of 2 fixed-head group of piles, for the equal displacement case, are given by Poulos (1971b). 292 LATERALLY LOADED PILES Yotues of —| ape yO p 2 oval + + G2 045 OF 0-08 0 + oz os or os 0 FIG.24.22 interaction factor a, FIG.14.24 Interaction factor Coy, Rr? a Ted f > ~. ont =e on a 3 G2 019 01 003 0 FIG.14.23 Interaction factor Gy FIG.14.25 Interaction factor a, R70 PILE GROUPS ° B so" o-8} Vee OS, a °. oat fa u youes of 5] 6 o-e — Kp 10%| oe ar on apn voues ot 4 co Son \ Gon SS NS 7 ¥ >A 7 0-1] = OF eSB SN potest sane pot eee oe 2 + + —_ ae facts tg) tet i a Spe & o-5) Som ons Son Votes ot + a 0-4) eH ona] 0-3] . = a on 2 = 0-1 pee | ° ° oF 8 LF 4 oe ons 01 005 0 + erate Ce ee ee af ee eel xo 10 to 293 36 +9 1 os od wos ie cite oo Spr | i = o yh PSS “Sy 3 =f ° N : ots Ge ow cy 008 0 : om 0; eo 0 16.14.90 tafgraction factor 9 10.14.22 tngeraction factor 6; mate oe e Panty St 19 r 1 os { ° Yt - vy OS s os ° eta ° — Fo — B0" Spe PILE GROUPS 205 FIG.14,36 Interaction factor dy. 1 2 Od ¥IG.14.34 Interaction factor py Rr i o-9| wros of = 80" ° vous ot | = B90" 296 14.4 Battered Piles ‘This problem has been considered by Poulos and Madhav (1971). For normal batter angles, it is found that the axial displacement due to the axial st of load on a battered pile axe almost identical with the vertical displacements due to ver- tical load on a vertical pile (Chapter 13). Sinilar- Jy, the normal displacerent due to the normal compon~ ent of load on a battered pile may be taken as approx imately equal to the horizontal displacenent due to horizontal load on a vertical pile (Sections 14.1 and 14.2). If the simplifying assumption ic made that the nomal load has a negligible effect on axial displace- ment and that the axial load has 4 negligible effect on nornal displacement, the following expressions may bbe derived for the vertical and horizontal displacerents ad the rotation of a battered pile subjected to a vertical load ¥, 2 horizontal load H and = moment Wat the surface of the mass: Vertical dieptacennt: oy = a {Velyy t Elgg t Ba} ose (14.6) where Zyy = Tyc007) - Ty, ainty Tog = CpTypleinv cosy Typ? Typib Roricontal displacement of free-head pite: 1 me EN iy + tpg + fyb vee 147) where I, = CopTyzJsiny coop Tyg = Tysinty + Igy cos*y 2 yi 1 gl ae aA by + BNby +E at see 18.8) where Ify = ~Igp sine Thy = Zag cow 1, Thy = Tew LATERALLY LOADED PILES: Borizontal désplacenent of fized-head pile: apo Http + Blpyh Where Ipy = (Z ~I,pJetnb cosy Jpg = I pinto T,pr0074 wee (14,9) In equations (14.6) to (14.9) = angle of batter of pile from vertical (positive batter is in the direction of the herizontal load or moment) Aisplacenent influence factor for axially loaded pile, Figs. 15.5 to 15.6, Fig. 15.12 a Fp To Tae Zoe = horizontal displacement and Totation influence factors for laterally loaded pile (see Sections 14,1 and’ 34.2). Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 15.1 Thick-Wall Cylinder in Triaxial Stress Field (Fig. 15.1) ai te | } ta Trey tf Ps a oe oe PRE tt FIG,15.1 see (5.12) 2. pp re Pot +++ QS.1b) Be 242¢p py.) ppat-p,b? weMege) FAP cas.te) (B?-a*)x* Be a? oO see GS.1d) z egtn oy 0, > Flee EEE | see OS.18) app.) (p,a?~ pp?) patel day SEB area) _ eels BPE avr] B° air be a? ?), =z 2 ++ 1S. ea ] asp Pg = o see (15.1) 297 15.2 Cylinder With Rough Rigid End Plates (Fig. 15.2) Lo FIG.15.2 Moore (1966) has obtained solutions for the stresses and displacenents within the cylinder for various values of v, /D and 03/03, For unconfined compression (cs=0), these solutions are given in Tables 15.1 and 15.2. For no axial movement (40), the solutions for #/D=2 are shown in Table 15.3. In Tables 15.1 to 15.3, the vertical displacement pz is taken as positive when directed towards the centre of the cylinder, o; and G3 being compressive. ‘The relationships between the apparent and true Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of the cylinder are shown in Figs.15.3 and 15.4, The solution for any ratio of ci/ds can be der- ived from @ combination of the solution for unconfined compression (Tables 15.1 and 15.2), with the solution for 03/01 = v/(1-v). This latter solution ean be calculated straightforvardly since there are no radial strains throughout the cylinder in this case, geo, oyrds and the roughness of the plates has no fect. 298 MISCELEAWEOUS PROBLEMS TABLE 15.1 ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS FOR URCONFINED COMPRESSION, £/D = 2 Qroore, 1966) BD 2/8 ° ¥ 0 Os 0.80 OS 8 oft 10 o 9.509 0.500 9.500 0.500 9.500 0.75 0 9.085 0.39 0.595 OIF 0.385 0.357 0:50 0 OIS —OL27L Lard 0.266 0.257 01240 0s 9 127 8.187 0.187 OM 0.128 OT of e008 vn 0.88 7 ao ofa mt roo 0.686 0.892 9.895 0.898 0.952 3.130 0.35 0 ° 01980 9.982 0.998 1.072.978 0:30 0 ° 1039 1038 12033 1,008 0/908 0.25 9 ° Nog 1083 21038 01505 0.935, o 8 6 Hovz Loge 037 0.989 0.933 ay 1 0.297 9.298 0.299 0.311 1.083 0.297 0.298 0.299 0.511 1.088 0.98 0177 9.7 0.166 0-082 0 01377 01174 0:63 0.138 9.066 0:50 01085 9.076 0.083.018 0 01083 01079 0.066 0-041 0.005. 9.25 0.080 9.028 0.018 0.008 0 9.030 0.027 0.017 0.005 -0.013, O° e.oe 0-011 0.005 0-001 0 Olle 05011 81008 -0:007 “0.017 2/4 Cutcanda) 1 0) OD 0.509 0.75 9 0.028 0.069 0.102 9.154 0.359 2.50 9 9.068 9.099 9.152 0.205 0.248, 0:25 0 Ouse O46 L392 01221 0128 eo o.ag1orzh on197 0226 o = Je 10 p07 0.165 0.280 1.288 9.989) 6.975 0.75 0 Dies. 00139 ona? 0 1.002 ont 0.80 9 © D.025 0.082 0.022 0 Laws onsd 0.25 9 © 9.098 0.007 -0.005 0 ra 0.867 oo 8 OOO an20 0-885 1 0.87 0.57 0.572 3.650 0.75 0.335 01383 01525 octas 9150 9.154 ons oct 0.058 025 0-085 0.085 0.086 0.089 oO oc02s 0.025 0-018 +9.051 too 9.500 0.500 0.500 O75 0 01434 0143s 9367 0:50 0 9.315 0.514 0.258 0025 0 Died oft6s 0.130 oo oO ° rar 0.864 0.858 11.956 0.75 0 iz L.017 0737 0:50 0 az ue 9.790 07s 0 Aigo as 0.365, oo Xin Visz 0.868 a 0,707 9,307 0,702 9.79 0.75 0.406, 0.403 01598 0.032 0150 01249 O19 01175 0.055 0125 0.069 0.009 lace Toles ooo 0.054 0.028 0.069 CYLINDER WITH RIGID END PLATES TABLE 15.2 STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS FOR UNCONFINED COMPRESSION, #/D = 2 (ooze, 1966) a7 EZ) aR 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1 0028 050 O78 1 9.500 Olas parse 0.318 0.254 0.101 01327 BERURESS v= 0025 ome 2 Wowt “HESSESS “RES BRE ReEeRES aa88 saeaeees | vee oye0 mDe2 8 = BEES BREE “aeSEEaS 4.599 0.562 0535 2.159 0:58 oc 2006 “0.010 sori 20,011 *o!a10 0,010 SBS aeSEEEEGE BRSSBas Bbbbooose BE HISCELLANEOUS PROBLEES ‘TABLE 18.2 (Continued) STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS FOR UNCONFINED COMPRESSION, #/D = 2 Ghore, 1966) Ed af 0.25 0.50 a) 0.017 0.029 0.033 0,069 0.057 0.087 RERBRERR ‘raf z 0.082 0.175, 0.827 0.824 7s 0 LOS O12 ors71 9.972 DSO 9 oLtad 0.038 ios 1.055 9.625 0 «9,002 =0-011, Less 1.076 oso “9.01 =0.022 alers 1066 oss 9 cLo1k “ocala 1.059 1.08) also 0 “0.00%. “0.017 Loss oso os 9 -0.008 -0,008 Aas? 1-033 a oo 0 aos 1,031 of a 0.67 0.674 0.679 0.684 9.551 0.677 0.674 9.878 91399 0138 OSB OLI9 0 o:3s9 0.389, 91750 OLter DLi7e 01426 Last 93 on 9.625 L075 0.053 0.039 DLO Oo 9-073 0.054 01500 LOLs 0.012 0.008 P00 ocx 0.011 01375 0.008 -0:007 -0.006 0.002 0 0-008 -0.009, 9.250 0.018 “lois “oles3 “0003 9 soL01s -o.015 012 “olor “aloia “9003 “0.00 0 soL016 0.035 2B .016 0-016 0.009 0.008 sorais “0.035 20.008 0.75 (Moore, 1966) ao 0.50 5/0 0.28 1 0.75, ,B/0a4 Cirsards) TABLE 15.3 STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS FOR CONFINING PRESSURE WITH NO AXIAL MOVEMENT 0.50 CxLIWDER WITH RIGID ERD PLATES 3382338 BESEES POSSE TT GS O88599F segues 23 aueeey STITT TTE eee PEEL EE _| 3828838 ORI IITIS & SPTTe é 8383988 | aggasgs | OTETT ETFS FFege 9828832 324883 OFTT ITT CPTI ggandaad| | 2 482888888 438888 383 SRRSRRaR| | SRREESES esdssdede CSSGE TEGO ERggeaue| | RRg80028 : RAGSREEEE ee se esses |e Sossesaqe 4 ssedddaia Bg8 88888 |") 88283888 " BRE2 E8888 eosedeade esssssqqo Sos daad sgHgEEagS aeaqagege SRgg088 BRggha8 baggeae SRhaRa9 | | SRaRngs eaggne3 m0. "e yeas ox/oynd. 262 amt 70.008 0 2.75 ° (oore, 1966} 2 2.30 ° “a.o10 -0.009 -0.008, Color “olo1s “oL01s “o!0u1 0.25 2 ° <.00§ 20.005 0,006 “0.004 Solan “0.011 “pone 78 TABLE 15.5 (Continued) 9,f/ 4 naan) [STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS FOR CONFINING PRESSURE WITH RO AXIAL MOVEMENT Ea 0.50) = fe 0.25) 4/ese0. 84 ams maggnages Raggag339 328599989 Bees igbes 2g88882 wa gegangs a a, a ae Bas aagnaneaa RRLEREE RR S2R8R2E 88 S3RRRRRES RERSSREES RRERRESRE BEARERS SS agneeenen BSERRLS EE Eeggeaa CYRIVDER WETE RIGID END PLATES Ji ° ° g : ‘Apparent Potzsons Ratt, 0 04 02 03 Oa Od O06 True Polason's Ratio ¥IG.15.3 Apparent Poisson's Ratio versus the Poisson's Ratio (Moore, 1966) 43 +2 14 Ratio Apparent Eee € ° Cr ‘True Poisson's Revo FIG.15.4 Ratio of apparent E te true E versus true Poisson's Ratio (Hore, 1966) 403 304 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEKS 15,3 Inclusion in an Infinite Region (Fig. 15.5) Ws Ww FIG.15.5 Jaeger and Cook (1969) quote the following solutions: . reR Principal stresses are De(x#2) + XeIKOHLD, = BR Oy = Hoste) + BE) - aprpy) = {1 - Pyovese +++ (5.30) x Ae, SOR trot Heeytt + + SP jeinse ... 5.50 15.4 Stiff Plate Subjected to Moment and Horizontal Load ‘The solutions for displacement and rotation © -of a stiff vertical plate in a semi-infinite mass, have been obtained by Douglas and Davis (1964), and are shown in Fig.25.6. The upper edge of the plate is at the surface and the loads are applied to this as = edge. The results are for =0.5 but are not sig- 2 Bich eMT) Cyt) nificantly different for other values of V. Tk(xe2) = x0 +21 (xt) + + (S.2a) as TT FF 2 (akeen1) (ext) | [kOx-8) ~ xo 421K (X#LIP a 7] oe B¢Bheex0=1) Cyt) TeCxt2) + xed k(Xe2) z + +++ (5.20) 3 Bais 1) Ce) 5 where & = 64/6 : X = 5-40 for plane strain 3° ane 5 - or x = £9 for Plane stress tne AO and similarly for yo. os 7 ‘on 2>R 0, = ¥p,tp, (2 - Fe wpe, 2 - 2 ° | y= Epa) (2 = A Hegre dt - S Oi ea 980 = By co29 7 c++ (5.3a) % FIG.15.6 Influence coefficients for rotation and translation of rigid plate (Douglas and Davis, 1964) ‘AYER WITH YIELDING BASE 305 15.5 Streses in a Layer With a Yielding Base 15.5.1 TRANSLATING SMOOTH BASE (Plane Strain) (Fig.15.7) Finn (1963) obtained the following solutions for zd (ob) + 288 (ath) + 2° - teat, _ Bab) {(ob)*+ BY {feb )*+ BY +a see (15.40) ran (2b) eb, os 2 2 (evo )*4 3? (ob )*+ 2 _ 2letb: 202-)8* _) yyy {(atb)*+# BY {(a-b)*+ 32)* ses (15.40) = BE ptt tee)? ate eb)? 28m {(e-b)?+ 3} ((meb)*+ 32° wee (5.40) 15.5.2 TRANSLATING ROUGH BASE (Plane Strain) ‘This problem is as shown in Fig.15.7, except that lower surface is now perfectly rough throughout. Finn (1963) obtained the following solutions: a W(3B-p) Sep (wtb)?+ 3? (ab)? FF _ —Bletbe? _, _ teh)? _), ey Ktevb)?+ PP” (eb) Iv + (5.5) o, =-—¢_[-28 jo __ _eb [ = * ‘W(3B-p) B4p (atb)*# 3? (a-b)*+ 5* 4 —2lerbys* ____ Be bIB* dy ye L(atb)*+ 22}? {(a-b)?# Bt see (S.5b) ao = 4 hep =k 4 ky} 5 W(3B-p) Ben (a=b)*+ 3? (utb)*+ 8 _ Hes (-b)*) , 32? (otb)?) {a+ (eb)? {2% (etd)? ses (15.50) 15.5.5 ROTATING SMOOTH BASE (Plane Strain) (Fig.15.8) FIG.15.8 (MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEXS Finn (1963) gives the following solutions: a ---L[% (ats 32)? = m8 {(xtb)*+ 2°} (2b) *+ 3?) B pst eb +2 jh ___ eb __y 2 Neb (ab)** BP F # ~ BC)? eee) feo)? BY # + oP iw da a, --- a ed —_ (orb)? Bt +— 2 (avb)*+ 3} + een) L(erb)*+ PY lt 15.5.4 ROTATING ROUGH BASE BE(ab)*+ 2°} Bz? (ob) Keb) *+ 22 see (15.68) (ate 32)? “Corb )*+ BH ab) 3} —2s_ (oats 2? F 2B((e-b)*+ 2*} bat (ab) {(a-b)*4 2}? +++ (5.66) (Plane Strain) ‘This problem is as shown in Fig.15.8, except that lower surface is now perfectly rough. Finn (1963) gives the following solutions: _ fod. fe (ate 32)? (38-0) (8+p) 1 L (orb) *42*H (ab) 2487} b tb zd +34 - (a-b)*4 2? (eb )*4 2 +4 z mb(3B-p) 24 (web )*+ 3°}? . Ea _ bette) 2 (aeb)?4 22) { (orb )?# 22y? 2 eb) + Bt Tieb)%+ 22)? 2% 2? Ty see (5.72) (as 32/2 A (eth) *48?H{ (ab) 7487} o =e 46d = (38-0) (Btp)% by ow +34 eb (ab)*+ BP (enb)*+ BF 2a # ‘WO(SB-p) 2{ (wtb) *+ 37} ¢— 2, ble) Bf eb)? 3} {(ovb)*484}* bee) {(enb)?+ 22}* Jere see (15.70) mee 15.6 Stresses Behind Retaining Walls The following solutions have been derived by Finn (1963), using the solutions for a layer with a yielding base in Section 15.5. ‘SMOOTH TRANSLATING WALL (Fig.15.9) 15.641 The horizontal pressure oz along the wall (2-0) (noting the assumption in Fig.15.9) is o, = se ses (25.8) dev (ath) *(a-h) Bx STRESSES BEHIND RETAINING WALLS 307 15.6.2 ROUGH TRANSLATING WALL + (ies) , ha _2), wee (5.1) hthea)* ” Orea)® As in Fig.15.9, except that wall is now perfectly ve G, along the wall (ed) is where 6 = = vay) = We, Mh 78 2 E 1-v 1(3B-p) Bp 27h! se (5.9) where p= z vile) oe 15.6.3 SMOOTH ROTATING WALL (Fig. 15.10) essurea tepigte fompors to PIG.15.10 ‘Along the wall (==0), o = ML +h_1_ Fev arb (aPon*)? Be (22h?) + 2d | het see (45.10) Br” ress 2 where 8 = 2 = 15.6.4 ROUGH ROTATING ALL As in Fig.15.10, except that wall is rough, ‘Along the wall (2-0) 4 I-v (3B-p)(Bto) 4nhB_ (2*-h?)?— Br ap. aoh_t x(36-p) © B#p (hea)* Ge ee 308 Appendix A STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A LOADED ORTHORHOMBIC HALF SPACE C. M. Gerrard W. Jill Harrison ‘The material in this Appendix was originally Published as Technical Paper No.9 of the Division of Applied Geomechanics, C.S.I.R.0., Australia and is reproduced in fall herein with kind permission of the authors and the Chief of the Division of Applied Geomechanics. Corrections to the original published version have been supplied by the authors of the Technical Paper and have been incorporated in the reprinted version herein. For convenience, the page numbers of this Appendix are identical with those of the original publication and any reference to page numbers in the text refers to the pages of this Appendix only. 1 m, wr. vant. ApPEMOEE A ‘ORTHORACMBIC BALF SPACE OAD TYPES MaTHOD OF SOLUTION [PRESENTATION OF RESULTS [SOUITIONS FOR DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS AND STRESSES 2(a) Uniform Vertical Pressure A(b) nd form Vertical Displacesent 28) Linaxe Vertical Pressure 20) Linear Vertical Displacenent ‘3(2) Uniform Lacezal Shear Stress ‘3(b) Uni form Lateral Shear Displaseasat 4a) Linear Lateral Shear Stress AQ) Linexr Lateral Shexr Displacement Integrais for Loading by Unt form Pressure Integrals for Loading by Uniform Displacesrat Integrals for Loading by Lineer Pressure Integrals for Loading by Linesr Displacement Values of Coréficients REFERENCES u a “ 16 ” 18 a 23 2 2 26 27 32 ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS TH A LOADED ORTHORHOMBIC HALF SPACE by C.M, Gerrards and W. Jil] Harrigon* Summary ‘This paper gives a complete rage of solutions for all the displacement, strain, and stress components developed in a loaded anisotropic half space. The half space is homogeneous, linearly elastic md infinitely deep. The stress-strain response types of orthorhosbic, cross-anisotropic and isotropic are all considered. ‘A range of simple load types are included as follows :- 1, LOAD PRODUCING RESULTANT VERTICAL FORCE (2) Uniform vertical pressure. (©) Uniform vertical displacesent. 2, LOAD PRODUCING RESULTANT MOMENT (a) Linear vertical pressure. (®) Linear vertical displacesent. ‘3. DAD PRODUCING RESULTANT LATERAL. FORCE (a) Uniform iteral shear stress. (®) Uniform lateral shear displacenent. 4, LOAD PRODUCING NO RESULTANT FORCE OR MOMENT (a) Linear 1steral shear stress. ie (@) Linear lateral shear displacement. ‘The solutions produced have practical value in soil and rock engineering for two main reasons (4)_ The Losdings, when considered singly or in combination, represent the conditions existing under amy typical footings and foundations. (i) ‘The nature of the half space analysed represents the comsonly occurring situation where the loaded soil or rock masses, are anisotropic. + Division of Applied Geomechanics, CSIRO, P.O. Box S4, Mount Waverley, 3149, Victoria, Australi: APPEND A 5 2B 1. Derooerioy Yn the enslysis of amy practical sitnations in soll end rock mechantes, gach as long building found- tions aod long eabmiimscts, it is reasonable to assume that the longitmdinal direct strein produced by the Josding will be zero. Because of this assumption of plane strain these problems can be treated as boing ‘tromdinensional. ‘based on olastic thoary have proved to be useful in predicting (amediste savtlemats, in consolidation exalysis, snd 4a the recently doveloped ‘stress patht analysis (Lasbe, 1967}. Thene 20l- tutions aay also be applied to the auaiysis of the performance Of rosd rolling plant sizce the loading ia this case produces approsimstely plane striin caaditions. ‘There is a groving eppreciation thet in meny soi] end rock mechemics situations the stress-deformasion properties of the materials concerned aro anisotropic. This factor was taken into account in pro@acing the Solutions contained in this report. lence these solutioas can be used to gauge the effect of anisotropy on Upareicaler component of interest, such as surface deforeation or spatial stress pattars. The existing Solucions for Linesrly elastic half Plane probless sre sumarized tn Tablo 1. Ie can be seen tbat the 20l- ‘elon: preaeacod herein are wore comprebomsive then say of th previous vozk for loads of finite width, ia one of hore of the folloring veys.- | Range of load types considered. 2. Range of stresses, strainc, and d{splacesents solved. 3. Range of anisotropic materiel responses considered. 1h. NOTATION (a) Co-ordinates, Displacements, Strains, Strasse and Blastie Moduli half losded widen nye rectangular co-ordinates (lateral, longitudinal, vertical) exeressed in units of the alg loaded wideh a) displacements in the respective comontinate directions 90% ¥o9 Anteral displaceaont md vertical displacesent respectively ax the point in the half plane where # = z= 0 &, 8, & direct stress and shear stress components of the stress tensor feet yy Sane fag Mivnet strain and shoar strain components of che strain tensor abandon compocents of the elasticity tensor (sev equations i,5,4, and 5) 5, 8 8, You's odali in the =, y, and x directions for m orthorhombic mterial (soe ad equetions 7 mod 3) By » Yomg's moduli in the horizmtal snd vertical directions for « cross-amisotropic material (eo eqeation 4) : Young's modulus for an isotropic material (set eqantion §) Orthoxtoabic msterist ey Poisson's ratio: effect of ¢_, on ty (see equations 2 ad 3) ‘ye Poisson's ratio: effect of cy on ¢,_ (ane equations 2 and 3) “ Potsson's ratio: eftact of cy, on ¢,, (s00 equations 2 and 3) Sy Polsson's ratio: effect of c,, on c,, (see equations 2 and 3) ve wEfect of &,., 2 f,, (S00 equations 2 end 5) Yee Poisson's ratio: offect of ¢,, 02 ¢_. (see equations 2 ant 3) Croas-anisotropic material, Poisson's ratio: effect of horizontal strain on vertical strain (ste equation 4) "he an Poisson's ratio: effect of verticel strain on horizoutal strain (see equation 4) » Potssen's rerio: effect of horizontal strain on complimentary horizeutal strain (seo equation 4) y Poisson's ratio for an isotropic material (see equstica-s) ae apemrar 8 TABLE 1. SUAARY OF EXISTING SOLITIONS warune oF | RESTRICTIONS ON ‘DETERMINED STRESSES ‘AUTHOR | ELASTIC RESPONSE} ELASTIC PARAMETERS| ceeebedeeanaes ‘AND DISPLACEMENTS Carothers | Isotropic Various distributions of ver] All strasses in Balf plane. (a920) ‘tical pressure. | (Terrace ‘trapezoidal, triangular). love Isotropic Verticat and lateral line | A11 stresses and displact 327) loads. nents in half plane. xolosoy + | Isotropic Usigora vertical pressure. | i3, 2, He. 1335) Uniform lateral sheer stress wot cross Restriction Unigorm vertical pressure | AL stresses in balf plane. (855) ssisotropic | on the value Aistribution, off. Gray Isotropic Verticsl line losd. ALL stresses and displac (956) Uniform vertical pressure. | ments in half plane. Various ‘triangular’ and ‘terrace! vertical pressure aistributions. Reprov + | daveropie Uniform vertical displacenent] u throughout half plan Surgenson | tsotropic Uniform vertical pressure. | #2, 2, ‘asto) ‘Triangular’ vertical pres- | Principal stresses and sure, "Terrace! vertical | principal stress directions. pressure with taper, Hott Isotropic Vertical and lateral line | ALL stresses and displace- asa) Loads. Vertical pressure | nents in half plane. distributions; triangular, ‘trapezoidal, ete. Also con- Siders loads on inclined surfaces. cross Restriction on the| Vertical line load. ALL stresses in half plane. saisorropic | value of 7. guiniey, | cross- a? positive Vertical Line load. ALL stresses and displace (1949) sadsotropic iments in halé plane. 6? positive Various vertical pressure | y on surface (s*0) distributions Uaifora, | Hon load axis (=0) parabolic, inverted pars bolic). Unigora vertical dis- placenent. Timoshenko | Tsstropic Vertical and lateral line | AIL stresses and displace- ‘nd Goodier| reads. ents in half plane. 981) Florin + | Isotropic Unigorm vertical pressure. |v on the surface. (4359, 2961) Unigorm lateral shear stress.| von the surface. Linear vertical pressure. | 33, =, 3, w on the surface. Linear lateral shear stress. | 3, 5, 3. Leehnitskii| orthorhoubic | Characteristic | Vertical Line load. ‘Radial' stresi - all other 965) stress patterns stresses are zero as for an isotropic body. De urena | Cross Vertical line load. ALL stresses in half plane. a ale Anisotropic {966} Sateral line load... ALL stresses and displace- Linear vertical pressure. Linear lateral shear stress. ments in half plane. ‘throughout half plane + As referred to by Harr (1966) * As referred to by Harr (1966) and Scott (1963). aprewonx a 7 us (b) Derived Flaatio Quanbitien Dy» Dy ~ functions of Poisson's ratios (see equations 3f and 40} es fad - o* of + says Od Ba fad- of - sen) + 2f8 ate? eras ot ae Coefficients appearing in the solutions for the displacesents, strains, and stresses (defined on page 26). aye (@) toaiiingo ‘uniform vertical pressure. Py macimn value of Linear vertical pressure. Py uifore lateral shear stress. Py Maximon value of Linear lateral shear stress. ‘4 naximin value of Linear vertical displacesent. maximus value of Linear lateral shear aispiecenent. 7, total resuitant vertical force applied to produce the uniform vertical displacement Amit > Jength of strip. 7, total resultant lateral force applied to produce the uniform lateral shear displaceaent mic Length of strip. : 7, total resultant moment (about y axis) applied co produce the linear vertical dispiscenest/ ¥ unit length of strip. (a) jnvegrais Integrals appesring in solutions for displacenems, strains, and stresses. These are defined in equation 9 and evaluated on pages 22, 23, 24 and 25. Keyl Bug (0) a X, ren ns Frey as yl aw k transform parameter sppearing in equation 9. TUL, ORTHORHOMBIC HALF SPACE ‘The half space analysed in this work can be described as an elastic body having infinite lateral extent and depth with loads applied to its horizontal plane surface. Being elastic snd orthorhoabic the material has ‘three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry. “The normals ta these planes are assumed to be paral- lel to the vertical, lateral, and longitedina! directicas associated with the load. ‘The solutions given in this report can therefore be applied to cases where the elastic properties are Algterene in the three cartesian directions. The special cases of 2 cross-anisotrepic material vith a ¥ ‘tical axis of elastic symecry and an isotropic material are also considered. For an orthorhombic half space (xith ¢,,/ + 0) the stresses, expressed in temas of the strains are Bee elgg tly a Be ee tet, » Bree ae, le Rope is cs f. ay + tethis-work “ax =! U6 appennrx A 8 Six independent elastic co-efficients, a, B, c, d, ¢, and f are involved. The direct strains, in terms of the direct stresses, are given as: = & a tat Boe Boe B a 2 a « rong BeBe uy B %® va Boye BB A rhe elastic cuttcienss are rated tothe Young's set 2, Fy Zyy andthe Posso's rats Yay Mya eS eae by te Forcing a= Flv, ov, sa aye 5 z z, Bo Bonet * Pa » Fy Fy, 2+ epee ed EE x Fee Za 68 Cae yay Fee ye ye) a F. d= Tey ys) Be se 1 May yaya yen as Yay Vpn Yes Yes Yay ‘The stress-strain equations for a cross-anisotropic half space, having a vertical axis of symmetry, are similar to equation 1, However, because of this symetry ¢ = ¢, and hence the mumber of elastic coefficients is reduced from six £0 five. In this case the relationships detween the elastic coefficients @,b,c,d, and Young's moduli E,, £, and the Poisson's ratios y, Yyy» Yy, aFe Ei, a= Ey) 4a ‘ns % Gey) ny + ON5) 4c “a where Dye Ory) v2 vy ge yp) 4c For an isotropic boiy: -a- Sty) . ae d= Gayay a bees ae wiray sb z grade ey ‘The fact that the strain energy is positive imposes restrictions on the values of the elastic constants. For a cross-anisotropic material with a vertical axis of elastic symetry Hearnon (1961) gives these restric- a>0 6 aro % fro 6 a> oF 6a (arbyd > 267 6e ad > of Apremors 4 ‘ ur In tems of the Poisson's ratics these restrictions impose the Limits; 1 y > Bw Yop > o Lyre n lt yre 1 IV. LOAD TYPES ‘The eight loads considered in this report are defined below and are shown in Figure 1. As can be sean, the loads cin be grouped Ato four pairs such chet the first of each pair is a particular stress-defined Joad while the second iz the «nalogous displacement-defined loud. 1, The loading by uniforn vertical pressure end cuiform vercical displacomest represent symetrically placed vertieai loads on saoeth based foundertens. (a) Unifora Vertical Pressure Her eeL eo een when 2 = 0 ba Bro for all = (b) “Uniform Vertical Displacesent Bett wel . Bro een von 2-0 » Bro for all = 2. The affects of moments applied to foundations can be seen from the solutions for losding by lineer vertical pressure and linear vertical displacement. {a) Linear Vertical Pressure Bene, een Bee su when 2 = 0 fe aro for all = . () Linear Vertical Displacenent vee, sel Bro zea vbea 2+ 0 a Boo for all = 3. Lateral forces applied ro fomdgrioas can be represented by the solutions for unifora lateral shear ‘Stress aod uniform lateral shear displacenent- (a) Uniform Lateral Sherr Siress Ber eel Boo eed whe a= 0 ae Heo for all = (@) Uniform Lateral Shear Displacenent Ke gg t® zed eo zou when 250 ca Beso for all = 4, The effect of zough fomdstions supporting vertical loads can be ganged by the superposition on the sol- utions for loads 1(a) or 1(b) of either loading by Linear Lateral shear stress or linear lateral displacenent. )) Linger Lateral Shear Stress Bx ap, al =o zea when a= 0 * w 0 for-ell = » — +P, — HT — (a) UNIFORM VERTICAL PRESSURE me + Pz MAX. 2a) LINEAR VERTICAL PRESSURE +A, te 3a) UNIFORM LATERAL SHEAR STRESS Py MAX. eee (a) LINEAR LATERAL SHEAR STRESS Fig, 1. Load Types. +h — rh Ib) UNIFORM. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT +ly —~ ? MAX. 2(b) LINEAR VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT +% 3(b) UNIFORM LATERAL SHEAR DISPLACEMENT 4(b) LINEAR LATERAL SHEAR DISPLACEMENT ApPrwory A u no (®) Linear Lateral Shear Displacenent unset eed Bo aoa when x= 0 th Reo for all = ‘The case of uniform vertical pressure with completely rough contact can be solved exactly by super- imposing the solutions for 1(a) and 4(b). The linear lateral shear loadings produce no resultant force or moment. V. METHOD OF SOLUTION ‘The method used to obtain the solutions reported herein was developed by Gerrard and Harrison (in preparation) and is based on the application of integral transform techniques and dual integral equation Techniques to elasticity problens (Sneddon (1951), Tranter (1966)). The solutions for the displacenents, strains, and stresses are expressed in terms of integrals of products of trignonetric functions, Bessel fimetions, and exponentials. The following symbols are used to express these integrals; 660+ [ig «or at Dw os + (eos keceos ak. oa) OD * Kgy(* i Vig + 008 Kee OD ae rg O* [iyg@ sin ne BOD a 0: Shee * [ig sr tas a OD e Sn + [fig «sin nse a BOD fm ox + [ig00 «ota va * -& om Fans + [iQ «steno ‘The parameter y contained in equations 9a, 9, 94 is in the form of either 03, $2, or 2 for anisotropic uateriais: Hence it is a function of the elastic properties as well as the depth. In contrast, for iso- tropic naterials » = 2. The integrals shown above (equations 92......n) were evaluated using the results of ‘the Batenan Manuscript Project. (1954) and Watson (1968). Compressive direct strains and stresses are considered to be positive, Positive shear stresses are defined from the fact that both the stress and strain tensors obey the right hand rule. Displacements in the negative coordinate directions are considered to be positive. Hence, a load defined by s positive suress acts in the positive coordinate direction, whereas load defined by a positive displacement acts in ‘the negative coordinate direction. For example, vertical loads are compressive if defined by « positive stress oF a negative displacenent. VI. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS The eight Loading conditions considered in this report can be conveniently grouped into four pairs, as follows: 1(a) Uniform vertical pressure. (b) Uniform vertical displacement. 2(a) Linear vertical pressure. (®) Linear vertical displacement. 3(a) Uniform lateral shear stress () Uniform lateral shear displacesent. 4(a) Linear lateral shear stress. (b) Linear lateral shear displaceneat, It vill be noted that the first in each pair is a stress-defined load and that the second is the dis- Placenent-defined analogue of the first. As would be expected, the solutions for the second of each pair ‘are very Similar to those of the first. Use of this fact is made in the presentation of the solutions for each pair of loads on a pair of facing pages. On the left hand side page the complete solutions for the displaceents, strains, stresses are given for the stress-defined load, The analogous displacenent-defined load is treated on the right hand page by stating the substitutions that need to be made into the solutions for the stress-defined load in order to produce the solutions for the displacenent-defined load. The solutions given contain all stress, strain, and displacement components. This allows the calcalation of quantities such as total deformations, principal stress and strains, and principal direction. 30 appear A 2 In general the so}utions for the displecemmits, strains, and stresses involve products of cosfficimts yeeros Bye sRgy Eqeeestgge Tyreeodqge Oysrge byevevty) and Antegrals (@ type and X type). Tue consfleients axe fimetions only of the elastic properties While the integrals are in general functions of depth, lateral offset, and elastic propertios. The'valuor of thnan coefficients Ure'piven ta pAr® 26. Depending on the naticy of the losding the invegrais fall iste four separete cetegeries! those appropriate to wifora pressure loading (loading types i(s) and 3(4))- Those appropriate to widura displacement loading (Loading types 1(b) end 3(b))- these appropriate £6 Linear preasure loading (Joading types 2(0) and 4()).- those appropriate to Linear displacement laeding (loading types 2(b) end 4(b)). The values of the integrals in each of the ahove Sour categories are show On pages 22, 25, 24 and 25. Values of the integrals dor the special cases of ¢ + O ands + Q asp included as well as the general ease where both and x are non-zero. ‘The fora of the solutions depends to a significant extent on the nature of the anisotropy as reflected by the values of of and 6, both of which are fonctions only of the elastic properties. ‘The strain energy conditions given by equations 6a,...6£ are sufficient tut not necessary conditions tat 2 6 (fads 0). (Cain orp) (29)? ‘be positive. However, when 6? is written in the form, 8 « tadro? aad) eo 9029)" At om be seen that the sign of 82 is not restricted by the strain energy conditions. Hence, for each loud~ ing condition, four separate cases are considered as follovs A. Ortbeahosbie and cross-misotzupic; a” positive, 8° positive. B. Ortharhoabic and cross-anisctropie: o” positive, 8° negetive. €. Grthorhasbie and eross-anisotrepie: o” positive, 6? sero. 1D. Tsotrepic (this 4s « special case of Caso C in which a = 1). Tho conversion fron ortharhesbic to roes-atisctropic in Cases A, B and Cis simply uchioved by petting The evefficients to bs alterad by this a0 gis gps ys Hye fe Ce dy, ds Ay Age tye and O and hence it will be uoted that the longitudinal dizect stress (jj) is the only stress, strain, or displacamant changed by converting from orthorhoubie to cross-auisotropic. — ¢ i For the eeses of loating by uiifors vertical pressure’ or wiform vertical displacesent’ ¢ finite measure of vertical displacement cm only be obtained by considering « relative quantity rather than an absolute one (Gibson, 1967). Hence the relative verticsl displacemsat (U-vp) 4 sty point in the half plane (0) 46 defined as the vertical displacenent (9) ot that point mimis the vertical displacement (99) on the sorftce of the half plano on tho load aris (i.e, the point x +0, x 0). Because of this the solutions for ‘the unigora vertical displacouent axe referred to a total resultant vertical load (7,) and aot a reference vertical displacemeat. The solutions for loading by Linear vertical pressure snd Linear vorsical displusamat are given on pages 16 mad 17. For the displacement defined loai it ip possible to derive relationships tenmen the tote) Fesultant moment (about thoy axis) that is pecessary to produce « defined sexima displecesent in wach of the cases of 8 positive, 6? nogative, snd 6* zore- By use of theso relaticaships the solutions for the Ais- cee dined east be referred te wiser» wee reuiantmneat (oF waeima weihdisplac- bent (25). For loading by unigorm laters] pressure’ « finite measure of the leterdi displacomat can only be obtain~ ed by considering 4 relative quantity rather thm aa absolute one.‘ Hence the relative lateral displacennt Gurtgg) at amy point in the half plane is detined as the lateral displacesent (xu) at that point xims the Jateral Gisplacesent (pq) on the surface of the half plana on the load axis (i.e, the point #+0, © 0). Secnite ofthis che solstions for the wnifor Lateral displacement are sofersd to ¢ oval resulta lateral a . in Loads of the type of Linear lateral pressure and Linear lateral displacement (see solutions oo pages 20 and 21) are self cancelling in narure since no resultant forces cr nomeats are proiuced. esce the solutions for the displacenent defined case can only be referred to a naximm lateral displacomont. § The solutions for these casts are given on pages 14 and + The solutions for these cases are given on pages 1B and _tt This simmarion is analogous to that applying in. the. case \nifora vertical dispisceseat. 1B 3. ‘of loading by tiform vertical pressure_and. ‘TEL, SOLJTTONS FOR DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS AND STRESSES a arpewory & u 2(a) UNIFORM VERTICAL PRESSIRE The solutions given belov involve products of coefficients (Gy, t,, €,) and integrals (0,56), eFax Frcs Moule Hrevt shrew Frayt 4 agg) TMOG coefficients and integrals are eatasted on pages 26 and 22 respectively. Ae Orthaxtambie and Crossesnisotropic; 6% Positive. wegg # BLP, yea; O34) © 99-9) (02)) = DEP slag Kg (6) * 94h 160)? tag? DE ag tyes 2) + a4-Hes lo) san DEP ay 4 yes lO8) ~ 65-002)? Sea pT hgg She oxl02) ~ Xy4(05)) Be BHD, gglehtyegite) - oh 5600) Be BED gg loa) + 9g, 5(02)) > BEa eh. ty yl) + ob glen) Be heyy 3. Orthorhoubie and Cross-anisotropie; s? Negative. mi Bh see ee ee = ot Pty ‘ee velies * testes) - Oe, “ae o. Fy y-hies * Horses! SG ot fe Piss Se dies esha 1 Sees * ahaa! €. Orthorkosbic and Cross-anisotropic: 6? Zero. 1s 90 = Paty (94 (8) ~ 67 .8.Kyeg605)) we BAP ey logty gy (05) ~ aot f05)) = BAP es aglee) = 94-2.%gglen)? 2 BP log B (oa) + 97-0.2-8 ales)! = Ba hay cto2) BP, tay, 5(08) ~ 0.2.4, 508)? Dh lop hes00) option) = BEE Cot og = ofan gles) or B, Esorropic ‘The displacements, strains, and stresses are as for the case of Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; 82 Zero but with the following sixptifications; 2.087).67 22° Uyy.e 45% (ity). 1-20). ag Uy .e? “nt ays 2 0 Sgt Gey.0-2).2 f te-bek Ow! APPENDIX A 15 33 1(}) ONTFORM VERTICAL DISPLACBIENT ¢ 8p) and integrals (Gy3(¥)+ «Agar Foecuer) + Foscue1y + Hoecuesy? stoctues)? Mos (ver)? 2 sKesiyery’ Tese covfficients and insegrais are evaluated on pages 25 and 25 respectively. ‘The solutions given below involve products of coefficients (6, A. Orthorhoabic and Cross-anisotropic; 6? Posit: The displacements, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the folloving substitutions into the esustions for the case of uniforn vertical pressure loading (Orthothoubic and Cross-anisotropic; ¢* Positive). ‘These equations are shown on the opposite page. (substitute £,.(20)"% way? G4) mubstitute gp(¥) Rootes) ® Foscuet)® 3. Osthothoubic and Cross-anisotropic; 6? Negative. ‘The displacements, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the folloving substitutions into the equations for the case of uniform vertical pressure loading (Orthorhoabic and Cross-anisotropic; * Negative). ‘These equations are shown on the opposite pase. G) substitute: Fy), reoeee Py (i) substitute 059 oecuea) soe(uet) osu) s*os(uen) C. Orthoshoabic and Cross-anisotropic; 8? zero, The displacements, strains and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutions into the equations for the case of uniform vertical pressure loading (Orthorhonbic and Cross-anisotrepic; 6% zero). These equations are show on the opposite page. (4) substitute 7.29 %.2y4 Gi) substitute dy, (a2) Foe cuer) 2) Fos(uei) 9) D. Isotropic ‘The displacements, strains and stresses ore obtained by making the following substitutions into the equations for the case of uniform vertical pressure loading (Orthorhosbic and Cross-anistropic; 6? Zero). ‘These equations are shown on the opposite page. (4) substitute 7,.(2)%.eg7 - oo for 2 5) substitute dpp() 40) Zoeques) ® Ky) Fosuety® 4,6) (4i8)tIn addivion the sixplified values of a, f and e, (show on the opposite page) are applicable. me arenent 2 16 2(4) LOWEAR VERTICAL PRESSURE ‘The solutions given below involve products of coefficients (G,, iq, #,) and integrals Oey lO) s Hsgy CW» Hscys sEseyt Fsayr 4 sKgg,)+ These contficients and integrals are evalusted on pages 26 and 24 respectively. ‘A, Ortharkombie and Cross-anisotropic; 6% Positive. we BP: aye, hsp (08) * ogeBzsy (08) we DER ay 65 Faey(t) ~ Oy Fey 00? fgg © DEP a A-gg Leggl2) + 94eBzg5 (02)? tag = DEP, gy ebakgg ltt) ~ 9-2 Bugg 2D) fag” DP ag ef gas (4) * Ege g(08)) = BAP Gg OT gy sta) ~ 0g C08)? at-dgksyg(68) * 9g sy (03) Ploy ggg (08) * Gg-Esg3(02)) be 3B. Orthorhoabic and Cross-anisotropic; 62 Negative. te Brey lotgeclaey ~ Eyres) fae * DEP tg Kags * Ege ahaas? fant BYP gectaas * S0'etaes? Cee * DP pty la gKges) G. Orthorhonbie and Cross-anisotropic; £? Zero. 1554 (08) = #2-Fotgy(03)) we BP, eye ltg key Os) + ag Bkges (0a)? fee * DP ageKsys (04) ~ 2y.5.Ky,5 (02)? fag 7 DEF, leyakyes (OH) + 67.2.8 sys(08)) Seg * DERE Co kseg (oa)? Bee GP, ee slos) + a.2.ye5(00)) Bw BYP Mag Kege(as) ~ 66-5-E soe G5)) Be BHP yg) = af. gg(00)) Be fe, ve Bi, 25: D. Isotropic. ‘The displacenonts, strains, and stresses are as for the case of Orthorhoabic and Cross-anisotropic; 82 Zero but with the folloving simplifications; ey 2 cat a anyet Qey).-29).274 age deat oye 2v o (ev). -20) fsa be k(t appeworx 4 y as 20) LINEAR VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT Tho solutions given belov involve products of coefficients (Gq, ty, 8) nd intepTals (lpa¢4,)(H)s Fascuery + Frecueny? sH2e(uery? Aas(uer)” M4 sas (wer)? These cowf ficients and integrals are evalo- ated on pages 26 and 25 respectively. A. Orthorhosbie and Cross-anisotrepic; 62 Positive. ‘Tho displacesents, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutioas into the equations fer the case of linear vertical pressure loading (Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; &* Positive). ‘These equaticns are shown on the opposite page. 2, 2M a2 nds) (ods Co mmaciene BM on ay OYE « ey SD eS This alternative substitution follows from the moment - displaceaent relationship for this case of 6? Positive: ‘This relationship is 1 2 (osds) . (ordo”, nF: ee SEER 8 G8) sabstieate Lye ¢y41) 0 ~ Raseyety ~ B. Orthorhoebic and Cross-anisotropic; 6? Negative. The displaceneocs, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the folloving substitutions into the equations for tho cise of Linear vertical pressure loeding (Ortherhoable and Crosscenisotropic;, BY Regative). ‘se oqation are shown on the orposite Pass 42 yh _ ak 4) sobseinuce 4.34 y on -t,.Qaigh « . o 0 Oat a ay Tae ‘This alternative substitution follows from the moment-displacenent relationship for this case of 6? Negatives “This Tolationship is. ae ake’ ee a yD oan |? Key 0) F350) for (48) mbstieatesty (ayy “mene fot seeeneee Paoy ewe of00 aneneennen Boog Faster) * Esau sPascon) aes + ane C, Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; 6% Zero. ‘The displacesents, strains and stresses are obtained by making the folloving substitutions into the equations for the case of linear vertical pressure loading (Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; §* Zero). ‘These equations are shown on the opposite page. 22 : ot et fond) Coy erie Oy om ty GEE aby OR ‘This alternative substitution follovs from the mosent-displacenent relationship for this case of 6? Zero, This relationship is: * £ (erda®y? ty OE: oy SS 2 G1) subseitate 156544) (08) ~ + Ky (28) euen ~ + By) D, Isotropic The displacenents, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutions into the equations for the case of lines? vertical pressure loading (Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic: 6 Zero). ‘These equations are shavn on the opposite page. ; ah 2 ait 5 G) substitute 2). Fy ra. QS. POP 8 gh Fy 2a 2 ‘This alternative substitution follows from the mment-displacesent relationship for this isotropic case. This relationship is %y Gi) substitute Ze 6441) Fs) ® (44i)In addition the simplisied values of a, f, and ~ for ~ Ez F-% (shown on the opposite page) axe applicable. 336 anpestiy 4 18 3(@) WHIFOR LATERAL SHEAR STRESS ‘Tae solurions given below involve products of coefficiests (iy, jy and ¢,) and integrals sO» Sirs Fess Hay Maoye Aten cage 4 ig)» These cottletents ead imegrals are evayuared on pages 26 and 22 respectively. Av Orthorhonbic ond Cross-entsorropic; 6? Positive. we BD ag. fh Hyg (48) + Ay ky Oe)? egg * DR Hyg Ry 02) ~ hy-8y (05) Gee = DEP hs hye la) + hy lye lo2)? bag * BED, Coot, hy g542) ~ 0 hgeHyg(08)} fee Diy fig l-o aye s(oe) + 671 (081) Be Bp sige ea (48) = kyyylo2)? Be Bp chy tage) + Mgekygg loa) Be Gp badge) + Maggs (00)? Bate, 2. Orthorhosbic and Cross-anisotrepic; 8? Negative. 2, ; iyo ay ie Vo Mey? 2, Be Boys Mas a+ Ot -é, Be Derby hiss foatass? Gee Beep a chiga * Feehes) Behe, ¢, Orthorhoubie and Cross-onisotropic; ot zerv. 9 Bp eyelet las) = ty vetgg * Ong ty Coty Gl) + fy 2d (08)) "2g eet Dey keg egg lea) = Fyaky gla)? 2 ‘ fa Pee Ciph sien + + BF ty ston) - 0.2.2 (02) = BY py ek glen Be BH oy ley ayslon) = tees (oe)) Hyg) 8.3K g5(08)) Fe = Be ih Kg (ae) ~ eh. tygela)? Bete, ). Isotropic ‘The displacenents, strains, and stresses are as for the case Ortherhoabic and Cross-anisotrepie; 6 zero but with the following simplifications; +y) (1-29) 2) = Qey.et 2 = Gsy). 0-29). 2 Ge. ey 3 2004) eF t= eye? 1 02 Hea tye 2e, (149) £2 $ f= ab = B.ceyy % APrERBEE A 39 37 S@) UNEFORL LATERAL SHEAR DISPLACEAENT The solutions given belew invalve products of coefficients (h,, dq, aid t,) asd intogras (pp(¥)s Mert Koc (aers + Fos (wer > Hoctuety? sMoecuety* ofns(ueny 4 sMoscueiy?* These condficients and integrals are evsiuated on pages 26 and 25 respectively. Ay Orthoshoabic and Cross-anisotropic ; 67 Positive, ‘The displecenents, strains and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutions into the uations for the case of unigom Lateral shear stress loading (Orthorhoabic and Cross~misetropics 6 Positive). These equations are show of the opposite pare. Het (8) substitute 14. N79 GH substitme g2C9) Feuer) Fos(uer) B. Orthorhombic and Cross-Anisotropic; é? Negative. ‘Tne displacements, sertins. and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutions into the equations for the case of uniform lateral shear stress losding (Orthorhonbic md Cross-ansotrepic; 9% Negative). Those equations are shown on the opposite page. (6) substitute 7,.(20%5,7 8) supstimite Opp Fretuei) sFoe(ue) eMosiuet) sos tue) Cc, Orthorhonbic and cross-anisotropic; #7 Zero. ‘The displacements, strains and stresses are obtained by making the following substivutéens into the equtions for the cose of uniform lateral shear stress losding (Orthorhoubic and Cross-anisotropic; 9? Zero). ‘These equations are shomm on tht opposite page. a (6) substitute 7. (2) (44) subseinute @), (as) Sap (yo) (2) wavecneeeesetineeenemenemeesens Kya, (08) Foxe) for wenn Hyg) 9. teste, The displacenents, strains and stresses are obtained by caking the following substitutions inte the equations for the case of uniform lateral shear stress leading (Orthorhombic and Cross-snisotropi These equations are show on the opposite page. (4) substitute 25. (20) 42) (48) subsedeute G92) Foceney “osueny (4iiDIn addition the simplisied values of 2, f and 6, (Show on the opposite page) are applicable. me appreorx 4 20 4(@) LINEAR LATERAL SHEAR STRESS ‘The solutions given below involve products of coefficients (h,, J,» and ,) and integrals Ase > Xsay lO» cEseur sEseyr soy? 04 sKgy)+ Tete covticients and integrals are evaluated on pages 26 ana 24 respectively. ‘A. Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; §* Positive. we Be pg tge ly Ryey (2) ~ hy Ksey (08)? we Bhp. gy () ~ elys 0) 25's, sag * DP Ag Kye (2) Tag Kgps(02)) fae OP 7 hPa) + Pym = 2 B+ Oat, Bee Dry ig tye sl0a) ~ hg hseg(os)) chy Kges($2) * osha Kye sipa)? a AT Catgag(t8) * Kygg (00d) y= Bry OS ye g(00) ~ Fy Esog(02)) BH fie, B. Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; 6? Negative. Bh ne a , oe Bisel et * Sesaet 40 DE eto Uardans Sessa? te Pa dies * tesa? : an DY ldo chaes ~ drorstscs! Bp Ph yyy — 208 Kegs) Sew GD PT Kags sss! Be Bae ees) a+ bp, ; Be Dippy lig. hges * deestses) B= BD Gy ses * Tykes? Be pty C. Orthorhoabic and Cross-anisotropic; $* zero. 235 we Bp yaye ft kyey (aa) + ty.2.8sa5 (a5)? ee De rp sgeletg gg (2) + tyutaygg(02)) Bry Cty tgegloe) + tytakgeg(o8)) Kos (a8)? fag * DP ST sp 5(0s) ~ e.sksyg (a2) Be BE py algae) Bee Brgy late kegloe) + teedgeg (0a)? B+ Opt Hoe (03)) Behe fag 7 OYPy ty kyeglot) = ty 7 Ksgg(az) + 14, D. Isotropic. ‘The displacenents, strains, and stresses are as for the case of Orthorhosbic and Cross-anisotropic; 8? Zero but with the following simplifications; (sy) .a-20) > t= Geet ty 2 2.07, t= Ge). . tee : : eral G thew tee ig = 2. (9) EP ast fraps eaey) arrerarz 4 nS we 400) tumman LATERAL saan onseLAcs¥et and ¢,) and Antegrais Hrecuery Faaeueay Or cryeny® sFaawny? as(wer MM! Fxecyey) Tate covkticienes end integrals ase evsicased on pages 26 sod 25 respectively. ‘The solutions given belov involve products of coefficients ys J, 4A. Orthotheabic and Cross-anisotropic; s¥ Positive. Tho displaceaents, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the substitutions into the equations for the cate of Linear Lateral shear strest loading (Orthorioabic and Cross-misotropic; 62 Positive}. ‘These equations are shom on the opposite page. 2) fond B. Opthorhombic and Cress-anisotropic; ? Negative. ‘The displacenents, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the following substitutions into the equations for the case of linear lateral shear stress losding (Orthorhombic znd Gross-anisotropic; 6? (G) substitute - 6.) ® Gi) substitute eeusry Feu ctu) a Bey stu) Assy $*2squ2) ss 2? zero, C. Onthorboabie and Gross-atsourepic The displacemimts, strning, and strees are chained by sabing the Goiloving substitutions ee the equations for the case of linear lateral sheer stress loading (Orthorhombic and Cross-anisotropic; 8° Zero). These oqstions are sho on the pposite pate. at ’ ah lf (ou Co santene = tick ky Gee Ga) substieae M6454) (68) D, Isotropic. ‘The displacenents, strains, and stresses are obtained by making the folloving substitutions into the equations for the case of linear lateral shear stress loading (Ortherhombic and Cross-enisotropic; §? Zero). These equations are shown on the opposize page, E (2) amstatuee - 55.0%, 2 — (38) sabstdtate Egy (2) ~ Fescuery @) (441) In addizion the simplified values of o, f, md t (shown on the opposite page) are applicsbie. 30 aPPennax A 2 INTEGRALS FOR LOADING BY UNIFORM PRESSURE (loading types 18 and 38) ten = #0 and s ¥ 0 the values of the integrals are given by: yy) + BY C- GED rniy?oca99y?y - Ge2 rmiver-ey7) ~ fareentay. vee? 7] Hes * yest) = QE Pay Peek Peay? Aggy (0) © Brews antte2ecten) 72. cePocae 8g « harean(2ny.(0%122Y « i areantas. (2D) yg) = BP veanciy?ec9)7 cere 255 ay. t42e(a0ey2y2 tytocaeen?y 2 Kg) 2p. {9% (142) 7)", (9Po (dea) ea * DE MEE ine, - HEE ane, - BEM ane, - NEE ane, - fareame, » artane,)) Baer = OY CEGAD artangy + hartanyy - 72% arcany, - hartamr, + Fean(cy-cQ) = ICG. 92) 254 Ayes * Ot Cartamy, + artam,) yey * ORO .69) = taG,-)? ses isn * DS arcany, + sartany, + G72) artamy, + cartamy, + Fan(y.04) = mle.) sig * DRE me, « PEM inc, - LEYS tog, - EME ane, + SEfartamy - arsamy)) Saas * OB tanceyet) = 1n(G.593 = Qe kC-arcany, + arctan) a7s? + (teavas)? xy + 2astia7s?s (eras)? - 1) te? + (Anse)? ay + tastta?aPe(orus)? = 10 ty 2 ote? + (teean)? xy = 202. (2rue) las". (evus)? + 1) 07s? + (ioevus)? Xq = 202. (ous) *(a7s"-(erus)? + 1) Wen = 0 the values of sone of the integrals are sigificantly simplified. These integrals are; Hyg) = Fes) = Ries) = Masa = s¥is1 ~ Miss * shtss = ° 1, aqg(e) = BY Counce?) = sartane™h Keg) + Garten b Kyeg(@) = BY c97e1) When 2 = 0 the relevant integrals are given b) : 2 ¢. G3 2 tee 2, - ae ey) = ey = GEE BLancaee? Cnc?) egl = aes = = fo - lie + 2. ancaeas? Fa Fir OYE Kygal) = Kpgg © Oe Candee)? ~ an(a-2f7 -0 Mier * Mies * sisi ~ sMtss NOTE: The values of artanx,, artanx,, artany, lie in the range 0, ‘The value of artany, lies in the range 0, = when 2-u2>0, and in the range -r, 0 when 2-uz<0. APPENDED & 23 a INTEGRALS FOR LOADING BY UFORM DISPLACEMENT (Londing types 1b and 3b) ween = #0 and « ¥ 0 the values of the integrals are given by: ag) * sy Hyqgl = Fy 008% Hygg (0) = (9-cosgegrs-8inzey. ty > Heyl * 6 fai 22 sy Kogel®) * (-Sinbeyex.0095¢,) 25 where Sq = sesind zee (ve (ae) Me(yeca-2)7V9) artan(2=90 (67 271)) gp Srsin(2(eranys ClaPs7o(aserany fa7s?e(acnus) VI}, = artant tea. Coven) (0252. (oven) ?e41 fg 7 Atsin| z(t)? Cla"sPe(deoan) Me(a%sPe(tesres) TI}, + mreanC2an (onus) +fa2s?- (eae) 411] iy + Westersta.ty.tycoskeye sing) ry 2 hanya 5° (075 conus) 707, 242.5, (us conga, ¢(eraz) singe, 7? te Cla?a? (ers) 741 )74ta 2? (oun) 77 5g Poco Pry a. fan coebyo (eas) sink 338 = ae? foam tarot? ene? Yoon = © 0 the values of some of the integrals axe sigaiticantty simplified. These integrals exe: Hpgal) * Xygg( * Kqgg) * Kye = oKos2 * Bose * Koss Qoa(0) © -ersiah ¥ Kygg * 0) Age) = 6.0717 4 ‘hen 2 = 0 the relevant integrals are given by; fo foxt* ad Mp © Mop = Xyeg(0) * of 02 * 02 * | ercaon @ tl * doe on acsin © wa Naga * Foxe Yn Fa = Foe Vera ay sHoe2 * sMoea * sos2 * sTosa “© NOTE: The values of xy and «, Lie in the range 0, ¥. The value of <, lies in the range 0, x when a-ui°9 and in the xmge -» 2 O when enue. ua apperazx 2. m [DITEGRALS FOR LOADING BY LINEAR PRESSURE (leading types 24 and 44) Moen = #0 and ¢ #0 the values of the integrals are given by sq) Gh ce arrange = $+ Basatotaciee)?s + Fane? 03 Parra Kygg to) = Dr frareantay. re?) « Ftate7ece) 7) Grats?) 7H] Kags) = BD chareanize. (vee? ayFy ~ 9. (PoaPoay ye cae) Fec0-0)7749 242, Kat = OE Fame + EE cinteeceey?) ~ ante? ass9701} ayes (0) = SE cGeareantze cea Y « HanivFacteny’) = Santoeocare)?1 Fy 8 cy?) Bagg) + QE ce. amto*o (10a)? y banis?s(1-2)7) ~ w, (W7se71) (9%e(000 P42 (nas) 223? (eaay?e os, se * Bes Bram, + 2S ges) ot cartang, - So SEO) np, ime, 9252) Can,-tm,)) Sen OEE EN area,» ELEM stam 22. ceva)? = SES neem) eFaeg * OY. eorameyrereinyy) + 8 neta) + $205,100) SKsey * QE area, = Geta, + FANE. cy) IME -£)1) 1 exten 1 (ala?-tenmy® ogg = DEAE EM) area « BEY actane, «4, (alaP fous)? . Cone, in) eB aes2) ting gaint) aig (072 Gewa) 01}. ney te 9] typ 2s (oeus) “Ht a2 sP teu) sa GM vartny, 2 + artam 22052) caye ane) ~ SEM) cacy-ancg)? fasg = OU artam, + farang + Franc. ¢4)-10(6,-65)27 shes * QE, areamyeareamyy) - “2 (ancy-anc,) + 86, uacy-1963)) where ty + ee cteens)? xy > tastes" Gerua}*1} by = eae (toa)? ig = Dase{e’a*s (eas)? 1} ty = ose)? vy © Zaz. (reas) #(a727. (even) 741) by 2 751s)? iy tas. (ea) #022 fenea)?o1} When 2 = 0 the values of some of the integrals are significantly simplified. These integrals are; yyy) Hayy) = 0) Paar 7 an * ctaas “aes “8 2, 1 - Kaa = DEE artan oF =H kyes lt) = GE epereame hy kya (6) = Cartan? - 9.71) When s = 0 the relevant integrals are given by: 29 2 en * Keen * ae Te Keg ~ Eyes = BAF Aancd-)* - rwt4e2)79 er 2 2 a 2 2, auf el Kygx 0) * Eggs 7 Og-E GaGa)? = mCes)72T hy g30 * cays = af eS NOTE: The values of artanyy, artumy,, artanyg Lie in the range 0, 1. The value of arcany, lies in the rmge 0, © when z~us>0, and in the range -n, 0 shea S-w20, arrenae 4 2 a3 FTEGRALS FOR LOADING BE LINEAR DISPLACEMENT loading Types 2 end 40) vuen = #0 and a ¥ 0 the values of the integrals are given by: Hagglhh + tyseodgee Hyp) * Ty sinkeg Iyglt) = pteoedeg etna) Ip Kagglt) * H.c05}tg-¥. sing) ofp Hyp) * Tq -c08} Ky (925g Sieg" Wp con geht Fag 7 Ay Sing ti AQ BD Faca * He(deaa. (8 * c0nge t,t coshe,) = (eran) 7 Haga * Hela. 0, singe, 7, sine) 2 (ema) 2, Fagg le Si hy SII) saan Tg OR Ty cor) hays een Late ot abe een aus ele Ecol cotle Cena) ue # orsin2estig?e tea)? o(6%4 (02) 7759} eg © aremizeee(yetay) y= arsinl2cerey it 2s? Gneny tao (tneos)7V) wp 7 ervant as. (aren) (04s? (oven) 109 9 erste 2 cement (02a?e (ee ua) Woe? o eras) V9} sy * attan(2a. (oven tta?s?- (ora) 010) Sg WaaPea,22.25. (G.coeheyes.sinkeg) ay = (Peay 5,» Co%ste conus) "224 2.2, fos-covhe, «(anus singe, JT 2, = ClaPat covan)?s VP te?s? omy? ePatena) oe 2atylancorbeetaras) sick I 1, « colat cena Po)ta®st easy I hen = + 0 tho Values of sone of the intograls are significantly simplified. These integrals are Hag2 = Fagg = Kopp = hos2 * sFos2 * Kase * Kosa = © Hyg) « Paying Hyg lt) = Aap. 74 Hagel) = a When 2 = 0 the values of the relevant integrals are given by; co) re 44 (00 a Fea = er et * act hota heathy on fo. (122) ml fae = daa “Yo igt alg yal * ag ™ os Bren * sHres * sMae2 * #204 °° NOTE: The values of <, snd x, Iie in the range 0. The value of x, lies in the range 0, wien z-oerd and in the range <1, 0 when sure). 234 APPENDIX 6 YALUES OF COEFFICIENTS Values of coveftieiants dye lis iy dye Oye tye ay 7 2A 90 Bey Corde? ag + 02a fF o-4t conayt Bg 7 G9 g-0-4-5) H+ beget, aq 7 9.8+(0-0)7* ay Bernt h (0-0 (ovat tye 2st 8 C0-997). Corde? hig achgroneohy Hh > Banyentohy hag + webetos) > 4 = 25. (0a9*. (ad-o*y* tg = Caayeart ig = mbyenty Spe bigety = Ea or* Sy = Cady se) dg = ted fad-o* Sgt ebyedy Sa bdgedy iy © Bac. (aan = (200g 280 $8. (onda)? © (2003-260). daPeoph f*. (erda”) 2 2g #55 + 0.89 0) bag + ety (20099 02, (@?-0) f°? Corday? te (200f).taa-0) 2. (ord = (2eepy.tae.f teed)? ty tats - Oty = bat ty : tye (aoep) 200g. (ovde?) Bg # (209).0.0.F 7. (0-4)F (onda?) 0 7 4. (2do? 9. *.K0-4)". (endo?) * 6 * 0470-08 Gg 7 Pde te By iy * Reef. 2 fag = (2a?) f* (o-. (oede* hg * aah, = eBoy , AE Bikey grea’ ease”? (aa Loy 4 fg RE verdyg, ign btgsertyy tg aoe ceed? dg = 01 (G08) oF dee that dg ted reniyy Fe nayed Sqqh (fre) (wf) 422 Gerp.0? 1. (onday"t 3g2 OaPp) aft (ood?) t gt aay - 0.008, ay be = 6.0.05 coop) af}. (eed) 4 (22s? pf tora?yt tg Hoty - oat, Tye bity > eats + for o cross-anisotropic material 6 + ¢ APPENDIX A 27 fe VIII, REFERENCES CAROTIERS, 5.0, (1920). Plane strain; the direct determination of stress. Proc. Rey. Soc. Series A., 97, 10-23. DE URENA Rey PIQUER, J.S., MIZAS, F., and SANZ SARAGHO, J.N. (1966).- Stress distribution in cross-miso- tropic media. ‘Proc. 1st Cong. int. Soc. Rock Mech.» VOL. 1, pp. SiS pooROV, K-£. (1940). Distribution of stresses in base wider Tigid strip footing. Nauchn, Issled, Stantsiya Findasontseroya, No. 9. EROELYT, A. (1958),- Tables of integral transforss, Vols 1 and 2. Bateman Mmuscript Project, Celifomia Tnsticute of Technology. (MeGrar Hill). HLORIN, V.A. (1959, 1961).~ "Pundanentals of Soil Mechanics", Vols 1 and 2, Gosstroiizdat, Wesco. GERRARD, CoH. and HARRISON, W, Jill (in preparation).- The aialysis of a loaded half space comprised of ssocropic layers. Groson, RE. (1967)-- Some results concerning displacesents and stresses in a non-hoaogentous elastic half- space, Geotecktique, 17, omar, He, (4936).~ Stress’ distribution in elastic solids, Proc. 1st Int. Conf, Soil Mech. Fda Engng, Vol. 2, 387. nana, "WE. (1966).- "Foundations of Theoretical Soil Mechanics”, (MeGraw HII). HEAUON, R.F.S.. (1961).~ "An Introduction to Applied Anisotropic Elasticity", Oxford Univ. Press. WotL, D:Le (iba1).- Plane strain distribution ef stress in elestic sedis, Bulletin No. 158i, lowe Engineer- ing Station. WRGENSON, 1, (1940).~ The sppLication of theories of elasticity and plasticity to foundation probleas, ‘Boston Soc, c0. Enare, Contributiona to Sott Meck., 1925-1940, pp. 148-185. woUaso¥, G.b. (1955).- Application of complex dlagrans and the theory Gf fictions of complex variables to the theory of elasticity. O.N.T.I. Lee, T.W. (1967). Stress path wethod. Proc, ASCE, J. Soil Meck. Pine Div., 95, No. SMS, 509-51. Lenaiirsitl, 5.6. (1963).- "eory of Elasticity of am Anisotropic Elastic Body". Holden ~ Day Series in wath. Physics, LoVe, "A.B. (3927) ~ "Mhithenatical Theory of Elasticity", 4th Ed., (Caxbridge Univ. Press). PIQUER, 35. MUZAS, F., DE URENA, R. and GRAJERA, F. (1966).- Foundations in cross-anisotropic ground, Proc. ist Cong. Int. Soc, Rock ech, Vol 2, pp. 551-6, QUINLAN, P.N. (1949).- A Fourier integral approach to an seolotropic mediua, Ph.D. Thesis, California Tasticute of Technology. soorr, RF. (1968).- "Principles of Soil (Addison-Wesley) SEDDON, T-N, (195i). "Fourier Transforms". (WeGrax Hi) TIWOSHENUD, 5. and GOOOTER, J-N. (4951).- "Theory of Elasticity". (MeGray Hill). pp. 85-96. TRAVTER, Cud."(1966)-~ "Integral Transforms in Mathesatical Physics", Sed E4. Methuens Monographs on Physic- al Sibjects. WATSON, G.N. (1966).- "The Theory of Bessel Functions". 2nd Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. WOLF, K. (1955).~ Ausbreiting der kraft in der halbebene ind in halbraum bel anisotropea material. 2, angey ‘Math, and iechey Te, (S)> 269-54. 336 Appendix B CIRCULAR LOADS APPLIED TO A CROSS ANISOTROPIC HALF SPACE C. M, Gerrard W. Jill Harrison 28 APPENDIZ 5 2 ‘The material in this Appendix was originally Published as Technical Paper No.8 of the Division of Applied Geomechanics, C.S.I.R.0., Australia and is reproduced in full herein with kind permission of the authors and the Chief of the Division of Applied Geomechanics. Corrections to the original published version have been supplied by the authors of the Technical Paper and hhave been incorporated in the reprinted version herein. For convenience, the page mabers of this Appendix are identical with those of the original publication and any reference to page mmbers in the text refers to the pages of ‘this Appendix only. n mt. 10) 10) 2a) 20) ea) 30) (2) 40) 5@) 50) vant. Tm siARY TWTRODGCTION NOTATION CROSS-ANISOTROPIC HALF SPACE LOAD TYPES ETHCO OF SOLUTION PRESENTATION OF RESULTS ‘SOLUTIONS FOR DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS AND STRESSES Usifors Vertical Pressure Unifora Vertical Displavenent Linear Vertical Pressure Linesr Vertical Displacenent Linear Radiel Shear Stress Lingar RadLal Shear Displacement Linear Torsional Shear Stress Linear Torsiooal Shear Tisplacenent Uniform Unidirectional Shear Stress Uniform Unidirectional Shear Displacement LIST OF TABLES OF INTEGRALS ‘TABLES OF THTEGRALS Page st % B ” a 23 2 apereacx B ‘This peper presents the solutions to 2 group of problems involving simple Jods of cirenlar plan area. These loads sro applied to a homogeneous, linearly elastic, cross-anisotropic half space in which at any point the axis of symeatzy im the clastic properties 4s vertical. ‘The ten loads considered farm five paixs, css consisting of 2 stress-defined Joad and a displacenent-defined load: (a) Unifors vertical pressure. A(@) Unifora vertical displacement, 2(a) Linear vertical pressure. 2(b) Linesr vertical displacenent, S(a) Linear radial shear stress. 302) Linear radial shear displacement. “‘A(a) Linear torsional shear stress. 4(b) Linear torsional shear displacement. 5(a) Uniform unidirectional sheer stress. S(b) Unifera unidirectional shear displacement, ‘Tho solutions contained in this report ere of considerable value in soil end rock engineering. Firstly, they allow a full range of practical loading conditions to be considered for a complete range of displaceaeat, strain, and stress components. Secondly, the stress deformation anisotropy treated i$ that which comuuly occurs in oi] and ‘rock masses. . CIRCULAR LOADS APPLIED TO A CHOSS-ANTSOTROPIC. 3a by CM. Gerrard’ and W.JE11 Harrison” 1, DeTopocrTox ‘The losds considered in this report are applied ever a circular plan area to the surface of a cross-anisctropic half space, The cizailar shape was chosen because of its direct epplication to whee! Toeds on pavements and foundation loads under strnctures such ag silos, chimneys, and tanks containing Liquids. “in addition, for reasons of ease in malysis, it is convenient to consider the circular shapes ‘ss approximating to rectangular fowdations of approximately equal breadth and width, ‘The nature of the anisotropy of the elastic half space corresponds to that observed in soil and rock deposits formed inder the action of predominantly vertical forces. Such deposits may be natural or placed. Hence the solutions produced ere relevant to a wide range of practical situations where it vould ‘be uurealistic to assume isotropy. - ‘The existing solutions for axi-symetric problens involving a cross-anisotropic fialf space are ssmarjced in Table i. The solutions in this report ere ore comprehensive than those in any of the previous work in the following weys: 1, Rage of load types considered; 2, Range of stresses, strains, and displecesents solved: 3. Range of cross~aisotropic material response considered: TABLE 1. SUMARY OF EXISTRNG SOLUTIONS $$$ NATURE OF | RESTRICTIONS ON saromot | exasTic Response | ELASTIC PARMETERs | TYPE OF LOADING Miche! cross @? positive Vertical point lod won surface of half space: (@s00) anisocroric | 4? pocseive Stresses. throughont half Barden space oe Uaifora vertical toad ax vertical pressare | 2x on toad axis eon surfece Woe cress Reserietion on the| Vertical point. toad Stresses and displacements (4935) anisotropic | value of f, and in half space Manan rn) Quintan cross &? positive Vertical point load Stresses and displacements 13949) aisorrpic | 42 positive in half space Uniform, parabolic, and | v on surface inverted pacabolic distrib-| 25 on load axis utions of vertical stress. Unisore vertical displace- nent Koning crasse a” positive Vertical point load ALL stresses and displace- 3357}. | anisotropic | 52 Sosteive Vaiforn vertical displece- | eats in half space been. post zee 12960) Unifora verticat pressure | v on surface at centre and edge of load a down load axis lekhnieskit | Cross a+@anda-2 | Vertical point 1oad AL stresses throughout (965) amisorropic | must not be pure- half space ty inaginary Gerrard cxoss- a! positive Unifors vertical pressure | ALI stresses, strains, and (1968) miisorropte | 62 vosseive or | Uniform vertical Gisplace- | displaceneats in hal? pos eat ‘space zero Linear radial shear stress Torsienal loads * Division of applied Geonechanics, CSIRO, P.O. Box St, Mount Waverley, 3149, Victoria, Australia. 32 APPENDIE B 6 Ene oeras Spa" ea'" rd abredsf 5, % “n “nw oh E 8 . ° 11, NOTATION (a) Coordinates, Displacements, Straina, Stresses, Elastic Modulé loaded radius cylindrical coordinates (radial, tangential, and vertical) expressed in units of ‘the loaded radius displacements in the respective coordinate directions direct stress and shear stress components of the stress tensor direct strain and shear strain ‘components of the strain tensor components of the elasticity tensor modulus of elasticity in the horizontal direction modulus of elasticity in the vertical direction Poisson's ratio - effect of horizontal strain on complesentary horizontal strain Poisson's ratio - effect of horizontal strain on vertical strain Poisson's ratio - effect of vertical strain on horizontal strain podulus of elasticity - isotropic material Poisson's ratio - isotropic material (B) Derived Elastic quantities 2 = tadne?-ofeftad) 2fe 7 (agro op faa) vase (a-b)4f Coefficients appearing in the solutions for the displacements, strains, and stresses (defined on pages 13, 21, 27) are gy 190 Byseoigs 2p. sige Tyee edyge Bye-Bye By-e-tye fe) Loadinge uniform vertical pressure maximun value of linear vertical pressure ‘aximm value of Linear radial shear stress maximum value of linear torsional shear stress ‘umiform unidirectional horizontal shear stress ‘uniform vertical displacement naximm value of Linear vertical displacement naximm value of Linear radial shear displacenent naximm value of linear torsional shear displacement uniform unidirectional horizontal shear displacement total resultant vertical force applied to produce the uniform vertical displace- ment (44) . tocal_resulsant tongue applied to proihee the Linese torsional shear Atsplacenent total resultant nonent spied to proce the Linear vertical displacement (naxi- mm value 4,) ‘total resultant horizontal force applied to produce the uniform unidirectional horizontal shear displacenent (65) () Integrals Integrals appearing in solutions for displacements, strains, and stresses, These are defined in equation 8. Faeul) Trew? Tae Focus Ansa? Anew Meu» Maca? sMacu ‘transform parameter appearing in equation 8. aperwotz 8 ? as TIT, CROSS-ANISOTROPIC EALE SPACE This half space can be described as a hosogencous olastic body having infinite extent horizontally and infinite depth below the horizontal plane surface to vhich loads are applied, The uxis of elastic symmetry is assuned to be vertical. The effect of the anisotropy can be gsuged by comparison with the solutions for ‘the isotropic cese which are also included. For a cross-anisotropic material with a vertical axis of symmetry the stress-strain relations expressed in cylindrieal co-ordinates are} 16 FR ait * Bikgg © by Bh bee 1 Rigg * Otay » Be» cote * Calgy * detgy te Be hey a Bere, te Pa Be @e, Five independent elastic constants 2,,0,d, and f are involved. ‘The direct strains can be expressed in terns of the direct stresses by the following relations; a - pa a La a te ye ‘The interzelationships between the elastic constants in equations 1 and 2 are; 8 Bye Legge dyg) EPID Dey 2o py Hyp) 3a Bm By Oy pyr ¥pgd AYE Bay? sp yg) » 88 Bye tage Une 2th ag) Be By Bye ¥yye Dey) eYgg hla vge 2g Yop) “ Fa Yon > Bar iw * ‘The strain components a6; -% ce a as % » — a fe a B 4“ 32 x te a -2 ae rr F comseint, condition that the strain energy mist be positive inposes restrictions on che valves of the elastic aro aro gre asa? carb)d > 22? ade ct le teras of the Poisson's ratios these restrictions impose the limits; Levy 2 Mpg Yo? 2 toy, 20 6 ge eR BE 442-2 - cm + See Hearmeon (1961) . me APPENDIE B a IY, LOAD TYPES. ‘The ten loads considered in this report ean be grouped into five pairs. The fizst in each pair is a particular stress-defined load while the second is the mualogeus displaceneut-dsfined load. The load pases Hie defined below and are shown in Figure 1. 1. “Loading by uniform vertical pressure is typical of pnematic tyres md flexible foundations while oaaing by wslfor vertical displacencst corresponds to Telatively Tigid fomdarions, In both cases the contact 15 spooth. (a) Uniform Vertical Pressure Ber red eo rou when 3 <0 7. %- Geo for all > () Uniform Yerttoal Displacement ret rea when 20 > R:Geo for all» 2. Loading by Linear vertical pressure and Linear vertical displacement represent woments about horiontal. ales applied to flexible and rigid foundations respectively. These mouent loadings would be normally considered in combination with vertical loeds. (@) Linear Vertical Pressure B = cose, red Bo rea when 2 = 0 ve AizGeo for all + (®) Linear Vertical Displacesent ws cosae net Bro pod when 2 = 0 8 eGo for alr 5. The Linear radial shear stress loading is typical of the stresses developed in the surfaces of road duc to whe grip of phouatic tyres. Measurements by Sonse and tuhn (1959) and Harvick and’ Starks (G9si) sndicate that the magnitude of the maximum stress is of the order of the inflation pressure of the Syme, A similar pattern of stress is developed under both stationary tyres and those eoving a constant Vinoar velocity. Te linear radial shear isplacewent. loading vhen combined with the enifora vereical, pressure loading gives the exact solution to the problea of 4 flexible foundation with a rough base, (a) Linear Radial Shear Stress Feppr real Reo rod when 2 = 0 7 Bs Geo for all > (®) Linear Radial Shear Displacement ws be rel Feo wo when 2 = 0 ve eGo for all r 4. The state of stress defined by the Linear torsional shear stress is similar to that developed under phematic tyres during corering and under foundations in certain conditions, On the other hand the Linear Rorsional shear displacement may be applied to the analysis of vane shear tests at sub-failure Loads. (a) Linear Torsional Shear Stress Ge ppr rea Bo pea when 2 = 0 1% Basho for all r (b) Linear Torsional Shear Dispiacesont pear ned Geo wea whea 2 = 0 ™ fia R-o for all 5S. The uniform mnidirectionsl shear stress is typical of shear loads imposed on pavenents by the braking, acceleration, ané traction of pnematic tyres. On the other hand the uniform, unidirectional shear displace Eent represents lateral loads applied to foundations. (a) UNIFORM. VERTICAL PRESSURE {(b) UNIFORM VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT +m & 0 2(a) LINEAR VERTICAL PRESSURE ‘3(a) LINEAR RADIAL SHEAR STRESS ‘3(b) LINEAR RADIAL SHEAR DISPLACEMENT "Og Py mt. om CS) SS 4(a) LINEAR TORSIONAL SHEAR STRESS AUB) LINEAR TORSIONAL SHEAR DISPLACEMENT 42 es 5(a) UNIFORM UNIDIRECTIONAL SHEAR STRESS ‘5(b) UNIFORM UNIDIRECTIONAL SHEAR DISPLACEMENT Fig.1.~ Load types, us APPERDIE 9 a0 (@) Usifors Unidirectional Shear Stress Bs, - rei ue rea when x= 0 n for alt for aur ret peu 4 for all 7 for sl > It should be noted that the loed pairs 2,5 and 4 produce axi-symmetric distetbutions of tresses strains and displacenents whereas tha load pairs 2 and § produce 2 symetric distribution about the plane 6 = Vv. METHOD OF soLirrroN ‘The method used to obtain the solutions reported herein was developed by Gervard and Harrison (1970) and is based on the application of integral transform techniques and dual integral equation techniques to elasti- city problems (Sneddon, 1951, Traater, 1966). The solutions for the displacesents, strains, and strosses are ised in texas of integrals of products of trigonometric fumetions, Bessel fictions, and exponentials. ‘The following syabois are used ro express these integrals: Zaqull) * 5 Figg PD Pigg Bo) EOD) Hee a Lan Ete) BOD Pat * Faw 1S Sg 9 HP AE te “ Agcy * Eyceazyyl® * Zaceeayul®)? aa Hoey * By craayulP) ~ Zacreaqul)? be Aa = Metacrety * An¢rezyu? af ame = Metacaeayy ” oFnte-zyu! bd shea * sacar * sTn(r-2du? a = : shaw * MsTncreanu ~ sacra? ‘The paraneter W contained in equations 84, 84, fe is in the form of either oz, ¢z, ox, or ys for ants~ otropic materials. Hence ix is a function of the elastic properties as well as the depth, In comtrasc, for isotropic materials ¥ = 2. For stress defined loadings the value of n in the integrals (equations £) is either 0, 2, or 4, Under these conditions the integrals cm oply be evalusted directly if r= 0 or 2 + 0 md for other values of r and 2 numerical integration has to be used. However, for displacement defined loadings the corresponding values of n aze 1, 3, and 5. Tn this case the integrals shown in equations 8 can be evaluated directly for all values of p abd 3. ‘Those integrals evaluated directly were obtained by using the results of the Bateman Manuscript Project (0984) and Watson (1966). Caapressive dizect strains and stresses are considered to be positive. Positive shear stresses are defined from the fact that both the stress and strain teasors obey the right hand role. Displacements in the negative coordinate directions ure considered to be positive. lence, a load defined by 2 positive stress acts in the positive coordinate direction, whereas a load defined by a pasivive displacement acts in the uegative coordinste direction. For example, vertical loads are compressive if defined by a potitive stress OF a negative displacenent. APPEWDIZ 2 nu 30 VI. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS ‘The solutions for the displacemeats, strains, ond stresses for each pair of loading conditions are pro- sented in the order previcusly indicated, “The presentation is arranged so that the couplete solution for each loading condition can be seen from 2 single opening of this report, i.e, no nore than two consecutive, facing pages are used for any loading condition. ‘The Solutions given contain ali displacenent, strain, and stress components. This allows the calaile- tion of quantities such as totai deformtions, principal stresses and strains, and principal directions. In gevorsi the solutions are stated as products of coefficients (7y.0.dgy Byeoobyy Eysortygs dy-sodyge 8 tyeetg) and integrais (E, 4, and M types), The costfictents are fimetions only of the elastic properties walle the integrals are in general functions of depth, radial offset, and elastic properties. Tae form of the solutions depends to a significant extent on the nature of the enisotropy as reflected by the values of a” and 6°, both af which are functions only of the elastic properties. ‘The strain energy conditions given by 5a ... Sf are sufficient but not necessary conditions that P= ((an'-0r.(caat + @ + f1.(0f6"* be positive. However, when 6? ts written in the form Pa Cat - 0? - Klan + 91-029)" it can be seen that the sign of 8° is not restricted by the strain energy conditions. Hence, for each leading condition, four seperate cases are considered as follows; A. Cross-anisorropic; a” positive, 8 positive 2, Cross-anisorropic; o? positive, 4? negarive ©. Cross-snisotrupic; a” positive, 6° zero D. Isotropic (this is a special case of C in which @ = 1) ‘Atypical layout for a stress defined loading (i.e. load 11a), 2(a), 3a), 4{a), or S(a))eonsises of ‘the complete solutions for the displacenents, strains, and stresses for each of the above four casas. In addition reference is given to the values of the coefficieats @,, i, ty, dps Sq» t,)- Finally the values of the integrals are given in the following wayi reference to tabulated values when 7 # 0 and =f 0 statement in closed form for the special cases of # + 0 and x « 0, ‘The layout for « displosement—defined loading differs fri that of the analogous stress~defined 1oed in several respects. Piretly, the Solutions are given by simply stating the substitutions that need to bbe nade into the solutions for the stress-defined load in order to abeain the solutions for the displace nentedefaned load. In general these substitutions are referred to 2 saxisum defined displacement OR a defin- ‘ed total lead, This considerable econoay in presentation is made possible because of the similarity in the fous of the soltions for a given stress-defined loading and its displacenent-defined analogue. ‘Secondly, the values of the integrals can be stated in closed form for all values of 7 and a and hence no tables are required. ‘The penerel case of 7 #0 and = #0 and the special cases of r= 0 or 2 = 0 are considered. VET. SOLUTIONS FOR DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS AND STRESSES ‘The solutions for the displacenents, strains and stresses for each pair of loading conditions are presented on the following pages. 2 1(2) UNIFORM VERTICAL PRESSURE A. Gross-anisotropic; 8? Positive w= Pyare l-gyeTggg(¥2) * $9-Taq9(08)) = Pyarg{-85-Zza9 (48) + 94272908)? sam 7 M42 (9y-4-Taqa(¥2) ~ 89:0-Toq9(08)) Gp * Pyrlodge Lpgal¥a) = 21 ry09(2)) + 94-gg9 (02) = # Pyl-ager” Tgp (4a) + 94:2") Ipaq (02) Pyidg-F 1+ Uy99 (48) ~ Typ9(03)) -Tyq9(02))) B. Cross-anisotropic; #? Negative B= Ptyel-ty-lano ~ fareFa0) e+ Pty lige Zang * fyeglao) Sas * Fy @o-cta02 * #105202! in * Fy tls lelagg °F clana) * fe (olooa > fo Pre llgeh lazo * fet 1 *sFa20? ra * Pata: sloae + Py logs Log * ge glo00 ~ BIE B= PyLeqeclogg + Ege glag2 + (Ob) fey. Berg, a +7202) C. Gross-anisotropic; 6? Zero ver 4 # Pyitge {8 5-Zp99 (02) ~ 1 leg-Zpyp (28) + 85. = Pysley-Cpgp(02) = 2° 1Ty99(03)) = 94.24 (y94(aa) = 7 902) 7 -1 Zpqq(ae) ~ #4-8-2"*.Z9,(a)) = Pye fh aTygg(a8) SeTyy (a2) - (a-b) 0 +4 geL999(08) ~ 94-2-Tp99(03)?1 (05-Tyqp(08) ~ 2eTpgq(02) + (a-b).0 segeZy9g(08) > 04.2-Zy29(08) 1) Py {Tyga (08) ¢ 0+5-Typ4(05)) D. Isotropic ‘The stresses, strains, and displacenents are as for the case of Cross-anisotropic; @¢ Zero but with the following simplifications; 2.04.27 = (eye? ().a-29) eg = Ge” 8,220 320 fq * (4v) .(1-20).8" b= B.C) ABPENDIE 3 B . ue (a) DUIFORE VERTICAL PRESSURE. Values of costficients ys ty a= ee 0-4.F7. 4), (once ag 7 PQDT C08) Conds? By 6 Oly Oba 82 * 2089)..6.F7*. (0-4). (onda) * 948 OP FLT loraetyt ty Begg = obo fy Pot C0-9) 4 = 2ancon'. (ado) ig = (tant + oy! fg ety +o iy x Deby + andy fg = Aan) + ot ay = Conn 208. Fone? = U2oespi2da2) da? + of 6} fonda)? (orf) .0? f°. (onda®y y= ae engl (onda?)"* Og 2004 = 000-8 Bg 2 85 1 6.85 a, 72. 477 Body + Ooty ~ era, ag = @ovfy.a?, (dao) f). (oeda")* Values of intewmals 25,0) Lan? om Moen r 4.0 and 5 #0 the values of the Antegrais are given in tableron the page mumbers indicated in brackets; Lagg() 43 Typ) 577 em 52 fn 038 Zl) 0 Jpg) 187) slog CST" sham 8 Tyg) U8 Ay) 7 clapg (U5 dm 13) sf. U6) fig BP Mion r= 0 the integrals are given bys Tagg le) = (Pay Tagg) #1 = (yen Tage) © (02a FN Tyg) = bZog9(t) agp = Pheeh- as aan * cas coed « ms sia 2” fagn = -Pesing + a s¥aqg 7 (-asa.sing © w.2,cosp) 8% 1 eFza0 * dase Oe. Fann * ioe * O41 ret ign * zea shox * sas * 4x21 *° 352 Apremoax 3 16 2a) LINEAR VERTICAL PRESSURE Ay Gross-anisotropic; 6% Positive w= Fy.c08t ony (ey Fyn (2) + G9-Fyz9(02)) -B5rMazal9) * dgMag 02)? w= Pyyc0s0.r B= Fy Simbatg. (aggeAgng (62) * Gqegzg (02)? egg ~ Pye 0501Gy- OZ gyal¥8) = 97-0-Tyy9(08)) Ep BP yn C050. Lge Zypa($8) = 2 Tyo l$2)} + 9g lTgzp(03) + 21 Z yy (02001 egg 2 yrds. ogg 2 Zyap lb) + gyel Tyg (02)? epg 7 Pyr05 8g d's Myyg 48) ~ Myzo(08)) wa 7 Pye 8in0.gg Fh gaa OA) = hyp (oR) ‘ ot - Spy 7 FpeBiata lage gyg $a) ~ ggo7” yy (8)? . Ro Fy. c058 Lge Tagg C48) * 96-Zqy9(08) + COD) Gy Tyg (08) = O4-T gga (021 HB = Pye 005.C-GyaLyo9 (48) * 9g-Zyp9 (08) ~ (6-0).2" Lag Tyn(O8) ~ gg-Zgqn(09))3 Bx Py, cost. 94.48 409668) - 2h Ty ofor)) Fe Sie, Re fatyy Fe Codey B, Cruss-anisotropic; 6? Negative w = Py. 050.19(-EyZ4an ~ targlang) wen Fy.0080.29. Cis Mazo * LaeMeao) v* Pyesinbarye( 5sAgag * Earetagy? Egg * P6088» Cgs laze * fag-etang) 4 gp 7 Pye 00080 (Lyay > Engg) * tae (gtagg ~ Po gTagg)? 1 fo0* sta0o) pg 2 Pye S08 ty Magy Fran gh tg - ty sFyap? ig Zann * igegtang = BDF dana * tyeslaae * D+ Bi» Py. 0088. (Egy + 2-8 Zyyo) _ Pypsoste (Eger te yyg * | Bee ficgy 2 OD). yg €. Cross-antsotropic; 6? Zero Egg) Py 080g (28, Zyaq (0) = Myro(a)} = By sc090itg- Log. Myag (8) ~ 8 SN Ig LBs. gag (62) > 84.-Ag2(02)) Egg 7 Fy 0888. leg.Tgp9 (az) + 83-0-2-Zqp4(02)) Spe * Fye€058. (65+ g9 (a) ~ Ft Tysg(as)) ~ fgg 2 Fy-6088s(S 52 Tyg (ae) - By. 2 yl fag 2 P0050 FE alg (a) cP ad gg Or) fag * Pye epg 7 Pye Sinds (ager 2g yg las? + 80507" lzygaoa)? FR Py 0050. [55 Zyzy (0b) = 55-2Zyp4 (8) ~ (arb) F Eloy Ty yg (02) ~ 84-8-Tyqy (020) G8 = Pye c088.[05.Typ9(03) ~ agtetyaglas) + (a-b).x” (og yyplae) ~ 84+2-Lgqp(03))T 0402)? Fe Satge = foegg Fhe @2)-eq APPEDIX 8 ” 383 2(a) LINEAR VERTICAL PRESSURE D. Tsorrepic The stresses, strains, and displacements are as for the case of Cross-anisotrupic; 6? Zero but with the following simplifications; aye yet 4,7 Gat ag > Ges). 0-29) 22 agro 445 Un) .c-29). 54 1 = Geet an * fe ade z(iy)t Values of cosfficionts gy, ty, i, The VALUES Of G4+6.9gy Ey. --Bgy Eysesdyg have been given previously on page 13 Values of integrals 14.9)+ Lynyr slay Aaru + Aasue sAécu? Manu» Mane Maru when » 0 and x 4 0 the values of the integrals are given in tables on the page umbers indicated in brackets; Jyggt) (502 agg (521 Aggy (6) (56) fang (0571 ang V1 Zygq(#) 052) clan (52) Aaya) (563 say G72 sMazq 160 Zygqt) (51 are 0531 Aga) (56) Auge {58 Han 0811 Tyg) (84 fen (5 Maggi) (591 age (58) Haq [622 Lyqq() (84 aay 155 Meh) 1593 aay 552 Meg [591 hen 7 = 0 the integrals are given by: Laggl® = Zqqa(8) = Fyzgl¥) = Zyyg) © Tyg = yg Gh) = 2, a - Faz * ana * cPaza * sfazz * Taso * sTaso 7 -clago * * -sTaao * ® Bag = Magg (= G Poa Agag(®) = “Magy (@) = 402 9), AD Fa3. cgeeay Ag + HD en Hl) Et) hang =~ tlagg 20D 2 atta. (0. c08y - sro Sha alg «Pas ten + osin) = ann an > lang 22 OA 02a?) cos + Zaawwising) + tH cosg 2 a (ca?) nin! » a ae a deg ot EEE) tah Recep « tha where 8» Ci(etou").2? + 1)? + 4.0?u? ft! and v = arean( rag) © 0 when » = 0 the relevant integrals are given by; i pox? rad 242g) © lary = ay rel Suet oro ret Bag) * Aygo * ret Fen sehr) - b-boy rei e290 © Mazo * Ma > Mae * - soe pa) ye Ghse red ano * sez * Mazo * Marz * ©