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Hare Ka All Glories to rla Prabhupda

Dedicated to His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupda Founder crya of International Society for Krishna Consciousness

Special Thanks to H.G. Gaurnga Prabhu (RNS) and numerous devotees of r r Rdh Gopnth Mandr, Chowpatty, Mumbai

Based on the commentary by rla Prabhupda and Study Material Prepared by Anjana Suta Academy (www.jayarama.us), Vrindavana Institute of Higher Education (www.vihe.org), Vaisnava Training & Education, UK, Mayapur Institute (www.mayapurinstitute.org), Illumination Education (www.illuminationeducation.com) and by Bhakti Sastri Team of ISKCON Chowpatty (www.bhakticourses.com) We must cultivate philosophical knowledge in order to have a proper understanding by which we can proceed without being bewildered by the temptations of the world. To learn

simply for the sake of accumulating knowledge is one of the greatest obstacles to spiritual advancement. His Holiness Rdhnth Swami Mahrja

Beauty, mystery, and unlimited power unite in the form of the Lord, the Isa in opaniad. Here He is depicted as r Kesava, one of the Viu expansions of Ka

Contents
Overview .......................................................... 4 Miscellaneous Notes ................................................... 7 Verses to Remember .................................................. 11 Key themes in the OPANIAD ......................................... 11 Introduction The Importance of Vedic Knowledge ............................. 12 Introduction to Introduction ......................................... 13 Lesson One (Introduction) .......................................... 20 Invocation to Mantra 3: The Perfect Relationship between the Lord, The Living Entities and His Creation / Live in Harmony With vara .................................. 28 The Invocation Foundation of Knowledge of Supreme Person ...............28 Mantra 1-3: Proprietorship & Occupation within Society / Practices for Living Entities .. 37 Mantra 1 How to understand and apply the Lords proprietorship of everything ....38 Mantra 2 How living in harmony with vsya principle benefits .............51 Mantra 3 How living in disharmony with vsya principle harms ............60 Mantra 4-8: The Inconceivable Lord can only be known by the mah-bhgavata .......... 71 Mantra 4-5: vara is inconceivable to our normal intelligence / Conception of Supreme Lord, His inconceivable potencies, and His transcendental relation to creation ........ 71 Mantra 4 - The inconceivable Lord cannot be approached by our limited means. / Focus of the personal aspects of Isa ......................................72 Mantra 5 - An illustration of His inconceivable potencies / Understanding Deity Worship as an example of the Lords inconceivability ............................81 Mantra 6-8: The Mah-Bhgavat / Knowledge and Practice of Spiritual Vision / First see with equanimity and it will help to understand The Inconceivable vara ............ 94 Mantra 6 - Everything and Everyone are part of the Lord, and He is within everything. / The Mah bhgavata ...........................................95 Mantra 7 - Spiritually everyone is the same as the Lord in quality and interest / Rise from Mistaken Oneness to Real Oneness / The Mahbhgavats Vision of the living entities106 Mantra 8 - The transcendental Lord is fulfilling all our desires accordingly / How the vara integrates inconceivable attributes? / The Mahbhgavats Vision of the Supreme115 Mantra 9-11: Comparing the cultivation of knowledge and nescience / Guidelines for knowledge / Right and Wrong Vidya (for understanding vara) .................... 130 Mantra 9 - Those who neglect spiritual knowledge enter into darkness / Comparative Study of Vidya and Avidya / Three Kinds of So-called Knowledge ............132 Mantra 10 - One result from cultivating spiritual knowledge, another from neglecting it142 Mantra 11 - Integrate spiritual and material knowledge while living in the world ...153

Mantra 12-14 Comparing worship of the Absolute to Worship of the relative / Guidelines for practice / Right and Wrong Upsan (For worshipping vara) / Worship of Demigods, the Impersonal, and the Personal Supreme ..................................... 169 Mantra 12 - Worshippers of demigods and impersonal Absolute enter into darkness. .171 Mantra 13 - One result from worshipping Supreme, another from worshipping that which is not Supreme. ..............................................187 Mantra 14 - One must realize eternal Lord, and temporary material world / Devotional Service Grants Immortality ......................................211 Mantra 15-18 Prayers for revelation of the varas Spiritual Form .................. 225 Mantra 15-16: Prayers to the Lord regarding showing His form / Prayers for Knowledge 225 Mantra 15 - Prayer to remove the Lords effulgence so we may see Him / How Bhagavan is the highest manifestation of the Absolute Truth ........................226 Mantra 16 - Prayer to realize the Lord Himself and our relationship with Him / Prayers to the Absolute Truth culminate in devotional service .......................236 Mantra 17-18: Protection against imperfection, for the sincere devotee / Prayers for practice ...................................................... 249 Mantra 17 - Prayer for Lord to remember our service to Him / How devotional service prepares us for passing the exam of death .............................250 Mantra 18 - Prayer for Lord to guide us on path to reach Him / How the omnipotent Lord guides the devotee to perfection ...................................263 Conclusion ....................................................... 273 r opaniad - Analogies & Examples .................................... 274 r opaniad Key Terms ............................................ 275 Answers ......................................................... 278

Overview
HPS: Please read NOI and ISO in following order Step 1 NOI Preface Step 2 NOI Text 1-3 Control Your senses Step 3 ISO Invocation and Mantra 1-6. Simple Living and High Thinking Step 4: Associate with devotees NOI Text 4-6 ISO 7-11 Step 5: NOI 7-8 - Back to the Process & NOI 9-11 - Rdhrani and Rdh-Kunda Step 6: ISO 12-18

VISION
The Perfect Relationship between The Lord, The Living Entities and His Creation / Live in Harmony With vara. The Inconceivable Lord can only be known by the mah-bhgavata.

What a person believes and how a person acts are intimately related. A person who has no belief in the existence of God will act simply according to his whims and desires, accepting them as the only purpose in life. A person who believes in God only as the Creator and Father to be feared and obeyed will attempt to follow His laws, but will also try to enjoy his own desires as much as possible. And a person who sees God as the Supreme Enjoyer and Friend will simply try to serve Him with devotion, while practicing detachment from her selfish desires. Thus, our beliefs and actions combined make up our overall lifestyle.

Belief + Action = Lifestyle


All revealed scriptures stress the purification of our beliefs and actions by giving us spiritual knowledge and practices to follow. By studying and realizing this knowledge and following these practices we can make genuine spiritual advancement.

Knowledge + Practices = Spiritual Advancement (Belief) (Action) (Lifestyle)


This simple formula for our spiritual purification may be called the vision of the text. In the r opaniad this vision is revealed in its invocation and mantras 1-8. In order to begin the process of receiving this vision mantras 1-3 offer prescribed practices for the living entities, namely ourselves. The invocation and mantras 4-5 enlighten us with knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Both the knowledge and practice of their relationship are fully revealed in mantras 6-8 as the vision of a pure devotee. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and therefore His creation is, too. He has perfectly made arrangements for all living beings, and if we learn to live according to His arrangements we can live happily, on the spiritual platform, even in this material world. Those who abuse the opportunity of the human form of life have a very dim future. The Supreme Lord is the greatest person and possesses unique characteristics. Within Him all contradictions are resolved. The pure devotees see everything and everyone on relation to Him and are therefore completely free from anxiety on the transcendental platform. By rendering devotional service in this consciousness they realize Him directly.

Foundation of Knowledge of Supreme Person


Invocation The Absolute Truth is the source of everything, yet He retains His own personality.

Practices for Living Entities


Mantra One - reveals our practice of accepting only our quota and engaging in the Lords service. Mantra Two reveals reward of such practice Mantra Three reveals punishment of negligence of such practice Knowledge of Supreme Person Mantra Four The inconceivable Lord cannot be approached by our limited means. Mantra Five An illustration of His inconceivable potencies.

Knowledge and Practice of Their Relationship


Mantra Six everything and everyone are part of the Lord, and He is within everything. Mantra Seven spiritually everyone is the same as the Lord in quality and interest Mantra Eight the transcendental Lord is fulfilling all our desires

GUIDELINES

The second section of the r opaniad, mantras 9-14, gives further guidelines on the nature of knowledge and practices. Mantras 9-11 give guidelines for which knowledge is to be sought. Mantras 12-14 give guidelines for which practices are to be followed. There are different types of nondevotees, and they achieve varying degrees of misfortune. In order to advance nicely a devotee must understand both the wonderful nature of spiritual life and the defects of material life, culminating in understanding Lord Kas position as the Supreme absolute truth.

Guidelines for Knowledge


Comparing the cultivation of knowledge and nescience / Right and Wrong Vidya Mantra Nine Those engaged in nescience and false knowledge enter into darkness Mantra Ten One result from knowledge, another from nescience Mantra Eleven Must cultivate material and spiritual knowledge side by side

Guidelines for Practice


Comparing worship of the Absolute to Worship of the relative / Right and Wrong Upsan Mantra Twelve Worshippers of demigods and impersonal Absolute enter into darkness. Mantra Thirteen One result from worshipping Supreme, another from worshipping that which is not Supreme. Mantra Fourteen One must realize eternal Lord, and temporary material world.

PRAYERS
Prayers for revelation of the varas Spiritual Form The third, and final, section, mantras 15-18, are prayers offered by the devotee to the Lord to obtain this vision of the r opaniad. Mantras 15-16 are prayers for realization of the knowledge given. Mantras 17-18 are prayers for acceptance of our practices. The speaker feelingly appeals to the Lord to remove His dazzling bodily effulgence and reveal His personal form. The time of death is approaching and the devotee acknowledges that he is far from perfect, but prays that the Lord be merciful to him and, overlooking his shortcoming, accept him as an eternal servant and give him shelter at His lotus feet.

Prayers for Knowledge


Mantra Fifteen Prayer to remove the Lords effulgence so we may see Him. Mantra Sixteen Prayer to realize the Lord Himself and our relationship with Him.

Prayers for Practice


Mantra Seventeen Prayer for Lord to remember our service to Him. Mantra Eighteen Prayer for Lord to guide us on path to reach Him. This simple structure of the r opaniad can at once be recognized in this picture:

Read: 10-15 min Focus: 3-5 min Consider: day long meditation Describe: 10-20 min

Miscellaneous Notes
What is Upaniad? sit near Upa=Near ni=down shad=to sit. Sit near a spiritual master to learn. OPANIAD BEGINS where the material world stops. People are interested in gratifying their senses in so many ways, with conveyances, carriages, fine bungalows, fine ladies, surrounded by aristocratic relatives, forever. Yet it doesn't last and ultimately it doesn't satisfy the soul. So the Vedic literature, the Acharya, offers a progressive education. The Upanishads are the beginning of that. The Upanishads are from the four original Vedas. They are like headlines. rla Prabhupda explains all this. A Comprehensive Study Guide Goals for the SastraCultivate a desire to study the r opaniad for practical spiritual realization. Analyze how the teachings of the r opaniad are still relevant in the modern world. Know the essential message and philosophy of the r opaniad. Systematically study and remember the content and organization of the r opaniad. Use the teachings of the r opaniad as a guide for our own lives. See through the eyes of the Vedic scriptures.

Astika (faith in Vedic scriptures) 6 systems of philosophy:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Nyaya propounded by Gautama Vaisesika propounded by Kanada Sankhya propounded by Kapila Yoga propounded by Patanjali Purva (karma) mimansa propounded by Jaimini (Kas teaching to Nanda Mahraja to stop Indra puja) 6. Uttara (brahma) mimansa propounded by Vyasa (this is the conclusion, Vedanta). a. Advaita b. Dvaita i. Acintya bheda abheda tattva They teach Vedas support their particular school of thought. Except 6th the other 5 dont teach the Vedic teachings completely. Nastika (no faith in Vedic scriptures) 1. Buddhism 2. Jainism 3. Carvakism (materialism) Three primary sources of authority in Vedanta, they are called prasthana traya: ruti Vedas (Samhitas, Brahmanas, ranyaksa and Upaniads) Samhitas focus on karma ka, Brahmanas start from karma ka to jna ka, aranyakas (that which is studied in forest) start discussing about renunciation. Upaniads talk about solid philosophy. Vedas are hymns chanted by priests, in praise of gods. Samhitas are the main parts of the Vedas. Rig = Praise of agni, Indra Yajur = Instructions for performing sacrifice Sma = praise of soma Atharva = chants for hearing, sickness & rites Vedas encourage satisfaction of material desires (e.g.) Sex Indra, Good Progeny Prajapati, Fortune Durga, Power Agni, Money Vasus, Body Earth. Gradual elevation to transcendental life leads to Upaniads (chance for self-realization) Conclusion: Rig: - om tad vio (1.2.22.20) Krishnas Instruction 1. Yvn artha udapne 2. veda-vda-rat prtha nnyad astti vdina 3. trai-guya-viay ved

Upaniads a) Mark being of Spiritual life.

b) Main contribution establish Absolute Truth As non-material. c) Deny material personality (nirguna, a rupa) but do assert Spiritual personality. d) 3 stages (Brahman) e) Parmatma Mundaka, Sveta, Katho (Imp:-defeats Myvda) (Defends Bhakti:-Bhakti depends on ideally being retried) f) Thus prepares way for proper understanding of Bhagavan (Full of opulence) g) Out of 108 Upaniads 11 are important. (1) Isa (2) Kena (3) Katha (4) Prasna (5) Mundaka (6) Mandukya (7) Taittiriya (8) Aitareya (9) Chandogya (10) Brhad-arankya (11) Svetasvatara. Each name has a significance according to its content. r opaniad a) Iso = Supreme controller b) Sambandha = invocation,4,5,8,14 Abhideya = 1,2,3,9,11,15,16,17,18 Prayojana = 6,7,10,12,13 c) Establishes authenticity of ISKCON d) Brings one nearer to Krishna, Supreme personality of Godhead. opaniad is the last part of the Yajur Veda. It is the prayer offered by Manu to yagyavatara. A similar prayer is in 8th canto. A verse is also similar here it is vsyam idam sarvam there it is atmavasyam idam sarvam. Smriti Puranas, Itihasas, Pancharatras. Smritis are elaboration of rutis as done by great sages. E.g. ruti is mother and smriti is elder sister of boy. Elder sister assimilates knowledge from mother and give to child. Smriti and ruti are complementary to each other, not contradictory. There are 18 main puranas and then there are upa puranas and then there are sthala puranas (mahatmayas of various places, e.g. Puri, Tirupati). Itihaas contain Rmyaa and Mahbharata. Itihaas focus on one particular person or lineage. Puranas dont centre on one person, but a particular conversation. E.g. Bhgavatam is conversation between Suta Goswami and sages of Naimisaranya. Pancaratra focus on deity worship. Nyaya Vedanta Sutra. Different from earlier Nyaya by Gautama. Nyaya means logic. Nyaya by Gautama is independent school of thought, but Nyaya in Vedanta uses logic to establish teachings of Vedanta. If anyone has to establish that their philosophy is based on vedas then they have to comment on Upaniads, Smriti (generally Bhagavad Gt) and Nyaya (Vedanta sutra).

opaniad has been commented by many great acaryas Mdhvcrya, Baladeva Vidyabhusana, and Bhaktivinoda Thkura. rla Prabhupda even before starting ISKCON commented that. Shows its importance.

For BS: BG, Iso, NoD, and NoI For Life: BG, SB, CC, NoD (study repeatedly over life time) Shruti opaniad (one of most prominent ruti) Smriti Bhagavad-Gt (it is a ruti in a smriti) Nyaya Bhgavatam (VS very difficult understand and hence Vyasa gave SB as commentary).

Progression in rla Prabhupda Book: BG Vedic (base of pyramid) SB Vaishnava (middle of pyramid), one of the sattva puranas according to categorization given by matsya Purana. CC & NOD Gaudiya Vaishnava (top of pyramid) CCP: Canon set of books considered vital in a tradition. SP wanted ISKCON devotees to have clear understanding of these 4 books.

Sadhya (Krishna) & Sadhan (bhakti) established through Iso and BG. Iso established that the absolute truth is a person and BG establishes that person is Ka. Iso points towards bhakti and BG establishes bhakti. Sadhya & Sadhana explained by NoI and NoD. opaniad is part of the Yajur Veda, and is very important in that is gives fundamental definitions of many of the most important aspects of Vedic knowledge. The nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is described, and how everything spiritual and material is related with Him. To be aware of this, or to be Ka conscious, is the platform for a successful, happy life, whereas ignorance of His and His plan, in any form, will lead to disaster. If one dedicates ones life to understanding and realizing Him, then by His mercy He may reveal Himself, and one can go back to Godhead. All this is graphically described in r opaniad, culminating in the speakers heartfelt surrender at the lotus feet of the Lord, and his appeal for the Lords supreme mercy. So even though the Upaniads are generally known for being somewhat impersonal in their presentation, we find r opaniad is very clearly presenting the Absolute Truth, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the process for approaching Him to be bhakti, or devotional service. HPS: Chant the verses like 16 times over the next few weeks. Pull them out and chant them for special festival like Ekda for the rest of your life. HPS: We are getting into the most profound literature on the planet. Everything else will be easy after opaniad. HPS: Bhakti-sastri means getting the association and later giving the association of people to other people. After that is process. First learn the habit of reading in the association of devotees. Second develop some process for reading and finally learn some systematic content. Usually in modern education they teach in the reverse order. Often they don't care to teach us how to learn. They just want that we learn facts and a few logical processes like Calculus, Algebra, C+-programing language. HPS: Many times rla Prabhupda seems to go from topic to topic, forward and backward. If we look at all the points for some time we can put them into a more strict linear order. Of course this appeals to our mechanical German mentality, but actually Prabhupda's organization of the ideas seems to be more on the basis of taste and how they support one anothers appreciation. For example, we may have a feast of several preparations, and someone may think that we should eat one preparation after another to conclusion before going on to the next, but someone else may like to take a little subji, vegetable, some bread, puri and then chutney and then back to some more subji. CCP: opaniad was not written as a book. It was a series of articles in BTG before establishing ISKCON.

Verses to Remember
Invocation and Mantra 1, 5, 15

Key themes in the OPANIAD


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Knowledge The Living Entities Materialism Defeating Impersonalism Bhakti

6. The Absolute Truth 7. vsyam

Introduction The Importance of Vedic Knowledge

Introduction to Introduction

The introduction is a lecture delivered by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupda on October 6, 1969 at Conway Hall, London, England wherein rla Prabhupda delineates establishes the definition of Veda and the need to take guidance from the Vedas. r opaniad is directly Vedic literature, being part of the ruti. Key Phrase: Spiritual Knowledge is Beyond Our Reach, Therefore the Vedas Are There to Teach CCP: People think Vedas were written long time ago by some sage and hence irrelevant today. But scriptures are word of God and hence eternally relevant. Just as we needed sun in ancient, medieval and modern times, we need the scriptures all the time. Need of scripture can be understood in many ways, one can be recognizing limitation of our sources of knowledge senses. Summary rla Prabhupdas introduction takes the form of a lecture he delivered in Conway Hall in London on October 6, 1969, during his first visit to that city. He begins by explaining the standing that the Vedas have, and how, whereas mundane knowledge is always defective, Vedic knowledge is free from such shortcomings. The Vedas are abda, or spiritual sound vibration, and are the best form of evidence. They can even reveal the spiritual realm, far beyond this limited material world, and this is accepted by such great authorities as Rmnujcrya, Mdhvcrya, and Viusvami, and even by the famous Myvd leader, akarcrya. It must be received through the bona fide channel of the guru-parampara, coming from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Ka, Himself. rla Prabhupda explain that originally there was one Veda, but in due course of time the intellectual capabilities of human beings reduced, so the Lord appeared as rla Vyasadeva to divide the Vedas and present them in such a way that less qualified people would be able to have access to their message. Finally he summarized the Vedas in the form of Vedanta-sutra, a very succinct, and apparently abstract work, but shortly after, on the direction of his spiritual master, rla Nrada Muni, Vyasadeva compiled rmad Bhgavatam which clearly defines the Absolute Truth and the goal of the Vedas as being none other than Lord r Ka, the beloved son of Nanda Mahraja and Mother Yaod, and the transcendental flute player of r Vrndavana Dhama. Explanation Main points discussed 1. Definition of Veda 2. Purpose of Vedas 3. Division of Vedas 4. Process of acquiring knowledge (Veda) i) Pratakshya (Direct perception)

ii) Anumna (Inference/Guess) (inductive knowledge) iii) abda (Hearing from Authority) (deductive knowledge) 5. Two class of transcendentalists Myvd (Vedantists led by akarcrya) and Vaisnavas (Rmnujcrya, Mdhvcarya, Viu svm, and Nimbaditya) 6. Need to study rmad Bhgavatam and rmad Bhagavad Gt 7. Defects of conditioned soul

As we have four defects, we need the Vedas (p1-4) o Para 1: What are the Vedas? o Veda means knowledge. Any knowledge you accept is Veda, for the teachings of the Vedas are the original knowledge. o In the conditioned state, our knowledge is subjected to many deficiencies. The difference between a conditioned soul and a liberated soul is that the conditioned soul has four kinds of defects. (Bhrama) He must commit mistakes. E.g. Mahtm Gndh, President Kennedy. CCP: Mistake means consciously BP: the word Cheating is very similar to teaching Para 2: (Pramada) To be illusioned. Illusion means to accept something which is not: my. Everyone is accepting the body as the self. But you are not this body. This is illusion. CCP: illusion means unconsciously

Para 3: (Vipralipsa) Cheating propensity. Although a person is fool number one, he poses himself as very intelligent. Although he is in illusion and makes mistakes, he writes books of philosophy. But he does not even know his own position. That is cheating. CCP: American comedian - I have already made up my mind,

dont confuse me with facts. Para 4: (karnapatava) Our senses are imperfect. Do you have the eyes to see God? If immediately the room becomes dark, you cannot even see your hands. So what power do you have to see? o We cannot, therefore, expect knowledge (Veda) with these imperfect senses. With all these deficiencies, in conditioned life we cannot give perfect knowledge to anyone. Nor are we ourselves perfect. Therefore we accept the Vedas as they are. Vedas give universal and axiomatic wisdom (p5-6) o HPS: rla Prabhupda addresses the obvious complaint, "But your Vedas are also limited knowledge from one culture, India!" o Para 5: Vedas are not Hindu. We are not Hindus. Our real identification is varrama. Varrama denotes the followers of the Vedas, those who accept the human society in eight divisions of vara and rama. o Vedic principles are accepted as axiomatic truth, for there cannot be any mistake. That is acceptance. E.g. cow dung, though stool, is considered pure.

o Para 6: Vedic injunctions cannot be interpreted. But ultimately, if you carefully study why these injunctions are there, you will find that they are all correct. Vedic knowledge is superior to pratyaka and anumna knowledge (p7-8) o Para 7: The Vedas are not compilations of human knowledge. Vedic knowledge comes from the spiritual world, from Lord Ka. Another name for the Vedas is ruti. ruti refers to that knowledge which is acquired by hearing. It is not experimental knowledge. ruti is considered to be like a mother. We take so much knowledge from our mother. If you want to know something beyond your experience, beyond your experimental knowledge, beyond the activities of the senses, then you have to accept the Vedas. There is no question of experimenting. o Para 8: The Vedas are considered to be the mother, and Brahm is called the grandfather, the forefather, because he was the first to be instructed in the

Vedic knowledge. The Vedic knowledge comes down by disciplic succession. Vedic knowledge is understood in this way. If you make experimental endeavor, you come to the same conclusion, but just to save time you should accept. o Three kinds of evidence: Pratyaka = "direct evidence." (deductive knowledge) Not very good because our senses are not perfect. Sun appears to us just like a small disc, but it is actually far, far larger than many planets. Of what value is this seeing? Therefore we have to read books; then we can understand about the sun. Anumna (Inference/Guess) (inductive knowledge): "It may be like this"hypothesis. For instance, Darwin's theory says it may be like this, it may be like that. But that is not science. That is a suggestion, and it is also not perfect. abda - (Hearing from Authority) But if you receive the knowledge from the authoritative sources, that is perfect. Analogy: If you receive a program guide from the radio station authorities, you accept it. You don't deny it; you don't have to make an experiment, because it is received from the authoritative sources. BP: There are more ways of gaining knowledge but Vaisnavas accept on these three. But if evidence from Pratyaka and Anumna conflict with abda, then we accept abda. Vedas Krishna only way to know about trans realm (p9-11) o Para 9: Vedic knowledge is called abda-prama. The Vedas instruct that in order to understand transcendental knowledge, we have to hear from the authority. Transcendental knowledge is knowledge from beyond this universe. Thus to acquire full knowledge is impossible. o Para 10: There is a spiritual sky. There is another nature, which is beyond manifestation and non-manifestation. But how will you know that there is a sky where the planets and inhabitants are eternal? All this knowledge is there, but how will you make experiments? It is not possible. Therefore you have to take the assistance of the Vedas. o CCP: Vedic knowledge are of 3 types: (1) agreeing with pratyaka and anumna (e.g. Vedic Mathematics) (2) not agreeing with pratyaka and (3) transcendental. Both 1 and 2 are not our focus, our focus is 3. Only way scripture. It is beyond approval or disapproval of material knowledge. Spiritual world can neither be proven nor disproven by science.

o In our Ka consciousness movement we are accepting knowledge from the highest authority, Ka. Both the akara-sampradya and the Vaiavasampradya have accepted Ka as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Our source of knowledge in Ka consciousness is the Bhagavad-gt. Whatever Ka says, we accept. This is Ka consciousness. If you accept the right authority, or source of knowledge, then you save much time. There are two systems of knowledge in the material world: inductive and deductive. From deductive, you accept that man is mortal. Your father says man is mortal, your sister says man is mortal, everyone says man is mortalbut you do not experiment. You accept it as a fact that man is mortal. If you want to research to find out whether man is mortal, you have to study each and every man, and you may come to think that there may be some man who is not dying but you have not seen him yet. So in this way your research will never be finished. o CCP: Progression of Vedic knowledge: Karma Ka (Dharma, artha, kama and moksha, dont mention Kas name directly e.g. jail manual may not contain name or nickname of Prime Minister. Ka is a very intimate name of God) Jna Ka (need of philosophy, dealt mainly by Upaniads, talks about Absolute Truth in negative terms, what is the use of acquiring material things) Bhakti (rmad Bhgavatam) o Para 11: The mind-speed is so swift. If you travel at this speed for millions of years, you'll find that the spiritual sky is unlimited. It is not possible even to approach it. Therefore, the Vedic injunction is that one must approach the word "compulsory" is useda bona fide spiritual master, a guru. And what is the qualification of a spiritual master? He is one who has rightly heard the Vedic message from the right source. And he must practically be firmly established in Brahman. These are the two qualities he must have. Otherwise he is not bona fide. o (Ka is the ultimate goal of the Vedas) Para 12: Ka consciousness movement is completely authorized from Vedic principles. If you want to search out Ka by studying the Vedic literature, then you will be baffled. It may be possible, but it is very difficult. But you can very easily learn about Him from His devotee. His devotee can deliver Him to you: "Here He is, take Him." That is the potency of Ka's devotees. History of Vedas & Vedic essence-Bhagavad Gt and rmad Bhgavatam (p13-14) o Para 13: Originally there was only one Veda, and there was no necessity of reading it. People were so intelligent and had such sharp memories that by once hearing from the lips of the spiritual master they would understand. o But five thousand years ago Vysadeva put the Vedas in writing for the people in this age, Kali-yuga. He knew that eventually the people would be shortlived, their memories would be very poor, and their intelligence would not be very sharp. He divided the Vedas into four: ig, Sma, Atharva and Yajur. Then he gave the charge of these Vedas to his different disciples.

o He then thought of the less intelligent class of menstr, dra and dvijabandhu. For these persons he compiled the Mahbhrata and the eighteen Puras. o These are all part of the Vedic literature: the Puras, the Mahbhrata, the four Vedas and the Upaniads. The Upaniads are part of the Vedas. o Then Vysadeva summarized all Vedic knowledge for scholars and philosophers in what is called the Vednta-stra. This is the last word of the Vedas. o Para 14: But still he was not satisfied. So Nrada Muni instructed him to explain Vedanta-sutra. Vedanta means ultimate knowledge, and the ultimate knowledge is Ka. o (Two class of transcendentalists) o Myvd (Vedantists led by akarcrya) and Vaisnavas (Rmnujcrya, Madhavacarya, Viusvami, Nimbaditya) o Baladeva Vidybhaa, Rmnujcrya and Madhvcrya have given commentaries. The version of akarcrya is not the only commentary. There are many Vednta commentaries, but because the Vaiavas did not present the first Vednta commentary, people are under the wrong impression that akarcrya's is the only Vednta commentary. o Besides that, Vysadeva himself wrote the perfect Vednta commentary, rmad-Bhgavatam. rmad-Bhgavatam begins with the first words of the Vednta-stra: janmdy asya yata [SB 1.1.1] . And that janmdy asya yata is fully explained in rmad-Bhgavatam. The Vednta-stra simply hints at what is Brahman, the Absolute Truth: "The Absolute Truth is that from whom everything emanates." This is a summary, but it is explained in detail in rmad-Bhgavatam. o If everything is emanating from the Absolute Truth, then what is the nature of the Absolute Truth? That is explained in rmad-Bhgavatam. The Absolute Truth must be consciousness. He is self-effulgent (sva-r). We develop our consciousness and knowledge by receiving knowledge from others, but for Him it is said that He is self-effulgent. o The whole summary of Vedic knowledge is the Vednta-stra, and the Vednta-stra is explained by the writer himself in rmadBhgavatam. Those who are actually after Vedic knowledge to try to understand the explanation of all Vedic knowledge from rmadBhgavatam and the Bhagavad-gt. Lesson One (Introduction) Q.1. What is Veda? Why one should accept it? Ans. Veda means knowledge. Any knowledge, one accept, is Veda. Vedas are not compilation of human knowledge; it descends from the spiritual world from Lord Krishna. One should accept Vedas because the teachings of the Vedas are the original knowledge. For knowing anything that is beyond sense perception, beyond experimental knowledge and beyond the activities of the senses one should accept Vedas. Q.2. What are the Vedas? Why one should refer to Vedas?

Ans. Bhavisya Purana says:" The Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, Mahbharata [which includes Bhagavad Gt], Pancaratra, the original Rmyaa and the Puranas are considered as Vedas". The Chandogya Upaniad (7.1.4) mentions the Puranas and Itihasas (which are generally known as histories), as the fifth Veda. There are eighteen major Puranas, six composed for people in the mode of ignorance, six for those in the mode of passion and six for those in the mode of goodness. rmad Bhgavatam is the most direct commentary on the Vednta-stra. Vedas are actually user manual, provided by the creator at the dawn of creation of this universe. The purpose of the Vedas is to guide the soul on the path of perfection. Therefore, anybody interested in knowing the way of life, that God wanted us to lead, should refer to the Vedic scriptures. Q.3. What is the purpose of taking assistance of the Vedas? Ans. There is a spiritual sky which is another nature and is beyond manifestation and nonmanifestation. But how to know that there is a sky where the planets and inhabitants are eternal? All this knowledge is there, but it is not possible to experiments? Therefore one has to take assistance of the Vedas to know this transcendental knowledge. The Vedas provides knowledge of that eternal and transcendental nature which is full of variety. Q.4. What is the goal of the Vedas? How are the Vedas to be understood in this modern age? Ans. The actual goal of the Vedas is to reveal and show the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krishna. vedaisch sarvair aham eva vedyo of all the Vedas I am to be known (says Krishna in Bg.). Another name for the Vedas is ruti. ruti refers to that knowledge which is acquired by hearing. It is not experimental knowledge. ruti is considered to be like a mother. We take so much knowledge from our mother. For example, if you want to know who your father is, who can answer you? Your mother. If the mother says, "Here is your father," you have to accept it. It is not possible to experiment to find out whether he is your father. Similarly, if you want to know something beyond your experience, beyond your experimental knowledge, beyond the activities of the senses, then you have to accept the Vedas. There is no question of experimenting. It has already been experimented. It is already settled. The version of the mother, for instance, has to be accepted as truth. There is no other way. The Vedas are considered to be the mother, and Brahm is called the grandfather, the forefather, because he was the first to be instructed in the Vedic knowledge. In the beginning the first living creature was Brahma. He received this Vedic knowledge and imparted it to Narada and other disciples and sons, and they also distributed it to their disciples. In this way, the Vedic knowledge comes down by disciplic succession. It is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-Gt that Vedic knowledge is understood in this way. If you make experimental endeavor, you come to the same conclusion, but just to save time you should accept. If you want to know who your father is and if you accept your mother as the authority, then whatever she says can be accepted without argument. There are three kinds of evidence: pratyaka, anumna and abda. Pratyaka means "direct evidence." Direct evidence is not very good because our senses are not perfect. We are seeing the sun daily, and it appears to us

just like a small disc, but it is actually far, far larger than many planets. Of what value is this seeing? Therefore we have to read books; then we can understand about the sun. So, direct experience is not perfect. Then there is anumna, inductive knowledge: "It may be like this"-hypothesis. For instance, Darwin's theory says it may be like this, it may be like that. But that is not science. That is a suggestion, and it is also not perfect. But if you receive the knowledge from the authoritative sources, that is perfect. If you receive a program guide from the radio station authorities, you accept it. You dont deny it; you dont have to make an experiment, because it is received from the authoritative sources. Therefore, one should accept knowledge from authority and this is the perfect method for all the ages. Q.5. What are the deficiencies to which our knowledge is subjected in conditioned state? Ans. In the condition state, our knowledge is subjected to many deficiencies of which the following are most prominent. 1. In the conditioned state, knowledge acquiring senses are imperfect 2. The conditioned soul is prone to illusion 3. The conditioned being is prone to make mistake 4. In conditioned state one develops the cheating tendency Q.6. What is the difference between the conditioned soul and the liberated soul? Ans. The difference between a conditioned soul and a liberated soul is that the conditioned soul has four kinds of defects, whereas the liberated soul does not. Q.7. To err is human; explain this deficiency with the example. Ans. One of the deficiencies of the conditioned life is commit mistake i.e. to err is human. rla Prabhupda explained this deficiency by giving example of Mahtm Gndh and President Kennedy. Mahtm Gndh was considered to be a very great personality, but he committed many mistakes. Even at the last stage of his life, his assistant warned, Mahtm Gndh, dont go to the New Delhi meeting. I have some friends, and I have heard there is danger. But he did not hear. He persisted on going and was killed. To err is human. This is one defect of the conditioned soul. Q.8. What does my (illusion) mean? Ans. My means that which is not. It means to accept something which is not. Example is given that everyone accepts the body to be the self which they are not. When the identification is asked, people say their names, their position, their birth, belongings, etc. They actually specify their bodily identifications. But none of us are this body. To identify our actual identity with something which we are not is my or illusion. Q.9. What is cheating? Explain. Ans. The propensity of posing one-self as a very intelligent and efficient, in-spite of having the deficiencies of the conditioned life is called cheating. The conditioned being does not even have the knowledge of his own self, however, he propound variety of theory positing to be learned scientist, philosopher. etc. This is cheating. It is one of the defects of the conditioned life.

Q.10. What does a Vaishnava denotes? Ans. The vaishnavas denotes the followers of the Vedas. Q.11. Why Vedic knowledge should be accepted as axiomatic truth? Ans. Since there cannot be any mistake, it should be accepted as an axiomatic truth. Q.12. Explain the three kinds of the evidences. Ans. There are three kinds of evidence: (i) pratyaka (ii) anumna and (iii) abda. Pratyaka means direct evidence. Direct evidence is not very good because our senses are not perfect. We are seeing the sun daily, and it appears to us just like a small disc, but it is actually far, far larger than many planets. Of what values is this seeing? Therefore we have to read books, then we can understand about the sun. So direct experience is not perfect. There is anumna, inductive knowledge: It may be like this hypothesis. For instance, Darwins theory says it may be like this, it may be like that. But that is not science. That is a suggestion, and it is also not perfect. But if you receive the knowledge from the authoritative sources, that is perfect. If you receive a program guide from the radio station authorities, you accept it. You dont deny it; you dont have to make an experiment, because it is received from the authoritative sources. Vedic knowledge is called abda-pramana. Another name is ruti. ruti means that this knowledge has to be received simply by aural reception. The Vedas instruct that in order to understand transcendental knowledge, we have to hear from the authority. Q.13. Who are the two classes of transcendentalists? Ans. There are two classes of transcendentalists (i) impersonalists (Myvds) They are generally known as Vedantists, led by akarcrya and (ii) Vaishnavas, like Rmnujcrya, Mdhvcrya, Viusvami, Nimbakaracarya. Both the akara-sampradaya and the Vaisnava-Sampradaya have accepted Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.14. Why it is difficult to acquire full knowledge? Ans. In the material universe there is material knowledge and beyond this universe is the transcendental knowledge. We cannot even go to the end of this material universe, so how can we go to the spiritual world? Thus to acquire full knowledge is impossible. Q.15. What are the two systems of knowledge in the material world? Ans. There are two systems of knowledge in the material world called inductive and deductive. From deductive, you accept that man is mortal. Your father says man is mortal, your sister says man is mortal, everyone says man is mortal but you do not experiment. You accept it as a fact that man is mortal. If you want to research to find out whether man is mortal, you have to study each and every man, and you may come to think that there may be some man who is not dying but you have not seen him yet. So in this way your research will never be finished. In Sanskrit this process is called aroha, the ascending process. If you want to attain knowledge by any personal endeavor, by exercising your imperfect senses, you will never come to the right conclusions.

Q.16. What is the necessity of accepting a bona fide spiritual master? Ans. There is a statement in brahma Samhita that even if someone travels with the speed of mind for millions of years then also he can never come to know the limit of the spiritual sky, but if one accept a bona fide spiritual master than he can understand the spiritual reality. Therefore, it is necessary to accept a bona fide spiritual master. Q.17. What are the two important qualifications of a bona fide spiritual master? Ans. The two important qualifications of a bona fide spiritual master is that (i) He is one who has rightly heard the Vedic message from the right source and (ii) He must practically be firmly established in Brahman. Without these two aspects, the spiritual guide is not a bona fide guide. Q.18. What is the difference between the form of Krishna and form of conditioned Jiva? Ans. Form of Krishna Form of Conditioned Jiva

Innumerable, but one Only one Infallible Fallible Has no beginning Has beginning All forms are eternal All forms are temporary Has multi forms and has no ends Single forms ends over a period Simultaneously can be every where Simultaneously cannot be at two place Never changing (Always young) Keeps changing (Not always young) Not subjected to birth, old age, disease and Subjected to birth, old age, disease and death death Q.19. What is the potency of Krishnas devotees? Ans. The potency of Krishnas devotees is that, that they can deliver Krishna to anyone. If one endeavor himself to know Krishna through research of Vedic literature, he would be baffled because it is very difficult (generally impossible). Q.20. Why rla Vyasadeva put the Vedas in to writing? Ans. Originally there was only one Veda, and there was no necessity of reading it. People were so intelligent and had such sharp memories that by once hearing from the lips of the spiritual master they would understand. They would immediately grasp the whole purport. But five thousand years ago Vyasadeva put the Vedas in writing for the people in this age, Kali-yuga. He knew that eventually the people would be short-lived, their memories would be very poor, and their intelligence would not be very sharp. "Therefore, let me teach this Vedic knowledge in writing." He divided the Vedas into four: Rig, Sama, Atharva and Yajur. Then he gave the charge of these Vedas to his different disciples. He then thought of the less intelligent class of men--stri, sudra and dvija-bandhu. He considered the woman class and sudra class (worker class) and dvija-bandhu. Q.21. Who is called a dvija-bandhu?

Ans. Dvija-bandhu refers to those who are born in a high family but who are not properly qualified. A man who is born in the family of a brahmana but is not qualified as a brahmana is called dvija-bandhu. Q.22. Mahbharata and other puranas are compiled for what type of peoples? Ans. For less intelligent class of men--stri, sudra and dvija-bandhu rla Vyasadeva compiled the Mahbharata, called the history of India, and the eighteen Puranas. Q.23. What is the work of rla Vyasadeva for scholars and philosophers? Ans. rla Vyasadeva summarized all Vedic knowledge for scholars and philosophers in what is called the Vedanta-sutra. He personally wrote the Vedanta-sutra under the instructions of Narada, his Guru Mahraja. This is the last word of the Vedas. Q.24. What is the compilation of rla Vyasadeva as commentary on Vedanta-Sutra? Ans. After compilation of all the Vedic literature, rla Vyasadeva was not very satisfied, then his spiritual master, rla Nrada instructed him to explain the Vedanta-Sutra. Then, rla Vyasadeva wrote rmad Bhgavatam which is written as commentary on VedantaSutra. It is written in full maturity and it describes only the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Q.25. What does Vedanta means? What is the ultimate knowledge? Ans. Vedanta means ultimate knowledge and ultimate knowledge is Krishna. Krishna says that throughout the Vedas one has to understand Him. Vedanta-krid veda-vid eva caham, Krishna says, I am the compiler of the Vedanta-sutra, and I am the knower of the Vedas. Q.26. What is the Gaudiya vaishnava commentary on Vedanta philosophy? Who compiled it? Ans. Govinda bhasya is the Gaudiya Vaishnava commentary on Vedanta philosophy. rla Baladeva Vidyabhusana compiled this commentary. Q.27. Other than akarcrya, who else wrote commentary on Vedanta philosophy? Ans. Other than akarcrya, rla Vyasadeva, the compiler of Vedanta himself compiled his Vedanta commentary which is rmad Bhgavatam. Besides this, rla Rmnujcrya and rla Madhavacarya, rla Baladeva Vidyabhusana wrote commentary on Vedanta philosophy. akarcrya is not the only person who wrote commentary on Vedanta philosophy. Q.28. What is the complete summary of Vedas? Ans. Vedanta-sutra is the whole summary of Vedas or Vedic knowledge and the Vedantasutra has been explained in detail by the author in rmad Bhgavatam. For example, Vedanta-sutra begins with the aphorism janmady asya yatah stating that the Absolute Truth is one whom everything emanates. This is a summary statement, but it is explained in detail in rmad Bhgavatam - that if everything is emanating from the Absolute Truth, then what is the nature of the Absolute Truth. Q.29. Why is Vedic knowledge a more authentic source of knowledge than that obtained through the mind and senses?

Ans. The Vedic knowledge is the more authentic source of knowledge because it is coming from the source of all knowledge the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna (Vedanta krid). It is described as apauruseya, meaning that they do not come from any materially conditioned person but from the Supreme Lord {a source transcendental to mundane duality}. Vedic knowledge descends the spiritual world. It was first of all spoken to Lord Brahm the secondary creator which was passed down by him to His son and disciple rla Nrada who then passed to his disciple rla Vyasadeva and thus it is coming down through a chain of disciplic succession. The knowledge acquired through hearing from higher authority is most perfect knowledge. Whereas, the knowledge acquired by direct perception and inference from the series of observation is not so perfect because it is acquired by the incomplete or imperfect material senses which has so many limitations. Therefore the knowledge received through the mind and senses are neither authentic nor perfect. Q.30. Choose the correct alternative 1. A Vaishnava denotes _______________ a) follower of Vedas b) atmarama c) varrama d) none of the above 2. Anyone accepting the body as the self is ___________________ a) A maha yogi b) A fool c) A maharishi d) A jnani 3. The Vedic knowledge comes from ________________ a) India b) Spiritual world c) Scientists d) Sadhus of Himalayas 4. Difference between a conditioned soul and a liberated soul is that the conditioned soul has __ a) 10 defects b) No knowledge of anything c) 4 defects d) Many deficiencies 5. My means __________________

a) A defect of material condition b) That which is not c) Accepting things as they are d) Thinking this is this, this is that 6. We cannot give perfect knowledge to anyone because _________________ a) We do not have perfect knowledge b) Our senses are imperfect c) They cannot hold it d) They will disregard the perfect knowledge 7. We are not Hindus, our real identification is _________________ a) Varrama that denotes followers of Vedas b) Human being c) Spiritual being d) That we are all one 8. The Vedic principles are accepted as _________________ a) Ideology of certain class of people b) Obscure thought c) Axiomatic truth, for there cannot be any mistake d) Natural classifications of Vedas 9. What do you mean? _____________ that I have to follow you with any argument? a) Is it essential? b) Is it a Vedic Injunction? c) Is it proper? d) None of the above Q. 31 Fill In the blanks To obtain perfect knowledge, one must take shelter of the ___________. The ___________ prevent any conditioned soul from perfect knowledge. Three types of Evidence: ________- sound - the descending process Pratyaka - direct evidence

________- inductive ascending process Q.32 What does Prabhupda declare is the topic of his lecture (Sanskrit-English)? Q.33 What does epistemology mean? Q.34 Define and make a 2-dimensional diagram of the following epistemological terms. Some are on the same level, some are higher, more powerful, than others: Shabda Pratyaka Veda Parampara Aroha pantha Guru Anumana rmad Bhgavatam

Invocation to Mantra 3: The Perfect Relationship between the Lord, The Living Entities and His Creation / Live in Harmony With vara
BP: Invocation to Mantra 2 introduces the whole book. Invocation is broad. How are we going to look to it is Mantra 1. The result of following vsya principle is explained in rest of texts. Overview: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and therefore His creation is, too. He has perfectly made arrangements for all living beings, and if we learn to live according to His arrangements we can live happily, on the spiritual platform, even in this material world. Those who abuse the opportunity of the human form of life have a very dim future. The Invocation Foundation of Knowledge of Supreme Person o pram ada pram ida prt pram udacyate prasya pram dya pram evvaiyate The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the Complete Whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the Complete Whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance. One word summary: completeness. Key Phrase: Of the Lords Features There are Three, But as a Person He is Most Complete. Connection: The Invocation describes the objective of the book: the Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead. By repeated recognition of His various types of completeness, the opaniad establishes the supreme position of the Personality of Godhead. The Absolute Truth is the source of everything, yet He retains His own personality.

CCP: Technically speaking, invocation is not a part of the opaniad. Invocation is standard Vedic saying, which is uttered at various times. CCP: Typical style of Upaniads, it doesnt mentions what so many purnas refer to. Upaniads are enigmatic (puzzling). Intellectuals dont like easy things. The concept of infinity from mathematics. There are levels within infinity: The set of all natural numbers is infinite, smaller set of all even numbers is infinite. CCP: rla Prabhupda follows standard of Upaniads and not use the word Ka in purports. rla Prabhupda uses Upaniads terminology to take people from Impersonalism to personalism. HPS: The Upaniads are for people who are just coming out of the intoxication of material existence. They aren't ready to understand that there is a God, that the Absolute Truth is a naughty child and there is a spiritual world. Its sounds too much like the material world. They want to leave that. HPS: So, we find that rla Prabhupda translates the first word, "OM", as, 'the personality of Godhead'. Ooo! The Myvds and Sanskrit technicians would cough and choke in their graves to hear this, no? Yet, we would all agree that if someone heard that the President was coming to New York today it would be an accurate translation to say that Barack Obama is coming to New York today. We will find the evidence that OM is an impersonal form of address for r Ka. Summary of Purport: rla Prabhupda explains the completeness of the Lord and His arrangement in three ways. Firstly, He is the complete Absolute Truth, consisting of the Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan features; secondly, the material world, by His arrangement, is complete in itself; and thirdly, He has given complete facility for the fallen conditioned souls to return to their proper position in relation to Him. Unfortunately, if one is not able to realize these completenesses, one is forces to continue ones incomplete existence in material life. No independent position, no matter how nice, will do. Explanation

It is very remarkable that the vision of the r opaniad reveals the complete understanding of the individual soul and the Supreme Lord as being simultaneously one and different. The philosophical debate of monism versus dualism has continued for thousands of years. The highest revelation of inconceivable and simultaneous oneness and difference was not fully explained until the teachings of Lord Caitanya only five hundred years ago. Yet we find this knowledge contained within the ancient r opaniad. This concept will become clearer as we progress through the vision of the r opaniad. We begin with the Invocation, which provides a foundation of knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The most important point to be understood here is that the Absolute Truth is, ultimately, a person. Even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance. It is not that since everything has come from Him that He is just spread out everywhere in some impersonal way, as our mundane logic would conclude. He maintains His own personality. The all-pervading, impersonal feature does exist and is known as Brahman. This Brahman is present as the Lords own effulgence, and encompasses His aspect of eternity. He is also present in a more personal way locally in the heart of every living creature and within every atom. This feature is known as Paramatma, and encompasses His aspect of knowledge. But the highest realization of Him is as the Supreme Person, Bhagavan, Who encompasses His aspect of bliss, through His own pastimes of enjoyment. The individual living entities are also complete in themselves, but remain as parts of the Complete Whole. Prabhupda gives the example of the hand, which is also complete in itself, as still being part of the whole body. In order for the living entities to feel a sense of

completeness, or full satisfaction, they must dovetail their enjoyment with the enjoyment of the Complete Whole as the Supreme Person. Thus, this foundational verse of knowledge gives us a hint of our relationship with Him. This knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead will be further explained in mantras 4-5. Yet, because this invocation gives us a definitive and foundational understanding of Him it stands alone as an introductory mantra, and in this way can be understood to be the focus dial on your telescope. Main Points Discussed 1. The invocation mantra describes the objective of the book the Absolute Truth the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 2. By repeatedly recognition of His various types of completeness, this mantra establishes the supreme position of the Personality of Godhead 3. Brahman and Supersoul realization is partial realization of the Supreme Absolute Truth (para 1) 4. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. This is the complete realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. (para 1) 5. All emanation from the Complete Whole is also perfect and complete in their purpose. (para 2) This phenomenal world is also complete in itself. The twenty-four elements of which this material universe is a temporary manifestation are arranged to produce everything necessary for the maintenance and subsistence of this universe. No other unit in the universe need make an extraneous effort to try to maintain the universe. The universe functions on its own time scale, which is fixed by the energy of the Complete Whole, and when that schedule is completed, this temporary manifestation will be annihilated by the complete arrangement of the Complete Whole. 7. Purpose of human form of life. The purpose of higher consciousness to realize the complete whole. (para 3) CCP: If we see evaluate a design in relation to its purpose, then we will correct conclusion. E.g. we cannot evaluate a mobile phone its capacity to write a book. So if we evaluate this world for sense gratification, well find it is imperfect. But, if we evaluate the world as for self-realization, well find it is perfect. CCP: Suffering doesnt mean there is no design. E.g. jail and hospital. This world is jail for rebellious souls who want to enjoy and it is hospital for those who want to reform themselves. 8. The completeness of the human life can be realized when one engages in the service of the complete whole the Supreme Absolute Truth r Krishna. (Para 4) Analogy: The hand of a body is a complete unit only as long as it is attached to the complete body. When the hand is severed from the body, it may appear like a hand, but it actually has none of the potencies of a hand. Similarly,

living beings are part and parcel of the Complete Whole, and if they are severed from the Complete Whole, the illusory representation of completeness cannot fully satisfy them. BP: Another Prabhupda analogy: a small screw and a big machine. Screw has value when in machine. CCP: People talk about human rights people are not getting food, shelter, etc. This is not human right, this is animal right because even an animal needs it. Human right means something which we can get only in human form self -realization. CCP: Ours is dependant completeness, but Kas completeness is independent. E.g. hands completeness is dependent on connection with body. 9. All other services will remain incomplete until they are dovetailed with the complete whole. (Para 5) Exercise Read: Read the Invocation mantra and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: We need to focus on the Absolute Truth as a person. As a person, He has His own personality, including likes, dislikes, feelings, thoughts, desires, and, most importantly, personal relationships. Prayer automatically places us in a relationship with Him. We can pray to learn what it means to be personal, and to come to see Him as the Supreme Person. Consider: Pay attention to how you and the people around you interact with each other as persons, and how you are more personal or impersonal towards each other. God is the Supreme Person. But unlike us, He is full in all good qualities, without any tinge of bad qualities. Understanding how we ourselves feel as persons, with our own thoughts and desires, seeking to be engaged in loving relationships with other persons, we can begin to understand what it means for God to be the Supreme Person. Describe: Describe what it means to be a person, to have a unique personality. Describe what it means to be more personal or impersonal with others. What then can we understand of God, who is the Supreme Person, full in all good qualities? Question and Answers Lesson 2 Q.1. Who is the Supreme Absolute Truth? What is its complete realization? Ans. The complete Personality of Godhead (r Krishna) is the Supreme Absolute Truth. Realization of the aspect of the sat, cit and nanda (eternity, knowledge and bliss) is the realization of the Absolute Truth in His completeness. Q.2. What is the Brahman and Supersoul realization of the Absolute Truth? Why these features are understood to be incomplete realization of the Absolute Truth? Ans. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sac-cid-ananda vigraha i.e. a complete for of eternity, knowledge and bliss. Realization of all these transcendental aspects of the Personality of Godhead is the complete realization. Realization of impersonal Brahman (effulgence of the Lord) is realization of His sat feature or the aspect of His eternity only. The

Supersoul (Parmatma) realization is the realization of His sat and cit features the aspect of eternity and knowledge only. Therefore the Brahman and Supersoul realization of the Absolute Truth is the incomplete or partial realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.3. What is the complete realization of the Complete Whole? Ans. The complete realization of the Complete Whole is that it must contain everything both within and beyond our experience; otherwise He cannot be complete. Q.4. How can we say that this phenomenal world is also complete in itself? Ans. Based on the following facts we can say that this phenomenal world is also complete in itself. 1. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Supremely Complete and anything that emanates from Him is also perfectly complete. Therefore all His energies are also complete as He is. This phenomenal world is creation of His external energy; therefore it is complete in itself. 2. We observe that the 24 elements of which this material world is a temporary manifestation are arranged to produce everything necessary for the maintenance and subsistence of this universe; therefore it is complete in itself. 3. The phenomenal world being complete in to its purpose of creation, no other unit in this universe need make any extraneous (irrelevant) effort to try to maintain the universe. 4. The universe functions on its own time scale, which is fixed by the energy of the Complete Whole and when that schedule is completed, this temporary manifestation will be annihilated by the complete arrangement of the Complete Whole, this proves that this phenomenal world is complete in itself. Q.5. When this phenomenal world is perfect in the purpose of its creation, then why the living experience incompleteness in its approach to become happy in this world? Ans. This phenomenal material world is perfectly designed to completely entangle and perplex those living entities who are engaged in pursuing happiness in this world which is a place of miseries. It is compared to a prison cell which is created to reform the miscreants and not provide them the comfort of happiness otherwise how they will be reformed. This is the reason that those living entities who are engaged in pursuing happiness in the place of misery, experience only frustration and incompleteness. Q.6. How is Bhagavan realization the most complete understanding of the transcendence? Ans. Bhagavan realization is the most complete understanding of the transcendence because in included realization of all the transcendental aspects of the Supreme Personality of Godhead which is sat-cid-ananda vigraha. It is realization of the aspects of the eternity, knowledge and form of bliss of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Realization of only sat aspect is the Brahman realization and sat and cid aspects are the Supersoul realization of the Supreme Lord. It does not include the complete understanding. Q.7. How can the living entity realize its completeness?

Ans. The living entity can realize its completeness by knowing the completeness of the complete whole the supreme personality of the Godhead. All forms of incompleteness are experienced due to incomplete knowledge of the Complete Whole. Q.8. What is the purpose of human form of life? Explain its significance? Ans. The purpose of the human form of life is to utilize it for realization of the completeness of the Complete Whole. This form of life a complete manifestation of the consciousness of the living being and it is obtained after evolving through 8,400,000 species of life in the cycle of birth and death. If a living entity in the human form of life does not use this form of life for realization of the Complete Whole, he loses the chance and again put into evolutionary cycle of birth and death by the law of this material nature. Q.9. Why do we make effort to utilize the resources of the nature to create a so-called complete life of sense enjoyment? Ans. Because we do not know that there is a complete arrangement in nature for our maintenance, we make efforts to utilize the resources of the nature to create a so-called complete life of sense enjoyment. Q.10. What is illusion? Why the illusory representation cannot fully satisfy? Explain with an example. Ans. The misleading life of sense enjoyment is illusion. The living entities being part and parcel of the Complete Whole (The Supreme Personality of Godhead), if they are severed, cannot enjoy the senses like the severed hand which is a part of the body, although looks like a proper hand, but has no life and cannot do anything. Therefore the illusory representation cannot fully satisfy the living entity. Q.11. How can one enjoy senses? Ans. One can enjoy the life senses by dovetailing with the Complete Whole the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Q.12. How the completeness of the human life can be realized? Ans. The completeness of the human life can be realized only when one engages in the service of the Complete Whole (r Krishna). Until one engages in the service of the Complete Whole all other services in this world whether social, political, communal, international or even interplanetary will remain incomplete. Q.13. Choose the correct alternative 1. The Brahman realization is ________________ a) Complete realization of the Absolute Truth b) Realization of sat feature of the Absolute Truth c) Realization of the form of the Absolute Truth d) None of the above 2. The Supersoul realization of the Absolute Truth is the ___________

a) Realization of the sat-cit-ananda feature b) Realization of sat and ananda features c) Realization of the sat and cit features d) Realization of the ananda feature 3. The Complete Absolute Truth realization of the realization of ___________ a) All the transcendental aspects of the Absolute Truth b) Realization of sat and cit features c) Realization of the sat-cit-ananda features d) None of the above 4. The Complete Whole is _______________ a) Formless b) sat-cit-ananda vigraha c) Less than His creation d) Like a flame 5. All facilities are given to the living beings to _____________ a) Enjoy the material world b) Enable them to realize the Complete Whole c) Experience the miseries of the material world d) Educate them about this phenomenal world 6. The human form of life is a __________________ a) Complete manifestation of the consciousness of living being b) Meant for sense enjoyment c) Vehicle for carrying the load of innumerable desires d) Disgrace for the living entities 7. The 24 elements of this material universe are arranged to produce everything necessary for ____________________ a) Sense enjoyment b) Enjoyment of the Complete Whole c) Maintenance and subsistence of this universe d) Creation of the living entity 8. The universe functions on _________________

a) Solar energy generated by the Sun b) The 24 elements of the material nature c) Guidelines provided by Sages d) Its own time scale, which is fixed by the energy of the Complete Whole 9. All forms of incompleteness is experienced _______________ a) Due to lack of knowledge of the scriptures b) Due to lack of scientific knowledge c) Due to incomplete knowledge of the Complete Whole d) Due to complete knowledge of Krishna 10. If in this human life of full consciousness the living entity does not realize his completeness in relation to the Complete Whole, ______________ a) He loses the chance to realize his completeness. b) He gets another chance very soon c) He never gets any chance d) He gets another chance only after 84 life time 11. The completeness of human life can be realized only when __________ a) One studies Vedas b) One visits the Holy Dhamas c) One engages in the Service of the Complete Whole d) One does not engages in fruitive activities 12. When everything is dovetailed with the Complete Whole, __________ a) One becomes a saintly person b) One becomes a Brahman realized soul c) One gets the chance to revive his dormant consciousness d) The attached parts and parcels also become complete in themselves Q. 14 Write out the Sanskrit and the English translation of the invocation to r opaniad, beginning with om purnam. Q. 15 Fill in the blanks A. The Personality of Godhead is the complete realization of transcendence Three features of the Absolute Truth i) _________ - sat (eternity) ii) Paramatma cit (eternity and knowledge)

iii)

_________ - ananda (eternity, knowledge and bliss)

B. The potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are also complete The material universe, an emanation of Ka, is designed to be self-contained because it produces all necessary items for the ___________ of universe. C. The jiva souls are complete in relationship with ______________ When the conditioned soul decides to dedicate himself toward realizing the Absolute Truth, complete facility is given to him by ________ directly. Q. 16 Essay.1: Explain the complete comprehension of God as sac-cid-nanda. Questions for Invocation 1. Why is the Personality of Godhead considered the highest realization of the Absolute Truth, above the impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma? 2. Why would the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifest so many complete units, such as the living entities, from Himself? 3. What is the ultimate cause for any of our feelings of dissatisfaction? Answers for Invocation Ans. 1: He is the energetic source of Brahman and Paramatma. Ans. 2: For His own and their enjoyment in loving exchanges. Ans. 3: We are not participating in the Lords enjoyment, and we are part of Him. Mantra 1-3: Proprietorship & Occupation within Society / Practices for Living Entities

Mantra One - reveals our practice of accepting only our quota and engaging in the Lords service. Mantra Two reveals reward of such practice Mantra Three reveals punishment of negligence of such practice

Connection to Invocation: Spiritual practices as prescribed in the revealed scriptures come in two forms. The first is to help us become detached from material life. The second is to help us become attached to spiritual life. The more we become attached to spiritual activities the easier it is to become detached from material activities. These first three mantras of the r opaniad point us towards a general understanding of this principle in light of the knowledge given in the invocation that everything is emanating from the Supreme Person, and thus everything is meant for His enjoyment. Key Phrase: Our Quota is Given to Serve the Lord, Our Future is Black if We Simply Horde Mantra 1 How to understand and apply the Lords proprietorship of everything vsyam idam sarva yat kica jagaty jagat tena tyaktena bhujth m gdha kasya svid dhanam Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong. One word summary: vsya Connection to Invocation: The Invocation explained that the Personality of Godhead is perfectly complete, as are His energies. Mantra 1 describes how the living entities can again regain their sense of completeness by acting in relationship with Ka. This action is called vsya consciousness. CCP: opaniad is also called vsya upaniad. CCP: vsyam Lord (isa) resides (avasyam) in it and owns it. Summary of purport The infallible Vedic wisdom comes to us through disciplic succession, from Ka, and in that way is saved from human imperfection. From it we learn the details of the Lords perfect, complete arrangement for us sometimes knows as the vsya system. All species have their quotas, by His grace. For example, the cow produces milk, which she does not require, and the human species is able to utilize this. The cows quota is grass. The capitalists and the communist are fond of fighting over the resources of material nature, but they should understand that these resources are the property of the Lord and not fight for so-called proprietorship over them. Such fighting may be a type of quota for cats and dogs, as they are acting under the dictates of nature and do not receive karmic reactions for doing so. But if humans imitate them the human will receive severe reactions, as the Lords arrangement does not allow this for them. The Lord has given human greater facility, so they can become God realized, but if they do not fulfil their quota of Ka consciousness they will fall down. Even material piety, such as vegetarianism, falls short of the mark. But if one offers ones vegetarian food to the Lord, and dedicates ones life to serving Him, one can go back to Godhead. Overview

Glory of Vedic Knowledge (p1-2) How the Lord is Proprietor of Everything (p3-4) E.g. of ones quota in nature (p5) E.g. of ones quota in human possession of the earth (p6-8) E.g. of quota in human diet (p9-10) Conclusion - Live according to vsya (p11) Explanation

Mantra one simply states that everything belongs to the Lord, and so we should accept only as much as He has given for our quota. We need to understand that without the material ingredients which the Lord has provided we cannot produce anything on our own. Prabhupda states, But for the Lord, no one is a proprietor of anything. Carrying this responsibility of recognizing the authority of the Lord, human beings are meant to offer everything in the Lords service for His enjoyment. By limiting ourselves to only our material necessities we gradually detach ourselves from material activities. By first offering everything we have to the Lord we gradually become attached to spiritual activities by partaking in His enjoyment. Main Points Discussed 1. The concept of apaurusheya that which is given by Supreme Lord who is beyond the purview of the modes of material nature / Glory of Vedic Knowledge (p1-2) Vedic knowledge is infallible because it comes down through the perfect disciplic succession of spiritual masters, beginning with the Lord Himself. The words spoken by the Lord are called apauruheya, which indicates that they are not delivered by any mundane person. No one with the four imperfections can deliver perfect knowledge. The Vedas are not produced by such an imperfect creature. 2. The concept of vsyam everything in this world belongs to the Supreme Lord (para 34)

The Lord's proprietorship over everything within the universe is confirmed in the Seventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gt (7.4-5), where par and apar prakti are discussed. o CCP: Prabhupda gives cross reference from BG which proves everything belongs to Lord. Because the Supreme Being, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, is the complete person, He has complete and perfect intelligence to adjust everything by means of His different potencies. Analogy: Just as fire distributes energy in the form of heat and light, the Lord displays His energy in different ways. 3. E.g. of ones quota in nature and human possession of the earth (p5-8) CCP: So if everything belongs to God, then can I not use anything? Except for the Lord no one is a proprietor of anything. One should accept only those things that are set aside by the Lord as his quota. Analogy: The cow gives milk, but she does not drink that milk: she eats grass and straw, and her milk is designated as food for human beings. Such is the arrangement of the Lord. o CCP: Cows milk not only for calf, when kept with proper care, cows give much more milk. Analogy: We cannot produce any of the building materials ourselves. We can simply bring them together and transform them into different shapes by our labor. A laborer cannot claim to be a proprietor of a thing just because he has worked hard to manufacture it. o CCP: Prabhupda and Glass businessmen. Glass comes from natural ingredients. So glass factory is of Ka. If you call it your own then you are thief. But I give donation to Ka. Ok, you are small thief. The human race should take the Vedic wisdom of r opaniad and not quarrel over material possessions. One must be satisfied with whatever privileges are given to him by the mercy of the Lord. There can be no peace if the communists or capitalists or any other party claims proprietorship over the resources of nature, which are entirely the property of the Lord. If they do not recognize the proprietorship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, all the property they claim to be their own is stolen. Consequently they will be liable to punishment by the laws of nature. Human beings are not meant to quarrel like cats and dogs. They must be intelligent enough to realize the importance and aim of human life. Cats and dogs can kill other animals for food without incurring sin, but if a man kills an animal for the satisfaction of his uncontrolled taste buds, he is responsible for breaking the laws of nature. 4. E.g. of quota in human diet (para 9-10)

Among the many animals and birds, some are vegetarian and others are carnivorous, but none of them transgress the laws of nature. Nor are the Vedic instructions meant for them. Human life alone is a life of responsibility. If a man neglects the instructions of the Vedic literature, his life becomes very risky. A human being is therefore required to recognize the authority of the Supreme Lord and become His devotee. He must offer everything for the Lord's service and partake only of the remnants of food offered to the Lord. This will enable him to discharge his duty properly. Vegetables also have life, and while it is nature's law that one living being is meant to feed on another, for human beings the point is to recognize the Supreme Lord. Those who do not offer their food to the Lord eat nothing but sin and subject themselves to various types of distress, which are the results of sin (Bg. 3.13). o BP: In Mdhurya Kadambini Vishwanath Chakravarti Thkura discusses the pious principles which may act as doors to Ka Consciousness not cant cause Ka Consciousness. Sometime pious principles act against bhakti. One Mataji in Vrndavana before becoming devotee was a Vegan. He came to meet devotees just because she was interested in meeting vegetarians. She went to Sunday feast but was repelled by smell of ghee, etc. and went away. Later she became a devotee. o CCP: Do plants not feel pain. Yes they do, but Scientific: Plants have less developed nervous system. So they feel less pain. Natural: Crops perish if not cut; animals are killed long before their natural death. Intuitive: Harvesting has festive atmosphere; slaughtering has horrific atmosphere. Parents will happily take their children to harvesting, but rarely to slaughterhouses, why? o CCP: Are humans omnivorous? Canine teeth very few meat small part of diet if at all Massive Slaughterhouses where millions of animals killed scientifically is unprecedented 5. Conclusion - Live according to vsya (para 11) Definition of sin deliberate disobedience of law of nature by disregarding the proprietorship of the Supreme Lord. 6. This mantra discusses abhideya or process of understanding the Supreme Lord. Bhaktivedanta College (BC): World Affairs and vsya Principle: Iraq War Afghan War War between Israel and Palestine Problem of Kashmir Partition of India Problem of Northern Ireland

rla Prabhupdas life and vsya Principle: rla Prabhupda saw Kas hand in his business success and failure in his grhastha life rla Prabhupda had 108 temple and enormous opulence but saw everything belonging to Ka rla Prabhupda was a living example of complete surrender to Ka by his mind, body and deeds

Exercise Read: Read mantra one and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Since the Lord is the source of everything, everything belongs to Him. Focus on considering everything within this world as the property of the Lord, meant for His enjoyment. We can pray for this realization of accepting everything as the Lords property. Consider: Imagine the world as one big castle, the owner, or king, of which is God. All the people are simply His servants, meant to take care of this castle and cooperate in His enjoyment. Consider the international politics of the world today, or even read a newspaper. Are people treating the property of the world as their own or as Gods? Now consider your own situation. How much of your time, energy, talents, and resources are you using for Gods enjoyment? Describe: Describe how world politics might be different if the world leaders accepted everything as the Lords property meant for them to take care of and engage in His service. Describe your own understanding of everything belonging to the Lord, and how you can participate in using His property in His service. Question and Answers Lesson 3 Q.1. Explain the principle of vsyam? Ans. The concept of vsyam states that Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Supreme Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong. Q.2. Why the Vedic knowledge is infallible? How it can be acquired and realized? Ans. The Vedic knowledge is infallible because it comes down through the perfect disciplic succession of spiritual masters, beginning with the Lord Himself. Since He spoke the first word of Vedic knowledge, the source of this knowledge is transcendental. The words spoken by Lord are called apaurusheya, which indicates that they are not delivered by any mundane person. The Vedic knowledge can be acquired and realized through the unbroken bona fide disciplic succession of spiritual masters which starts from the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna tad vigyanartham sa gurum eva abhigachhet to acquire and realize this

knowledge one must approach a bona fide spiritual master. tad viddhi pranipatena pariprashnena sevaya one must approach a bona fide spiritual master (who has seen (realized) the Absolute Truth), surrender to him, offer service and put up questions with utter humility than one can acquire and realize the Vedic wisdom. This is the process. Q.3. Explain, how the source of Vedic knowledge is transcendental? Ans. The source of Vedic knowledge is transcendental because it is apaurusheya. The words spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna (who is beyond the reach of the mundane modes) are called apaurusheya, which indicates that they are not delivered by any mundane person (who dwells within the clutches of the mundane modes). The Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna is avranam which means He is without any fault. He is also suddham which means He is without any contamination or impurity. He is completely pure rather He can purify all impure things that come in His contact. Contrary to this, the living beings those who lives in the mundane world has four defects (1) he is certain to commit mistakes (2) he is subject to illusion (3) he has a propensity to cheat others and (4) his senses are imperfect. No one with these four imperfections can deliver perfect knowledge. The Vedas are not produced by such an imperfect creature. The Vedic knowledge originates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna who is actual Vedanta krid and Veda vedvid. He impregnate this knowledge in the heart of Brahm (the first created being), who in turn passes down this knowledge through disciplic succession. Thus the source of the Vedic knowledge is transcendental. Q.4. Explain the concept of apauruseya? Ans. The word apauruseya indicate that things which are apauruseya are not delivered by the mundane living being, rather it is delivered by someone who is beyond the clutches of the mundane modes. The living being under the clutches of mundane modes are affected by the four definite imperfections which are (i) he is certain to commit mistakes (ii) he is subject to illusion (iii) he has a propensity to cheat others and (iv) his senses are imperfect. Therefore, the things delivered by the people with these four definite defects cannot be called apauruseya. The word purusa also means living being of this material world, which is gunamayi (consisting of the three modes of sattva, rajas and tamas), and those live in this material world are also governed and conditioned by these three gunas or modes. Therefore, anything delivered by such living beings cannot be called apauruseya. Apauruseya means it should be delivered by someone who is beyond or transcendental to these imperfections and modes of material nature and it is the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna who is completely transcendental or beyond the modes of material nature and any imperfection. Therefore, things delivered by Him is considered and called apauruseya. Q.5. What are the four definite defects of a mundane living being? Ans. The mundane living being who is found under the clutches of mundane modes are affected by the four definite imperfections which are (i) he is certain to commit mistakes (ii)

he is subject to illusion (iii) he has a propensity to cheat others and (iv) his senses are imperfect. Q.6. What is principle subject discussed in r opaniad? Ans. opaniad is the foremost among all the Upanishadas. This Upanishad's name gives the clue: Isha means "the supreme controller." This Upanishad discusses the subject matter for understanding the Supreme Personality Godheadr Krishna. It discusses sambandha (relationships), abhideya (process) and the prayojana (ultimate result) of spiritual practices. Relationship or sambandha is discussed in the Invocation and mantras 4, 5, 8 and 14. The process or abhideya is discussed in mantras 1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 15, 16, 17 and 18 whereas the Prayojana or result is discussed in mantras 6, 7, 10, 12 and 13. This opaniad is part of the yajurvada and contains information concerning the proprietorship of all things existing within the universe. Q.7. How everything is the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Ans. The Lord has proprietorship over everything within the universe. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad Gt (7.4-5) where para and apara prakrti are discussed. The element of nature earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and ego all belong to the Lords inferior, material energy (apara prakrti), whereas the living being, the organic energy, is His superior energy (para prakrti). Both of these prakrtis, or energies, are emanations from the Lord, and ultimately He is the controller of everything that exists. There is nothing in the universe that does not belong either to the para or the apara prakrti; therefore everything is the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.8. Explain the analogy of the fire, heat and the light with respect to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the living entity? Ans. The Supreme Personality of Godhead (the Supreme Being) is the complete person. He has complete and perfect intelligence to adjust everything by means of His different potencies. The Supreme Being is often compared to a fire, and everything organic and inorganic is compared to the heat and light of that fire. Just as fire distributes energy in the form of heat and light, the Lord displays His energy in different ways. He thus remains the ultimate controller, sustainer and dictator of everything. He is the possessor of all potencies, the knower of everything and the benefactor of everyone. He is full of inconceivable opulence, power, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. Q.9. Explain with an example the approach of the living entity while enjoying things of the nature? Ans. While enjoying things of the nature one should be intelligent enough to know that except for the Lord no one is a proprietor of anything and therefore accept things that are set aside by the Lord as ones quota. The cow, for instance, gives milk, but she does not drink that milk; she eats grass and straw, and her milk is designated as food for human beings. One should, therefore, remain satisfied with those things which are assigned as ones quota and understanding that it is an arrangement of the Lord. One must know whom the things actually belong and enjoy things as per the principle of the vsyam.

Q.10. When the laborer has worked hard for construction then why he should not claim proprietorship on the construction? Ans. A laborer cannot claim to be a proprietor of a thing just because he has worked hard to manufacture it because he is not the person who has supplied the material for construction rather he has only put his labor in exchange with the wages. Similarly, everything is provided by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Nothing is there which we have produced or we can produce. We can simply bring them together and transform them into different shapes by our labor. This does not give us proprietorship over anything of this world. We must follow the principles of vsyam and remain content with whatever is provided as our quota. We should not encroach upon somebody elses property. That is stealing. Q.11. The teaching of r opaniad is projected for whom and why? Ans. The teaching of r opaniad is meant for human being who possesses higher intelligence. Not for cats and dogs and those people who have tendencies like cats and dogs who face one another in enmity and snarl at each other for petty gains of temporary things of this world. It cannot give advice to cats and dogs or people like that, but it can deliver the message of Godhead to man through the bona fide acaryas (holy teachers). The human race should take the Vedic wisdom of r opaniad and not quarrel over material possessions. Human beings are not meant to quarrel like cats and dogs. They must be intelligent enough to realize the importance and aim of human life. The Vedic literature is meant for humanity and not for cats and dogs. Cats and dogs can kill other animals for food without incurring sin, but if a man kills an animal for the satisfaction of his uncontrolled taste buds, he is responsible for breaking the laws of nature, consequently he must be punished. Q.12. Why the imports of Vedic literature are not applicable for animals and why there is no question of since for them? Ans. The Vedic literature is meant for humanity and not for cats and dogs. The standard of life for human beings cannot be applied to animals. The animals do not transgress the laws of nature that has been ordained by the will of the Lord. The tiger does not eat rice and wheat or drink cows milk, because he has been given food in the shape of animal flesh. Among the many animals and birds, some are vegetarian and others are carnivorous, but none of them transgress the laws of nature. Cats, dogs and tigers can kill other animals for food without incurring sin, but if a man kills an animal for the satisfaction of his uncontrolled taste buds, he is responsible for breaking the laws of nature, consequently he must be punished. Animals, birds, reptiles and other lower life forms strictly adhere to the laws of nature; therefore there is no question of sin for them, nor are the Vedic instructions meant for them. Human life alone is a life of responsibility. Q.13. How simply becoming vegetarian is not sufficient to transgress the law of nature? Ans. It is wrong to think that simply by becoming a vegetarian one can avoid transgressing the laws of nature because vegetables also have life, and while it is natures law that one living being is meant to feed on another, for human beings the point is to recognize the Supreme Lord. One should not be proud of being a strict vegetarian. Animals do not have developed consciousness by which to recognize the Lord, but human being is sufficiently intelligent to take lesions from the Vedic literature and thereby know how the laws of nature

are working and derive profit out of such knowledge. If a man neglects the instructions of the Vedic literature, his life becomes very risky. Bhagavad Gt (3.13) mentions that whatever one partakes must first of all offer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead otherwise he is eating verily sin. Therefore a human being should not only become a strict vegetarian but should also become a devotee of the Lord, offer the Lord all his food and then partake of such prasadam, or the mercy of God. Only those who act in this way can properly discharge the duties of human life Q.14. Why a human being is required to recognize the authority of the Supreme Lord? Ans. Human being has been endowed with sufficient intelligence to take lesion from the Vedic literature and thereby know how the laws of nature are working and derive profit out of such knowledge. If man neglects the instructions of the Vedic literature, his life becomes very risky. A human being is therefore required to recognize the authority of the Supreme Lord and become His devotee. He must offer everything for the service of the Lord and partake only of the remnants of food offered to the Lord. This will enable him to discharge his duty properly. Q.15. How a human being can discharge his duties perfectly? Ans. A human being can discharge his duties perfectly when he(i) Recognizes the authority of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (ii) Becomes devotee of the Lord r Krishna (iii)Offer everything for the service of the Lord (iv) Partakes only of the remnants of food offered to the Lord (v) Accepts the authority of the Vedic literature and acts accordingly (vi) Not only becomes vegetarian but becomes strict Prasadian (this is the word used by Prabhupda, Krishantarians is a wrong word, we dont eat Krishna). (vii) Accepts and acts by the principle of vsyam Q.16. When the life of human being becomes risky? Ans. When the man neglects the instructions of the Vedic literature, acts whimsically by deliberately disregarding the proprietorship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead his life becomes very risky. Q.17. How human life is distinct from Animal life? Ans. The distinction between human life and animal life is as follows: Human Life 1. Human life is a life of responsibility 2. Given higher intelligence to realize the importance and aim of human life 3. Not meant to quarrel like cats and dogs 4. Message of Godhead can be delivered 5. Liable to punishment on transgressing the Animal Life 1. No responsibility 2. Intelligence only for eating, mating, sleeping and defending 3. They quarrel and snarl at each other 4. Message of Godhead cannot be delivered 5. Does not transgress the law of nature

law of nature 6. Must offer everything in the service of 6. Not expected to do so made conditioned Lord 7. Disregarding the law of nature will incur 7. No question of sin they does not sin disregard the law of nature Q.18. What is the root of sin? What are its consequences? Ans. The root of sin is deliberate disobedience of the laws of nature through disregarding the proprietorship of the Lord. Disobeying the laws of nature or the order of the Lord brings ruins to a human being. Q.19. Who is recognized by the Lord? What does he achieves? Ans. When one becomes sober and knows the laws of nature and does not become influenced by unnecessary attachment or aversion is sure to be recognized by the Lord and thus become eligible to go back to Godhead, back to the eternal home. Q.20. Who becomes eligible to go back home back to Godhead? Ans. One who does not become influenced by unnecessary attachment or aversion and knows the laws of nature becomes eligible to go back home back to Godhead. Q.21. Why not anyone else, other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead, should claim the property of this material world? Ans. Everything animate or inanimate emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. And everything is meant for the pleasure and satisfaction of the Lord only. He is the source of all ingredient required for creation therefore He alone is the claimant of the property of this material world. Take for example, our dwelling, which is made of earth, wood, stone, iron, cement and so many other material things. If we think in terms of r opaniad, we must know that we cannot produce any of these building materials ourselves. We can simply bring them together and transform them into different shapes by our labor. A laborer cannot claim to be a proprietor of a thing just because he has worked hard to manufacture it. Similarly, the living being may be manipulating with the material elements but can never claim to be the proprietorship in this world because the source of everything is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.22. Write an essay entitled Vedic knowledge is infallible Ans. The word infallible means never wrong or never making mistakes. Thus, Vedic knowledge being infallible means that Vedic knowledge is never wrong or there can never be any mistake whatsoever in the knowledge propounded by the Vedas. The Vedic principles coming down in disciplic succession is accepted as axiomatic truth, for there cannot be any mistake in them. There are many examples which illustrate how Vedic wisdom is infallible, although it may take many years by scientists to prove them: 1. Vedas assert that plants, animals and human beings all have living force in their bodies. But science defined living thing to be moving from place to place and so concluded that plants have no life, but later it was proved by Dr. Jagadish Chandra Bose that plants also have life.

2. Very ancient Vedic scriptures give us information that earth is round, and science for a long time considered earth to be flat, but now it is a well-accepted fact that earth is round. 3. Vedas recommend smearing of cow dung on floors & walls and cow dung is considered very pure. In Calcutta, a very prominent scientist analysed cow dung and found that it contains all antiseptic properties. 4. Vedas claim that there are living entities even in fire. Scientists once upon a time used to laugh, because they thought bacteria cannot survive even in boiled water (that's why they do sterilization). But recent medical advances have proved that bacteria lives even within fire and is named as Fire bacteria. There are innumerable examples which can be cited this way. In India, if one person tells another, You must do this," the other party may say, What do you mean? Is this a Vedic injunction that I have to follow you without any argument?" Vedic injunctions cannot be interpreted. But ultimately, if you carefully study why these injunctions are there, you will find that they are all correct. The Vedas are not compilations of human knowledge. Vedas are word of God. Another name for the Vedas is ruti. ruti refers to that knowledge which is acquired by hearing. It is not experimental knowledge. ruti is considered to be like a mother. The version of mother, regarding our father, brothers, sisters etc., for instance, has to be accepted as truth. There is no other way. There is no question of experimenting. If you make experimental endeavor, you come to the same conclusion, but just to save time you should accept. If you want to know who your father is and if you accept your mother as authority, then whatever she says can be accepted without argument. The other cumbersome method would be to deride the authority of mother and test every man on earth medically to evaluate who one's father is. Because Vedic knowledge is pure and authoritative, we accept it. That saves much time. If you accept the right authority or the source of knowledge, then you save much time. For example, there are two systems of knowledge in the material world -- Inductive and Deductive. From deductive, you accept that man is mortal. Your father says man is mortal; your sister says man is mortal; everyone says man is mortal -- but you do not experiment. You accept it as fact that man is mortal. If you want to research to find out whether man is mortal, you have to study each and every man, and you may come to think that there may be some man who is not dying, but you have not seen him yet. So in this way your researching will never be finished. If you want to attain knowledge by personal endeavor, by exercising your imperfect senses, you will never come to the right conclusions. That is not possible. There is no need to experiment. Vedas are self-authoritative. They are infallible and must be accepted as it is. Q.23. Discuss the cause for war and strife and suggest a peace formula. Ans. The major cause of war and strife are (a) Forgetting or disregarding the proprietorship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (b) Claiming proprietorship over the resources of the nature which belong to the Lord

(c) Not being satisfied with the quota of necessary things set aside for oneself. (d) Unlawfully encroaching upon somebody elses share (e) Hoarding things unnecessarily and debarring others (f) Deliberately disobeying and disregarding law of nature (g) Quarrelling like cats and dogs over the property of the Lord (h) Not offering things to God which actually belongs to Him (i) Not using the gift of higher intelligence to understanding transcendental things and using it for mundane achievements (j) Becoming more and more attached or averse to things of this mundane world Suggested peace formula (a) We must know that the things which we possess actually belongs to whom (b) Take advice from Vedic literature and conduct accordingly (c) Remain satisfied with whatever privileges are given by the mercy of the Lord (d) Do not claim proprietorship over the resources of the nature (e) Recognize the proprietorship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (f) Recognize that any claim for proprietorship is actually stealing (g) Fallow the instructions of r opaniad (h) Do not quarrel like cats and dogs rather behave like human beings (i) Do not attempt to disregard or disobey the law of nature (j) Offer everything to God as token of appreciation of His mercy upon us (k) Use your intelligence to elevate your consciousness and reach to God (l) Becoming free from the attachment and aversion Q.24. If everything belongs to Krishna, can I take your bathing soap without asking? Explain based on Mantra -1 of opaniad. Ans. This is very good to know that everything belong to Krishna, but this is only half of the complete statement of mantra-1 of r opaniad. The other half is one should take only those things which are kept aside as his quota and does not encroach upon things which are allotted for use to others. Thus the complete statement is everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong. The example is given of a Cow. The cow gives milk which is designated as food for human being. The cow does not herself drink the milk. Rather she eats grass and leaves. Similarly,

the Tiger does not eat rice, wheat etc. because the quota of food allotted to him is flesh of animals. If one conducts his life in accordance with the laws of nature then he does not commit sin which is the cause of bondage and suffering. Therefore, although, everything is the property of the Supreme personality of Godhead r Krishna, but one should only take those things which are allotted as quota for himself and not usurp or take things which are given to others as their quota. Thus, you cannot take somebody elses bathing soap without asking him, because the soap is allotted for him to use and not for your use. Q. 25 Fill in the blanks A. Vedic knowledge is transcendental (______________) and is transferred through the disciplic succession. It is thus above the four defects. B. Being the origin of all energies, the Lord is the proprietor of all things The root of sin is deliberate ___________ of the laws of nature through disregarding the ______________ of the Lord. Mantra 2 How living in harmony with vsya principle benefits kurvann eveha karmi jijviec chata sam eva tvayi nnyatheto 'sti na karma lipyate nare One may aspire to live for hundreds of years if he continuously goes on working in that way, for that sort of work will not bind him to the law of karma. There is no alternative to this way for man. One word summary: result Connection of Mantra 1: Mantra 2 explains the benefit of working in the vsya conception: one becomes free from karmic reaction and acts on the liberated platform. Such activities are the only method for freedom. HPS: Similar to NOI text 2. Very Short Summary Those who work in this spirit aspire to live forever, karma-free, even within various isms. Summary of Purport The Lords complete arrangement is so perfect that if one follows it properly one can live happily, even within the material nature. Generally living beings are bound by their karma, but Ka conscious activities are free from karma, either good or bad, and actually elevate one to the spiritual platform of life. Then one does not feel that being in the material world is an impediment, and will happily continue ones devotional service wherever the Lord wants. The principles of these different types of activities are described in Bhagavad-Gt, and the details of how to cultivate Ka consciousness effectively are described in Nectar of Devotion.

Overview Para 1 How karma-bandhana causes death? Para 2 Human life offers liberation through akarma Para 3 Vedas ultimately lead to akarma Para 4 Begin by bringing God into sense-gratificatory life Para 5 Without God, everything is in vain Para 6 Make all altruisms into karma-yoga Explanation

CCP: Long life means living intelligently, else even stones and trees live long, but their lives have no value. What is the meaning of there is no alternative for living long life? There is alternative but it will lead to disaster. The only way to live intelligently is this. E.g. notice may say staircase is the only way to come down. There is another way, one can jump from window. Will lead to disaster. (Para 1 How karma-bandhana causes death?) Connection: Everybody wants to live long. What causes death? No one wants to die: everyone wants to live as long as he can drag on. This is quite natural as we are eternal.

Due to bondage in material existence one has to change his body over and over. This is called karma-bandhana. One has to work for his livelihood. If he does not act according to his prescribed duties, he transgresses the laws of nature and binds himself more to this cycle. (Para 2 Human life offers liberation through akarma) Connection to para 1 ok, then how to live long through akarma Animals also change bodies, but human life is chance to get free from chain of karma. Karma: Actions performed in terms of ones prescribed duties, as mentioned in the revealed scriptures. Akarma: Actions that free one from the cycle of birth and death (preferred by intelligent men). Vikarma: Actions performed through the misuse of ones freedom and that directs one to the lower life forms. Karma and vikarma are equally binding to the material miseries. r opaniad describes akarma. (Para 3 Vedas ultimately lead to akarma) Connection: how will be learn about akarma? Thru vedas More elaborately described in Bhagavad Gt. BG 3.9-16: One cannot attain the state of naiskarmya or akarma without executing the prescribed duties mentioned in Vedic literature. This literature can regulate the working energy of a human being in such a way that he can gradually realize the authority of the Supreme Being. When he realizes the authority of the Personality of GodheadVsudeva, or Ka it is to be understood that he has attained the stage of positive knowledge. In this purified stage the modes of naturenamely goodness, passion and ignorancecannot act, and he is able to work on the basis of naikarmya. Such work does not bind one to the cycle of birth and death. (Para 4 Begin by bringing God into sense-gratificatory life) Connection: if one cannot immediately go up to akarma, start purifying your sense gratification (Prabhupda contrasts pure bhakti with karma-yoga) No one has to do anything more than render devotional service to the Lord. However, in the lower stages of life one cannot immediately adopt the activities of devotional service, nor can one completely stop fruitive work. o CCP: Spiritual life is replacement for material life, neither supplement nor complement. When this principle of sense enjoyment is extended to include his society, nation or humanity in general, it assumes various attractive names such as altruism, socialism, communism, nationalism and humanitarianism. These "isms" are certainly very attractive forms of karma-bandhana (karmic bondage), but the Vedic instruction of r opaniad is that if one actually wants to live for any of the above "isms," he should make them God-centered. There is no harm in becoming a family man, or an altruist, a socialist, a communist, a nationalist or a humanitarian, provided that one executes his activities in relation with vsya, the God-centered conception. o CCP: Prabhupda would encourage Indians to preach based on their pride on their country you are Indian, this is your culture. Why worry about losing

one part of country as Pakistan, make whole world as Hindustan. For Mumbai festivals he told disciples you are Americans, do something wonderful. In this way nationalistic feelings can be used. o CCP: Dont massage or pinch the false ego. Pat it toward spirituality. (Para 5 Without God, everything is in vain) BG 2.40: God-centered activities are so valuable that just a few of them can save a person from the greatest danger. o HPS: Prabhupda cites BG 2.40 both here and NOI-3. o CCP: With God we flourish, without God we perish. The greatest danger of life is the danger of gliding down again into the evolutionary cycle of birth and death among the 8,400,000 species. Consequently r opaniad advises us to exert our energy in the spirit of vsya. Being so engaged, we may wish to live for many, many years; otherwise a long life in itself has no value. A tree lives for hundreds and hundreds of years, but there is no point in living a long time like trees, or breathing like bellows, or begetting children like hogs and dogs, or eating like camels. o CCP: Prabhupda quotes from a verse in 2nd canto of SB. o CCP: The length of life is not important, but content in important. o CCP: This shock treatment will become severe in next mantra. A humble God-centered life is more valuable than a colossal hoax of a life dedicated to godless altruism or socialism. o CCP: If I dont bring God in, whatever we do may be good, but not good enough. (Para 6 Make all altruisms into karma-yoga) When altruistic activities are executed in the spirit of r opaniad, they become a form of karma-yoga. Such activities are recommended in the Bhagavad-gt (18.5-9), for they guarantee their executor protection from the danger of sliding down into the evolutionary process of birth and death. Even though such God-centered activities may be half-finished, they are still good for the executor because they will guarantee him a human form in his next birth. In this way one can have another chance to improve his position on the path of liberation. o CCP: This is talked about in BG 6.37-45 (Para 7) How one can execute God-centered activities is elaborately explained in the Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (The Nectar of Devotion). We recommend this valuable book to all who are interested in performing their activities in the spirit of r opaniad. o CCP: NOD doesnt talk about karma-yoga, only bhakti-yoga. o CCP: Prabhupda is preparing base for pure devotional service. o CCP: In this purport Prabhupda is not directly glorifying bhakti. Yes your family, country, etc. is important, but add God to it. How to add God is described in NOD. Yes, I have to perform kevala-bhakti. o CCP: This sentence was not in original article, it was added later by editors. We have rendered this book into English as The Nectar of Devotion. We recommend o CCP: Magic of Vedic literature: Bring God into your life and then God will bring you to His life. Initially we want God to come to material world so that

He can help us in our pastimes. Later, God gets us into spiritual world so that we can help Him in his pastimes. Main Points Discussed Mantra Two assures us of everlasting life by working in vsya way. Although we are by nature eternal parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord we are suffering repeated birth and death due to transgressing these laws of nature. There are three ways in which we can work in relation to the laws of nature: 1) karma - pious, or scriptural, duties for material elevation 2) vikarma - impious, or sinful, acts 3) akarma service to the Supreme Lord Only akarmic activities, or service to the Supreme Lord, situate us in our eternal relationship with Him and thus free us from this cycle of birth and death. It is not that we need to abandon our duties to our family and society, but our activities must become God-centered. Even a small amount of service to the Lord guarantees a human body in our next birth for continuing that service. Once our service to the Lord is completely pure we become reinstated in our eternal relationship with Him. 1. Mantra 2 discusses the process of becoming free from laws of karma 2. It explains the benefits of working in the vsyam conception and how one becomes from karmic reactions and acts on the liberated platform. Such activities are the only method for liberation 3. One must exert his energy in the God-centered activities throughout ones life 4. It discusses Karma (action), Karma bandhana (karmic bondage) 5. Karma, Akarma and Vikarma Exercise Read: Read mantra two and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: By engaging ourselves in the Lords service we re-establish our eternal relationship with Him. But are we eager for such a reward? Focus on the need for attaining everlasting life, and the undesirable aspects of a temporary life. We can pray to understand our temporary position in this life and to increase our desire for eternal life. Consider: Generally people would say they are comfortable in this life, and do not feel any need to strive for something eternal. Though they know people are dying all around them, they feel they themselves will never die, and so seek nothing further. But notice how everything in this world is temporary. The insects, the plants, the animals, and even the people are all coming and going with the waves of time. Everything we work so hard for will soon be lost. All the people we love will be gone. Imagine the value of reviving our eternal loving relationship with the Supreme Person. Describe: Describe the temporary nature of this world. Describe the disadvantages of living such a temporary life with temporary relationships. Describe the advantages of living an eternal life in relation with the Supreme Person. Question and Answers

Lesson 4 Q.1. How can a man make the best use of his lifetime? Ans. A man can make best use of his lifetime by living a life centered on God. One should endeavor to carry on such activity that does not bind to the cycle of birth and death. This means that he should carry out those works which will free him from the reactions of both good and bad work. Such liberating work is described in the pages of r opaniad. Therefore, by conducting ones life in accordance with the instructions of the opaniad and other Vedic literature and performing devotional service at the Lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna, one can make best use of his human form of life and at the end can go back home back to Godhead. Q.2. Define karma, vikarma and akarma. How would you categorize work done in the vsyam conception? Ans. Karma actions that are performed in terms of ones prescribed duties, as mentioned in the revealed scriptures, are called Karma. Akarma Actions that free one from the cycle of birth and death are called akarma. Vikarma Actions that are performed through the misuse of ones freedom and that direct one to the lower life forms are called vikarma. Of these three types of actions, that which frees one from the bondage to karma is preferred by intelligent men. Ordinary men wish to perform good work in order to be recognized and achieve some higher status of life in this world or in heaven, but more advanced men want to be free altogether from that actions and reactions of work. Intelligent men well know that both good and bad work equally bind one to the material miseries. Consequently they seek that work which will free them from the reactions of both good and bad work. When a person perform his activities in full consciousness of the Lord, knowing well that Lord is the ultimate beneficiary of all sacrifices and austerities, He is the proprietor of everything that exists and He is the supreme well-wisher of every living entity. He therefore uses everything that he possesses in the service of the Lord for His satisfaction and accepts things necessary for his maintenance as the mercy of the Lord. Work of such a person is categorized as the work done in the vsyam conception. Q.3. How one can go on living hundreds of years without being affected by the law of karma? Ans. When one conducts his life in accordance with the concept of vsyam which means everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong, one can go on living hundreds of years without being affected by the law of karma. Q.4. Why everyone desires to live as long as possible? Ans. The living being is eternal by nature therefore everyone desires to live as long as possible. Although, there is a hard struggle for life by all kinds of living entities, no one

wants to die; everyone wants to live as long as he can drag on. This tendency is visible not only individually but also collectively in the community, society and nation. Q.5. Why one has to keep changing bodies? Ans. Although, the living is eternal by nature, but due to his bondage in material existence one has to keep changing ones body over and over in the process of transmigration or karma bandhana. Q.6. What is transmigration or karma-bandhana? Ans. The process of changing body over and over due to material existence is called transmigration or karma-bandhana or bondage by ones work; The living entity has to work for his livelihood because that is the law of material nature, and if he does not act according to his prescribed duties, he transgresses the law of nature and binds himself more and more to the cycle of birth and death in the many species of life. This called transmigration. Q.7. How one transgresses the law of nature? What is its effect? Ans. The living entity has to work for his livelihood because that is the law of material nature, and if he does not act according to his prescribed duties, he transgresses the law of nature. The effect of this transgression is that he binds himself more and more to the cycle of birth and death in the many species of life. Q.8. How different categories of men approach the process of karma? Ans. Bound by the law of material nature, everyone has to work for maintenance of their body and soul together. In this process people commit various karmas, and vikarmas. Those who are intelligent prefer performing those activities that would free them from the bondage of karma. Ordinary men wish to perform good work in order to be recognized and achieve some higher status of life in this world or in heaver, but those who are more advanced men wants to be free altogether from the actions and reactions of work. Intelligent men well know that both good and bad work equally bind one to the material miseries. Consequently they seek that work which will free them from the reactions of both good and bad work. Q.9. How Gitopanishad (Bhagavad Gt) helps one to realize authority of the Supreme Being? Ans. The cream of all Upaniadas, r Gitopanishad or rmad Bhagavad Gt wherein the Personality of Godhead (r Krishna) says that one cannot attain the state of naiskarmya or akarma without executing the prescribed duties mentioned in the Vedic literature (Bg.3.9-16), can regulate the working energy of a human being in such a way that he can gradually realize the authority of the Supreme Being. Q.10. What is positive knowledge and who can attain it? Ans. To realize the authority of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (r Krishna or Vasudeva) is the stage of positive knowledge. At this stage the modes of material nature viz. Goodness, Passion and Ignorance cannot act. In this stage one can perform activities that can

be called naiskarmya i.e. the activity that does not bind one to the cycle of birth and death. Any who can understand the imports of rmad Bhagavad Gt which is the essence of all Vedic scripture can attain the stage of positive knowledge. This is possible only by the mercy of Guru and Krishna (tad vigyanartham sa gurum eva abhigachhet) (updeshanti te gnynam gnyaninam tatva darsinah) Q.11. What type of action does not bind oneself to the cycle of birth and death? Ans. Those activities executed at the stage of positive knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead do not bind one to the cycle of birth and death because activities at this state is not influenced by the material modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. These activities are called naiskarmya and such work does not bind one to the cycle of birth and death. Q.12. What is the ultimate duty of a human being? Ans. The ultimate duty of a human being is to perform devotional service at the Lotus Feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. (savai pumsam paro dharmo atho bhaktir adhokshaja ahaituki apratihata ya atma suprasidati). No one has to do anything more than render devotional service to the Lord. Q.13. What are different forms of karma-bandhana? What is the way out? Ans. Although, the ultimate activity of a human being is to render devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in the lower stages of life one cannot immediately adopt the activities of devotional service, nor can one completely stop fruitive work. A conditioned should is accustomed to working for sense gratification for his own selfish interest, immediate or extended. An ordinary man works for his own sense enjoyment, and when this principle of sense enjoyment is extended to include his society, nation or humanity in general, it assumes various attractive names such as altruism, socialism, communism, nationalism and humanitarianism. These different isms are the different forms of karma-bandhanas. These karmic bondages are certainly very attractive, but the Vedic instruction of r opaniad is that if one actually wants to live for any of the above isms, he should make them Godcentered. There is no harm in becoming a family man, or an altruist, a socialist, a communist, a nationalist or a humanitarian, provided that one executes his activities in relation with vsya, the God-centered conception. Q.14. What is the greatest danger of life and how one becomes trapped? What is the way out? Ans. The greatest danger of life is the danger of gliding down again into the evolutionary cycle of birth and death among the 8,400,000 species. When living entities, those who have attained the human for life, misuse their freedom and acts whimsically by deliberately disregarding the law of the nature and the proprietorship of the Supreme Lord then they become trapped in the cycle of birth and death. The only way which can put one out of this trap is the devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Lord Krishna says in Bhagavad Gt (2.40) that God-centered activities are so valuable that just a few of them can save a person from the greatest danger. In case the performer fails to attain perfection in the present life time, he will be given another chance by the Lord in the next life time, but he would never glide down to the lower species of life. How can one execute Godcentered activities is elaborately explained in the Bhakti Rasmta Sindhu by rla Rupa Gosvm.

Q. 15 Fill in the blanks Work in inevitable for all living beings. Acting according to prescribed duties allows one to engage in his _________ tendency for work, but still avoid ___________ in karma-bandhana. One may desire to attain the platform of naiskarmya, or akarma, but due to conditioning is not ready to act on that platform. Such a person must _______________ _______________ ________ _______________ __ ____ ___ _______ to gratify his conditioned needs in a religious way. That will lead him to the stage of akarmic activity. In a similar way, one should learn the art of connecting philanthropic activities of extended sense gratification (isms) with _________ _______. This too will ultimately lead to the stage of akarma. Q. 16 Why are altruistic or humanitarian activities not considered very beneficial when God is not the focus of such activities? Q. 17 If we abandon the idea of trying to claim this world for our own enjoyment and instead take up the process of self- realization wont society fall into a state of passivity and chaos? Explain. Q. 18 This Text and Purport are just like NOI Text ______. Mantra 3 How living in disharmony with vsya principle harms asury nma te lok andhena tamasvt ts te pretybhigacchanti ye ke ctma-hano jan The killer of the soul, whoever he may be, must enter into the planets known as the worlds of the faithless, full of darkness and ignorance. One Word Summary: Atma ha Connection to previous verses: Mantra 3 explains the fate of those who fail to recognise the Lords proprietorship and therefore act in a vikarmic way. BP: The speaker is using strong language. BP: There are many types of killers of souls some are very bad (nasty, demoniac) but not so bad, but still bad (unfortunate).In 9-14 different varieties of killers of soul will be discussed. With little intelligence, youll realize that it not worth being anything else than a devotee. HPS: Compare with NOI Text 2 & 3, same ideas, same instructions CCP: This verse is a warning. Parent to child if you dont study, you wont have a career, youll live in poverty, no one will respect you. Very Short Summary of Purport Higher Duties, responsibilities in human life. When executed, economic necessities are provided quite simply by the Lord. Those who ignore the responsibilities of human life must toil very hard, and their security economy is always threatened. And after this life? Summary of Purport There may be many different types of nondevotees, or people who do not recognize the vsya principle, but in all cases they are doomed. The human form of live is a unique opportunity to get out of the perplexities of material existence, which otherwise entrap the conditioned soul in a labyrinthine maze of inescapable difficulties. In the purport, rla Prabhupda explains: The material world is sometimes compared to an ocean, and human body is compared to a solid boat designed especially to cross this ocean. The Vedic scriptures and the acarya, or saintly teachers, are compared to expert boatmen, and

the facilities of the human body are compared to favorable breezes that help the boat ply smoothly to its desired destination. If, with all these facilities, a human being does not fully utilize his life for self-realization, he must be considered atma-ha, a killer of the soul.
Unfortunately, people are generally involved in animalistic lifestyles, in which sense gratification is the goal, and are not interested in spiritual life, and as a result they end up with many anxieties, like the animals. However, if one takes to Ka consciousness ones future becomes bright, even if one is not able to complete the process in this life. Therefore, at any cost, one should practice Ka consciousness and avoid the pitfalls of material life. Overview Para 1 - Suras (godly persons) and Asuras (demons)

Para 2 - Killer of the soul Human body considered as a Boat Para 3 - Understanding our responsibility as human being Para 4 - Consequence of misuse of the human form of life
Para 5 - Fate of those who fail to recognize the Lords proprietorship and acts whimsically by disregarding the law of nature i.e. acts in a vikarmic way

Para 6 - Krishna conscious perspective of economic problems


Explanation

Para 1 - Suras (godly persons) and Asuras (demons) Human life distinguished from animal life due to heavy responsibilities. Suras (godly persons) - cognizant of these responsibilities and work in that spirit. Always aim at the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Viu and act accordingly. Asuras (demons) - neglectful of these responsibilities or have no information of them. BP: rmad Bhgavatam describes that Satya Yuga demons and devotees lived in different planes, in treta yuga in same planet, but different towns, in dwapara yuga in same town, but different houses, in kali both live in same body both good and bad desires within heart of even a devotee. CCP: Asu means breath, ra means to enjoy ramante Asura means one who wants to enjoy life air. Life air is in body. So Asura means one who wants to enjoy the body. CCP: Asura is not a specie, but a mentality. See BG 16th chapter. o Rmyaa: war between human and raksasa species. o Mahbharata: war between humans, but duryodhana had demoniac mentality. o Anyone of us can be a demon depending on our tendencies. (Para 2) - Killer of the soul Human body considered as a Boat Material world ocean, human life boat, Spiritual master & Vedic scriptures expert boatman, facilities of human life favorable breezes. tma-h, a killer of the soul One who, with all these facilities, does not fully utilize his life for self-realization. Destined to enter into the darkest region of ignorance to suffer perpetually. o BP: Prabhupda uses perpetually there might not be an end. He didnt use for a long time meaning there will be an end. Even in 16th chapter of BG Ka say that I condemn them perpetually. We condemn the idea of eternal condemnation. So perpetually means such a long time that end is not visible. Arjuna cant you save these poor souls? Ka yes, I can I dont because I

dont have seed for that desire. So bottom line dont become a demon. This is the basic idea in mantra 3. CCP: First teaching of BG soul cannot be killed. BG 16.21 soul is destroyed by lust anger greed. Is Ka contradicting? no the word is not to be taken literally. CCP: Killing of soul means killing spiritual consciousness of the soul. CCP: Mukhya vritti (abhida vritti primary literal meaning) and gauna vritti (lakshana-vritti - secondary). You cannot take gauna meaning arbitrarily it should be supported by sastra. E.g. Indian nationalist said BG is metaphoric as they couldnt believe it was meant to make Arjuna fight. CCP: Taking gauna meaning here is supported in 11.20.17. Kills souls real life.

Literal: Sita went with Rama. Yes this happened. Ethical: Sita was attracted to Marici. So we should not be attracted to anything else when we are with Lord. This is also valuable. Metaphorical: 6 sons of Devaki refer 6 anarthas. Another example Bhaktivinoda Thkura representing demons in Ka Lila as anarthas. Another example from r Sampradya: Sita soul who turns from Lord, Ravana Mind, 10 heads 10 sense (working + knowledge gaining), lanka body. This doesnt mean no historical event like kidnapping of Sita took place. It took place. This is simply another meaning. They should not contradict to literal meaning. Supplement (add) literal meaning and not supplant (replace) literal meaning. It can supplant only in case when literal reading leads to obvious absurdities. (Para 3) Understanding our responsibility as human being Why is man given a better life than that of the swine and other animals?

o Analogy: Why is a highly placed government servant given better facilities than those of an ordinary clerk? Answer: a highly placed officer has to discharge duties of a higher nature. o Similarly, the duties human beings have to perform are higher than those of animals, who are always engaged in simply feeding their hungry stomachs. Yet the modern soul-killing civilization has only increased the problems of the hungry stomach. o HPS: Polished animals o CCP: Science has changed the form, not purpose. E.g. Pig may eat stool, humans may eat processed food, but purpose is same. o CCP: Most scientific advancement is funded by defence (defending) and consumer industry (eating, mating and sleeping). So whole civilization is soulkilling civilization. o CCP: Animals dont die due to shortage created by their own specie. No animal needs sleeping pill. Animals dont sing song of betrayal. Humans are mostly afraid of humans only. So even in eating sleeping mating defending in some way animals are better. Animals dont commit suicide (one million per year more than what others kill people are killing themselves), they dont take stress courses, no animal suffer from addictions. Using human body only for eating sleeping mating defending is like using Mercedez for ploughing the field field will get spoiled (ecology is spoiled), car is spoiled (our body is spoiled) and driver becomes frustrated (people become frustrated). It is like a person getting admission into IIT and only worrying about eating food. He will be expelled. (Para 4) Consequence of misuse of the human form of life If we do not care for self-realization, o The laws of nature force us to work very hard, even though we may not want to do so. HPS: Same idea in NOI text 3. o Forced to transmigrate to the asurya planets and take birth in degraded species of life to work hard in ignorance and darkness. (Para 5) Fate of those who fail to recognize the Lords proprietorship and acts whimsically by disregarding the law of nature i.e. acts in a vikarmic way The person who fails to achieve self-realization is given a better chance in his next life due to his sincere efforts in this life. o Suci and srimat are destinations of those who endeavor incompletely. But those who do not even make an attempt must enter into the darkest regions of hell. o Sometimes make a show of religion, but their ultimate aim is material prosperity. o Considered great only on the strength of deception and are empowered by the votes of the ignorant and by their own material wealth. BP: Even if a devotee falls there is no loss. But there is another BG 9.3 Those who are not faithful in this devotional service cannot attain Me, O conqueror of enemies. Therefore they return to the path of birth and death in this material world. So even if we fall temporarily, it is not worth it. So do not fall down even for a lifetime.

(Para 6) Krishna conscious perspective of economic problems As human beings we are meant not simply for solving economic problems on a tottering platform but for solving all the problems of the material life into which we have been placed by the laws of nature. o BP: We are above animal because we are given intelligence. If we dont use intelligence it is taken away from us. Live according to vsya principle. o HPS: This is summary of whole text. Main Points Discussed Mantra Three warns us that those who neglect these activities of the soul will enter into the worlds full of darkness and ignorance. This human body, which is attained after many lifetimes in such lower worlds and species of life, carries the responsibility of attaining selfrealization by engaging in the service of the Lord. One who neglects these human responsibilities of spiritual life is known as the killer of the soul, and must again enter into such lower births and perpetually suffer in this temporary material world. 1. Fate of those who fail to recognize the Lords proprietorship and acts whimsically by disregarding the law of nature i.e. acts in a vikarmic way Para 5 2. Consequence of misuse of the human form of life Para 4 3. Suras (godly persons) and Asuras (demons) Para 1 4. Killer of the soul Human body considered as a Boat Para 2 5. Krishna conscious perspective of economic problems Para 6 6. Understanding our responsibility as human being Para 3 7. When human life is misused and engaged for pursuing material happiness than the nature forces to harder like animals and finally frustrates our endeavor of happiness Exercise Read: Read mantra three and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: This human form of life gives us the unique capability and responsibility of engaging in spiritual realization. But how much are we taking advantage of this rare gift? Focus on the need to engage this rare human life and intelligence in the process of self-realization, beyond just supplying the needs of the body. We can pray to learn to appreciate our higher intelligence and engage it in spiritual life. Consider: rla Prabhupda has said, The dog is running on four legs, and you are running on four wheels. What is the difference? Consider how the goals of society today are simply based on the same activities as the animals, namely eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. Where is the engagement of our higher intelligence in understanding who we are and what is the ultimate goal of life? This verse says that such killers of the soul enter into worlds of darkness and ignorance. But even in this life today, observe the results of our society based simply on animalistic propensities. To what degree are we ourselves utilizing this human form to revive our relationship with God?

Describe: Describe the results of a society based simply on supplying the needs and desires of the body, not considering knowledge of the soul. What is the need for developing spiritual life? Question and Answers Q.1. Who is a killer of the soul? Illustrate with an example. Ans. Anyone who does not utilize the opportunity to engage in the activity of the soul is a killer of the soul. The most natural activity of the soul is to engage in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna (jivera svarupa haya Krishner nitya dasa) and the biggest opportunity to engage in the service of the Lord is available in the human form of life. Intelligent human beings must always remember that the soul obtains a human form after an evolution of many millions of years in the cycle of transmigration. The material world is sometimes compared to an ocean, and the human body is compared to a solid boat designed especially to cross this ocean. The Vedic scriptures and the acaryas, or saintly teachers are compared to expert boatmen, and the facilities of the human body are compared to favorable breezes that help the boat ply smoothly to its desired destination. With all these facilities, if a human being does not fully utilize his life for self-realization, he must be considered atma-ha, a killer of the soul. r opaniad warns in clear terms that a killer of the soul is destined to enter into the darkest region of ignorance to suffer perpetually. Q.2. What destination does the killer of the soul attains? Ans. The killer of the soul, whoever he may be, must enter into the planets known as the worlds of the faithless, full of darkness and ignorance. Q.3. Analyze economic problems from a Krishna Consciousness viewpoint and establish how to solve the real problem of life? Ans. Economic problems are the problems related with the maintenance of the body and soul. It is a matter of demand and supply. Every living entity in this material world requires things to maintain his body and soul together. The Supreme Personality of Godhead has provided everything necessary for all living entities under his proprietorship. Everyone is expected to know this fact and accept things of this material world only as per the quota set aside for his maintenance. There is no shortage for the necessity of the living entity, however, because people are excessive greedy they artificially create economic problem by encroaching upon others share or depriving others for their necessities. The life of human being is more important because of the higher responsibility of selfrealization and God realization. There are swine, dogs, camels, assess, etc. whose economic necessities are just as important to them as ours to us, but the economic problem of these animals are solved only under nasty and unpleasant conditions. The human being is given all facilities for a comfortable life by the laws of the nature because the human form of life is more important and valuable than animal life. Why is man given a better life than that of the swine and other animals? Why is a highly placed government servant given better facilities than those of an ordinary clerk? The answer is that a highly placed officer has to discharge

duties of a higher nature. Similarly, the duties human beings have to perform are higher than those of animals, who are always engaged in simply feeding their hungry stomachs. Yet the modern soul-killing civilization has only increased the problems of the hungry stomach. When we approach a polished animal in the form of a modern civilized man and ask him to take interest in self-realization, he will say that he simply wants to work to satisfy his stomach and that there is no need of self-realization for a hungry man. The laws of nature are so cruel, however, that despite his denunciation of the need for self-realization and his eagerness to work hard to fill his stomach, he is always threatened by unemployment. Therefore the Krishna conscious approach of economic problems is that one should accept the proprietorship of the Lord and accept only those things necessary for his maintenance and not encroach upon somebody elses share. Depend on the Lord and every necessary thing will be supplied. There is no need to work hard only to fill the belly rather work hard to realize self and God. If we waste our life attempting to solve economic problems, without solving the actual problems of material life, we will be destined to enter the darkest region of ignorance to suffer perpetually. Q.4. Who is an asuras (demons)? What is the destination of asuric life? Ans. People who are neglectful or have no information of the responsibilities of human form of life are called asuras (demons). Such people are destined to transmigrate to the asury planets and take birth in the degraded species of life to work hard in ignorance and darkness. Demoniac nature is characterized by pride, arrogance, conceit, anger, harshness and ignorance. The word asura is constituted of two words asu+ra where asu means breath and ra means enjoy. Thus anyone who tries to enjoy body and senses are asuras. Asuras sometimes make a show of religion, but their ultimate aim is material prosperity. The Bhagavad-Gt (16.17-18) rebukes such men by calling them atma-sambhavita, meaning that they are considered great only on the strength of deception and are empowered by the votes of the ignorant and by their own material wealth. Such asuras, devoid of self-realization and knowledge of vsya, the Lords universal proprietorship, are certain to enter into the darkest regions. Those who are demoniac do not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. Neither cleanliness nor proper behaviour nor truth is found in them. They say that this world is unreal, with no foundation, no God in control. They say it is produced of sex desire and has no cause other than lust. Such people engage in unbeneficial, horrible works meant to destroy the world. They take shelter of insatiable lust and always remain absorbed in the conceit of pride and false prestige. Thus illusioned, they are always sworn to unclean work, attracted by the impermanent. They believe that to gratify the senses is the prime necessity of human civilization. Q.5. Who is a suras (godly persons)? Ans. Human life is distinguished from animal life due to its heavy responsibilities. Those who are cognizant of these responsibilities and who work in that spirit are called suras (godly

persons). In all circumstances of life they are always dependent on the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Fearlessness, purification of ones existence, cultivation of spiritual knowledge, charity, selfcontrol, performance of sacrifice, study of the Vedas, austerity, simplicity, nonviolence, truthfulness, freedom from anger, renunciation, tranquility, aversion to fault-finding, compassion for all living entities, freedom from covetousness, gentleness, modesty, steady determination, vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, and freedom from envy and from the passion of honor these transcendental qualities belong to godly men endowed with divine nature. Such godly persons are eligible to liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Q.6. Why human form of life is distinct from animal life? What is its purpose? Ans. The human beings are expected to perform duties of higher nature than that of animals because of which the human form of life is distinct from animal life. Human beings are given higher intelligence, better facilities for comfortable life by the law of nature. We can see that swine, dogs, camels, asses, etc. whose economic necessities are just as important to them as ours are to us, but the economic problems of these animals are solved only under nasty and unpleasant conditions. The purpose of a better facility to human being is that they are not only expected to engage in to eating, mating, sleeping and defending but to engage in higher activity of realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If a person remains engaged only in the activities of eating, mating, sleeping and defending he is no more than an animal. Such a person is considered the killer of the soul because he is wasting the opportunity of God realization. Q.7. Explain the significance of human form of life with example of ocean and boat? Ans. The soul obtains a human form of life after an evolution of many millions of years in the cycle of transmigration. This material world is sometimes compared to an ocean, and the human body is compared to a solid boat designed especially to cross this ocean. The Vedic scriptures and the acaryas, or saintly teachers, are compared to expert boatmen, and the facilities of the human body are compared to favorable breezes that help the boat ply smoothly to its desired destination. If, with all these facilities, a human being does not fully utilize his life for self-realization, he must be considered atma-ha, killer of the soul. Q.8. Explain with example why human being is given more facility than animals? Ans. Like the highly placed government servant who takes higher responsibility is given better facilities than those of ordinary employees, the human form of life is given better facilities as compared to the animals because it is expected from him that he will engage in the process of God-realization and successfully use the opportunity of attaining the perfection of life love of Godhead. The human form of life is given not for working hard like asses, swine and dogs but to attain the highest perfection of life. If one does not care for selfrealization, the laws of nature forces us to work very hard, even though we may not want to do so. Human beings in this age have been forced to work hard like the asses and bullocks that pull carts and they are continuously being frustrated in their pursuit of material happiness. Q.9. What destination is obtained on failure to discharge duties of a human being?

Ans. If one fails to discharge his duties as a human being, he is forced to transmigrate to the asury planets and take birth in degraded species of life to work hard in ignorance and darkness. Those who does not understand or neglect the duties of human life are called asuras and asuras are destined to be degraded in to the lower species of life in the darkest region of the creation. Q.10. What does the word suci and srimat indicates? Ans. In the Bhagavad Gt (6.41-43) it is stated that a man who enters upon the path of selfrealization but does not complete the process, despite having sincerely tried to realize his relationship with God, is given a chance to appear in a family of suci or srimat. The word suci indicates a spiritually advanced brahmana and srimat indicates a vaisya, a member of the mercantile community. Q.11. What is the fate of a person who tried sincerely but failed on the path of perfection? Ans. When a person tried sincerely but failed on the path of perfection is given another chance for self-realization by the arrangement of the Lord. As confirmed in Bg. (6.41-43), he either appears in the family of suci (brahmanas) or srimat (aristocratic mercantile family) where he can peacefully pursue further for his goal of self-realization and God-realization. Q. 12 Fill in the blanks

Q.13 Why does a person who lives a life devoid of self-realization deserve to fall into the lower species of life? Q.14 Describe in your own words, practical ways, and the benefits therein, of applying the vsya principle in: society in general ISKCON your own life Give reference to r opaniad Mantras 1-3 and purports in your response. (Open book) Questions for Mantras 1-3 1. What does it mean to transgress the laws of nature? 2. How would recognition of the Lords proprietorship over all things by the nations leaders bring peace to the world? 3. Why are altruistic or humanitarian activities not considered very beneficial when God is not the focus of such activities? 4. Why does a person who lives a life devoid of self-realization deserve to fall into the lower species of life?

5. If we abandon the idea of trying to claim this world for our own enjoyment and instead take up the process of self- realization wont society fall into a state of passivity and chaos? Explain. Answers for Mantras 1-3 Ans. 1: To disregard or deny the Lords proprietorship over all things as meant for His enjoyment, or to try to claim proprietorship for oneself. Ans. 2: The nations would not fight in an attempt to claim ownership over land and resources for themselves. Ans. 3: They only benefit the temporary material body. They do not benefit the soul. Ans. 4: Such a person is only living the life of an animal anyway, so God fulfills the persons desires to live as an animal. Ans. 5: No. Society will take on the greater responsibility of engaging everything in the Lords service.

Mantra 4-8: The Inconceivable Lord can only be known by the mah-bhgavata
The Supreme Lord is the greatest person and possess unique characteristics. Within Him all contradictions are resolved. The pure devotees see everything and everyone is relation to Him and are therefore completely free from anxiety on the transcendental platform. By rendering devotional service in this consciousness they realize Him directly. Practically all information about Lord in 4-5 given as contradictions. But as explained in 6-8, a great devotee is not bewildered by it. Mantra 4-5: vara is inconceivable to our normal intelligence / Conception of Supreme Lord, His inconceivable potencies, and His transcendental relation to creation

Connection to Invocation-Mantra 3: Once we have begun the process of engaging in the Lords service we can begin to understand His inconceivable nature and potencies as He reveals Himself to us. In Mantras 4-5 we hear more of the knowledge of His personality, building upon the knowledge we received in the Invocation. Key Phrase: Inconceivable Lord May Be Far or Near But He is Revealed to Those Who Are Dear. Mantra 4 - The inconceivable Lord cannot be approached by our limited means. / Focus of the personal aspects of Isa anejad eka manaso javyo nainad dev pnuvan prvam arat tad dhvato 'nyn atyeti tihat tasminn apo mtariv dadhti Although fixed in His abode, the Personality of Godhead is swifter than the mind and can overcome all others running. The powerful demigods cannot approach Him. Although in one place, He controls those who supply the air and rain. He surpasses all in excellence. One word summary: Fixed / running

Connection to mantra 3: Mantra 4 explains why such people are unable to understand the Lords position: He is beyond material calculations and is thus known only when He reveals Himself to the sincere. Key Phrase: Focus on personal aspect of Isa
Short Summary A. Variegated personal features, manaso javiyah=beyond the limits of speculation.

Anejat eka = fixed, in one place, in His abode Kaloka enjoying pastimes. Tad dhavato nyan atyeti = surpasses all others running; i.e. exists everywhere by His all-expansive energies; tasminn apo matarisva dadhati = controls the demigods. Three references in purport to manaso javiya: a. Brahma-sahit ref b. No one can approach the Lord by his own limited potency. c. The futility in trying to establish the identity of the Lord through mental speculation B. vsya reference: utilize your particular personal energy(s), with the understanding that your particular energy(s) is but part of the total energy, with God as the proprietor. This will awaken your original consciousness. Summary Lord Ka possesses the most glorious characteristics, completely distinguishing Him from all other persons. Sometimes these qualities may seem contradictory, but within Him all contradictions are resolved. He is fixed in one place, but He is the swiftest. He is localized, but controls all parts of the creation. rla Prabhupda explains that the Lord is unapproachable by mental speculation. He is only approached though unalloyed devotional service. He is situated in Goloka Vrndavana, but at the same time He is all-pervading, in the form of His energies, just like fire is pervasive in the form of its light and heat. He has three main types of energies, and we are one of them, the marginal potency. We should use our limited capacities in His service, and cultivate understanding of His through the Vedic literatures. In this way we can approach Him and enter His association. Overview The Lord is beyond material calculations and mental speculation. Can be known only by devotional service by His devotees (para 1) Different energies of the Lord (para 2) Transcendental feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Para 3) The Lord is beyond approach even by powerful demigods (para 4) The Lord cannot be known by mental speculation. He can be known only when He reveals Himself (para 5, 6) Why people are unable to understand the Lords position (para 5)

All powers must be utilized for execution of the will of the Lord. To save one selves from material disaster one must have perfect knowledge of the Lord His features, His potencies and how these potencies work (para 7) Explanation Four characteristics given: Fixed swiftest (contradiction) Cant be approached even by demigods Localized all pervading (contradiction) [go and meet Him in Goloka. But is all pervading through His energies]. Surpasses all in excellence

1. Transcendental feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (para 3) 2. The Lord is beyond approach even by powerful demigods (para 4) 3. The Lord cannot be known by mental speculation (para 5) 4. Can be known only by devotional service by His devotees (para 1) 5. To save one selves from material disaster one must have perfect knowledge of the Lord His features, His potencies and how these potencies work (para 7) 6. Why people are unable to understand the Lords position (para 5)

7. The Lord is beyond material calculations and mental speculation (para 1) 8. He can be known only when He reveals Himself (para 5) 9. Different energies of the Lord (para 2) 10. All powers must be utilized for execution of the will of the Lord (para 7) Mental Speculation Para 1 The Lord is beyond material calculations and mental speculation. Can be known only by devotional service by His devotees. The Supreme Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, cannot be known by mental speculation or mechanical means. He can be known only by devotees only through His mercy. He remains and engages in His pastimes in Goloka. Yet He is all pervading by His inconceivable energies. o Analogy: Heat and light coming from fire. CCP: Neither uncertain speculation (speculation wont work) nor certain incomprehension. (it is not impossible to know God as Abrahamic religions teach) Para 2 Different energies of the Lord. Three principal energies: internal (spiritual world), marginal (demigods and less living beings) and external (material world) potencies. o BP: Prabhupda quotes in CC that r Sampradaya give 16 divisions of spiritual energies. We consider three Samvit, Sandhini and Hladini. Para 3 God and His energies are nondifferent yet different Although nondifferent, one should not mistake the energy to be Supreme Truth. Nor is the Lord distributed impersonally or loses in personal existence. Supreme Lord is not subject to our limited capacity of understanding. Upaniads warn not to understand Lord by our limited potency. CCP: Fire burns. The two fire and burning are same and different. Variegatedness of Personal Features Para 4 - The Lord is beyond approach even by powerful demigods. Even the great is and suras can know Him. What to speak of the asuras? Absolute Truth is ultimately the Absolute Person; otherwise there would have been no need to mention so many details in support of His personal features. Para 5 & 6 The Lord cannot be known by mental speculation. He can be known only when He reveals Himself. Though similar in quality, individual parts are limited. Trying to establish the identity of the Lord through mental speculation is futile. One should try to learn about Lord from Himself only, through Vedas given by Him. CCP: Bhakti cannot be learnt by analysis (parent to small child mamma give me water, mamma is noun give is verb me is pronoun and water is noun, child will be

bewildered) but by synthesis (teach and show him how to speak noun pronoun can come later, he will learn). Designated Part to Play CCP: Be a part, be not apart. CCP: How do I know my part? Earlier it was through Varnasrama. Varna for body, rama for soul. Varnasrama from our place, at our pace, join the race. CCP: Some expert book distributors went to Prabhupda and asked if they can go temple to temple and train people how to speak, what gestures to make, etc. so that they can sell more books. Prabhupda said devotional service is individual voluntary spontaneous. What does it mean? Dont teach people what to sa y, inspire them to serve. They will find ways to sell. CCP: We are all individual. Individuality is grained in our fabric material or spiritual. When the living entity forgets his particular activities under the Lord's will, he is considered to be in my. When a person properly utilizes his initiative, or active nature, with intelligence, understanding that everything is the Lord's potency, he can revive his original consciousness, which was lost due to association with my. Para 7 All powers must be utilized for execution of the will of the Lord. To save one selves from material disaster one must have perfect knowledge of the Lord His features, His potencies and how these potencies work All power is obtained from the Lord; therefore each particular power must be utilized to execute the will of the Lord and not otherwise. o BP: vsya idea Perfect knowledge means knowing the Lord in all His features, knowing His potencies and knowing how these potencies work by His will. Bhagavad Gt, essence of Upaniads, describes them. o HPS: rla Prabhupda is constantly quoting the BG. Makes you want to appreciate the opaniad properly so that you can advance to the BG! o BP: BG is not among 108 Upaniads. It is Upaniadic in nature. So it is called Gitopanisad. Exercise Read: Read mantra four and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Detailed knowledge of the Lord is far beyond our limited range of mental speculation. Focus on the inconceivable nature of the Lord, and how we can only know Him as He reveals Himself. We can pray to receive the Lords mercy so we may begin to understand His greatness. Consider: Consider how people have so many different ideas and speculations on the nature of God, the soul, or this material universe. From the scientists to the orthodox religions to the common people there are innumerable theories and beliefs. The symptoms of these beliefs are all around you, from billboards and advertisements to what we are taught in school and what people talk about. From this we can understand how inconceivable is the nature and greatness of the Lord, the hidden source of everything, and realize how we can only know Him as He reveals Himself, such as through the scriptures of the world.

Describe: Describe how people all over the world are trying to understand the nature of God, the soul, and the universe by their own speculative means. How much progress are they making towards understanding the nature and activities of God? Describe our dependence on the Lord to reveal Himself in order for us to understand Him. Main Points Discussed Mantra Four informs us that although the Lord is always situated in His own abode He cannot be approached by the mind or even by the powerful demigods. Unless He reveals Himself to us we cannot imagine or understand His transcendental abode or activities. The Lords eternal abode is situated within His spiritual, or internal, energy. It is only when the individual spirit souls, known as His marginal energy, desire to enjoy separately from the Him that they are placed within this material, or external, energy. Thus, when we engage ourselves in His service, desiring to dovetail our activities for His enjoyment, He naturally becomes inclined to again reveal Himself and our eternal relationship with Him in the spiritual world. 1. Transcendental feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead 2. The Lord is beyond approach even by powerful demigods 3. The Lord cannot be known by mental speculation 4. Can be known only by devotional service by His devotees 5. To save one selves from material disaster one must have perfect knowledge of the Lord His features, His potencies and how these potencies work 6. Why people are unable to understand the Lords position 7. The Lord is beyond material calculations and mental speculation 8. He can be known only when He reveals Himself 9. Different energies of the Lord 10. All powers must be utilized for execution of the will of the Lord Question and Answers Lesson 5 Q.1. Which features of the Lord is mentioned in mantra 4 of opaniad? Ans. The different features mentioned in mantra 4 of opaniad are(a) The Lord is swifter than the mind although fixed in His abode (b) Unapproachable even by powerful demigods (c) Although in one place, He controls every one including those who supply air and rain (d) The Lord surpasses everyone in excellence Q.2. Why even the great demigods misunderstand Krishnas position?

Ans. The Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna is completely transcendental to all mundane qualities. He is unlimited vibhu whereas the living entity (right from Lord Brahm to the smallest insect) is anu like a minute particle and conditioned with material modes. How something, which is like a minute particle, can understand the unlimited that has no beginning and end. In Bhagavad-Gt it is mentioned that neither the host of demigods nor the great sages can know the opulence of the Supreme Lord because the Lord is the source of these demigods and the sages. The demigods and the sages try to know the Lord by mental speculation, but, because they are limited they become perplexed and misunderstand Krishnas position. To know, Krishna, He has to reveal Himself otherwise by speculative process, instead of knowing Him they will misunderstand Him. Q.3. Establish the Absolute Truth as the Supreme Person. Analyze His potencies and explain the ultimate duty of the part and parcel living entity? Ans. There is common controversy over whether the Supreme Absolute Truth is personal or impersonal. Bhagavad-Gt (7.7) establishes that the Absolute Truth is the Personality of Godhead r Krishna and this is confirmed in every step. Brahm Samhita says varah paramah krishnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah that the Supreme Absolute Truth is Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Mantra 4 of r opaniad also describes many features of the Absolute Truth which indicate of a personality. Features like having abode, being swifter than mind, overcoming all in running, controlling and surpassing in excellence all indicates of being a person. If the Absolute Truth is not a person then what is the use of mentioning so many details in support of His personal feature? The Lord is the source of all energies. He has innumerable energies which are principally categorized into three different categories viz. Internal, Marginal and External. The living entities including demigods and great sages are the marginal energy of the Lord. The material creation is done by the External energy of the Lord and the spiritual creation is made possible by the Internal energy of the Lord. The different energies of the Lord are present everywhere. Although the Lord and His different energies are non-different, one should not mistake these energies for the Supreme Truth. Nor should one wrongly consider that the Supreme Lord is distributed everywhere impersonally or that He loses His personal existence. The Lord is Complete Whole and the living beings are His parts and parcels. Every part and parcel of the Complete Whole is endowed with some particular energy to act according to the Lords will. When the part and parcel living entity forgets his particular activates under the Lords will, he is considered to be in my or illusion. Therefore it is the duty of every living entity to serve the Lord as per the capacity endowed to him by the Lord. Because all power is obtained from the Lord; therefore each particular power must be utilized to execute the will of the Lord and not otherwise. When the living being will surrender to the Lord in this way, then only it is possible that he can understand the Lord. Q.4. Why the mental speculators cannot know the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Ans. The mental speculators cannot know the supreme Personality of Godhead because the Lord cannot be known through mental speculation. He can be known only by His devotees

through His mercy. In the Brahm Samhita (5.34) it is stated that even if a non-devotee philosopher travels through space at the speed of wind or the mind for hundreds of millions of years, he will still find that the Absolute Truth is far, far away from him. Thus by mental speculation it is not possible to know God who is transcendental to all mundane reality. Men are accustomed to reach conclusions according to their capacity for understanding, but the Supreme Lord is not subject to our limited capacity for understanding. This is the reasons why the Upaniads warn us that no one can approach the Lord by his own limited potency. Although the individual parts and parcels of the Lords potencies have all the symptoms of the Lord Himself, they have limited spheres of activity and are therefore limited and with limited sphere of activity it is quite impossible to understand the Supreme Lord. This is the reason, why the mental speculators cannot know the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.5. Explain about the potencies of the Lord giving the analogy of heat and light? Ans. The Absolute Truth r Krishna possesses innumerable energies. In the Viu Purana His potencies are compared to the head and light that emanate from a fire. Although situated in one place, a fire can distribute its light and heat for some distance; similarly, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, although fixed in His transcendental abode, can diffuse His different energies everywhere. The different energies of the Lord are present everywhere. Although, the Lord and His energies are non-different, one should not mistake these energies for the Supreme Truth. Nor should one wrongly consider that the Supreme Lord is distributed everywhere impersonally or that He loses His personal existence. Q.6. What are the principle divisions of the innumerable energies of the Lord? Ans. Although, the Lords energies are innumerable, they can be divided into three principal categories: the internal potency, the marginal potency and the external potency. There are hundreds and millions of sub-headings to each of these categories. The dominating demigods who are empowered to control and administer such natural phenomena as air, light and rain are all classified within the marginal potency of the Absolute Person. Lesser living beings, including humans, also belong to the Lords marginal potency. The material world is the creation of the Lords external potency and the Spiritual sky, where the kingdom of God is situated, is the manifestation of His internal potency. Q.8. Why so many details of the personal features of the Lord are mentioned? Ans. In the material world, people are accustomed to reach conclusions according to their capacity of understanding and when they observe the presence of the different energies of the Lord everywhere. And because of their limited knowledge, they understand that the Lord is present in the form of His energies and not personally. He has no personality. Under the influence of material nature, foolish and ignorant living beings who are but parts and parcels of the Lord try to conjecture about the Lords transcendental position. Therefore to eliminate their doubt about the Lords actual position the scripture describe so many personal features so that people can have actual understanding of the Lords personal feature because ultimately the Absolute Truth is the Absolute Person, otherwise there would have been no need to mention so many details in support of His personal feature. Q.9. Why the living entities cannot appreciate the full potency of the Supreme Lord?

Ans. The living entities are parts and parcels of the Absolute Truth and although the individual parts and parcels of the Lords potencies have all the symptoms of the Lord Himself, they have limited spheres of activity and are therefore all limited. The parts and parcels are never equal to the whole; therefore they cannot appreciate the Lords full potency. Under the influence of the material nature, foolish and ignorant living beings that are but parts and parcels of the Lord try to conjecture about the Lords transcendental position. Q.10. When the living entity is considered to be in my or illusion? Ans. Every part and parcel of the Complete Whole is endowed with some particular energy to act according to the Lords will. When the part and parcel living entity forgets his particular activities under the Lords will, he is considered to be in my or illusion. To get out of the clutches of the my the living entity has to very carefully play the part designated by the Lord. Q.11. What is initiative? Who can revive his original consciousness? Ans. The active nature of the living entity is known as initiative. When a person properly utilizes his initiative or active nature with intelligence, understanding that everything is the Lords potency, he can revive his original consciousness which was lot due to association with my, the external energy of the Lord. Q.12. Why all powers must be utilized to execute the will of the Lord? Ans. All power is obtained from the Lord; therefore each particular power must be utilized to execute the will of the Lord and not otherwise. The Lord can be known by one who has adopted such a submissive service attitude. Q.13. What does perfect knowledge means? Ans. Perfect knowledge means knowing the Lord in all His features, knowing His potencies and knowing how these potencies work by His will. This matter is described by the Lord in Bhagavad-Gt, the essence of all Upaniads. Q. 14 Fill in the blanks: A. r Ka is eternally in His transcendental abode, yet He is simultaneously expanded throughout creation by His all-pervasive energy The Lords infinite energies are divided into three main categories: i) ii) iii) ______________ potency: manifests the spiritual world ______________ potency: manifests the jiva souls ______________ potency: manifests the material world

B. The personality of Godhead cannot be understood by the ascending process, but can be known by His devotees by His mercy The Lord can be known by one who had adopted a ___________ attitude.

Mantra 5 - An illustration of His inconceivable potencies / Understanding Deity Worship as an example of the Lords inconceivability tad ejati tan naijati tad dre tad v antike tad antar asya sarvasya tad u sarvasysya bhyata The Supreme Lord walks and does not walk. He is far away, but He is very near as well. He is within everything, and yet He is outside of everything. Connection to mantra 4: Mantra 5 continues this discussion describing that the Lord has inconceivable potencies which render Him unknowable to those whom He does not favour. Text 4 tells us who Lord is and text 5 tells what He does. Mantra 4 and 5 are saying different things. Mantra 4 say there is Lord and His potencies and due to that you get such contradictory things. What kind of contradictory things He walks, He doesnt walk Very Short Summary of Purport Classic Upaniadic contradiction = Inconceivable potencies of the Supreme Lord Ex. Near and far: energy spread everywhere. tad dhavato nyan atyeti. Instantly manifest presence; yet His abode is far away (15.6) Also, an important discussion comes up re. saguna/nirgua worship: for the benefit of those who want to see the Lord but have material vision only. BG 4.11 ref. to indicate near/far according to surrender. Ex. Inside and outside of everything: antaryami & virat. This is also vsya: the Supreme Lord is everything, but inside and outside by dint of His all-expansive energy and purua expansions). Summary rla Prabhupda explains in the first paragraph: The contradictions given here prove the inconceivable potencies of the Lord. He walks, and He does not walk. Ordinarily, if someone can walk, it is illogical to say he cannot walk. But in reference to God, such a contradiction simply serves to indicate His inconceivable power. In one lecture on this verse rla Prabhupda said: Just like crude example I give you, that the sun and, at noontime, it is on your head and somebody walking eastern side or western side, he also see the sun walking with him. Long ago, about forty years ago, when I was a householder, my second son, he was four years old. He was walking with me, and said, Oh, father, why the moon is coming with us? This is very intelligent. Yes. So similarly, if a material object can walk so swift You have seen. You are going on aeroplane or train, youll see the moon or sun is going with you. So how it is not possible that cannot walk? Although Hes situated But you ask your friend, Where is the sun? Where is the moon? Hell say, Oh, it is on my head. The Myvds cannot accommodate these apparent contradictions, therefore where both personal and impersonal description of the Lord are given they choose to reject those that are personal. Nondevotees therefore cannot understand the Lord when He appears personally. But He is so kind that He appears in the Deity form, made of material elements, and accepts

our services and spiritualizes them. For Him there is no difference between material and spiritual conditions (saguna and nirguna) or energies, and He is able to manipulate these energies as He likes. The Lord reciprocates with the devotee in terms of the latters surrender, and in the case of an advanced devotee like Prahlada Mahraja, He is willing to personally appear and intervene for the devotees benefit at any time, in any place, by His inconceivable potencies. In these ways the philosophy of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva is nicely presented in the pages of r opaniad. Overview Supreme Must be inconceivable (Para 1) How Absolute Truth is far yet near (Para 2) The Science of Deity Worship (Para 3-6) Nirguna Yet Saguna (Para 7) How the Lord Pervades Everything Yet is Separate (Para 8-9) Explanation BP: Three contradictory characteristics. This seems are pseudo-intellectual word-jugglery meant to confuse less intelligent people. But this is true.

Mantra Five illuminates the Lords inconceivable, spiritual nature. At any time the Lord can be present both within the material and spiritual worlds. Yet, when the Lord appears in this material world, such as in the Deity or His Holy Name, for the sake of revealing Himself to us and accepting our service, foolish people conclude that He has accepted a material form. They cannot understand the Lords ability to convert material energy to spiritual energy, as He is the source and controller of both of them. Thus, to the surrendered soul He is very near, but to the un-surrendered He is very far away.

1. Transcendental activities of the Supreme Lord (Para 1) 2. Contradictory features of the Personality of Godhead 3. Inconceivable potencies of the Lord (Para 1,4) 4. Appearance of the Lord (Para 5) 5. Atheistic view of the presence and appearance of the Supreme Lord (Para 2-3) 6. The Lord is within and without everything (Para 8-10) 7. The Lord is not a formless entity (Para 7) 8. Lord can be known only when He reveals Himself (Para 6) (Para 1 - Transcendental activities and inconceivable potencies of the Supreme Lord, ) Description of some of the Supreme Lord's transcendental activities, executed by His inconceivable potencies. CCP: rla Jiva Goswami in his Sandarbhas address this point: Absolute Truth is not illogical, but trans-logical. o Illogical: I am god Prabhupda I am queen of England. That which cannot stand scrutiny of logic. o Trans-logical: That in whose presence logic cannot stand. If logic can explain everything, then logic is god. Let logic be minister, not master. Dont make logic our secular God. o Torchlight can help us see the way it is dark. But if we can use torchlight to pint to sky in night and see sun, it will be futile. Why? Because sun is far greater than torchlight. BG uses logic. Vedanta sutra is based on logic. But when study Absolute Truth directly, we understand that Lord is above logic. Logic is no substitution for experience. Suppose I go to a doctor what is my disease and what is the treatment. I have pain in stomach and doctor says we have to amputate your leg, youll use your logi c to understand that this is wrong. But logic itself is not enough. Logic will not make us understand which medicine will work. We can use logic to evaluate which doctor to go, what doctor is saying is correct or not and whether we are benefitting from treatment. Just by understanding a treatment logically we will not be cured, well have to undergo the treatment. Similarly, we have to actually understand a higher understanding, by which well be to see Supreme Reality. So accepting Absolute Truth as trans-logical, we have to raise our vision. The contradictions given here prove the inconceivable potencies of the Lord. With our limited fund of knowledge we cannot accommodate such contradictions, and therefore we conceive of the Lord in terms of our limited powers of understanding. o The impersonalist philosophers of the Myvda School accept only the Lord's impersonal activities and reject His personal feature. But the members of the Bhgavata school, adopting the perfect conception of the Lord, accept His inconceivable potencies and thus understand that He is both personal and impersonal. The bhgavatas know that without inconceivable potencies there can be no meaning to the words "Supreme Lord."

(Para 2 - Atheistic view of the presence and appearance of the Supreme Lord) (Near but far NBF) (Argument 1) We should not take it for granted that because we cannot see God with our eyes the Lord has no personal existence. r opaniad refutes this argument by declaring that the Lord is far away but very near also. o CCP: It is not contradiction, but paradox (opposite statements both correct at a deeper level). E.g. least corrected papers are most correct. Since a paper has to be least corrected by a teacher, it is most correct. o CCP: Parmatma is closest to us. At the same time Ka is in spiritual world performing pastimes. (Far but near FBN) Lord is very far in spiritual world, but despite the Lord's being so far away, He can at once, within less than a second, descend before us with a speed swifter than that of the mind or wind. (Mantra 4 he runs most swiftly.) o BP: Talking in terms how of Lord is localized and spread over. SP spoke over these verses in LA in 1970. On this verse he gave interesting example of his son, Just see the moon is walking with us. This is very intelligent. If moon can walk and not walk simultaneously, why cant Ka? Near means we can relate with Him. Far means more fantastic side of His nature, when He does something extraordinary. In terms of His personal dealings He was extremely cultured. He came to Hastinapur bowed to elder, embraced equals and gave blessings to juniors. Both Ka and Mahraja Yudhisthira were on their chariot. Yudhisthira saw Him as God and wanted to offer obeisances, while Ka saw him as elder and hence wanted to offer obeisances. Ka bowed to Mahraja Yudhisthira swiftly before Yudhisthira could offer obeisances. He leaped off His chariot right to the place where Yudhisthira would place his feet on coming down of chariot so that he cannot come down of the chariot. So He is very near. He married like most people do. But He married 16108 wives and lived with each of them simultaneously. Vedaisu durlabham Even demigods cant know Him, what to speak of demons. (Para 3 - Atheistic view of the presence and appearance of the Supreme Lord ) (He comes running from far to be near with us but we neglect NFB) Yet when the Personality of Godhead comes before us, we neglect Him. BG 9.11 derides such people. Not knowing His inconceivable power, such foolish men place the Lord on an equal level with ordinary men. (Para 4 - Inconceivable potencies of the Lord) Because He is full of inconceivable potencies, God can accept our service through any sort of medium, and He can convert His different potencies according to His own will. Argument 2: either that the Lord cannot incarnate Himself at all, or that if He does He descends in a form of material energy. These arguments are nullified if we accept the existence of the Lord's inconceivable potencies. Then we will understand that even if the Lord appears before us in the form of material energy, it is quite possible for Him to convert this energy into spiritual energy. Since the source of the energies is one and the same, the energies can be utilized according to the will of their source. For example, the Lord can appear in the form of the arc-vigraha, a Deity. o CCP: To say that God cant appear as matter is to limit Him. Lord is so unlimited that He appears in a seemingly limited form, but can remain

unlimited. How? Pilai Lok Acarya (great r Vaisnava Acarya a prominent successor of Rmnujcrya) - E.g. elephant sits down so that a child can touch its head. So it is the great mercy of Lord to manifest as deity. Elephant still has its height and power, but it has chosen to sit down. So as deity Ka is manifesting His unlimitedness in terms of His mercy and accessibility. Ka is not primarily concerned with His majesty. Argument: deity cant even move a fly from its face, how can it be God. Answer: Deity has not manifested to show it omnipotence, it has appeared to show its mercy and accessibility. We have to keep this purpose in mind. Deity appears to allow His devotees to serve Him. Devotee think I will keep everything so clean, so that no fly will come near. When Lord manifests in terms of material manifestation, He follows rules of that material manifestation. Some people desecrate the deity. But same people consider their holy book to be sacred. Someone can burn it. Sacredness of a scripture is not demonstrated by its fire proof ness, it is understood by the knowledge it gives. Lord manifests omnipotence as death. o rla Bhaktivinoda Thkura describes three levels of vision of the Deity: Jada-may: Just a statue. Mano-may: A symbolic representation of Absolute Truth. Lord is formless so we have to ascribe some form to the Lord to experience some emotions. E.g. nation is everywhere, how to feel patriotic. There are symbols flag, national anthem, etc. Worship any form, it doesnt matter, because you have to go beyond the form. Any devata or guru or concentrate of yourself, because ultimately you have to just evoke some sentiments and ultimately you have to go beyond it. Another mano-my is yes, AT has a form, but deity is not absolute truth, but just a representation of it. There is no intrinsic connection between them. E.g. nationhood and national flag. Can national flag be changed? Yes, because there is not intrinsic connection. This is ascending symbolism. na tasya pratima asti means that we cannot ascribe any form to absolute truth according to our imagination. As our imagination changes form changes, no. So what is correct? Man has photo of his wife in wallet. But one day wife sees photo of some other woman in the wallet. She is shocked. Man, I am thinking of you only, but I decided to change the picture. Wife, Ok, Ill change my husband. So the photo and person are connected which can be change. This is descending symbolism. There is an original reality, and the symbol is based on original reality. Ok, then deity is like a photo of God. God look like this and we get a replica. This is better than above 2 understanding, but still incomplete. A photo of a person is different from him, but deity is non-different from Lord. Prana-pratistha is when Lord personally appears and resides in the deity. From this time deity is non-different from Lord.

Cina-maya: Non-different manifestation of the Absolute Truth. Atah r Krishna namadi, Prabhupda: When you become pure, this very Ka (deity) will talk to you. (Para 5 - Appearance of the Lord) In our present state of imperfect material existence, we cannot see the Supreme Lord due to imperfect vision. Yet those devotees who want to see Him by means of material vision are favoured by the Lord, who appears in a so-called material form to accept His devotees' service. Argument 3: One should not think that such devotees, who are in the lowest stage of devotional service, are worshiping an idol. They are factually worshiping the Lord, who has agreed to appear before them in an approachable way. Nor is the arc form fashioned according to the whims of the worshiper. This form is eternally existent with all paraphernalia. This can be actually felt by a sincere devotee, but not by an atheist. BP: Deity on altar can do anything, normally He doesnt. It is not second best Oh! Ka in Goloka is best; the deity is nice, but not quite. SP saw deities in Manor Oh Rdh Ka are dancing very nicely today premanjana churit bhakti vilocanena (Para 6- Lord can be known only when He reveals Himself) The Lord reserves the right not to reveal Himself to anyone and everyone but to show Himself only to those souls who surrender unto Him. Thus for the surrendered soul He is always within reach, whereas for the unsurrendered soul He is far, far away and cannot be approached. (Para 7 - The Lord is not a formless entity) Two words - sagua ("with qualities") and nirgua ("without qualities")are very important. The word sagua does not imply that when the Lord appears with perceivable qualities He must take on a material form and be subject to the laws of material nature. For Him there is no difference between the material and spiritual energies, because He is the source of all energies. As the controller of all energies, He cannot at any time be under their influence, as we are. The material energy works according to His direction; therefore He can use that energy for His purposes without ever being influenced by any of the qualities of that energy. (In this sense He is nirgua, "without qualities.") CCP: guna means both qualities and modes. So nirguna means He is not affected by material modes. AT is pure consciousness. But purity is also a quality. To say no quality means zero. nirguna is meaningless to say no qualities. Gajendra worshipped a nirguna Lord, but a saguna Lord appeared, proving both are one. Nor does the Lord become a formless entity at any time, for ultimately He is the eternal form, the primeval Lord. His impersonal aspect, or Brahman effulgence, is but the glow of His personal rays, just as the sun's rays are the glow of the sun-god. (Para 8 - The Lord is within and without everything) Through His inconceivable powers He can appear at any place in order to favour His sincere devotee. Lord Nsiha appeared from within the pillar not by the order of the atheist king but by the wish of His devotee Prahlda.

BP: Prahlada never thought his father was trying to kill him. He simply thought that his father was playing with him. When Hiranyakasipu asked if God in pillar, Prahlada thought why my father keeps asking silly questions, I can see God everywhere, why cant he. Actually, He descends only to favour His devotees and not for any other purpose. (Para 9- The Lord is within and without everything) He is outside in His vir form, and He is within everything as antarym. o CCP: Vasudevam sarvam iti. But you dont surrender to everything, you surrender to Vasudeva. Prahlada didnt surrender and worship to pillar, but to Lord who was there. Yosada saw universe in Kas mouth. So Ka was both inside and outside of universe. (Para 10- The Lord is within and without everything) that there is nothing but God within and without. Everything is a manifestation of His different energies, like the heat and light emanating from a fire, and in this way there is a oneness among His diverse energies. Although there is oneness, however, the Lord in His personal form still enjoys unlimitedly all the pleasures enjoyed minutely by the tiny part-and-parcel living entities. o HPS: Isa enjoys all that we try to enjoy? You mean that the wine, woman and song that I am trying to enjoy are actually really enjoyable? Ka can actually enjoy these things, but in their finest form. Exercise Read: Read mantra five and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Everything that exists is situated within the Supreme Lord, yet He is personally present within even the smallest atom. He is situated within our hearts, yet He is also situated in His spiritual abode. Focus on the Lords simultaneous presence and absence within this world as part of His inconceivable spiritual potency. We can pray to realize the Lords presence everywhere and also to feel the longing of separation from Him. Consider: rla Prabhupda said when a mother sees the shoe of her child she automatically thinks of her child. In the same way we can always remember the Lord by seeing His creation all around us. We can also feel His presence by remembering He is witnessing all of our thoughts and activities from within our hearts. At the same time, we can feel the Lords absence from this world. Where is God to be found? Though we may pray to the Lord within our heart, consider how far away we are from knowing and seeing Him. Describe: Describe how we can feel and remember the Lords presence everywhere. Describe how we cannot see Him anywhere. How is He both near and far from ourselves? How is the unlimited spiritual nature different from the limited material nature? Main Points Discussed Mantra Five illuminates the Lords inconceivable, spiritual nature. At any time the Lord can be present both within the material and spiritual worlds. Yet, when the Lord appears in this material world, such as in the Deity or His Holy Name, for the sake of revealing Himself to us and accepting our service, foolish people conclude that He has accepted a material form. They cannot understand the Lords ability to convert material energy to spiritual energy, as He is the source and controller of both of them. Thus, to the surrendered soul He is very near, but to the un-surrendered He is very far away. 1. Transcendental activities of the Supreme Lord 2. Contradictory features of the Personality of Godhead

3. Inconceivable potencies of the Lord 4. Appearance of the Lord 5. Atheistic view of the presence and appearance of the Supreme Lord 6. The Lord is within and without everything 7. The Lord is not a formless entity 8. Lord can be known only when He reveals Himself Question and Answers Q.1. What are the contradictory qualities of the Lord is mentioned in this mantra? Ans. Some of the contradictory qualities of the Lord which is mentioned in this mantra are (i) The Lords walks and does not walk (ii) The Lord is very near as well as very far away (iii) The Lord is within everything and yet He is outside of everything Q.2. What do contradictory qualities of the Lord prove? Ans. The contradiction in the qualities and activities of the Lord prove His inconceivable potencies. For example, the contradiction that: He walks, and He does not walk, will mean ordinarily that, if someone can walk, it is illogical to say that he cannot walk. But in reference to God, such a contradiction simply serves to indicate His inconceivable power. With our limited fund of knowledge we cannot accommodate such contradictions, and therefore we conceive of the Lord in terms of our limited powers of understanding. For example, the impersonalist philosophers of the Myvda School accept only the Lords impersonal activities and reject his personal features. But the members of the Bhgavata School, adopting the perfect conception of the Lord, accept His inconceivable potencies and thus understand that He is both personal and impersonal. Q.3. Why one cannot understand the transcendental Lord? Ans. The Lord possess inconceivable potencies which He can do apparently contradictory things. Contradictory things appear to be illogical to people in mundane world. The statement that Lord can walk and He cannot walk is a contradiction. This we cannot accommodate with our limited fund of knowledge. This is the reason some people accept one feature of the Lord and reject another feature of the Lord. Q.4. How r opaniad refutes the argument that Lord has no personal existence? Ans. By declaring that the Lord is far away but very near also, r opaniad refutes the argument that Lord has no personal existence. Impersonalists take it granted that since they cannot see the Lord with their naked eye, the Lord has no personal existence. Q.5. How the Lord can become present within no time when He is situated in His abode of Goloka which is far, far beyond our conception?

Ans. One of the features of the Lord is that He is very far away as well as He is very near. Because He is very near, He can present within no time even when He is situated in His abode of Goloka which is far, far beyond our conception. Also the Lard is so swift that He can be faster than the speed of mind or wind and can descend before us within no time. Example is given of the appearance of Lord Nrisimhadeva who appeared from a pillar within no time to prove the word of His devotee Prahlada although there was no other reason for Him to appear from a pillar. Q.6. What type of people neglect the presence of the God? Ans. People with poor fund of knowledge neglect the presence of the God. Foolish and negligence people who cannot conceive the potencies of the Lord neglect Him considering him to be mortal being. Q.7. What type of people equate the Supreme Lord with ordinary people? Ans. Foolish people with poor fund of knowledge, not knowing the transcendental nature of the Lord think that the Lord descends in a body made of matter, just like an ordinary living being. Not knowing His inconceivable power, such foolish men place the Lord on an equal level with ordinary men. Q.8 What is the conception of nonbelievers about the incarnation of the Supreme Lord? Ans. The conception of the nonbelievers about the incarnation of the Supreme Lord is that the Lord cannot incarnate Himself at all; or that if He does He descends in a form of material energy. These arguments are nullified if we accept the existence of the Lords inconceivable potencies. Q.9. How the Lord makes is appearance in this material world? Ans. The Lord makes His appearance in this material world by His internal potency. When He appears in this world, He converts this material energy into His spiritual energy or internal energy. Since the source of the energies is one and the same, the energies can be utilized according to the will of their source. For example the Lord can appear in the form of the arcavigraha, a Deity supposedly made of earth, stone or wood. Deity forms, although engraved from wood, stone or other matter, are not idols, as the iconoclasts contend. Q.10. Why we cannot see the Supreme Lord? How one can see Him? Ans. In our present state of imperfect material existence, we cannot see the Supreme Lord due to imperfect vision. Yet, those devotees who want to see Him by means of material vision are favoured by the Lord, who appears in a so-called material form to accept His devotees service. One should not think that such devotees, who are in the lowest stage of devotional service, are worshiping an idol. They are factually worshiping the Lord, who has agreed to appear before them in an approachable way. Nor is the arca form fashioned according to the whims of the worshiper. This form is eternally existent with all paraphernalia. This can be actually felt by a sincere devotee, not but by an atheist. Q.11. Whom the Lord reveals Himself? Ans. The Lord says in Bhagavad Gt (4.11) that how He treats His devotees depends on the devotees degree of surrender. The Lord reserves the right not to reveal Himself to anyone

and everyone but to show Himself only to those souls who surrender unto Him. Thus for the surrendered soul He is always within reach, whereas for the not-surrendered soul He is far, far away and cannot be approached. Q.12. Discuss the concept of saguna and nirguna? Ans. About the revelation of the Lord to devotees and non-devotees, two words are coined in the Vedic Scriptures about Lord which are saguna (with qualities) and nirguna (without qualities). The word saguna does not imply that when the Lord appears with perceivable qualities He must take on a material form and be subject to the laws of material nature. For Him there is no difference between the material and spiritual energies, because He is the source of all energies. As the controller of all energies, He cannot at any time be under their influence, as we are. The material energy works according to his direction; therefore He can use that energy for his purposes without ever being influenced by any of the qualities of that energy (In this sense He is nirguna, or without qualities). Nor does the Lord becomes a formless entity at any time, for ultimately He is the eternal form, the primeval Lord. His impersonal aspect, or Brahman effulgence, is but the glow of His personal rays, just as the suns rays are the f Q.13. Why the Lord cannot come under the influence of His energies? Ans. The Lord is the source of all energies. He can utilize any one of His different energies in any way He like. He can convert one form of His energy into any other form as per His whims. Being the source and controller of all energies, He can never come under the influence of His energies (mayadhyakshena prakriti suyate sa characharam hetunanen kaunteya jagatdviparivartate). One who controls, how can He be controlled by something which He Himself is controlling. Q.14. Explain how the Lord is not a formless entity? Ans. The Lord is the source of all forms. How can He be formless? He is the eternal form, the primeval Lord. His impersonal aspect, or Brahman effulgence, is but the glow of His personal rays, just as the suns rays are the glow of the sun-god. By definition God is perfect and complete. If someone says: God is only impersonal, He cannot be personal, that means he is limiting God. If God were formless, or if He were any less than His creation in any way, He could not be complete. The complete whole must contain everything both within and beyond our experience, otherwise He cannot be complete. God to be perfect and complete must be both personal and impersonal. Have you seen people arguing: You see? God is just impersonal? You have to very carefully notice their word: just. By saying so, they have shown us that they don't respect God more than a stone or some dead matter. They do this, so that they don't have to bother about God, just brush Him aside and without any rules, regulations or restrictions they can go on with their sense gratification. But according to rmad Bhgavatam, God exists in three aspects: Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan: Vadanti tat tatva vidas tatvam yaj jnam advayam Brahmeti, paramatmeti, bhagavan iti sabdyate

(S.B.1.2.11) Brahman is the impersonal brahmajyoti which can be compared to the sunshine or energy of the sun. This Brahmajyoti is the effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Jnanis realise this Brahman aspect of God. Paramatma is the all-pervading localized aspect of God present in every atom as well as in the hearts of all living beings. This can be compared to the reflection of sun in a mirror. Yogis through the process of meditation sees in his heart the localized representation of the Lord, called Paramatma. This Paramatma is the four handed form of Viu who is situated within every atom & in the hearts of every living entity. Bhagavan is the ultimate realization of the Absolute Truth and is the last word in transcendence. This is the all-glorious, all-beautiful two handed form of Lord r Krishna in a three-fold bend posture. Realizing this Bhagavan feature also includes the realization of Brahman and Paramatma features, because once you see the sun face to face then you will know that the sun is the source of the sunshine and reflection in the mirror. Ancient India's Vedic literature which predates the Bible as well as the Koran and was written in a highly advanced spiritual culture, specifically reveals God's form, His features, His pastimes, and His personality. Of course God's attributes are infinite, and words can only hint at His glory. Certainly, God's form is not like ours - made of flesh, bone and stool. It is completely transcendental, beyond the limits of sense perception. But it is a form nonetheless. Om Shri Krishnaya namah Om sac cid ananda rupaya [Gopla Tapani Upanishad 1.1-1.2] I invoke Lord Krishna, who possesses a body and form that is eternal, full of knowledge and bliss. The first verse of Brahm Samhita says: vara parama Krishna sac cid ananda vigraha anadir adir govindah sarva karana karanam Krishna (God) is the supreme controller. He has a form of eternity, knowledge, and bliss. He is the prime cause of all causes. The word vigraha represents the form. From the above we can see that the Supreme Lord is not a formless entity. He has a very beautiful, very attractive and charming form which is the source of all emanations. Q.15. How the Lord is within everything. Explain with an example? Ans. The Lord is present within everything in the form of Paramatma who is all-pervading localized aspect of God present in every atom as well as in the hearts of all living beings. He is the four handed form of Viu who is situated within every atom & in the hearts of every living entity. Example of the pastimes of appearance of Lord Nrsmiha is given to make this point clear that the Lord is present within everything. When the atheist father of Prahlada (the powerful demon Hiranyakasipu) asked his son about the presence of the Lord, Prahlada replied that the Lord is present within every atom and within everything, he further asked whether the Lord is present within this pillar, the reply was yes the Lord is present within the

pillar also. When the demon smashed the pillar, Lord Nrsmiha appeared from the pillar. This shows that the Lord is within everything. Q.16. What is the secret of Lords appearance? What is the purpose of his appearance? Ans. The Lord appears for the pleasure of His devotees and not on demands of atheistic people. He appears to give pleasure to His devotees and protect them (satyam vidhatum nija bhritya bhasitam .. khambhe sabhayam na nrm na manusam). When He appears He re establishes the principal of religion and kills the demonic people. Q.17. How the Lord is within and outside of everything. Explain? Ans. The primeval Lord Govinda enters everything by His plenary portion (Paramatma form) He enters the universe as well as all the atoms of the universe. He is outside in His virat form and he is within everything as antaryami. As antaryami He witnesses everything that is going on, and He awards us the results of our actions as karma-phala. We ourselves may forget what we have done in previous lives, but because the Lord witnesses our actions, the results of our actions, the result of our actions are always there, and we have to undergo the reactions nonetheless. The fact is that there is nothing but God within and without. Everything is a manifestation of His different energies, like heat and light emanating from a fire. Q.18. Explain the inconceivable potencies of the Supreme Lord and establish that His Personal feature is above the oneness of His diverse energies? Ans. The Lord has inconceivable potencies. Lords potencies are inconceivable because He can do anything which even appears apparently contradictory like He can walk and He cannot walk He can simultaneously be situated at His own abode Goloka and also anywhere else. All the contradiction which is visible in the activities of the Lord is just to show inconceivable nature of His pastimes and potencies. He can do anything and everything within and beyond our experience. With limited fund of knowledge, we can never conceive and understand the greatness of the Lord. We have to simply accept from the authorized sources and surrender and conduct our lives towards perfection of our being. The innumerable inconceivable potencies of the Lord are broadly classified into three categories vis. (i) Internal potency (ii) Marginal potency and (iii) External potency. The manifestation of the spiritual sky is made possible by His internal potency. The living entities constitute his marginal potency and the material creation is executed by His external potency. He is the Supreme Controller of all His potencies and all His energies work under his supervision. Although, the Lord and His energies are non-different, one should not mistake these energies for the Supreme Truth. Nor should one wrongly consider that the Supreme Lord is distributed everywhere impersonally or that He loses His personal existence. The Supreme Lord being Complete in all respect He is the source of all forms. He is supreme person who has been ascertained by all revealed scriptures and great spiritual personalities. By definition when God is perfect and complete than how it is possible that God cannot have form. In fact all varieties of form emanates from Him. If someone says: God is only impersonal, He cannot be personal, that means he is limiting God. If God were formless, or if He were any less than His creation in any way, He could not be complete. The fact is that there is nothing but God within and without. Everything is a manifestation of His different energies, like the heat and light emanating from a fire, and in this way there is a

oneness among His diverse energies. Although there is oneness, however, the Lord in His personal form still enjoys unlimitedly all the pleasures enjoyed minutely by the tiny part and parcel living entities. Q.19 Fill in the blanks A. Attempts at understanding the Supreme must first take into account His _____________, potencies. The Lord has inconceivable potencies, and is thus both ________________ ____ ____________ at the same time: The Bhgavatas know that without inconceivable potencies there can be no meaning to the words Supreme Lord. Such inconceivable potencies are proven by descriptions in sastra which appear contradictory to the mundane perspective. Two Myvd arguments can be defeated by this verse: that God is a mortal being, and that He comes before us with a body produced of ___________. These arguments are nullified if we accept the existence of the Lords inconceivable potencies. Then we will understand that even if the Lord appears before us in the form of __________ energy, it is quite possible for Him to _________ ____ _________ ____ ___________ _______ Since the source of the energies is one and the same, the energies can be utilised according to the will of their source. B. The Lords potencies make Him simultaneously near and far The Lord is always near to the ___________ __________ as He reveals His presence to them. He is far from the ____-____________ though, as He covers Himself from their vision. Kas manifestation as the _____-__________ is an example of how He uses His inconceivable potencies to manifest Himself to the vision of the devotees. C. The Lord is simultaneously inside and outside of the creation The Lord is within all things as the ____________ expansion. He is within the hearts of all living beings and in every atoms. The Lord is outside of all things as the ________ ________, ____ ___________, which contains all space and time in the cosmos. Q. 20 Since the Lord is present everywhere, why do devotees specifically worship the Deity rather than any other material object? Q. 21 What does it mean that Isa has no hands, but His hands extend everywhere? Why is this description presented? Questions for Mantras 4-5 1. Why is it impossible for the individual, conditioned living entities to understand the Supreme Lord by their own mental speculation? 2. How does understanding that everything is part of the Lords potencies help us to revive our original consciousness? 3. In what way are the Lords impersonal energies to be considered non-different from His personal feature? Answers for Mantras 4-5 Ans. 1: Because they are limited, particularly by the four defects of conditioned souls, whereas He is unlimited. Ans.2: Through this understanding we will begin to engage everything, including ourselves, in His service, which is our original, eternal state.

Ans. 3: He is personally present in His impersonal energies. Ans. 4: The devotee wants to worship the personal feature of the Lord for full loving reciprocation, rather than His energies. Mantra 6-8: The Mah-Bhgavat / Knowledge and Practice of Spiritual Vision / First see with equanimity and it will help to understand The Inconceivable vara

Mantra 6-7: First develop spiritual vision by seeing worldly things, events and people with equanimity. Mantra 8: This vision developed further and directed to vara helps us understand Him

Connection: Now that we are engaged in practices of service and have received knowledge of the Supreme Lord the full vision of our relationship with Him is revealed. These next three mantras, 6-8, reveal both the knowledge and practice of this relationship as they are seen from the eyes of a pure devotee, or one who is seeing this vision of the r opaniad. Key Phrase: In Quality We and the Lord are the Same But If We Dont Desire Him We Are to Blame. Mantra 6 - Everything and Everyone are part of the Lord, and He is within everything. / The Mah bhgavata yas tu sarvi bhtny tmany evnupayati sarva-bhteu ctmna tato na vijugupsate He who sees systematically everything in relation to the Supreme Lord, who sees all living entities as His parts and parcels, and who sees the Supreme Lord within everything never hates anything or any being. One Word Summary: anupasyati Connection: Mantra 6 describes the vision of one who can see Ka everywhere, the mahbhgavata. In Mantras Six and Seven we find descriptions of the advanced devotees who understand the philosophy explained so far in r opaniad. BP: Mahraja Parkit fits in description given in mantra 6 and 7. Very Short Summary of the Purport A. 3 Factors mentioned in the verse lead to na vijugupsate, no hatred. a. Seeing everything in ref. to the Supreme Lord b. Sees all entities as His parts and parcels c. Sees the Supreme Lord within everything B. Phony imitations described: such persons do not know soul and Supersoul science, thus act on the platform of the body. C. Seeing comes from hearing, from the realized Mah-Bhgavata. Summary of purport Mantra Six explains that the maha-bhgavata, or uttama-adhikari is equipoised due to being fully Ka conscious, and seeing everything in terms of its relationship with the Lord. The uttama-adhikari is above the kanistha-adhikari, the lowest grade of devotee, who is only able to appreciate the Lord in His Deity form, and who is prone to sectarianism and various types of material consciousness. The uttama-adhikari is also higher than the madhyamaadhikari, or second class devotee. Because of his exalted level of Ka consciousness the uttama-adhikari sees everything in relation to Lord Ka, and so does not concern himself with distinctions on the material platform. He is aware that all living beings are spirit souls, and that their bodily designation are irrelevant, ultimately. Of course, he is well aware of the relative positions of different beings in relation to Ka, and how to benefit them all in those terms, and there is no question of an unqualified person imitating his advanced level of consciousness though some material attempt to exhibit a sense of oneness.

This great transcendental science can only be learned through the chain of disciplic succession, in keeping with the Vedic scriptures (anupasyati). There is no other way of learning it, and certainly any attempt to imitate advanced Ka consciousness is a most foolish waste of time. Overview Kaniha adhikari para 1 Madhyama adhikari para 2 Uttama adhikari para 3 Oneness False vs Real (Para 4-7) (Para 4 Do no imitate or artificially see with this Utrama-adhikaris vision) (Para 5 See according to Sastra) (Para 6 Another level on oneness - Sastra has one message) (Para 7 A liberated persons vision is beneficial) CCP: So rla Prabhupda outlines the various stages in coming to the stage of oneness and what misconceptions one might have while moving towards that stage of oneness. Vijugupsate means he is equipoised. Explanation

(Para 1) This is a description of the mah-bhgavata, the great personality who sees everything in relation to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Lord's presence is realized in three stages. o Kaniha-adhikr (lowest stage of realization). Goes to a place of worship and worships there according to scriptural injunctions. Consider the Lord to be present at the place of worship and nowhere else. Cannot ascertain who is in what position in devotional service, nor can they tell who has realized the Supreme Lord. Follow the routine formulas Sometimes quarrel among themselves, considering one type of devotion better than another. Materialistic devotees who are simply trying to transcend the material boundary to reach the spiritual plane. Person Matter Krishna Attached Detached Materialist Detached Detached Myvd Attached Attached Sahajiya Detached Attached Devotee In beginning were all sahajiya devotee. But since rla Prabhupda repeatedly criticizes attachment to matter, he brings us up to madhyama level. (Para 2) o Madhyama-adhikr (second stage of realization). Observe the distinctions between four categories of being: The Supreme Lord adores, considering Him the object of love The devotees of the Lord - makes friends The innocent, who have no knowledge of the Lord - tries to awaken the dormant love of God in their hearts The atheists, who have no faith in the Lord and hate those in devotional service avoids as they deride the very name of the Lord. o CCP: If they hear about Ka, they blaspheme more. Hence to save them and himself from bad effect of blasphemy, a madhyama avoids them. o CCP: Madhyama understands that his relationship with Ka is not dependant on Ka alone, but on everything, because everything is related to Ka. o CCP: How does this relate to opaniad? Were building up to seeing everything in relation to Ka. First stage-at least see the spiritual reality in temple and deity. Second stage: see that relationship with everyone.

Highest stage: one doesnt see anyone as material; he sees everything as devotee of Ka. (Para 3) o uttama-adhikr (top most stage of realization) Sees everything in relation to the Supreme Lord. Does not discriminate between an atheist and a theist but sees everyone as part and parcel of God. Knows that there is no essential difference between a vastly learned brhmaa and a dog in the street, Sees both of them are part and parcel of the Lord. Sees that the brhmaa particle of the Supreme Lord has not misused his little independence given him by the Lord and that the dog particle has misused his independence and is therefore being punished by the laws of nature by being encaged in the form of a dog. Not considering the respective actions of the brhmaa and the dog, the uttama-adhikr tries to do good to both. Not misled by material bodies but is attracted by the spiritual spark within them. BP: Uttama and madhyama both do the right thing, but madhyama does so because he has been taught so, while uttama does so because is spontaneous, it is his nature. SB Canto 11 chapter 2 describe these 3 levels elaborately. 11.2.45 is the fundamentally similar to mantra 6. Jiva Goswami in purport to canto 11 mentions uttama adhikari who preaches. Generally rla Prabhupda speaks that uttama adhikari doesnt preach, because he feels that since everyone is advanced there is no need to preach to them. And even if they need to be preached, I cant preach because I am too fallen. Jiva Goswami says that when uttama adhikari preaches it doesnt mean he has lost his high consciousness and comes to consciousness of madhyama adhikari. Some to Lord Caitanya: You are so elevated. Lord Caitanya: Elevated, who me? Love of God, I dont have it? Else I would not have wanted to stay in this world. Uttama adhikari sees suffering of other and gets inspired to preach so people can be relieved of their suffering. Same spirit paritranaya sadhunam, vinasaya duskrtam, dharam sansthapanarthaye Sometimes in this sense there might be difficult to distinguish between a madhyama adhikari and a preaching uttama adhikari. How to tell difference? Bhaktivinoda Thkura states that when uttama adhikari preaches, it has tremendous effect because it is directly coming from spiritual world. When a good madhyama preaches he can also change hearts. When a struggling madhyama preaches people might fall asleep. Inconceivably many people also felt asleep when rla Prabhupda preached. rla Prabhupda would sometimes compare himself with his contemporaries (not in terms of envy or one man upmanship) but to make us appreciate that he was

different from them. Such potency has not been exhibited by anyone else till now just devotee poaching or cheap initiation, etc. (Para 4 Do no imitate or artificially see with this Utrama-adhikaris vision) False philanthropists: Those who imitate an uttama-adhikr by flaunting a sense of oneness or fellowship but who behave on the bodily platform. o BP: Prabhupda joked such people embrace a brahmana and then a tiger. Not like that. Uttama knows how to relate with each category of people. o BP: One night Prabhupda called Srutakirti Prabhu. Prabhupda rang bell and he ran what can I do Prabhupda? Nothing, I was just checking how fast are you? In evening he again rang bell that bug seems hungry, get a maha flower to give to him. o BP: Hari Sauri Prabhu Prabhupda preaching to a mouse you are not this body. How you got this body? BSST: People who imitate like this, dont even try to correct them, just ignore them, which is mercy. After sometime they may become frustrated why no one is recognizing me? and they may come to right point. Gopis praising Kurari birds in SB 10.35. They saw Kurari also as Ka conscious. o CCP: Not everyone equal on material level. Each one has different qualities and capacities. Varrama dharma is based on this. The conception of universal brotherhood must be learned from an uttama-adhikr and not from who does not properly understand the individual soul or the Supreme Lord's Supersoul expansion, who dwells everywhere. HPS: Idea continued in para 7 (Para 5 See according to Sastra) HPS: Para 5 & 6 are like summary of the introduction. Observe - systematically see Anupayati: Means that one must follow the previous cryas, the perfected teachers. o CCP: In even material world, just seeing doesnt help, seeing with knowledge helps. E.g. how to read graph, Newton saw fruit falling. Seeing is believing is a permanent progress stopper. E.g. mirage. More so in spiritual life. Hear from Vedas, the highest source spoken by Lord Himself and coming down in disciplic succession. o Earlier, people could understand only by hearing, so there was no need of recording the message. (Para 6 how to know which instructions bona fide disciplic succession and in harmony with SB and BG. Another level on oneness - Sastra has one message) Many commentaries now, but most not in line of disciplic succession. The final, most perfect and sublime work by rla Vysadeva is rmadBhgavatam, which is the natural commentary on the Vednta-stra. There is also the Bhagavad-gt, which was spoken by the Lord Himself and recorded by Vysadeva. These are the most important revealed scriptures, and any commentary that contradicts the principles of the Bhagavad-gt or rmad-Bhgavatam is unauthorized.

There is complete agreement among the Upaniads, Vednta-stra, Vedas, Bhagavadgt and rmad-Bhgavatam, and no one should try to reach any conclusion about the Vedas without receiving instructions from members of Vysadeva's disciplic succession. CCP: rpad Mdhvcrya: In his Viu Tattva Nirnaya he says: Veda eka vakyata. And what is that one vakya Viu is supreme. Scripture is omni-form. Multi-level message seems contradictory to uninformed, but is seen as complementary by the well-informed. o CCP: E.g. Meat eating allowed in vedas is a concession, but not an instruction as some people cannot live without it. Dr to diabetes patient: take sugar only once a week as he cannot give up sugar. To other who can give up, dont eat sugar. (Para 7 A liberated persons vision is beneficial) HPS: Continues para 4. According to the BG (18.54), only one who is already on the liberated platform (brahma-bhta [SB4.30.20] ) can become an uttama-adhikr devotee and see every living being as his own brother. This vision cannot be had by politicians, who are always after some material gain. One who imitates the symptoms of an uttama-adhikr may serve another's outward body for the purpose of fame or material reward, but he does not serve the spirit soul. Such an imitator can have no information of the spiritual world. The uttama-adhikr sees the spirit soul within the material body and serves him as spirit. Thus the material aspect is automatically served.
HPS: We have cross referenced opaniad after we finished Part One of the NOI, "Control Your Senses", and we see so many parallels. They both tell us how to live peacefully in this world by accepting the authority of the Supreme Controller. Then ISO Six has led us to understanding the 1st class devotee. Now let's return to NOI Texts 4-6, Part Two, Associate with Devotees. This is just appropriate because we just finished talking about the three categories of devotees.

Exercise Read: Read mantra six and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: All living beings are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Essentially we are all spirit souls with the same spiritual nature as Him. We are simply covered by these different material bodies. Focus on the spiritual energy, which is giving life to all living things, as opposed to the inert material energy. We can pray to relate to all living beings as His spiritual parts and parcels. Consider: It is only the presence of the spirit soul which gives life to these material bodies. Observe how all living beings - the plants, the insects, the animals, and the people - are only manifesting the symptoms of life because of the presence of the spirit soul. Once the soul leaves, the body is revealed as inert matter. Remember that, as spirit souls, we are all equal as parts and parcels of the Supreme Spirit, God, or Krishna. Describe: Describe how we can recognize the presence of the soul in all living beings. What is our relationship to each other in relation to the Supreme Lord? Main Points Discussed

The devotee sees everything and everyone in relation to the Supreme Lord. As we engage in practicing devotional service and receiving knowledge of the Supreme Lord, under the guidance of bona-fide spiritual master, we begin to recognize other living entities also as spirit souls of the same spiritual nature as ourselves and the Lord. Gradually our envy and desire to enjoy others decreases as we realize that we are all eternal, infinitesimal spiritual sparks simply meant to give pleasure to the Lord. A devotee who has reached this highest stage of realization always tries to engage everyone in the Lords service. 3 Factors mentioned in this Mantra lead to na vijugupsate, no hatred: 1. Seeing everything in ref. to Supreme Lord 2. See all living entities as His parts and parcels 3. Sees the Supreme Within everything Phony imitations described: do not know science of soul and Supersoul; on bodily platform Seeing comes from hearing, from the realized maha-bhgavata. 1. Description of devotees of the Lord para 1,2,3,7 2. Qualities of an uttama adhikari (maha-bhgavata) para 3 3. 1st class devotee is never misled by material qualities but attracted by spiritual qualities para 3 4. Devotional service at different stages para 1, 2, 3 5. Process of attaining Vedic wisdom para 5 6. Actual seeing (anupasyati) para 5 7. Philanthropic and political plan of universal brotherhood is hoax para 7 8. Real universal brotherhood understanding soul and Supersoul para 4 9. Process of attaining spiritual knowledge - para 6 Question and Answers Q.1. Analyze the three stages of realization of the Supreme Lords presence. Ans. The Supreme Lords presence is realized in three stages. These are (i) kanistha stage (ii) madhyama stage and (iii) uttama stage. Kanistha stage is the lowest stage of realization. The devotee at the kanistha stage goes to a place of worship, such as a temple, church or mosque, according to his religious faith and worships there according to scriptural injunctions. Devotees in this stage consider the Lord to be present at the place of worship and nowhere else. They cannot ascertain who is in what position in devotional service, nor can they tell who has realized the Supreme Lord. Such devotees follow the routine formulas and sometimes quarrel among themselves, considering one type of devotion better than another. These kanistha-adhikaris are actually materialistic devotees who are simply trying to transcend the material boundary to reach the spiritual plane.

Those who have attained the second stage of realization are called madhyama-adhikaris. These devotees observe the distinctions between four categories of being (i) the Supreme Lord (ii) the devotees of the Lord (iii) the innocent, who have no knowledge of the Lord and (iv) the atheists, who have no faith in the Lord and hate those in devotional service. The madhyama adhikari behaves differently toward these four classes of persons. He adores the Lord, considering Him the object of love; he makes friends with those who are in devotional service; he tries to awaken the dormant love of God in the hearts of the innocent and he avoids the atheists, who deride the very name of the Lord. Above the madhyama-adhikari is the uttama-adhikari, who sees everything in relation to the Supreme Lord. Such a devotee does not discriminate between an atheist and a theist but sees everyone as part and parcel of God. He knows that there is no essential difference between a vastly learned brahmana and a dog in the street, because both of them are part and parcel of the Lord, although they are encaged in different bodies on account of the different qualities of their activities in their previous lives. He sees that the brahmana particle of the Supreme Lord has not misused his little independence given him by the Lord and that the dog particles has misused his independence and is therefore being punished by the laws of nature by being encaged in the form of a dog. Not considering the respective actions of the brahmana and the dog, the uttama adhikari tries to do well to both. Such a learned devotee is not misled by material bodies but is attracted by the spiritual spark within them. Q.2. Explain the process of attaining Vedic wisdom and establish the real conclusion of the Vedas by discussing the complete agreement among the Vedas, Upaniadas, Vedanta, Bhagavad-Gt and rmad Bhgavatam. Ans. The process of attaining the Vedic wisdom is through disciplic succession which starts from the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. The Lord imparts the Vedic truth or knowledge to the first created being and the secondary creator Brahma, who gives this knowledge to his son and disciple rla Nrada, from Nrada to Vyasa and from Vyasa to many of his disciples (tad vidhi pranipatena pariprashnena sevaya). At present there are many commentaries on the revealed scriptures, but most of them are not in the line of disciplic succession coming from rla Vyasadeva, who originally compiled the Vedic wisdom. The final, most perfect and sublime work by rla Vyasadeva is rmad Bhgavatam, which is the natural commentary on the Vedanta sutra. There is also the Bhagavad-Gt, which was spoken by the Lord Himself and recorded by Vyasadeva. These are the most important revealed scriptures, and any commentary that contradicts the principles of the Bhagavad-Gt or rmad Bhgavatam is unauthorized. There is complete agreement among the Upaniads, Vedanta-sutra, Vedas, Bhagavad-Gt and rmadBhgavatam and no one should try to reach any conclusion about the Vedas without receiving instructions from members of Vyasadevas disciplic succession, who believe in the Personality of Godhead and His diverse energies as they are explained in r opaniad. Q.3. Analyze the defects of materialistic plans of politicians and philanthropists for bringing about universal brotherhood. Ans. According to the Bhagavad-Gt (18.54), only one who is already on the liberated platform (brahma-bhuta stage) can become an uttama-adhikari devotee and see every living being as his own brother. This vision cannot be had by politicians or philanthropists, who are

always after some material gain. The politicians and philanthropists talk big big words about universal brotherhood, but allow slaughter of poor animals and hamper their progress on the scale of evolution. They merely try to imitate the symptoms of an uttam-adhakari and outwardly serve anothers body for the purpose of fame or material reward, but they do not serve the spirit soul. Such an imitator can have no information of the spiritual world. The uttama-adhikari sees the spirit soul within the material body and serves him as spirit. Thus the materials aspect is automatically served. Q.4. How is Madhyama Vaishnava different from the Kanistha? Ans. Kanistha stage is the lowest stage of realization. The devotee at the kanistha stage goes to a place of worship, such as a temple, church or mosque, according to his religious faith and worships there according to scriptural injunctions. Devotees in this stage consider the Lord to be present at the place of worship and nowhere else. They cannot ascertain who is in what position in devotional service, nor can they tell who has realized the Supreme Lord. Such devotees follow the routine formulas and sometimes quarrel among themselves, considering one type of devotion better than another. These kanistha-adhikaris are actually materialistic devotees who are simply trying to transcend the material boundary to reach the spiritual plane. Whereas a madhyama-adhikari vaishnava observe the distinctions between four categories of being (i) the Supreme Lord (ii) the devotees of the Lord (iii) the innocent, who have no knowledge of the Lord and (iv) the atheists, who have no faith in the Lord and hate those in devotional service. The madhyama adhikari behaves differently toward these four classes of persons. He adores the Lord, considering Him the object of love; he makes friends with those who are in devotional service; he tries to awaken the dormant love of God in the hearts of the innocent and he avoids the atheists, who deride the very name of the Lord. Q.5. Who never hates anything or any being? Ans. The maha-bhgavat devotee of the Lord who sees everything in relation to the Supreme Lord, who sees all living entities as His parts and parcels, and who sees the Supreme Lord within everything never hates anything or any being. Q.6. Who is a false philanthropist? Ans. Those who imitate an uttama adhikari by flaunting a sense of oneness or fellowship but who behave on the bodily platform are actually false philanthropists. Q.7. From whom one should learn the conception of universal brotherhood? Ans. The conception of universal brotherhood must be learned from an uttama adhikari and not from a foolish person who does not properly understand the individual soul or the Supreme Lords Supersoul expansion, who dwells everywhere. Q.8. What is the meaning of anupasyati? Ans. The word anupasyati means that one should observe or systematically see. To observe or systematically see means that one must follow the previous acarya, the perfected teachers. Anupasyati is the Sanskrit word used for systematically seeing. Anu means to follow, and pasyati means to observe. Thus, the word anupasyati means that one should not see things as he does with the naked eye but should follow the previous acaryas.

Q.9. Why one cannot see with naked eye? How one can see properly? Ans. Due to material defects, the naked eye cannot see anything properly. One cannot see properly unless one has heard from a superior source, and the highest source is the Vedic wisdom, which is spoken by the Lord Himself. Q.10. How the Vedic truth comes? Ans. The Vedic truths are coming in disciplic succession from the Lord to Brahma, from Brahm to Narada, from Narada to Vyasa and from Vyasa to many of his disciples. Q.11. Earlier why there was no need to record the Vedas? Ans. Formerly there was no need to record the message of the Vedas, because people in earlier ages were more intelligent and had sharper memories. They could follow the instructions simply by hearing once from the mouth of a bona fide spiritual master. Q.12. What sorts of commentaries of Vedic literature are unauthorized? Ans. Any commentary on Vedic literature that contradicts the principles of the BhagavadGt and rmad Bhgavatam is unauthorized. Q. 13 Fill in the blanks

Q. 14 We are trying to see Isas hands and leg in nature, and in this text we are admonished to see all living beings as his parts and parcels. Can the karmis and jns, ecologists and Buddhists, see this? Who can see this? Q.15 Then we go to NOI texts 4, 5 & 6. Why is this a natural continuation of the theme of Text 6 and the Bhaktivedanta Purport? Mantra 7 - Spiritually everyone is the same as the Lord in quality and interest / Rise from Mistaken Oneness to Real Oneness / The Mahbhgavats Vision of the living entities yasmin sarvi bhtny tmaivbhd vijnata tatra ko moha ka oka ekatvam anupayata One who always sees all living entities as spiritual sparks, in quality one with the Lord, becomes a true knower of things. What, then, can be illusion or anxiety for him? One word summary: ekatvam anupayata Connection: Mantra 7 continues describing the consciousness of the mah-bhgavata, which was introduced in Mantra 6. ISO 1-3 Seem to talk about the same thing as NOI Text 2. God has a plan take your share and engage in spiritual life. ISO 4 & 5 talks about God as the Parama-atma, physically related to His creation. ISO 6 & 7 talks about His relationship to the Jiva souls in His creation and the results of seeing Him in this way. ISO 8 emphasizes we must know this Paramatma feature again. Then... 9-14 contrast again and again knowledge and worship of the spiritual and material world, culminating in going to the spiritual world if you really know the vara. HPS: The Upaniads are impersonal form of address Ka. One can say, "Mr President, Mr Obama, Barrack or Honey or Daddy". This Upanishad starts off by talking about "Isa". Text 5 of NOI also says that the Madhyama-adhikari is engaged in worshiping, "Isa", but rla Prabhupda translates it as, "the Deity". HPS: This Text 7 is just like Text 6, no? The first two lines of each Text are almost identical. We have to see Ka and all the living beings. Then, Text 6, we wont hate anybody; Text 7, we won't have any fear or anxiety. In both texts Prabhupda explains that this vision is only possible for the Uttama and Madhyama-adhikari. In Text 7 the controlling phrase seems to be 'eka-tvam', oneness with "Isa". Prabhupda gives so many analogies in his purport to say that "ekatvam' means oneness of purpose, not that I become God: Drop of sea water and the sea, father and his children, sparks and the fire. CCP: Word ekatvam is like feast for impersonalists. Generally, Upaniads are considered speaking about impersonalism. But they do also talk about personalism. rla Prabhupda will explain what oneness is. Realization of oneness in quality brings detachment, while realization of subordination in quantity brings humility. If detachment is prime focus or if it comes first we become proud. On the other hand, if humility comes first, well not be proud. In Siksastakam also Mahprabhu first talks about humility in 3rd verse and then detachment in

4th verse. Both talk about progress in bhakti kitaniya sada Hari and bhaktir bhavati ahaituki. Myvds become proud due to sole focus on detachment. Jiva Goswami gives example: Sun god Krishna The fiery radiance around its orbit Svarupa Shakti Its rays tatastha shakti Suns reflection bahiranga sakti BP: The term acintya bheda abheda tattva was coined by Jiva Goswami. This is an eternal philosophy. Mantra 6 shows difference and mantra 7 shows similarity. So acintya bheda abheda tattva is there is a strict Vedic literature. Very Short Summary of Purport A. Ekatvam anupasyatah, by scriptural references means to see the qualitative differences, also, Or B. Same as vsya, i.e. everything is the energy of the Supreme Lord, thus oneness between energy/energetic. This means practical working activity must be performed in vsya conception, to keep us on the atma bhta platform of oneness. Summary of Purport In Mantra Seven the pure devotee sees all spirit souls as having the same qualities as the Lord. On the spiritual platform the living entities and Supreme Lord share not only the same spiritual nature, but also the same interest, just as a family or nation has a common interest. That Supreme Person becomes the centre of enjoyment and activities for all the individual spirit souls, and the Lord enjoys Himself in their association. Within this highest realization of spiritual activities there is no illusion or anxiety. On the material platform there is always a clash of interests, both individually and collectively, resulting in anxiety and lamentation. The only solution is to have a common centre. The only common centre for all living beings is the Supreme Person from whom everything is emanating. By placing Him at the centre of our activities we enjoy an eternal life of bliss and knowledge in a loving relationship with Him. Overview Para 1: Mahbhgavat sees oneness in energy and energetic Para 2: Ekatvam (oneness) means one in quality and interest, not one is quantity Para 3: Keeping Supreme Lord as center brings enjoyment for all Para 4: Effect of rejecting oneness oka and moha Para 5: Become one in interest with God Para 6: One who sees one interest is very rare Explanation

(Para 1: Mahbhgavat sees oneness in energy and energetic)

Except for the madhyama-adhikr and uttama-adhikr, no one can correctly see the spiritual position of a living being. The mah-bhgavata sees oneness in the sense that he sees everything as the energy of the Supreme Lord. Since there is no difference between the energy and the energetic, there is the sense of oneness. o Analogy: The living entities are qualitatively one with the Supreme Lord, just as the sparks of a fire are qualitatively one with the fire. Yet sparks are not fire as far as quantity is concerned, for the quantity of heat and light present in the sparks is not equal to that in fire. Although from the analytical point of view heat and light are different from fire, there is no meaning to the word "fire" without heat and light. In synthesis, therefore, heat, light and fire are the same. (Para 2: Ekatvam (oneness) means one in quality and interest, not one is quantity) Ekatvam anupayata: one should see the unity of all living entities from the viewpoint of the revealed scriptures. o Individual sparks of the supreme whole possess almost 80% of the known qualities of the whole, but they are not quantitatively equal to the Supreme Lord. These qualities are present in minute quantity. Analogy: The quantity of salt present in a drop is never comparable to the quantity of salt present in the complete ocean, but the salt present in the drop is qualitatively equal in chemical composition to all the salt present in the ocean. CCP: The river ocean metaphor: not merging, but meeting. Cant neglect the flow aspect. SB 3.29.11: Lords perspective. SB 1.8.42: Devotees perspective. o Argument: If the individual living being were equal to the Supreme Lord both qualitatively and quantitatively, there would be no question of his being under the influence of the material energy. In the previous mantras it has already been discussed that no living beingnot even the powerful demigodscan surpass the Supreme Being in any respect. Therefore ekatvam does not mean that a living being is equal in all respects to the Supreme Lord. o It does, however, indicate that in a broader sense there is one interest, just as in a family the interest of all members is one, or in a nation the national interest is one, although there are many different individual citizens. (Para 3: Keeping Supreme Lord as center brings enjoyment for all)

The spiritual entities are meant for enjoyment, as stated in the Vedntastra (1.1.12): nanda-mayo 'bhyst. The living beings who are encaged in the material tabernacle are constantly seeking enjoyment, but they are seeking it on the wrong platform. Apart from the material platform is the spiritual platform, where the Supreme Being enjoys Himself with His innumerable associates. o On that platform there is no trace of material qualities, and therefore that platform is called nirgua. Reason for clash in material world: proper center of enjoyment being missed. Real center of enjoyment: Supreme Lord. Result of realizing this: no question of illusion (moha) or lamentation (oka). (Para 4: Effect of rejecting oneness oka and moha) A godless civilization arises from illusion, and the result of such a civilization is lamentation. Law of nature: Cause of anxiety - godless civilization may be crushed any moment. If we wish to get rid of all sorts of illusion and anxiety and create unity out of all diverse interests, we must bring God into all our activities. (Para 5: Become one in interest with God) The results of our activities must be used to serve the interest of the Lord, and not for any other purpose. tma-bhta (this mantra) = the brahma-bhta [SB 4.30.20 & Bhagavad-gt 18.54]. The supreme tm, or Paramtm, alone maintains all the individual minute beings, for the Supreme Lord wants to derive pleasure out of their affection. Analogy: If the children obey the father's will, family affairs will run smoothly, with one interest and a pleasing atmosphere. The same situation is transcendentally arranged in the absolute family of the Para-brahman, the Supreme Spirit.

(Para 6: One who sees one interest is very rare) Neither the Lord nor the living entities are impersonal. As soon as one is fully cognizant of this transcendental position, he at once surrenders unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Being, r Ka. But such a great soul is very rarely seen because such transcendental realization is achieved only after many, many births. Once it is attained, however, there is no longer any illusion or lamentation or the miseries of material existence or birth and death, which are all experienced in our present life. HPS: "The Parambrahman is as much a person as the individual entities." This is so striking. Just like I know Guru-vrata Das or Jananivasa Das. They are people. So, Ka is a person with all the qualities, anxieties, funny surprises that we get, but he is different than we are also, but primarily He is a person. Only the Uttama and Madhyama-adhikaris can realize this. Exercise Read: Read mantra seven and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Focus on the spiritual harmony of all beings cooperating with the interest to please the Lord. We can pray to realize that the only common centre all living beings share is the Lord, and the harmony that would arise by focusing our interests on Him. Consider: In this material world everyone is trying to enjoy for themselves, thus there is so much conflict. Pay attention to how individually and collectively people cooperate as long as they have a shared interest, but then how they become enemies once they develop separate interests. The only thing all living beings have in common is that they have an eternal relationship with the Lord as pure spirit souls. Imagine the harmony that could exist if people cooperated on this platform of simply trying to please the Lord. Describe: Describe the result of people acting with the same interest or goal, such as a family or nation or group of nations. Describe the result of people acting with separate interests. How would spiritual life, when practiced collectively, promote peace within this world. Main Points Discussed Because of the devotees Ka conscious vision he is free from illusion and anxiety. The uttama-adhikari sees in these terms through direct realization, and the Madhyama-adhikari through being properly trained in the science (anupasyatah). We are all one with the Lord in quality, although quite different in quantity, and as such we should try to adopt the interests of the Supreme Lord as our own. rla Prabhupda explains: Therefore ekatvam does not mean that a living being is equal in all respects to the Supreme Lord. It does, however, indicate that in a broader sense there is one interest, just as in a family the interest of all members is one, or in a nation the national interest is one, although there are many different individual citizens. Since the living entities are all members of the same supreme family, their interest and that of the Supreme Being are not different. The living entities are meant to enjoy, but due to conditioned life they are suffering. The real platform for enjoyment is that of devotional service, and once one is situated there he will be free from illusion and lamentation, which are respectively the cause and result of godless civilization. Therefore we should dedicate ourselves to serving the interests of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and come to the level of transcendental realization.

rla Prabhupda concludes his purport: But such a mahatma, or great soul, is very rarely seen because such transcendental realization is achieved only after many, many births. Once it is attained, however, there is no longer any illusion or lamentation or the miseries of material existence or birth and death, which are all experienced in our present life. That is the information we get from this mantra of r opaniad. 1. Continues to describe the consciousness of the maha-bhgavata devotee which was introduced in Mantra 6 2. Both the Supreme Lord and the living entities are full of transcendental qualities 3. As soon as one becomes fully cognizant of the transcendental oneness, there is no longer any illusion, distress or the miseries of the material existence 4. Myvds, Bhogis, Jnanis, Devotees and Sahajiyas 5. Similarity with Bg. sloka (atmabhuta prasanna atama no socati no kanchati) 6. Similarity with sloka (nityo nityanam. yo viddhati Kaman) Question and Answers Q.1. What is the meaning of oneness? Ans. The meaning of oneness is to perceive one qualitatively. Like fire and spark. Spark is fire only qualitatively. The word fire has meaning when it is understood in the synthesis of heat, light and fire. Seeing actual oneness is seeing everything as the energy of the Supreme Lord. The word oneness has meaning when it is seen in the relation with the Supreme Personality of Godhead and as His energy. This is how the maha-bhgavat devotees of the Lord see oneness or ekatvam. Q.2. Analyze how godless civilization results in confusion and lamentation and suggest a practical formula for real universal harmony. Ans. A godless civilization arises from illusion, and the result of such a civilization is lamentation. A godless civilization, such as that sponsored by the modern politicians, is always full of anxiety because it may be crushed at any moment. That is the law of nature. As stated in the Bhagavad gt (7.14), no one but those who surrender at the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord can surpass the stringent laws of nature. Thus if we wish to get rid of all sorts of illusion and anxiety and create unity out of all diverse interests, we must bring God into all our activities. The result of our activities must be used to serve the interest of the Lord, and not for any other purpose. Q.3. What are the two ways of understanding oneness of the soul and God? Ans. The two ways of understanding oneness of the soul and God is by the example of the following two examples. First example is given of fire and spark. Fire and spark are qualitatively one but quantitatively different. The spark also emits heat and light but it is very minute and insignificant as compared to the fire. The spark can be called fire only qualitatively but at the level of quantity it is not fire. Another way to look at oneness of fire is that fire produces heat and light. Generally, fire, heat and light are understood to be separate entities. However, in the actual sense without heat and light the fire cannot be called fire. Similarly, the Supreme Lord

is fire and the individual living entity is spark. They are qualitatively one but quantitatively different. As the spark has no existence without the fire, the living entity has no existence without the Supreme Lord. Seeing oneness is possible only in relation with the Lord. Everyone is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord only qualitatively because the Lord as well as the living entity is constituted by eternity, knowledge and bliss. Another example is given of the water in the ocean and ocean water in a glass. Both the waters are qualitatively one but quantitatively different. The ocean water can sail big, big boats, ships, give shelter of innumerable living entity but the same water in a glass cannot do any such things. Even the quantity of salt present in the Ocean is far beyond comparison then the amount of salt available in the ocean water in a glass. However, the chemical properties of the ocean water in the glass and in the ocean are same. Thus there is oneness between Supreme Lord and the living entity but only at qualitatively. The Supreme Lord is vibhu and His parts and parcels the living being are anu (atomic). Knowing the actual spiritual position is actually seeing oneness of both the Lord and the living entity and oneness among the living entity. Q.4. Who can become a true knower of things? Ans. One who always sees all living entities as spiritual sparks, in quality one with the Lord, becomes a true knower of things. For such a person there cannot be any illusion or anxiety. Q.5 Who can correctly see the spiritual position of a living being? Ans. Only a madhyama and uttama adhikari (devotees at the middle stage and highest state) can see the actual spiritual position of a living being i.e. the living entities are qualitatively one with the Supreme Lord, just as the spark of a fire are qualitatively one with the fire. Yet sparks are not fire as far as quantity is concerned, for the quantity of heat and light present in the sparks is not equal to that in the fire. Similarly, the madhyama and uttama adhikaris can see the living being qualitatively one but quantitatively different from the Lord. Q.6. What is the great devotees vision of oneness in the God and living entity? Ans. The maha-bhgavat devotee sees oneness in the sense that he sees everything as the energy of the Supreme Lord. Since there is no difference between the energy and the energetic, there is the sense of oneness. Although from analytical point of view heat and light are different from fire, there is no meaning to the word fire without heat and light. In synthesis, therefore, heat, light and fire are the same. Q.7. What the word ekatvam anupasyatah indicate? Ans. The word ekatvam anupasyatah indicate that one should see the unity of all living entities from the viewpoint of the revealed scriptures. The word ekatvam in a broader sense indicate that there is one interest, just as in a family the interest of all members is one, or in a nation the national interest is one, although there are many different individual citizens. Since all living entities are all members of the same supreme family, there interest and that of the Supreme Being are not different. Q.8. What percent of quality of the Complete Whole does the individual spark possess? Ans. The Individual spark possesses about 80% of the known qualities of the whole, but they are qualitatively one with the Complete Whole.

Q.9. What is actual aspiration of the spiritual being and how it can be obtained? Ans. The spiritual entities are meant for enjoyment, as stated in the Vedanta-sutra (1.1.12) anand-mayo bhyasat. Therefore, the actual aspiration of all spiritual being is to seek enjoyment. By nature and constitution, every living being including the supreme Lord and each of His parts and parcels is meant for eternal enjoyment. The actual enjoyment or happiness is available only at the spiritual platform where the Supreme Lord is eternally enjoying with all his innumerable associates. The living beings who are encaged in the material tabernacle are constantly seeking enjoyment, but they are seeking it on the wrong platform. They need to change their focus and try to approach the spiritual platform. The part and parcel (living entities) is enjoying by serving the Supreme Whole and the Supreme Whole (Personality of Godhead) is enjoying the service of the parts and parcel. This is the constitutional position of both the Lord and the living entity. Q.10. What is the platform of nirguna? What is its characteristic? Ans. The spiritual platform which is free from any trace of material qualities is known as platform of nirguna. On the nirguna platform there is never a clash over the object of enjoyment. At this platform the centre of enjoyment is the Supreme Lord, who is the centre of the sublime and spiritual rasa dance. Q.11. What is the highest platform of spiritual interest? Ans. The Supreme Lord is eternally enjoying with His associates at the spiritual platform. Since we are all looking for real enjoyment, we must try to reach the spiritual platform where the real centre of enjoyment is the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna, who is the centre of the sublime and spiritual rasa dance. We are all meant to join Him and enjoy life with one transcendental interest and without any clash. This is the highest platform of spiritual interest, and as soon as one realizes this perfect form of oneness, there can be no question of illusion (moha) or lamentation (soka). Q.12. How a Godless civilization arises and what are its results? Ans. A Godless civilization arises from illusion, and the result of such a civilization is lamentation. A godless civilization, such as that sponsored by the modern politicians, is always full of anxieties because it may be crushed at any moment. Q.13. How one can surpass the stringent laws of nature? Ans. As stated in the Bhagavad Gt (7.14), no one but those who surrendered at the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord can surpass the stringent laws of nature. Thus if one wish to get rid of all sorts of illusion and anxiety and create unity out of all diverse interests, one must bring God into all our activities. Create a society which is God centered. Not godless. Q.14. How one can perceive the atma-bhuta interest? Ans. Only by serving the Lords interest can one perceive the atma-bhuta interest. The atmabhuta interest and the brahma-bhuta interest mentioned in Bhagavad Gt (18.54) are one the same. The supreme atma, or soul, is the Lord Himself and the minute atma is the living entity. Q.15. Why the supreme atma maintains all minute atmas?

Ans. The supreme atma or Paramatma alone maintains all individual minute beings, for the Supreme Lord wants to derive pleasure out of their affection. Like the father extends himself through his children and maintain them in order to derive pleasure. If the children obey the fathers will, family affairs will run smoothly, with one interest and a pleasing atmosphere is created. The same situation is transcendentally arranged in the absolute family of the Parabrahman, the Supreme Spirit. Q.16. When one completely surrenders at the lotus feet of the Supreme Being r Krishna? Ans. As soon as one is fully cognizant of the transcendental fact that both the Supreme Soul (Lord Krishna) and the individual soul (living entities) are persons with thinking, feeling and willing, he at once surrenders unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Being, r Krishna. But such a mahatma, or great soul is very rarely seen because such transcendental realization is achieved only after many, many births. Once it is attained, there is no longer any illusion or lamentation or the miseries of material existence or birth and death, which are all experienced in our present life. Q.17 Fill in the blanks A. Spiritual oneness is of quality and interest

The oneness of living entity is qualitative, not quantitative. This means that the living entity is one with the Lord as they are both __________, but the living entity is never _______ to the Lord in all respects. There are two analogies in this regard: i) ii) The sparks and the fire: the sparks of fire are the same __________ as the main fire, but are much smaller in potency. The drop of the ocean water and the whole ocean: the drop of ocean water has proportionate qualities (salt content etc.) as the whole ocean, but is considerably smaller.

To prove his point rla Prabhupda states, If the individual living being were equal to the Supreme Lord both qualitatively and quantitatively, there would be no question of his being under the influence of material energy. B. ___________, or the oneness of the living entity and the Lord, also indicates, in a broader sense, the one interest of all living entities. As children of the same Father, there is one universal family. Only by acting in this relationship, placing Ka in the centre, can the soul achieve pure spiritual happiness in relationship with the Lord. Mantra 8 - The transcendental Lord is fulfilling all our desires accordingly / How the vara integrates inconceivable attributes? / The Mahbhgavats Vision of the Supreme sa paryagc chukram akyam avraam asnviram uddham appa-viddham kavir man paribh svayambhr ythtathyato 'rthn vyadadhc chvatbhya sambhya

Such a person must factually know the greatest of all, the Personality of Godhead, who is unembodied, omniscient, beyond reproach, without veins, pure and uncontaminated, the selfsufficient philosopher who has been fulfilling everyone's desire since time immemorial. One Word Summary: uddham appa-viddham Connection: Mantra 8 describes some qualities of the Lord as He is known by the mahbhgavata described in mantras 6 and 7. Mantra 6 and 7 mention how Mahbhgavat sees world and living entities in relation to God, this mantra mentions how he perceives Lord directly. BP: This mantra clearly shows that he has a very close relationship with Lord. 6 and 7 are more general is describing his consciousness and 8 shows he has knowledge and direct relationship beyond book knowledge. This mantra clearly shows he is a realized soul. Very Short Summary of Purport Some previous points are reviewed. Word-for-word explanations of the verses descriptions of the Supreme are presented. Summary of Purport Mantra Eight further explains the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Person as He reciprocates with all living entities according to our desires and activities. The Lord is not limited by any material qualities. Thus He may expand His form into innumerable forms to perfectly reciprocate with all living beings according to our desires to please Him, or even hide His form from those who wish to forget Him. In this material world He is fulfilling our desires according to our qualifications and activities, or according to the law of karma, even though such material desires may cause us pain. But, on the spiritual platform we simply desire to please the Lord, and He helps us. Overview Para 1 Supreme Lord has transcendental form akyam asnviram Para 2 Supreme Lords transcendental form is omnipotent - sukram Para 3 When requested by Mah-bhgavats, the omnipotent and omniscient Lord appears as Arca Vigraha Para 4 Omnipotent Lord is not revealed to mental speculators Para 5 & 6 Merciful Lord awards arthn vyadadht as per ones qualification and desires since time immemorial vatbhya sambhya Para 7 God is greatest of all (paribh) and others are beggars Para 8 Supreme Lord is self-sufficient (svayambh), without reproach (avraam), antiseptic (uddham) and prophylactic (appa-viddham)

Explanation

(Para 1 asnviram)

Supreme

Lord

has

transcendental

form

akyam

Here is a description of the transcendental and eternal form of the Absolute Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Lord is not formless. He has His own transcendental form, which is not at all similar to the forms of the mundane world. The anatomy of a material body must have a mechanical construction with veins and so forth, but the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord has nothing like veins. It is clearly stated here that He is unembodied, which means that there is no difference between His body and His soul. Nor is He forced to accept a body according to the laws of nature, as we are. CCP: Svetasvatra Upaniad (4.19) No one can grasp Him above, across, or in middle. There is no likeness of Him. His name is Great Glory. Na tasya pratima asti: Baladeva Vs translation: Nothing can compare with the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lords form is so great (pratima) that nothing can compare with Him. Lotus eyes, etc. are meant to only give an idea. In Lalita Madhava, a king prays to Lord I thought I was glorifying by choice poetry, but when I behold Your form, I understand my praise was an insult. It is like comparing emperor with landlord of a village. Asnviram further proves that Lord is

not impersonal. If He is impersonal what is the need to say that He doesnt have veins. If a person doesnt have a house, no meaning to say he has no hall. So akyam cannot be taken simplistically as without body, but precisely unembodied not given a body. (Para 2 Supreme Lords transcendental form is omnipotent - sukram) Brahma-sahit (5.1) - similar description of the Supreme Lord - sac-cid-nandavigraha. He does not require a separate body or mind, as we do in material existence. Formless - This means that He has no form like ours and that He is devoid of a form we can conceive of. Brahma-sahit (5.32) - with each and every part of His body He can do the work of the other senses. ukram ("omnipotent") - although the Lord has no hands and legs like ours, He has a different type of hands and legs, by which He can accept all that we offer Him and run faster than anyone. (Para 3 When requested by Mah-bhgavats, the omnipotent and omniscient Lord appears as Arca Vigraha) Arc-vigraha, which is installed in temples by authorized cryas who have realized the Lord in terms of Mantra Seven, is non-different from the original form of the Lord. By worshiping the arc-vigraha, one can at once approach the Lord, who accepts the service of a devotee by His omnipotent energy. The arc-vigraha of the Lord descends at the request of the cryas and works exactly in the original way of the Lord by virtue of the Lord's omnipotence. o BP: Saksi Goplaa; Gauri Das Pandit he had first Gaura Nitai Deities, CMP and NP came and went on altar and deities moved out and then back, etc. Bhaktivedanta Manor deities put on weight in 10 yrs. Some outfits dont fit in waist. Foolish people who have no knowledge of r opaniad or any of the other rutimantras consider the arc-vigraha, which is worshiped by pure devotees, to be made of material elements. Such people do not know that the Lord, being omnipotent and omniscient, can transform matter into spirit and spirit into matter, as He desires. o BP: Devotee: Can Ka destroy spirit soul? Prabhupda: Yes, but He doesnt. (Para 4 Omnipotent Lord is not revealed to mental speculators) Bhagavad-gt (9.11-12) - Lord regrets the fallen condition of men with little knowledge who deride Him because He descends like a man into this world. o CCP: Lord doesnt enjoy criticizing Lord does not manifest Himself in full to the mental speculators. He can be appreciated only in proportion to one's surrender to Him. The fallen condition of the living entities is due entirely to forgetfulness of their relationship with God. (Para 5 & 6 Merciful Lord awards (arthn vyadadht) as per ones qualification and desires since time immemorial (vatbhya sambhya))

From time immemorial, a living being desires something, and the Lord supplies the object of that desire in proportion to one's qualification. Good qualifications in themselves are not sufficient to enable one to receive awards. The mercy of the Lord is also required. o Analogy: If a man wants to be a high-court judge, he must acquire not only the necessary qualifications but also the consent of the authority who can award the title of high-court judge. The qualifications in themselves are insufficient for one to occupy the post: it must be awarded by some superior authority. o BP: Mercy factor is more applicable to devotees. o CCP: Farmer can sow properly, but he has to depend on rain. Drona tried to capture Yudhisthira in spite of full endeavor. He realized Lord of destiny is on Arjunas chariot. Vidura was pleading to Dhrtrastra to stop war. Dhrtrastra said if this is the will of destiny what can I do? Vidura snapped destiny determines consequences of our action, not our action itself. Your actions as

king are in your hand. Prabhupda - So when things go beyond human control, then there is nothing to regret. Living beings under the influence of material nature ask for many other things, and they are described in the Bhagavad-gt (2.41) as having divided, or splayed, intelligence. o BP: Devotees should be very careful in what they desire. Girl telling Ka to put wood on her head. The Lord is so kind that He allows the forgetful living entity to continue in this way without interference. Ythtathyata, indicating that the Lord rewards the living entities just in pursuance of their desires. (Para 7 God is greatest of all (paribh) and others are beggars) God is paribh, the greatest of all. Other living beings are described here as beggars who ask goods from the Lord. If the entities were equal to the Lord in potencyif they were omnipotent and omniscientthere would be no question of their begging from the Lord, even for socalled liberation. Real liberation means going back to Godhead. Jna and karma are useless. (Para 8 Supreme Lord is self-sufficient (svayambh), without reproach (avraam), antiseptic (uddham) and prophylactic (appa-viddham)) CCP: Antiseptic curative medicine, prophylactic preventive medicine. Only the Supreme Lord is self-sufficient. Lord Ka displayed His full manifestation as the Personality of Godhead through His various activities. o In His childhood He killed many powerful demons and there was no question of His having acquired such power through any extraneous endeavor. o He lifted Govardhana Hill without ever practicing weight-lifting. o He danced with the gops without social restriction and without reproach.

CCP: Sannyasis give up the reflection, but not reality. Antiseptic - even an impure thing can become purified just by touching Him.

The word "prophylactic" refers to the power of His association. BG (9.30-31) - a devotee may appear to be su-durcra, not well behaved, in the beginning, but he should be accepted as pure because he is on the right path. The Lord is also appa-viddham because sin cannot touch Him. Even if He acts in a way that appears to be sinful, such actions are all-good, for there is no question of His being affected by sin. Because in all circumstances He is uddham, most purified, He is often compared to the sun. o The sun extracts moisture from many untouchable places on the earth, yet it remains pure. In fact, it purifies obnoxious things by virtue of its sterilizing powers. o If the sun, which is a material object, is so powerful, then we can hardly begin to imagine the purifying strength of the all-powerful Lord. Main Points Discussed On this elevated level of Ka consciousness one comes to know the Supreme Lord. His body is different from ours, being completely spiritual, and even the sense of His body can exchange their functions. He expanded Himself into a multitude of forms, including deity form, and all these forms are transcendental. Materialistic people, or even kaniha-adhikaris, may not understand the Lords unlimited abilities, but if one surrenders to Him and serves Him, He will reveal Himself. The Lord fulfils the desires of the conditioned souls, as they are qualified, but one should be careful to understand that these things are being given by His grace, and not simple automatically, according to ones qualification. People are prone to ask for the wrong things, and they should be trained to understand that their real self-interest is to render devotional service and go back to Godhead. We should realize our dependent positions and take shelter of Him. He is antiseptic (uddham) and prophylactic (appa-viddham), and He has all the potency required to deliver even the most fallen souls, if they sincerely surrender to Him. 1. Qualities of the Lord as He is known by the great devotees (uttama adhikaris) 2. Different features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead 3. The Absolute Truth is not formless 4. There is no difference between the Lords body, mind and soul 5. Anatomy of the Supreme Lord is completely transcendental unlike material body 6. Archa-vighraha (deity form) for the Lord non-different from original Lord 7. The Lord is only supplier others are beggar 8. Impersonalists conception of liberation is myth 9. Real liberation going back home back to Godhead Exercise Read: Read mantra eight and purport, along with its study guide summary Focus: The Lord is fulfilling all of our desires according to how we deserve them, but in such a way that we will eventually want to become purified of our selfish desires and desire only

to attain our pure spiritual state in relation to Him. Focus on how everything the Lord does is for our good, meant only to increase our desire to serve Him and attain our eternal position in the spiritual world. We can pray to realize that the Lord is fulfilling our desires according to our qualifications and in such a way as to increase our desire to be with Him. Consider: Many people are baffled by the seemingly unjust nature of the world, where so many calamities are always taking place. We wonder why it seems the Lord is not fulfilling our desires. But consider the actual desires and qualifications of people today. Do people actually want to serve God, or do they want their own material gratification? The Lord has fulfilled our desire for great material advancement for this gratification. But why so many calamities? Well, observe our qualifications. With so much animal slaughter, illicit sex, intoxication, and gambling do we even deserve as much material opulence as we have? The process of reward and punishment according to our desires and activities is meant to lead us to desiring spiritual activities. Observe how the Lord is constantly teaching us the futileness of trying to enjoy this material world. Describe: Describe how the desires of our materially engrossed society are being fulfilled. Describe how so many of our desires, both individually and collectively, are being frustrated due to our lack of good or spiritual qualifications. How can we understand that the Lord is all good, and everything He does is for our benefit according to our desires? How is the Lord teaching us and beckoning us to return to the pure, eternal spiritual world? Question and Answers Q.1. What an uttama-adhikari must factually know about the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Ans. Such a person (an uttama adhikari) must factually know the greatest of all, the Personality of Godhead, who is un-embodied, omniscient, beyond reproach, without veins, pure and uncontaminated, and the self-sufficient philosopher who has been fulfilling everyones desire since time immemorial. Q.2. Discuss the transcendental and eternal form of the Absolute Personality of Godhead? Ans. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not formless. He has His own transcendental form, which is not at all similar to the forms of the mundane world. The transcendental body of the Lord has nothing like veins. He is un-embodied which means that there is no difference between His body, mind and His soul. Nor is He forced to accept a body according to the laws of nature. He is the Complete Whole and His mind, body and He Himself are all one and the same. The Lord is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, which means that He is the eternal form fully representing transcendental existence, knowledge and bliss. As such He does not require a separate body or mind, as we do in material existence. The Lords transcendental body is completely different from ours. Each and every part of His body can do the work of the other senses. This means that the Lord can walk with His hands, accept things with His legs, see with His hands and feet, eat with His eyes, etc. In ruti-mantras it is also said that although the Lord has no hands and legs like ours. He has a different type of hands and legs, by which He can accept all that we offer Him and run faster than anyone. Q.3. What does the word un-embodied indicate about the Supreme Lord? Ans. The word un-embodied about the Supreme Lord indicates that there is no difference between the His body, mind and His soul. Nor is He forced to accept a body according to the laws of nature.

Q.4. What does the word formless means with regard to the Supreme Lord? Ans. The Vedic literature clearly states that the Lords transcendental body is completely different from our bodies, thus He is sometimes described as formless. Thus the Lord is sometimes described as formless. This means that He has no form like ours and that He is devoid of a form we can conceive of. Q.5. What does the word sukram (omnipotent) confirms about the Supreme Lord? Ans. The use of the word sukram (omnipotent) confirms that each and every part of the Lords body can do the work of any other senses, which means that the Lord can walk with His hands, accept things with His legs, see with His hands and feet, eat with His eyes, etc. It also indicates that although the Lord has no hands and legs like ours. He has a different type of hands and legs, by which He can accept all that we offer Him and run faster than anyone. Q.6. What is archa-vigraha (deity form)? How does He descends? Ans. Archa-vigraha is the worshipable form of the Supreme Lord, which is installed in temples by authorized acaryas who have realized the Lord in terms of Mantra Seven of r opaniad. This form of the Lord is non-different from the original form of the Lord. The Lords original form is that of r Krishna, and r Krishna expands Himself into an unlimited number of forms, such as Baladeva, Rama, Nrsmiha and Varaha. All of these forms are one and the same Personality of Godhead. Similarly, the archa-vigraha worshiped in the temples is also an expanded form of the Lord. By worshiping the archa-vigraha, one can at once approach the Lord, who accepts the service of a devotee by His omnipotent energy. The archa-vigraha of the Lord descends at the request of the acaryas, the holy teachers, and works exactly in the original way of the Lord by virtue of the Lords omnipotence. Foolish people who have no knowledge of r opaniad or of any of the other ruti-mantras consider archavigraha, which is worshiped by pure devotees, to be made of material elements. This form may be seen as material by the imperfect eyes of foolish people or kanistha-adhikaris, but such people do not know that the Lord, being omnipotent and omniscient, can transform matter into spirit and sprit into matter, as He desires. Q.7. What is the cause of the fallen condition of the living entity? Ans. The fallen condition of the living entities is due entirely to forgetfulness of their relationship with God. The Lord regrets the fallen condition of men with little knowledge who deride Him because He descends like a man into this world. Q.8. What type of people does not know the omnipotence of the Lord? Ans. Those who deride the Lord seeing Him descended in the human form are considered fools and rascals. Such fallen conditioned people who are poorly informed persons do not know the omnipotence of the Lord. Q.9. To whom the Lord does not manifest fully? Ans. The Lord does not manifest Himself in full to the mental speculators. He can be appreciated only in proportion to ones surrender to Him. Q.10. Explain with example whether just the good qualification itself is sufficient or some other condition is also required to enable one to receive awards?

Ans. Mere good qualification only is not sufficient to receive awards. Consent of the awarding authority is also necessary. For example, if one wants to be a high court judge, he must acquire not only the necessary qualification but also the consent of the authority that can award the title of high-court judge. The qualifications in themselves are insufficient for one to occupy the post; it must be awarded by some superior authority. Similarly, when a living being desires something, the Lord supplies the object of that desire in proportion to ones qualification, but good qualifications in themselves are not sufficient to enable one to receive awards. The mercy of the Lord is also required. Q.11. What does the living entity, who knows his constitutional position, demand from Lord? Ans. Ordinarily the living entity does not know what to ask from the Lord, or which post to seek. However, when he comes to know his constitutional position, he asks to be accepted into the transcendental association of the Lord in order to render transcendental loving service unto Him. Q.12. What type of people are described to be of divided or splayed intelligence? Ans. Living being under the spell of material nature who asks many other things from the Supreme Lord other than devotional service is described of having divided or splayed intelligence. Their intelligence is many branched. Q.13. What is the real goal of life? Who forgets this real goal? Ans. The real goal of life is to go back home back to Godhead. However, those who are captivated by the temporary beauties of the external energy forget the real aim of life. Such people try to adjust things by various plans and programs but this is like chewing what has already been chewed. Q.14. What does the word yathatathyatah indicate? Ans. The word yathatathyatah indicate that the Lord rewards the living entities just in pursuance of their desires. If a living wants to go to hell, the Lord allows him to do so without interference, and if he wants to go back home, back to Godhead, the Lord helps him. Q.15. What does the word paribhuh mean? Illustrate its significance. Ans. The word paribhuh mean the greatest of all. No one is greater than or equal to the Lord. Other living entities are described as beggars who ask goods from the Lord. The Lord supplies the things the living entities desire. If the entities were equal to the Lord in potency if they were omnipotent and omniscient there would be no question of their begging from the Lord, even for so called liberation. Real liberation means going back to Godhead. Liberation as conceived by impersonalists is a myth and begging for sense gratification has to continue eternally unless the beggar comes to his spiritual senses and realizes his constitutional position. Q.16. In what sense the Lord is suddham (antiseptic) and appa-viddham (prophylactic)? Discuss. Ans. The Lord is antiseptic in the sense that even an impure thing can become purified just by touching Him. The word prophylactic refers to the power of His association. As mentioned in the Bhagavad-Gt (9.30-31), a devotee may appear to be su-duracara (not well behaved)

in the beginning, but he should be accepted as pure because he is on the right path. This is due to prophylactic nature of the Lords association. The Lord is apapa-viddham because sin cannot touch Him. Even if He acts in a way that appears to be sinful, such actions are allgood, for there is no question of His being affected by sin. Because in all circumstances He is suddham, most purified. He is often compared to the sun. The sun extracts moisture from many untouchable places on the earth, yet it remains pure. If fact, it purifies obnoxious things by virtue of its sterilizing powers. If the sun (a material object) is so powerful, then we can hardly begin to imagine the purifying strength of the all-powerful Lord. Q.17. Establish that the Supreme Lord is not formless, despite apparent Vedic statement that He is so, and explain why the Deity form of the Lord is not material. Ans. Sometimes in the Vedic literatures Lord is sometimes described as formless but this means that He has no form like ours. He is devoid of a form we can conceive with our material senses. The Lords transcendental body is completely different from our bodies. He is not formless. He has His own transcendental form, which is not at all similar to the forms of the mundane world. The transcendental body of the Lord has nothing like veins. He is unembodied which means that there is no difference between His body, mind and His soul. Nor is He forced to accept a body according to the laws of nature. He is the Complete Whole and His mind, body and He Himself are all one and the same. The Lord is sac-cid-anandavigraha, which means that He is the eternal form fully representing transcendental existence, knowledge and bliss. As such He does not require a separate body or mind, as we do in material existence. Each and every part of His body can do the work of the other senses. This means that the Lord can walk with His hands, accept things with His legs, see with His hands and feet, eat with His eyes, etc. In ruti-mantras it is also said that although the Lord has no hands and legs like ours. He has a different type of hands and legs, by which He can accept all that we offer Him and run faster than anyone. Archa-vigraha or deity form of the Lord is His worshipable form, which is installed in temples by authorized acaryas who have realized the Lord. This form of the Lord is nondifferent from the original form of the Lord. The Lords original form is that of r Krishna, and r Krishna expands Himself into an unlimited number of forms, such as Baladeva, Rama, Nrsmiha and Varaha. All of these forms are one and the same Personality of Godhead. Similarly, the archa-vigraha worshiped in the temples is also an expanded form of the Lord. By worshiping the archa-vigraha, one can at once approach the Lord, who accepts the service of a devotee by His omnipotent energy. The archa-vigraha of the Lord descends at the request of the acaryas, the holy teachers, and works exactly in the original way of the Lord by virtue of the Lords omnipotence. Q.18. Analyze Lord Krishnas being pure and uncontaminated, and how the conditioned souls can benefit from His being so. Ans. To confirm that Lord Krishna is always pure and uncontaminated, r opaniad describes Him as suddham (antiseptic) and apapa-viddham (prophylactic). He is antiseptic in the sense that even an impure thing can become purified just by touching Him. The word prophylactic refers to the power of His association. As mentioned in the Bhagavad-Gt (9.30-31), a devotee may appear to be su-duracaram (not well behaved) in the beginning, but he should be accepted as pure because he is on the right path. This is due to prophylactic nature of the Lords association. The Lord is apapa-viddham because sin cannot touch Him.

Even if He acts in a way that appears to be sinful, such actions are all-good, for there is no question of His being affected by sin. Because in all circumstances He is suddham, most purified. He is often compared to the sun. The sun extracts moisture from many untouchable places on the earth, yet it remains pure. If fact, it purifies obnoxious things by virtue of its sterilizing powers. If the sun (a material object) is so powerful, then we can hardly begin to imagine the purifying strength of the all-powerful Lord. Q.19. What is value of understanding that the Lord has no veins? Ans. The concept of veins indicates a material body. The anatomy of a material body must have mechanical construction with veins and so forth. The transcendental body of the Supreme Lord has nothing like veins. It is clearly stated that the Lord is un-embodied which means the body; mind and soul of the Lord are non-different. They are all the same thing sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. Lords body having no veins means Lords body is not material it does not require any mechanical sort of functioning. It is completely transcendental. Q. 20 Fill in the blanks A. The Lord has a transcendental form that is unlike the form of the materially embodied entity The Lord is described as asnviram, _______ ______, His form is not temporary, but is non-different from Himself. Because the Lord is not different from His senses, body, mind, soul, etc. each of His limbs is capable of performing the functions of the others. The Lord is described as unembodied (___________). This emphasises the point that the Lord does not assume a material body like the fallen souls. Rather, his form is saccid-nanda. B. The Lord fulfils the desires of everyone The Lord fulfils the desires of sincere _____________ by accepting them into His association, and He fulfils the material desires of illusioned conditioned souls according to their karmic qualification. C. Ka is the supreme purifying agent The Lord is described as __________ (antiseptic) and appa-viddham (___________). He is understood as uddham because His ________ can purify the most impure things, while He always remains pure. He is appa-viddham because the most impure person can be considered pure if he is engaged in the Lords service, as such service quickly rectifies him. Q. 21 According to this text, how is the varas body different from our body, even after liberation? Does He eat? Can He fight with His enemies? Can he taste only with his tongue? Questions for Mantras 6-8 1. Why are devotees who only desire to transcend the material world still considered materialistic? 2. Why does recognizing others as spirit souls prevent us from exploiting each other? 3. Why does realizing our spiritual nature in relation to the Lord remove all lamentation?

4. Why does the Lord not simply reveal Himself to the atheists to destroy their ignorance and illusion? 5. How can the Lord be considered self-sufficient when He is always seeking enjoyment from the living entities? Answers for Mantras 6-8 Ans. 1: Their desire is still self-centered rather than focused on Krishna. Ans. 2: As spirit souls we are only meant for Krishnas pleasure, not for our own. Ans. 3: One has realized his eternal position in a relationship of unlimited love with the Supreme Person, free from all temporary, material conditions. Ans. 4: He is fulfilling their desire to forget Him. Ans. 5: The living entities are also a part of Him.

Mantra 9-11: Comparing the cultivation of knowledge and nescience / Guidelines for knowledge / Right and Wrong Vidya (for understanding vara)

Connection: Having received the complete vision of the r opaniad in the Invocation and mantras 1-8, we now receive further guidelines on which types of knowledge to seek and which types of practices to follow so that we may also realize this vision. We begin with guidelines for knowledge in mantras 9-11. There are different types of non-devotee, and they achieve varying degrees of misfortune. In order to advance nicely a devotee must understand both the wonderful nature of spiritual life, and the defects of material life, culminating in understanding Lord Kas position as the Supreme Absolute Truth. Key Phrase: Without knowledge of spiritual life, Our material plans lead us to strife. HPS: Now we start this series contrasting those who know the temporary and those who know the permanent, Texts 9-14. CCP: If we look at meaning of 9-11 very literally it seems very confusing. 9 says both vidya and avidy are bad, 10 says vidya and avidy will give different results and 11 says vidya and avidy have to be cultivated together to attain liberation. Meaning of avidy and vidya are different in 3 verses.

We should know both text and context. Since Upaniads are confusing, we have to refer to guru sadhu sastra. Mantra 9 - Those who neglect spiritual knowledge enter into darkness / Comparative Study of Vidya and Avidya / Three Kinds of So-called Knowledge andha tama pravianti ye 'vidym upsate tato bhya iva te tamo ya u vidyym rat Those who engage in the culture of nescient activities shall enter into the darkest region of ignorance. Worse still are those engaged in the culture of so-called knowledge.

Connection: Mantra three referred to different types of killers of the soul or nondevotees, who do not understand the vsya principle. In mantra nine two types of these persons are described: the materially ignorant and the materially knowledgeable. Very Short Summary of Purport A. Ref. to vsya: Both categories, vidya and avidy, seen in terms of life devoid of God consciousness, lead one to sub-human life. Vidya, when meaning material knowledge, is worse (without God consciousness). B. So-called spiritualists possessing a bogus idea of Veda are worse than materialists. C. Real vidya is vsya. Summary of the purport: Mantra Nine states that those who neglect spiritual knowledge shall be covered by darkness and ignorance, especially those who actively impede such knowledge. We can feel this covering of darkness, or frustration, in modern society where we are so advanced in material knowledge, yet we ignore or even avoid spiritual education. People are more confused as to the purpose of life than ever. Material knowledge is certainly necessary, and even beneficial, as long as it is engaged in the Lords service. But when it ignores spiritual life such material knowledge is just another form of ignorance, which distracts us from our actual goal of realizing our eternal nature as spirit souls. Those who commit the worst harm to society are those who pretend to cultivate spiritual knowledge, but only misinterpret scriptural teachings for their own glorification and motivation, and thus mislead others in the name of spiritual life. Overview Para 1 Introduction, why vidya < avidy? Para 2 Less education is better than wrong education Para 3 Karmis: All Isms based on wrong education that goal of life is sense enjoyment Para 4 Since karmis work so due to wrong education, worse are those who provide that wrong education Para 5 Veda Vada Ratas one of the two wrong educators Para 6 All religions teach the same principle there is no contradiction as seen by Veda vada ratas Para 7 Veda Vada Ratas main fault - give own meaning to Vedas, neglect authentic meaning by cryas Para 8 Result of misinterpretation Para 9 Second type of wrong educators - myaypahta-jna Explanation

(Para 1 Introduction, why vidya < avidy?) This mantra offers a comparative study of vidy and avidy. Avidy, or ignorance, is undoubtedly dangerous, but vidy, or knowledge, is even more dangerous when mistaken or misguided. Proof: This mantra of r opaniad is more applicable today than at any time in the past. o Modern civilization has advanced considerably in the field of mass education, but the result is that people are more unhappy than ever before because of the stress placed on material advancement to the exclusion of the most important part of life, the spiritual aspect.

CCP: Previously people might be uncomfortable (sweating under sun), now people are comfortably miserable. Martin Luther King Weve guided missiles and misguided men. HPS: In the purport, three times rla Prabhupda refers to Text One. This Mantra is real knowledge. (Para 2 Less education is better than wrong education) Real Vidya: the Supreme Lord is the proprietor of everything Real Avidya: Forgetfulness of this fact is ignorance. E.g. of Avidya: A godless civilization directed toward the so-called advancement of education is more dangerous than a civilization in which the masses of people are less "educated." (Para 3 Karmis: All Isms based on wrong education that goal of life is sense enjoyment) Industrialism, economic development, altruism, political activism, and so on - are more or less based on satisfaction of the senses, to the exclusion of the kind of God consciousness described in the first mantra. (Para 4 Since karmis work so due to wrong education, worse are those who provide that wrong education) (1) BG (7.15) - people who are engaged in gross sense gratification are mhas stupid. CCP: People have made sense gratification a secular god. George Harrisons hotel towel was divided into 16 parts and sold at large price. But they are worshipped till person provides sense gratification, when he no longer provides it, the person is replaced. Movie and sport stars being worshipped is misuse and abuse of human intelligence. Well think of them at the time of death and yam yam vapi smaran bhavam

And those who play the role of helping this sort of civilization in the name of educational advancement are actually doing more harm than those who are on the platform of gross sense gratification. o (2) Analogy 1: The advancement of learning by a godless people is as dangerous as a valuable jewel on the hood of a cobra. A cobra decorated with a valuable jewel is more dangerous than one not decorated.

BP: Jewelled cobra is more dangerous because he is more attractive. Simple people drink water if they become thirsty. But educated people attract you to drink Coca-Cola. o (3) Analogy 2: In the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (3.11.12), the advancement of education by a godless people is compared to decorations on a dead body. In India, as in many other countries, some people follow the custom of leading a procession with a decorated dead body for the pleasure of the lamenting relatives. o (4) In the same way, modern civilization is a patchwork of activities meant to cover the perpetual miseries of material existence. All such activities are aimed toward sense gratification. But above the senses is the mind, and above the mind is the intelligence, and above the intelligence is the soul. Thus the aim of real education should be self-realization, realization of the spiritual values of the soul. Any education which does not lead to such realization must be considered avidy, or nescience. To culture such nescience means to go down to the darkest region of ignorance. CCP: Such as there are right wing Hindu, Muslims, etc. there are right wing atheists who claim religion is source of all problem. They are the worst. Technology in itself is not bad, but today what is it being used for? Sense gratification. (Para 5 Veda Vada Ratas one of the two wrong educators) BG (2.42, 7.15) - mistaken mundane educators are known as veda-vda-rata and myaypahta-jna. (1) Veda-vda-rata pose themselves as very learned in the Vedic literature, but unfortunately they are completely diverted from the purpose of the Vedas Personality of Godhead. o CCP: They are karma kandis. Word veda vada rata comes from BG 2.42. E.g. Visa Ganesa Temple. Do Jihad, you will get 71 virgins according to one Christian interpretation of Quran. Vedic Brahmanas in tenth canto. BP: Initially devotees didnt knew who a myvd is. So they thought Swami Ji criticizes Myvds because he had bad experience with some myvd. But it is not like that they are really dangerous. Prabhupda here particularly talking about Arya Samaja. (Para 6 All religions teach the same principle there is no contradiction as seen by veda vada ratas) The purpose of all Vedic literature is to awaken vsya consciousness in the forgetful living being. This same purpose is presented in various ways in the different scriptures of the world for the understanding of a foolish mankind. Thus the ultimate purpose of all religions is to bring one back to Godhead. (Para 7 Veda Vada Ratas main fault - give own meaning to Vedas, neglect authentic meaning by cryas) (2) But veda vada ratas consider attaining heavenly planets as goal of Vedas. (3) Misguide others by misinterpreting the Vedic literature - search out meanings in every word of the Vedas to suit their own purposes. (4) Sometimes they even condemn the Puras. (5) Give their own explanations of the Vedas, neglecting the authority of great teachers (cryas).

(6) Tend to raise some unscrupulous person from among themselves and present him as the leading exponent of Vedic knowledge. (7) They do not know that the Vedic literature is a collection of extraordinary books that can be understood only through the chain of disciplic succession. Why they are condemned? Because they are ignorant of the actual purpose of the Vedas on account of their disobeying the cryas. (Para 8 Result of misinterpretation) They fall even further into ignorance than those who have no knowledge of the Vedas at all. (Para 9 Second type of wrong educators - myaypahta-jna)

(1) The myaypahta-jna class of men are self-made "Gods." o BP: They are closer to myvds. o CCP: This word comes from BG 7.15. (2) Such men think that they themselves are God and that there is no need of worshiping any other God.

(3) They will agree to worship an ordinary man if he happens to be rich, but they will never worship the Personality of Godhead. (4) Such men, unable to recognize their own foolishness, never consider how it is that God can be entrapped by my, His own illusory energy. o Argument: If God were ever entrapped by my, my would be more powerful than God. Such men say that God is all-powerful, but they do not consider that if He is all-powerful there is no possibility of His being overpowered by my. o BP: When their God cant come out illusion they say it is Lila. So their god eats meat, has illicit sex, etc. Main Points Discussed Mantra three referred to different types of killers of the soul or nondevotees, who do not understand the vsya principle. In mantra nine two types of these persons are described: the materially ignorant and the materially knowledgeable. rla Prabhupda explains that to be materially knowledgeable is more dangerous than to be ignorant: As far as vidya is concerned, the first mantra has explained very clearly that the Supreme Lord is the proprietor of everything and that forgetfulness of this fact is ignorance. The more a man forgets this fact of life, the more he is in darkness. In view of this, a godless civilization directed toward so-called advancement of education is more dangerous than a civilization in which the masses of people are less educated. Of course, those who are ignorant are very unfortunate, but the so-called education of mundane intellectuals is worse. rla Prabhupda compares it to a jewel on the head of a cobra it looks attractive, but that attractiveness makes the cobra even more dangerous. There are two types of these materialistic educators: the veda-vada-rata pose themselves as being Vedic authorities, but actually divert their students from the real goal of the Vedas, which is to serve Lord Ka. They speculate, independent of the real disciplic succession. The mayayapahrta-jna type manufacture Gods whimsically, even taking that position themselves, but despite claiming such a loft position, they are unable to deliver themselves from illusion, what to speak of their followers. 1. Comparative study of vidya and avidy. 2. Mistaken or misguided knowledge is more dangerous than ignorance 3. Advancement of learning by godless people is as dangerous as a valuable jewel on the hood of a cobra. 4. Any education which does not lead to realization of the self and realization of the spiritual value of the soul must be considered avidy or nescience. 5. Culture of nescience means to go down to the darkest region of ignorance 6. The aim of the real education is self-realization and realization of the spiritual values of the soul 7. Ved-vadaratah mistaken mundane educators 8. Mayayapahrta-jna - self-made Gods Exercise Read: Read mantra nine and purport, along with its study guide summary.

Focus: Focus on the difference between ignorance, knowledge which is harmful, and knowledge which is beneficial. We can pray to be able to recognize these differences and become attracted to cultivating beneficial knowledge. Consider: Spiritual knowledge received from pure devotees of the Lord is always beneficial. But consider how knowledge of this material world may be either harmful or beneficial according to how it is used. Modern technology, for example, can easily be used to broadcast either atheistic or spiritual ideas. Consider how ignorance may be preferable to such material advancement. Describe: Describe different ways in which material knowledge can actually be harmful to society, and why ignorance may be preferable to such knowledge. Question and Answers Q.1. How can knowledge be considered worse than ignorance? Ans. Avidy or ignorance is undoubtedly dangerous, but vidya, or knowledge, is even more dangerous when mistaken or misguided. This mantra of r opaniad is more applicable today than at any time in the past. Modern civilization has advanced considerably in the field of mass education but the result is that people are unhappy than ever before because of the stress placed on material advancement to the exclusion of the most important part of life, the spiritual aspect. Those who simply engage in the profitless pursuit of sense gratification are worshiping avidy, they are ignorant fools but worse than these people are those who play the role of helping this sort of civilization in the name of educational advancement. These people are actually doing more harm than those who are on the platform of gross sense gratification. As far as vidya is concerned, it is to know that the proprietor of everything is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and forgetful of this fact is ignorance. The more a man forgets this fact of life, the more he is in darkness. In view of this a godless civilization directed toward the so called advancement of education is more dangerous than a civilization in which the masses of people are less educated. Q.2. What is the real education and what are its aims? Ans. As far as vidya or real knowledge is concerned it is to know that everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. The Supreme Lord is the proprietor of everything that exists. And one should accept only those things necessary and kept as his quota for his maintenance. The aim of real education should be self-realization, realization of the spiritual values of the soul. Any education which does not lead to such realization must be considered avidy or nescience. Vidya means to become aware of the transcendental reality and lead life with God in the centre of all activities. If we forget this fact of life and culture nescience we will be pushed down to the darkest region of ignorance. Q.3. Discuss the four kinds of men who worship ignorance? Ans. Four kinds of men who worship ignorance are (i) Those miscreants who are grossly foolish (ii) Those who are lowest among the man kind (iii) Those whose knowledge is stolen by illusion and (iv) Those who partake of the atheistic nature of demons. These people who

are engaged in the work of gross sense gratification are mudhas asses. The ass is a symbol of stupidity. Those who simply engage in the profitless pursuit of sense gratification are worshiping avidy. And those who play the role of helping this sort of civilization in the name of educational advancement are actually doing more harm than those who are on the platform of gross sense gratification. Q.4. What is avidy? What types of people are engaged in the pursuit of avidy? Ans. Avidy is ignorance. Ignorance is the lack of knowledge of the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead r Krishna. Any education which does not lead to realization of the self and realization of the spiritual value of the soul must be considered avidy or nescience. Those who are in deep ignorance deride the position of the Lord. The Lord is the sole proprietor of everything that exists, enjoyer of everything that is there and the greatest wellwisher of everyone. Forgetfulness of this fact is ignorance. The more a man forgets this fact of life, the more he is in darkness. The godless civilization directed towards the so-called advancement of education is actually advancing more and more towards deep dark ignorance. Culture of nescience means to go down to the darkest region of ignorance. Those who does not believe in the authority of the Supreme Lord are actually engaged in the pursuit of avidy. They are categorized in for different types viz. (i) Those miscreants who are grossly foolish (ii) Those who are lowest among the man kind (iii) Those whose knowledge is stolen by illusion and (iv) Those who partake of the atheistic nature of demons. Q.5. Which class of men is called karms and what are their activities? Ans. Of the different classes of men karms, jnanis and yogis the karms are those who are engaged in the activities of sense gratification. In the modern civilization, 99.9 percent of people are engaged in the activities of sense gratification under the flags of industrialism, economic development, altruism, political activism, and so on. All these activities are more or less based on satisfaction of the senses. In the language of Bhagavad-Gt (7.15), people who are engaged in gross sense gratification are mudhas asses. The ass is a symbol of stupidity. Those who simply engage in the profitless pursuit of sense gratification are worshiping avidy, according to r opaniad. Q.6. How the advancement of learning by godless people is evaluated? Ans. The advancement of learning by godless people is evaluated to be like a jewel on the hood of a cobra. A cobra decorated with a valuable jewel is more dangerous than one not decorated. In the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (3.11.12), the advancement of education by a godless people is compared to decorations on a dead body. Q.7. Explain how the modern civilization is a patchwork of activities meant to cover the perpetual miseries of material existence. Ans. The modern civilization is a patchwork of activities meant to cover the perpetual miseries of material existence because all the activities of the modern civilization are aimed towards sense gratification. It does not reveal the reality of the material existence. It is just like decorations on a dead body. In India, as in many other countries, some people follow the custom of leading a procession with a decorated dead body for the pleasure of the lamenting

relatives. In the same way the modern civilization by its misguided education tries to cover up the reality of this miserable material existence. Q.8. Who is veda-vada-rata? Illustrate their disposition and destination? Ans. According to the Bhagavad-Gt (2.42, 7.15), mistaken mundane educators are known as ved-vada-rata and mayayapahrta-jna. They may also be atheistic demons, the lowest of men. Those who are veda-vada-rata pose themselves as very learned in the Vedic literature, but unfortunately they are completely diverted from the purpose of the Vedas. In the Bhagavad-Gt (15.15) it is said that the purpose of the Vedas is to know the Personality of Godhead, but these veda-vada-rata men are not at all interested in the Personality of Godhead. On the contrary, they are fascinated by such fruitive results as the attainment of heaven. Veda-vada-rata people, instead of realizing that the purpose of the Vedas is to revive the forgetful souls lost relationship with the Personality of Godhead, take it for granted that attainment of heavenly pleasure, which the cause of material bondage, as the ultimate end of the Vedas. Such people misguide others by misinterpreting the Vedic literature. Sometime they even condemn the puranas, which are authentic Vedic explanations for laymen. The veda-vada-ratas give their own explanations of the Vedas, neglecting the authority of great teachers (acaryas). They also tend to raise some unscrupulous person from among themselves and present him as the leading exponent of Vedic knowledge. The veda-vada-rata people have their own acaryas, who are not in the chain of transcendental succession. Veda-vada-rata people with their misunderstanding and misinterpretation of Vedic literatures and by following their unscrupulous acaryas gradually progress into the darkest region of ignorance. They fall even further into ignorance than those who have no knowledge of the Vadas at all. Q.9. What is the ultimate purpose of all religions? Ans. The ultimate purpose of all religions is to bring the forgetful living being back to Godhead by awakening God consciousness in the forgetful living being. This same purpose is presented in various different ways in different scriptures of the world. Q.10. Who is mayayapahrta-jna? Explain their attributes? Ans. The mayayapahrta-jna class of men are self-made Gods. Such men think that they themselves are God and that there is no need to worshiping any other God. They will agree to worship an ordinary man if he happens to be rich, but they will never worship the Personality of Godhead. Such men, unable to recognize their own foolishness, never consider how it is that God can be entrapped by my, His own illusory energy. If God were ever entrapped by my, my would be more powerful than God. Such men say that God is all-powerful, but they do not consider that if He is all-powerful there is no possibility of His being overpowered by my. These self-made Gods cannot answer all these questions very clearly; they are simply satisfied to have become God themselves (danda dharan matrena naro narayana bhaveh). Q. 11. a) What is the English translation of atma-ha? b) Explain what an atma-ha is.

c) Describe the 3 different types of atma-ha or ignorant people mentioned in rla Prabhupdas purport to verse 9. d) What are the destinations of the atma-ha? Q.12 Fill in the blanks A. Ignorance is dangerous, but even worse is misguided knowledge __________ (knowledge) is to know the supreme proprietorship of Lord. Avidya (__________) leads one to darkness, as one in ignorance will act in disharmony with the Lords creation. Ignorance that is disguised as _________ is worse, however, because it gives one the illusion of advancement without giving him any spiritual enlightenment. Such is the modern situation, where on a mass scale people are educated to believe that __________ ___________ is the goal of life. Analogy: Such education is like a jewel on the head of a cobra very attractive, yet ultimately dangerous. B. Worse than materialists are pseudo-spiritualists, who misled other about the true conclusions of sastra. _____-_____-_____: Such people claim to be scholars of the Vedas, but do not approach the Vedas through the disciplic succession. They instead concoct their own understanding. Therefore, they miss the true goal of the Vedas, r Ka, Veda-vada-ratas prefer to believe that the goal of the Vedas is ______ __________ by elevation to higher planets. Due to their gross misunderstanding, they fall down. ___________-_______: These people are puffed up by material accumulation of knowledge and think themselves God. They do not consider how God could be overpowered by the material energy as they are. Mantra 10 - One result from cultivating spiritual knowledge, another from neglecting it anyad evhur vidyaynyad hur avidyay iti uruma dhr ye nas tad vicacakire The wise have explained that one result is derived from the culture of knowledge and that a different result is obtained from the culture of nescience. Connection: Mantra 9 described the results of cultivating ignorance and false knowledge. Mantra 10 explains that true knowledge brings a different result than either of these. It also emphasises the need to take guidance from a dhira in the act of discriminating between real and illusory knowledge. Very Short Summary A. Itemized listing of BG (13.8-12). Contrasted with modern symptoms of avidy. B. Vidya must come of the perfectly realized dhira. This is real education. Summary of Purport

In Mantra Ten we hear from authorities that a certain result is derived from culturing spiritual knowledge and a different result is derived from neglecting such knowledge. Because knowledge of the soul is not being taught in modern education there is animosity in all social, political, and religious fields today. As we attempt to dominate this material nature more and more, not considering its creator or purpose, the result is we fall more and more into fighting and war. Along with cultivating knowledge of this material world, we must also acquire spiritual knowledge from the self-realized souls who understand our common eternal spiritual nature in relation to the Supreme Lord. Overview Para 1and 2 - How to cultivate knowledge? / Vidya leads to desirable qualities Para 2 to 5 - Avidya leads to undesirable qualities. Para 2- Advancement of material knowledge makes one an ass Para 3 Faults of Modern University Education Para 4 and 5 Nescience leads to nationalism and chauvinism Para 6 to 9 Only a dhira can teach vidya Para 6 How to come out of this nescience? take knowledge from a dhira Para 7 What knowledge makes dhira undisturbed? Para 8 The process of becoming dhira Para 9 Modern politicians are adhira, hence unqualified to lead Explanation Vidyaya and dhira are the important words. CCP: Scriptures use contrast as a potent means to explain. Even Ka uses in BG.

(Para 1and 2 - How to cultivate knowledge? / Vidya leads to desirable qualities) As advised in Bhagavad-gt (13.8-12), one should culture knowledge in 18 ways. CCP: BG gives 20 qualities which rla Prabhupda puts in 18 sentences. Humility is shown by how we respect others. Humility is not low about us, but less about us. Prabhupda is co-relating opaniad and Gitopanisad. rla Prabhupda gives profound definition of ahimsa. BP: Culture of knowledge doesnt mean reading lots of books. It is a whole culture of life. It involves many things including books also, but not that alone. BP: Mahbhgavat behave according to these 18 qualities. So it means Ka is behind them. You have to be equipoised and humble to see problems of life as they are, people as they are and God as He is. E.g. Cobbler and brahmana. Ravana was highly intelligent, but he couldnt understand Ka because he was not humble. If you are not humble, you will look down devotees and hence your knowledge will be incomplete. So this culture is very important. These eighteen items combine to form a gradual process by which real knowledge can be developed.

CCP: Francis Bacons thoughts mainly lead to development of science and technology. He was a post-renaissance thinker. These days tamasic knowledge how may children does this movie star have, etc.

Pooling means accumulating Learning should be for living, not just for earning. Today this emphasis is lost. One line summarizes para 2 to 5: No one cares for the cultivation of real knowledge, yet people are falsely proud of being advanced in both material and spiritual knowledge. Avidya leads to undesirable qualities. HPS: The 'veda-vata-ratas' teach the Karmis how to smoke cigarettes. (Para 2- Advancement of material knowledge makes one an ass)

Except for these 18 items, all other methods are considered to be in the category of nescience. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura - all forms of material knowledge are merely external features of the illusory energy and that by culturing them one becomes no better than an ass. o By advancement of material knowledge, modern man is simply being converted into an ass. Some materialistic politicians in spiritual guise decry the present system of civilization as satanic, but unfortunately they do not care about the culture of real knowledge as it is described in the Bhagavad-gt. Thus they cannot change the satanic situation. (Para 3 Faults of Modern University Education) Even a boy thinks himself self-sufficient and pays no respect to elderly men o CCP: In Kaliyuga, finding fault in someone requires as much cleverness as finding water in ocean. Kaler dosa nidhi rajan. Students - no amanitvam and no saucham. Student not given instructions in the regulative principles of brahmacarya o CCP: Even 100-150 yrs. ago both in east and west it was understood that education includes self-mastery, so there was no co-education. Q to Aristotle when should we have sex? Ans Whenever you want to be weaker than yourself. Centers of nescience only - scientists busy discovering lethal weapons. (no ahimsa) o CCP: Einstein sent a letter to US government which led to Manhattan project which led to development of atom bomb. When he saw destruction in Hiroshima and Nagasaki he said sending that letter was my biggest mistake. He thought Hitler might develop it, so better America develops it before. It was found that Hitler was nowhere near. Hitler sent scholars to India to find if he could get brahmastra. Now we have chemical weapons as big as a cell phone which can destroy several kilometres. No faith in any scriptural injunctions. Religious principles are taught for the sake of name and fame only and not for the sake of practical action. (no adambhitvam) o CCP: In Ganesa festival, the size of Ganesa deity becomes symbol of size of false ego of the maker. Film songs are played before the deity. Cheap initiations on whoevers head the water of gurus feet water falls will be initiated. This is mutually self-serving and self-deluding. Result: Animosity not only in social and political fields but in the field of religion as well. (Para 4 and 5 Nescience leads to nationalism and chauvinism) Nationalism developed due to the cultivation of nescience by the general people. No one considers that this tiny earth is just a lump of matter floating in immeasurable space along with many other lumps. o Analogy: In comparison to the vastness of space, these material lumps are like dust particles in the air.

The drivers of spaceships very proud of their achievements, but do not consider the supreme driver of these planets. We small creatures are trying to dominate these unlimited planets. Result: Repeated birth and death and frustration by old age and disease. Disregarding above result, befooled men have created their own nations within these planets in order to grasp sense enjoyment more effectively for few years of life. Result: Every nation has become a source of anxiety for others. More than fifty percent of a nation's energy is devoted to defense measures and thus spoiled. CCP: There are para dharma and apara dharma. Were not condemning nationalist feeling, but were saying that we have to transcend nationalism. (Para 6 How to come out of this nescience? take knowledge from a dhira) r opaniad warns us of this faulty type of education, and the Bhagavad-gt gives instructions as to the development of real knowledge. The instructions of vidy (knowledge) must be acquired from a dhra. Definition: A dhra is one who is not disturbed by material illusion. A dhra realizes that the material body and mind he has acquired by chance through material association are but foreign elements; therefore he simply makes the best use of a bad bargain. o CCP: Chance means there is no intrinsic connection between soul and mind & body. It means we have nothing to do with body. Doesnt mean there is no order. (Para 7 What knowledge makes dhira undisturbed?) A dhira knows that: o The material body and mind are bad bargains for the spiritual living entity. o The living entity has actual functions in the living, spiritual world, but this material world is dead. o As long as the living spiritual sparks manipulate the dead lumps of matter, the dead world appears to be a living world. How to get this knowledge? Hear from superior authorities and realize by following the regulative principles. (Para 8 The process of becoming dhira) To follow the regulative principles, one must take shelter of a bona fide spiritual master. One can become a dhra only by submissively hearing from a bona fide spiritual master. The perfect disciple must be like Arjuna, and the spiritual master must be as good as the Lord Himself. This is the process of learning vidy (knowledge) from the dhra (the undisturbed). (Para 9 Modern politicians are adhira, hence unqualified to lead) My comment: rla Prabhupda criticizes modern politicians second time in one purport.

Modern politicians who pose themselves as dhras are actually adhras (untrained), and one cannot expect perfect knowledge from them. o BP: Prabhupda referring to a famous example from India. They are simply busy seeing to their own remuneration in dollars and cents. How, then, can they lead the mass of people to the right path of self-realization? My comment: Dhira comes in BG, NOI and ISO. We must become dhras. Main Points Discussed rla Prabhupda explains knowledge by referring to Bhagavad-Gt 13.8-12, in which Lord Ka explains the gradual process by which real knowledge can be developed. Except for these, all other methods will not help. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura goes so far as to say that other methods will only help one become as ass! Modern educational institutions are failing to produce people of character, and are helping only to increase the problems humanity faces. Ignorance in the form of nationalism is threatening the world situation, but despite all these problems people fail to grasp the importance of spiritual knowledge. One has to receive proper knowledge from a qualified teacher, a dhira, or undisturbed, spiritually aware person, not an adhira who is the opposite. 1. Process of culturing true knowledge (vidya) 2. True knowledge brings a different result than that of culture of nescience 3. Need to take guidance from a dhira one who not disturbed by nescience 4. Discrimination between real and illusory knowledge 5. Material life bad bargain 6. All forms of material knowledge manifestation of illusory energy of the Lord 7. Loss to human society due to culture of nescience 8. Modern education system killer of the spiritual consciousness 9. Effects of culture of avidy or ignorance 10. Material planets dead lump of matter floating in space like dust particles Exercise Read: Read mantra ten and purport, along with study guide summary. Focus: Focus on the harmful results which arise from neglecting spiritual knowledge in contrast with the peace which may arise from cultivating such knowledge. We can pray to understand the beneficial results of spiritual life. Consider: Society in general today does not recognize the practical relevance of cultivating spiritual knowledge. Accepting that the goal of knowledge is simply to learn how to live and enjoy more in this temporary material world, the result is that we are exploiting the earths resources and have degraded ourselves to unrestricted sense enjoyment and continuous fighting. Notice how many problems we face in the world are a direct result of not cultivating knowledge of the soul and our common eternal relationship with the Lord as His servants. Describe: Describe the results of advancing in material knowledge while ignoring spiritual knowledge. What would be the result if society in general cultivated spiritual knowledge?

Question and Answers Q.1. What are the different processes of culturing knowledge? Ans. The process of culturing knowledge has been advised in Bhagavad-Gt (13.8-12). These are given as follows: (i) One should become a perfect gentleman and learn to give proper respect to others (ii) One should not pose himself as a religionist simply for name and fame (iii) One should not become a source of anxiety to others by the action of his body, the thoughts of his mind or by his words (iv) One should learn forbearance even in the face of provocation from others (v) One should learn to avoid duplicity in his dealings with others (vi) One should search out a bona fide spiritual master who can lead him gradually to the stage of spiritual realization, and one must submit himself to such a spiritual master, render him service and ask relevant questions (vii) In order to approach the platform of self-realization, one must follow the regulative principles enjoined in the revealed scriptures (viii) One must be fixed in the tenets of the revealed scriptures (ix) One should completely refrain from practices which are detrimental to the interest of self-realization (x) One should not accept more than he requires for the maintenance of the body (xi) One should not falsely identify himself with the gross material body, nor should one consider those who are related to his body to be his own (xii) One should always remember that as long as he has a material body he must face the miseries of repeated birth, old age, disease and death. There is no use in making plans to get rid of these miseries of the material body. The best course is to find out the means by which one may regain his spiritual identity (xiii) One should not be attached to more than the necessities of life required for spiritual advancement (xiv) One should not be more attached to wife, children and home than the revealed scriptures ordain (xv) One should not be happy or distressed over desirables and undesirables, knowing that such feelings are just created by the mind (xvi) One should become an unalloyed devotee of the Personality of Godhead, r Krishna, and serve Him with rapt attention

(xvii) One should develop a liking for residence in a secluded place with a calm and quite atmosphere favorable for spiritual culture, and one should avoid congested places where nondevotees congregate (xviii) One should become a scientist or philosopher and conduct research into spiritual knowledge, recognizing that spiritual knowledge is permanent whereas material knowledge ends with the death of the body The above eighteen items combine to form a gradual process by which real knowledge can be developed. Except for these, all other methods are considered to be in the category of nescience. Q.2. What, according to rla Bhaktivinoda Thkura, is the features illusory knowledge? Ans. According to rla Bhaktivinoda Thkura, a great acarya, all forms of material knowledge are merely external features of the illusory energy and that by culturing them one becomes no better than an ass. This same principle is found in r opaniad. By advancement of material knowledge, modern man is simply being converted into an ass. Q.3. Analyze the loss human society has incurred because of the culture of nescience and explain why modern politicians cannot be instructive leaders of society? Ans. The major loss that the human society has incurred because of the culture of nescience is that the society is simply being converted into an ass. It is becoming satanic. In the modern society, even a boy thinks he is self-sufficient and pays no respect to elderly men. Due to wrong type of education being imparted in our universities, boys all over the world are giving their elders headaches. In the modern society, universities are actually centres of nescience only. Scientists are busy discovering lethal weapons to wipe out the existence of other countries. University students today are not given instructions in the regulative principles of brahmacharya (celibate student life), nor do they have any faith in any scriptural injunctions. In the modern society, religions principles are taught for the sake of name and fame only and not for the sake of practical action. Thus there is animosity not only in social and political fields but in the field of religion as well. Nationalism has developed in different parts of the world due to the cultivation of nescience by the general people. Some politicians in spiritual guise decry the present system of civilization as satanic, but unfortunately they do not care about the culture of real knowledge as it is described in the Bhagavad-Gt. Thus they cannot change the satanic situation. They cannot do anything. Others misguide the general masses and force them on the path of material existence. The modern politicians who possess themselves as dhiras are actually adhiras, one cannot expect perfect knowledge from the. They are simply busy seeing to their own remuneration in dollars and cents. How, then can they lead the mass of people to the right path of selfrealization? Q.4. Analyze the modern education system and how it kills the spiritual consciousness of the students? Ans. The modern education system all over the world is that kind of system which is engaged only in the culturing of nescience in the students. It is actually killing the original consciousness of the soul which is to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Service to

the Supreme Personality is possible only when the soul understands the supremacy of the Godhead r Krishna. The soul must know that it has no independence and when it tries to become independent or enjoy independent of Krishna then he suffers perpetually in this existence of continuous miseries. The consequence of the modern day education is that even a small boy thinks he is independent and self-sufficient and pays no respect to God or any other elderly men. Due to the wrong type of education being imparted in our schools and universities, boys all over the world are giving their elders headaches. The universities are, so to speak, centres of nescience only; consequently scientists are busy discovering lethal weapons to wipe out the existence of other countries. University students today are not given instructions in the regulative principles of brahmacharya (celibate student life), nor do they have any faith in any scriptural injunctions. Religious principles are taught for the sake of name and fame only and not for the sake of practical action. Thus there is animosity not only in social and political fields but in the field of religion as well. Q.5. What are the effects of the culture of nescience or avidy? Ans. Because of the culture of nescience or avidy (i) People are becoming fools and rascal like an ass out of him (ii) The spread of satanic situation in the society is taking place (iii) There is disharmony in the society no one respects to anyone (iv) Nationalism has developed in different parts of the world (v) People are generally frustrated because of the repeated cycle of birth, old age, disease and death (vi) People have created their own nations within the small planet in order to grasp sense enjoyment more effectively for very short period (vii) Each and every nation has become a source of anxiety for other nations (viii) More than 50% of a nations energy is devoted to defence measures (ix) No one cares for the cultivation of real knowledge (x) People are becoming falsely proud of being advanced in both material and spiritual knowledge Q.6. Who is a dhira and what are his qualifications? Ans. A dhira is one who is not disturbed by material illusion. No one can be undisturbed unless he is perfectly spiritually realized, at which time one neither hankers nor laments for anything. A dhira realizes that the material body and mind he has acquired by chance through material association are but foreign elements; therefore he simply makes the best use of a bad bargain. The dhiras know that this material body and mind are bad bargains for the spiritual living entity and they have realized this knowledge by hearing from higher authorities and by following the regulative principles. One can become a dhira only by submissively hearing from a bona fide spiritual master like Arjuna became a dhira by submissively hearing from Lord Krishna, the Personality of Godhead Himself.

Q.7. Analyze the concept of nationalism that has developed in different parts of the world in accordance of Mantra 10 of r opaniad. Ans. As a consequence of culture of nescience Nationalism has developed in different parts of the world. Due to false identification of the real self, people generally think the body to be the self and the things related to the body to be theirs in the mood of me and mine. The concept of nationalism indicated that people think the place of their birth as their country and develop a sense of nationalism. No one considers that this tiny earth is just a lump of matter floating in immeasurable space along with many other lumps. In comparison to the vastness of space, these material lumps are like dust particles in the air. Because God has kindly made these lumps of matter complete in themselves, they are perfectly equipped with all necessities for floating in space. The drivers of our spaceships may be very proud of their achievements, but they do not consider the supreme driver of these greater, more gigantic spaceships called planets. There are innumerable suns and innumerable planetary systems also. As infinitesimal parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, we small creatures are trying to dominate these unlimited planets. Thus we take repeated birth and death and are generally frustrated by old age and disease. The span of human life is scheduled for about a hundred years, although it is gradually decreasing to twenty or thirty years. Thanks to the culture of nescience, befooled men have created their own nations within these planets in order to grasp sense enjoyment more effectively for these few years. Such foolish people draw up various plans to render national demarcations perfectly, a task that is totally impossible. Yet for this purpose each and every nation has become a source of anxiety for others. More than 50% of the nations energy is devoted to defence measures and thus spoiled. Q.8. From whom the real knowledge can be acquired from? Ans. The real knowledge can be acquired from a dhira. A dhira is one who is not disturbed by material illusion. One has become a dhira by submissively hearing from a bona fide spiritual master therefore, he can impart the real knowledge that is coming from the Supreme Personality of Godhead through the bona fide disciplic succession. Q.9. What is a bad bargain for the spiritual living entity? Ans. This material body and mind are the bad bargain for the spiritual living entity. The living entity has actual functions in the living, spiritual world, but this material world is dead. Q.10. How this dead world appears to be living? Ans. As long as the living spiritual spark manipulates the dead lumps of matter, the dead world appears to be living world. Actually it is the living souls, the parts and parcels of the supreme living being, which move the world. Q.11. How the transcendental message and regulative principles come to the disciples? Ans. The transcendental message and the regulative principles come to the disciples from the spiritual master. Therefore to receive the transcendental message and follow regulative principles, one must take shelter of the Spiritual Master. One can become a dhira by submissively hearing from a bona fide spiritual master. Q.12. Explain who is adhira?

Ans. One who has not undergone the training of a dhira is an adhira. An adhira cannot be an instructive leader. Modern politicians who pose themselves as dhiras are actually adhiras, and one cannot expect perfect knowledge from them. They are simply busy seeing to their own remuneration in dollars and cents. How, then, can they lead the mass of people to the right part of self-realization. Q. 13 Fill in the blanks A. True knowledge is the process by which one realises ___________. _____________ _____________. Knowledge of the varieties of material phenomenon simply binds when devoid of spiritual understanding ______________ ___________ devoid of spiritual discipline brings only an increase of bad qualities such as pride and nationalism. Modern education focuses on the advancement of technology. Due to the lack of moral education, such technology is used simply to further _________ ____________. B. One can discriminate between knowledge and illusion by accepting the instructions of a ____________ The dhira is off the bodily platform and can thus give instructions that are beneficial for ones spiritual progress. To qualify as a dhira, one must be a disciple of a genuine guru, have detachment, and spiritual knowledge. Untrained imitators should be avoided. Mantra 11 - Integrate spiritual and material knowledge while living in the world vidy cvidy ca yas tad vedobhaya saha avidyay mtyu trtv vidyaymtam anute Only one who can learn the process of nescience and that of transcendental knowledge side by side can transcend the influence of repeated birth and death and enjoy the full blessings of immortality. Connection: The previous two mantras have explained that ignorance and false knowledge bind one and are in contrast to true knowledge. Mantra 11 describes how one must know the relative positions of material and spiritual knowledge to transcend the material energy and attain deathlessness. Summary of the Purport Mantra Eleven assures us that if we can cultivate our material knowledge alongside spiritual knowledge we can transcend this temporary world and attain our eternal position. Material science and knowledge alone can never free us from birth, death, disease, and old age. We must revive our eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord. Actually the soul always exists eternally, but our material attachments bind us to this temporary world of repeated birth and death. In modern society we seek only that knowledge which will increase our material desires and sense gratification, and thus only delivers us into the cruel hands of death. As we learn to live in this material world we must also seek knowledge of the soul and our eternal relationship with the Supreme Soul. The goal of all knowledge is to engage even our material knowledge in the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by hearing about, glorifying, remembering, and worshiping Him.

Overview Para 1-5: No one can be materially immortal Para 6-14: Immortality possible only by following Kas teachings Para 6 & 7 How to become immortal? Leave this world. The knowledge is in the Textbooks. God comes and also sends Professors. The material world is pushing us to learn. Para 8 to 10 The contents of the Textbooks summarized: Enjoying material sense enjoyment keeps us in this mortal world. Keep a balance of material and spiritual activities Para 11 to 13 Incorrect use of dharma, artha, kama and moksa Attain immortality through para dharma - know Ka personally Para 14 Real use of Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksa for attaining immortality Explanation HPS: Key word here is amrta. It's one of the 18 aspects of knowledge cited from the Gt in Text 10. HPS: Still in our series, ISKCON vs. the modern universities, and here rla Prabhupda introduces the Textbooks. This is the 3rd longest purport. Two bigger ones are yet to come!! VIHE: The Hard struggle for existence is for deathlessness. The only permanent life is to go back to Godhead. CCP: If we have to reach a place by crossing ocean, weve to know how to row the boat and we also have to know the destination.

(Para 1-5: No one can be materially immortal)

The advancement of material knowledge has not solved these problems birth, old age, disease and death. Even Hirayakaipu, the most powerful of materialists, could not become deathless by his various plans. What, then, can be accomplished by the tiny Hirayakaipus of today, whose plans are thwarted from moment to moment? o BP: HK is like the greatest acarya of veda vada rata or my prahata jna. o CCP: Darwin said survival of the fittest, but even the fittest dont survive. Everyone is struggling hard for existence, but the laws of material nature are so hard and fast that they do not allow anyone to surpass them. In order to attain a permanent life, one must be prepared to go back to Godhead. CCP: Similar example if Ravana. He tried to shoot Nrada but arrows disappeared in his body. Why? He befriended Nrada and asked. Nrada said because my body is spiritual. (Para 6 & 7 How to become immortal? Leave this world. The knowledge is in the Textbooks. God comes and also sends Professors. The material world is pushing us to learn.) To become happy in this life and attain a permanent blissful life after leaving this material body, one must study sacred literature and obtain transcendental knowledge. From His kingdom the Personality of Godhead sends His bona fide servants to propagate this message by which one can return to Godhead, and sometimes the Lord comes Himself to do this work. The miseries of this material world serve to indirectly remind us of our incompatibility with dead matter. Intelligent living entities generally take note of these reminders and engage themselves in the culture of vidy, or transcendental knowledge. o BP: This is the first aspect to learn nescience. Last sloka of catursolki Bhgavatam say you should inquire about Absolute Truth both directly (Ka is supreme personality of Godhead, only this will make you a sahajiya) and indirectly (how bad material life is, neti neti, only this makes you impersonalist). So both are necessary. o CCP: Direct education comes by theory, indirect education comes by experience. Experience has to be connected with the education for learning to be happen. Then we can make spiritual advancement. My stomach got bad. May be by chance I was unlucky, tomorrow Ill be lucky and Ill overeat again. So there would be no learning. Scriptures may give other peoples realizations and devotees may give their realizations and help us making connection, but it is we have to make the connection. Ka says dukhayamasasvatam, movies says they lived happily ever after. Both are exactly opposite. Human life is the best opportunity for the culture of spiritual knowledge, and a human being who does not take advantage of this opportunity is called a nardhama, the lowest of human beings. (Para 8 to 10 The contents of the Textbooks summarized: Enjoying material sense enjoyment keeps us in this mortal world. Keep a balance of material and spiritual activities) Enamored with the beauty of the illusory energy, foolish human beings undergo the same miseries repeatedly and do not learn any lessons from the laws of nature. Unrestricted sense enjoyment in this bodily condition is the path of ignorance and death. The activities of the material senses are perverted reflections of the activities of the original, spiritual senses.

In our pure spiritual form, free from all material contamination, real enjoyment of the senses is possible. Aggravation of the material disease is no sign of knowledge, but a sign of avidy, ignorance. o Analogy: A patient must regain his health before he can truly enjoy sense pleasure again. For good health, a person should not increase his fever from 105 degrees to 107 degrees but should reduce his temperature to the normal 98.6. 107 degree atomic bomb and crying of foolish politicians. This does not mean that all activities for the maintenance of the body should be stopped. Just as there is no question of wiping out one's temperature altogether when trying to recover from a disease. "make the best use of a bad bargain"

Duration pain lasts much longer than pain. Intensity Body is more sensitised to give pain than to give pleasure. One pin prick can make all pleasure experienced by all other parts of body disappear. Variety Pain can be variety of types, but variety of pleasure is limited. Extent The no of parts those can give pleasure are less than the no of parts that can give pain.

The culture of spiritual knowledge necessitates the help of the body and mind; therefore maintenance of the body and mind is required if we are to reach our goal. o BP: Seconds aspect of knowing nescience. Ka says yuktaharya, yuktacestasya, Great sages have attempted to do this by a balanced program of spiritual and material knowledge. They never allow the misuse of human intelligence for diseased sense gratification. (Para 11 to 13 Incorrect use of dharma, artha, kama and moksa Attain immortality through para dharma - know Ka personally) HPS: The Vedas are insufficient textbooks. They prescribe dharma, artha, kama, moksa. This is only leading us to brahma bhta, the neutral stage. Dharma, artha, kama and moksa - Human activities diseased by a tendency toward sense gratification have been regulated in the Vedas under the principles of salvation.

At the present moment people have no interest in religion or salvation. They have only one aim in lifesense gratificationand in order to achieve this end they make plans for economic development. Misguided men think that religion should be maintained because it contributes to economic development, which is required for sense gratification. Thus in order to guarantee further sense gratification after death, in heaven, there is some system of religious observance.

But this is not the purpose of religion. The path of religion is actually meant for selfrealization, and economic development is required just to maintain the body in a sound, healthy condition. A man should lead a healthy life with a sound mind just to realize vidy, true knowledge, which is the aim of human life. This life is not meant for working like an ass or for culturing avidy for sense gratification. The path of vidy is most perfectly presented in rmad-Bhgavatam, which directs a human being to utilize his life to inquire into the Absolute Truth. The Absolute Truth is realized by the broadminded man who has attained knowledge and detachment by following the eighteen principles of the Bhagavad-gt described in the purport to Mantra Ten. The guaranteed path to the aim of vidy is described by rla Rpa Gosvm in his Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu. How to cultivate vidya? SB 1.2.14: "Therefore, with one-pointed attention one should constantly hear about, glorify, remember and worship the Personality of Godhead, who is the protector of the devotees." o HPS: It's like the EXACT content of NOI Texts 7 & 8. (Para 14 Real use of Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksa for attaining immortality)

Unless religion, economic development and sense gratification aim toward the attainment of devotional service to the Lord, they are all simply different forms of nescience, as r opaniad indicates in the following mantras. HPS: I feel that the opaniad is not really for us and that is what Prabhupda is emphasizing again and again. It is preliminary knowledge of a long gradual process, dharma, artha, kama... go to work on time, get money, get beer... Of course, its good to hear of this to shore up our foundations - ESSENTIAL, if, if, if, we also have some footing in devotional service, Kirtana and Deity worship. Only an ecstatic devotee has the taste to necessary to do the work to do this basic stuff the Upaniads talk about. Main Points Discussed 1. The relative position of the material and spiritual knowledge

2. The stringent laws of the nature no one can surpass or influence them 3. Real immortality going back home back to Godhead 4. Reason for revelation of scripture, saintly persons and descend of the Lord 5. Purpose of miseries in the material world to remind real identity 6. Failure of attempt to remain happy in the material world 7. Culture of vidya and real sense gratification 8. Vedic principles of salvation A. Avidya, advancement of knowledge for sense gratification, increases the fever of the material disease. B. Vidya, the culture of transcendental knowledge, places one beyond death. Bodily activity is regulated and minimized, while economic and other material arrangements are balanced against spiritual endeavors, the former being aimed towards the objective of salvation. Constant hearing and worshipping of Bhagavan is the topmost culture of vidya. Exercise Read: Read mantra eleven and purport, along with study guide summary. Focus: Material knowledge is not meant to be neglected in the name of cultivating spiritual knowledge. Focus on how material knowledge can be used to enhance our spiritual lives. We can pray to learn how to engage everything material and spiritual in the Lords service. Consider: Spiritual knowledge means to understand that we are eternal spirit souls meant to engage in loving service to the Supreme Lord. Material knowledge means to understand how to manipulate the material energy for our own purposes. Consider how we much potential there is to engage the vast amount of material knowledge we have gained in spreading and cultivating spiritual knowledge. Such material knowledge is always beneficial if it can be used in devotional service. Describe: Describe how the material knowledge we have can be used alongside, and for the enhancement of, spiritual knowledge. Question and Answers Q.1. Who can transcend the influence of repeated birth and death and enjoy immortality? Ans. Only one who can learn the process of nescience and that of transcendental knowledge side by side can transcend the influence of repeated birth and death and enjoy the full blessings of the immortality. Q.2. Why no one can avoid the hands of the death? Ans. Although, no one wants to die, the laws of material nature are so stringent and cruel that no one has been able to avoid the hand of death. The law of nature does not allow anyone immunity from old age, disease or death. Q.3. Can the advancement of material knowledge solve the problems of birth, old age, disease and death? What it actually can do? Ans. The advancement of material knowledge can never solve the problems of birth, old age, disease and death, rather it accelerate the process of death by discovering the nuclear bomb.

Material knowledge cannot help anyone to protect from the cruel hand of old age, disease and death. It cannot influence the laws nature. Example of the demoniac king Hiranyakasipu is given to illustrate the fact no one can surpass the process cruel hands of death. Hiranyakasipu was so powerful and learned in material knowledge that He was practically a parallel ruler of the universe, but he also could not surpass the cruel hands of death. Q.4. In order to attain a permanent life what one must do? Ans. In order to attain a permanent life, one must be prepared to go back to Godhead. The process by which one goes back to Godhead is a different branch of knowledge and it can be learned from the revealed Vedic scriptures such as the Upaniadas, Vedanta-sutra, BhagavadGt and rmad Bhgavatam. To become happy in this life and attain a permanent blissful life after leaving this material body, one must study this sacred literature and obtain transcendental knowledge. Q.5. What is purpose of revelation of the scripture by the Lord? Ans. The living being has forgotten the eternal relationship with the God and has mistakenly accepted the temporary place of his birth as all in all. The Lord has kindly delivered the Vedic literatures and other scriptures to remind the forgotten human being that his home is not here in this material world. The living being is a spiritual entity, and he can be happy only by returning to his spiritual home. Q.6. What are the arrangements made by the Lord to reclaim the fallen souls? Ans. To reclaim the fallen souls and bring them back to their eternal home back to Godhead, the Lord has very kindly (i) revealed the Vedic literatures and other scriptures throughout the World for different class of people (ii) He also sends His bona fide servants to propagate the message of scripture and (iii) Sometimes He, Himself comes to do this work. Because all living beings are His beloved sons, His parts and parcels. God is sorrier to see our suffering conditions then we ourselves. Q.7. What is the purpose of the miseries of this material world? Ans. The miseries of this material world serve to indirectly remind us of our incompatibility with dead matter. Intelligent living entities generally take note of these reminders and engage themselves in the culture of vidya or transcendental knowledge. Q.8. Who are called as nardhama, the lowest of human being? Ans. The human form of life is the best opportunity for the culture of spiritual knowledge, and a human being who does not take advantage of this opportunity is called a nardhama, the lowest of human beings. Q.9. What is the path of the repeated birth and death? Ans. The path of avidy, or advancement of material knowledge for sense gratification, is the path of repeated birth and death. Q.10. What does the birth and death applies to? Explain with an example. Ans. The birth and death applies to outward covering of the spirit soul, the body. Death is compared to the taking off and birth to the putting on of outward garments. Foolish human

beings who are grossly absorbed in the culture of avidy, nescience, do not mind this cruel process. Enamoured with the beauty of the illusory energy, they undergo the same miseries repeatedly and do not learn any lesions from the laws of nature. Q.11. What is wrong in endeavouring for a peaceful and permanent life in this world? Ans. Endeavoring for a peaceful and permanent life in this world is wrong in so many ways. (i) First of all the living being is a spiritual entity, and he can be happy only by returning to his spiritual home (ii) Other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead, no one else can control or influence the stringent laws of the nature no one can escape the powerful hands of the death. (iii) Material world means avidy or place ignorance which is the path of repeated birth, old age, disease and death no one can escape this cycle (iv) Unrestricted sense enjoyment in the bodily condition is the path of ignorance and death (v) Activities of the material senses are perverted; they can only perceive illusory happiness not the real happiness. (vi) Real enjoyment is possible only when the disease of materialism is removed. Q.12. Compare the process of avidy with that of vidya and describe how the Hare Krishna movement is performing the greatest welfare activities to benefit the whole world, based on that comparison. Ans. The process of vidya is culturing spiritual knowledge and the process of avidya is culturing nescience or ignorance. By cluttering vidya one transcend the cycle of repeated birth and death and returns back home back to Godhead whereas by culturing avidya or nescience one becomes caught in the cycle of birth and death and progressively pushed in the darkest region of the ignorance. The process of culturing knowledge has been advised in Bhagavad-Gt (13.8-12). These are given as follows: (i) One should become a perfect gentleman and learn to give proper respect to others (ii) One should not pose himself as a religionist simply for name and fame (iii) One should not become a source of anxiety to others by the action of his body, the thoughts of his mind or by his words (iv) One should learn forbearance even in the face of provocation from others (v) One should learn to avoid duplicity in his dealings with others (vi) One should search out a bona fide spiritual master who can lead him gradually to the stage of spiritual realization, and one must submit himself to such a spiritual master, render him service and ask relevant questions (vii) In order to approach the platform of self-realization, one must follow the regulative principles enjoined in the revealed scriptures

(viii) One must be fixed in the tenets of the revealed scriptures (ix) One should completely refrain from practices which are detrimental to the interest of self-realization (x) One should not accept more than he requires for the maintenance of the body (xi) One should not falsely identify himself with the gross material body, nor should one consider those who are related to his body to be his own (xii) One should always remember that as long as he has a material body he must face the miseries of repeated birth, old age, disease and death. There is no use in making plans to get rid of these miseries of the material body. The best course is to find out the means by which one may regain his spiritual identity (xiii) One should not be attached to more than the necessities of life required for spiritual advancement (xiv) One should not be more attached to wife, children and home than the revealed scriptures ordain (xv) One should not be happy or distressed over desirables and undesirables, knowing that such feelings are just created by the mind (xvi) One should become an unalloyed devotee of the Personality of Godhead, r Krishna, and serve Him with rapt attention (xvii) One should develop a liking for residence in a secluded place with a calm and quite atmosphere favorable for spiritual culture, and one should avoid congested places where nondevotees congregate (xviii) One should become a scientist or philosopher and conduct research into spiritual knowledge, recognizing that spiritual knowledge is permanent whereas material knowledge ends with the death of the body The culture of vidya is summarized in rmad Bhgavatam (1.2.14), which states Therefore, with one-pointed attention one should constantly hear about, glorify, remember and worship the Personality of Godhead, who is the protector of the devotees (tasmad ekena manasa bhagavan satvatam patih srotavyah kirtitavyas ca dhyeyah pujyas ca nityada). The process of culturing avidya is to become more and more distracted from self-realization and God-realization. The modern education system all over the world is that kind of system which is engaged only in the culturing of nescience in the students. It is actually killing the original consciousness of the soul which is to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Service to the Supreme Personality is possible only when the soul understands the supremacy of the Godhead r Krishna. The soul must know that it has no independence and when it tries to become independent or enjoy independent of Krishna then he suffers perpetually in this existence of continuous miseries. The consequence of the modern day education is that even a small boy thinks he is independent and self-sufficient and pays no respect to God or any other elderly men. Due to the wrong type of education being imparted in our schools and universities, boys all over the world are giving their elders headaches. The universities are, so to speak, centres of nescience only; consequently scientists are busy discovering lethal

weapons to wipe out the existence of other countries. University students today are not given instructions in the regulative principles of brahmacharya (celibate student life), nor do they have any faith in any scriptural injunctions. Religious principles are taught for the sake of name and fame only and not for the sake of practical action. Thus there is animosity not only in social and political fields but in the field of religion as well. Because of the culture of nescience or avidya (i) People are becoming fools and rascal like an ass (ii) There is spread of satanic situation in the society throughout the world (iii) There is disharmony in the society no one respects to anyone (iv) Nationalism has developed in different parts of the world (v) People are generally frustrated because of the repeated cycle of birth, old age, disease and death (vi) People have created their own nations within the small planet in order to grasp sense enjoyment more effectively for very short period (vii) Each and every nation has become a source of anxiety for other nations (viii) More than 50% of a nations energy is devoted to defence measures (ix) No one cares for the cultivation of real knowledge (x) People are becoming falsely proud of being advanced in both material and spiritual knowledge (xi) By the advancement in avidya the world has reached 107 degrees of its feverish condition in the form of atomic bombs and this may push the world anytime in the hell. The Krishna Consciousness movement which is popularly known as Hare Krishna movement or ISKCON, founded by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami rla Prabhupda is actually performing the greatest welfare work all over the world for the entire humanity by teaching them the actual knowledge (vidya) the summit of which is to attain the pure Love of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna. There could be no other greatest welfare work to the living entities than to make them aware of their real eternal constitutional position and teach them the process to regain the lost constitutional position. By culturing Krishna Consciousness, ISKCON is actually trying to save the world from going to hellish condition although it has reached to 107 degrees of its feverish conditions in the form of atomic bombs. Q.13. Why the culture of vidya or transcendental knowledge is necessary for human being? Ans. Foolish human beings who are grossly absorbed in the culture of avidya or nescience do not know this avidya to be the cause of bondage in the cycle of repeated birth, old age, disease and death and perpetual suffering birth after birth. Such fools, enamoured by the beauty of the illusory energy of the Lord undergo the same miseries repeatedly and do not learn the lesson from the law of nature. Therefore, the culture of vidya, or transcendental knowledge, is essential for the human being.

Q.14. Why unrestricted sense material enjoyment must be restricted? Ans. Unrestricted sense enjoyment in the bodily conditions is the path of ignorance and death therefore, this must be restricted as far as possible. Q.15. When the real sense enjoyment is possible? Ans. The real sense enjoyment is possible only when the disease of materialism is removed. The activities of the material senses are perverted reflection of the activities of the original, spiritual senses. In his diseased condition, the spirit soul engages in material activities under the material covering. In our pure spiritual form, free from all material contamination, real enjoyment of the senses is possible. Like a patient must regain his health before he can truly enjoy sense pleasure again. Q.16. What does the aggravation of material disease indicates? Ans. The aggravation of material disease indicates sign of avidya, ignorance. It is not the sign of vidya or knowledge. For a good health a person should not increase his fever from 105 to 107 degrees but should reduce his temperature to the normal 98.6 degree. That should be the aim of life. The modern trend of the material civilization is to increase the temperature of the feverish material conditions which has reached the point of 107 degrees in the form of atomic energy. The result of aggravation of material disease is that any time the world may go to hell. Q.17. Does culturing of vidya mean stopping all activities of maintenance of mind and body? Ans. No, culturing of vidya does not mean stopping all activities of maintenance of mind and body. There is no question of stopping activities, just as there is no question of wiping out ones temperature altogether when trying to recover from a disease. To make the best use of a bad bargain is the appropriate expression. The culture of spiritual knowledge necessitates the help of the body and mind; therefore maintenance of the body and mind is required if we are to reach our goal. The normal temperature should be maintained at 98.6 degrees, which the great sages and saints of India have attempted to do by balanced program of spiritual and material knowledge. They never allow the misuse of human intelligence for diseased sense gratification. Q.18. How Vedic principles of salvation distinct from the present day culture of knowledge? Ans. Human activities diseased by a tendency toward sense gratification have been regulated in the Vedas under the principles of salvation. This system employs religion, economic development, sense gratification and salvation, but at the present moment people have no interest in religion or salvation. They have only one aim in life sense gratification and in order to achieve this end they make plans for economic development. Misguided men think that the religion should be maintained because it contributes to economic development, which is required for sense gratification. Thus in order to guarantee further sense gratification, after death, in heaven, there is some system of religious observance. But this is not the purpose of religion. Q.19. What does the path of religion meant for?

Ans. The path of religion is actually meant for self-realization. Not for economic development because the path of economic development is required just to maintain the body in a sound healthy condition. Q.20. What is the value of Vedic activities of religious sense gratification? Ans. Human activities diseased by a tendency toward sense gratification have been regulated in the Vedas under the principles of salvation. This system employs religion, economic development, sense gratification and salvation. In order to guarantee further sense gratification, after death, in heaven, there is some system of religious observance. But this is not the purpose of religion. The path of religion is actually meant for selfrealization. A man should lead a healthy life with a sound mind just to realize vidya, true knowledge, which is the aim of human life. This life is not meant for working like an ass or for culturing avidya for sense gratification. The path of vidya is most perfectly presented in rmad Bhgavatam which directs a human being to utilize his life to inquire in to the Absolute Truth which is realized step by step as Brahman, Parmatma and Bhagavan. The Absolute Truth is realized by the broadminded men who have attained knowledge and detachment by following the principles of knowledge. The guaranteed path to the aim of vidya is described by rla Rupa Goswami in his BhaktiRasamrta Sindhu (Nectar of Devotion). Unless religion, economic development and sense gratification aim towards the attainment of devotional service to the Lord, they are all simply different forms of nescience. Q.21 Fill in the blanks A. Permanent happiness is impossible to attain through mastery of ____________ knowledge. The only way to attain permanent happiness is to return to ones eternal spiritual existence. The material world is inherently _____________ ____ ____________. This cannot be changed. Therefore, even the most powerful persons in the material world must eventually fall at the hands of death (example of Hirayakaipu). C. Vidya gives ___________ whereas avidy gives bondage. Avidya: This is the advancement of ________ __________.for sense gratification. Such knowledge increases bodily attachment, locking its followers into repeated birth and death. It aggravates the pursuit of material control and power, leading to dangerous situation such as those caused by atomic weaponry. Vidya: This is the culture of __________ knowledge. Understanding this knowledge places one beyond death. The culture of vidya minimized and regulated bodily activity. Material pursuits (dharma, artha) are balanced against spiritual endeavours and are ultimately aimed at full spiritual realisation. The highest culture of vidya is the hearing and worshipping of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. C. One may appreciate the relative importance of material activities and knowledge by seeing them as sub-principles on the path of liberation.

D. Material activities are not to be stopped, but performed with the intention of maintaining ones body and mind for spiritual realisation. The culture of spiritual knowledge necessitates the help of the body and mind; therefore ____________ of the body and mind is required if we are to reach our goal. The central purpose of the sub-principles is to attain devotional service to the Personality of Godhead. Q. 22 Give the English meaning of the name Hirayakaipu. Q. 23 Explain in your own words, how the process of spiritual life as given to us by rla Prabhupda, enables us to achieve a balanced program of spiritual and material knowledge. In your response: give reference to r opaniad Mantra 11 verse and purport give examples from your own experience and from the experience of devotees in ISKCON in general (Open Book) Questions for Mantra 9-11 1. Why does neglecting spiritual knowledge for the sake of material happiness actually lead to unhappiness and frustration? 2. Why is accepting a misinterpretation of the Vedas considered the deepest form of ignorance? 3. How is modern nationalism and warfare a result of nescience? 4. Why does following scriptural, disciplinary principles allow one to culture knowledge of the soul? 5. How do we know when our material knowledge is not conducive to our spiritual lives?
6. Are the Vedas sufficient text books to reawaken love of God or do we some other books?

Answers for Mantras 9-11 Ans. 1: The soul can never attain happiness separate from his spiritual relationship with Krishna. Ans. 2: One is distorting or rejecting real knowledge when it is finally presented to him, and thus is consciously refusing his chance for serving Krishna. Ans. 3: We are not recognizing the world as the Lords property, which we should cooperatively utilize in His service. We greedily claim it for ourselves and thus fight. Ans. 4: As long as one is attached to fulfilling the desires of the body he cannot develop his identity as a soul separate from the body. By controlling the body one can begin to recognize his higher nature as the soul, and thus engage in spiritual pursuits. Ans. 5: When it is not assisting us in hearing, chanting, remembering, or otherwise serving Krishna. From here we go back to NOI Texts 7 & 8 Mantra 12-14 Comparing worship of the Absolute to Worship of the relative / Guidelines for practice / Right and Wrong Upsan (For worshipping vara) / Worship of Demigods, the Impersonal, and the Personal Supreme

Connection: Now that we have received guidelines for acquiring knowledge the r opaniad goes on to provide guidelines for our spiritual practices in mantras 12-14. There are different types of non-devotee, and they achieve varying degrees of misfortune. In order to advance nicely a devotee must understand both the wonderful nature of spiritual life, and the defects of material life, culminating in understanding Lord Kas position as the Supreme Absolute Truth. Key Phrase: You May Worship the Supreme or You May Not But Without Eternal Life What Have You Got?

BP: See the similarity in 9-11 and 12-14. In 12-14 speaker is going into more specific about principles which he spoke generally in 9-11.

Mantra 12 - Worshippers of demigods and impersonal Absolute enter into darkness. andha tama pravianti ye 'sambhtim upsate tato bhya iva te tamo ya u sambhtym rat Those who are engaged in the worship of demigods enter into the darkest region of ignorance, and still more so do the worshipers of the impersonal Absolute.

Connection: Just as verses 911 compared knowledge and nescience, and the respective destinations for the followers of each, verses 1214 explain the worship of the relative and the Absolute. Just as cultivation of the wrong knowledge can be binding, so too can improper conceptions of the Absolute Truth. Summary of the Purport We find a very interesting parallel between this Mantra and mantra Nine. The only difference in the Sanskrit is that the word avidyam is used in the 2nd line of Mantra Nine, whereas asambhutim (demigods)is used in the 2nd line of Twelve, and vidyayam is used in the 4th line of Nine, and sambhutyam (in the Absolute) in Twelve. Both Mantras are describing types of people who are opposed to the vsyam principle. Mantra Nine had explained how both ignorant and intellectual materialists are doomed, although the so-called intelligentsia are actually worse off. Mantra Twelve says that the demigod worshippers are also destined for ruination, but even worse off are the impersonalists. Many foolish people try to realize the Absolute Truth by speculation, but He is beyond our puny intellects. To try to realize Him through negating material existence is also useless. Some people try to improve their living conditions by demigod worship, but they still remain faced with the fundamental problems of material life-birth, death, old age and disease. The impersonalists may think that the Absolute Truth is not a person, but this conflict with the opinions presented in r opaniad. rla Prabhupda further chastises the veda-vada-rata and the mayayapahrta-jna type of Mantra nine, saying: These rogues are the most dangerous elements in human society. Because there is no religious government, they escape punishment by the law of the state. They cannot, however, escape the law of the Supreme, who has clearly declared in the Bhagavad-Gt that envious demons in the garb of religious propagandists shall be thrown into the darkest regions of hell (BG 16.19-20). r opaniad confirms that these pseudo religionists are heading toward the most obnoxious place in the universe after the completion of their spiritual master business, which they conduct simply for sense gratification. Overview Para 1 to 3 Problem with impersonal conception you cannot know the Absolute Truth Para 4 to 6 Problem with demigod worship results obtained are temporary Para 7 to 10 Pseudo religionists (modern myvds) are the worst offenders and most dangerous. Devotional Service is the only solution. Explanation

(Para 1 to 3 Problem with impersonal conception you cannot know the Absolute Truth) Definitions: o Asambhti refers to those who have no independent existence. Word to word translation: asambhtim demigods o Sambhti is the Absolute Personality of Godhead, who is absolutely independent of everything. Ka is the origin of the powers delegated to demigods, great sages and mystics. Although they are endowed with great powers, these powers are limited, and thus it is very difficult for them to know how Ka Himself appears by His own internal potency in the form of a man. BP: Mayaya prahata jna Trying to distinguish the Absolute from the relative by our tiny brain power can only help us reach the negative conception of the Absolute without realizing any positive trace of the Absolute. Result: Such negative definitions lead one to create a concept of one's own; thus one imagines that the Absolute must be formless and without qualities. Problems with this negative conception: o Such negative qualities are simply the reversals of relative, material qualities and are therefore also relative. o By conceiving of the Absolute in this way, one can at the utmost reach the impersonal effulgence of God, known as Brahman, but one cannot make further progress to Bhagavn, the Personality of Godhead. (1) Such mental speculators do not know that the Absolute Personality of Godhead is Ka, that the impersonal Brahman is the glaring effulgence of His transcendental body, or that the Paramtm, the Supersoul, is His all-pervading plenary representation. (2) Nor do they know that Ka has His eternal form with its transcendental qualities of eternal bliss and knowledge. (3) The dependent demigods and great sages imperfectly consider Him to be a powerful demigod, and they consider the Brahman effulgence to be the Absolute Truth. Solution: But the devotees of Ka, by dint of their surrendering unto Him and their unalloyed devotion, can know that He is the Absolute Person and that everything emanates from Him. Such devotees continuously render loving service unto Ka, the fountainhead of everything.

CCP: Brahmavadis there progress is slow. Either they do not know Lord has form or since they didnt have association of devotees, there attraction didnt arise. Myvds avajananati mam mudha.

CCP: To justify myvda based on scripture is very difficult, because at many places scriptures talk about personalities and relationships. So, myvds try to justify by saying that wherever scriptures talk about form, it is lower level teaching. Their actual teaching is confidential. Scriptures have mah vakya and laghu vakya. Their mah vaksyas are like tat tvam asi, aham brahmasmi, etc. These are absolute truths and other teachings are lower. So any scriptural statement that contradicts their idea is rejected as lower teaching. Why akara do this? So bring people from Buddhism to Vedic fold. And why Buddhism was preached to stop people from misusing Vedas and kill animals. Buddhism is not atheistic, but non-theistic as Buddha didnt talk about God. Practice morality right conduct, right speech, ahimsa, etc. So it is pre-theistic, it created a base from which theism can be understood properly. Due to charisma of Buddha, Buddhism spread. And then the temporary arrangement of Buddhism became a full time religion. So akara did lots of debates, etc. and brought people back to Vedic fold. But since Buddhism was so widely spread he couldnt give complete conclusion of Vedas. He said you want sunya, but Vedas also talk about by the name of Brahman. Brahman and sunya are intellectual clones. Both are same with different nomenclature. akara was Lord iva himself who on order of Lord Viu taught myvda. Conclusion of myvda were God Conclusion of impersonalism material forms are false and weve to go beyond it. What is there beyond material forms is not very clearly described in Upaniads. For

that we have to go to sattvic Puras. Then came Rmnuja. At that time akaras hold on society was greater than that of science today. So to completely reject him was not possible. So Rmnuja said yes there is oneness, but there is specialty. Advaita is there, but there is difference also, there is Visistadvaita. He taught scriptures talk about relationships. There is oneness and there is difference also. He argued that personal parts of scriptures are false, then majority of scriptures are false. So are we teaching scriptures or imposing our ideas. Then Mdhva no similarity, everything is different. Jiva and Jagata are different, Jiva and Jiva are different, Jiva and Jagadisa are different, Jagata and Jagadisa are different, and so where is the similarity. akara one extreme, Rmnuja somewhat is center, Mdhva other extreme. Lord Caitanya again brought balance. akara one finger, Mdhva two finger, Mahprabhu two hands in sky, yes there are two but there is joyful loving relationship between the two filled with ecstasy. rla Jiva Gosvm codified Lord Caitanyas teachings. Two questions fatal for Myvda (1) if all are one, where does illusion comes from? Brahm satya (ok) jagat mithy (where does mithya come from) (2) How does illusion overcome Brahman? Is illusion supreme or Brahman supreme? They try to answer it by saying that reality is so complex it cannot be put in words anirvacaniya. Ravindra Svarpa Prabhu in his book endless love some myvds came to Philadelphia and carried posters in essence you are God. They decided to go to program. After class any question? Prabhu rose hand. You say Krishna meditated and became God. But He killed Ptan when He was less than a month old. So when did he meditated? My dear friend if you want to go beyond illusion, you have to go beyond words Wait a minute, youre speaking for two hours words were not illusion, when I ask a question, words become source of illusion

The Acintya that Jiva Goswami talks is different from anirvacaniya. Acintya means though everything is scripture is correct, with our finite intelligence we may not understand how it may be true, but doesnt mean a part of scripture is false. Acintya is glorification of Lord, while Anirvacaniya (ineffability) is insult. If you and me are one Brahman, then why my liberation doesnt lead to your liberation. Again logical problem. Actually you are also liberated but you have not realized it. What is stopping me from realizing? Illusion so is illusion controlling me? no you are only thinking that illusion is controlling so illusion is above brahman

They are right material forms are temporary and limited. They are wrong all forms are temporary and limited. When transitional is considered as permanent, it becomes lethal. Prabhupda was very heavy on modern myvda. (Para 4 to 6 Problem with demigod worship results obtained are temporary) BP: Karma Ka dont work in this age as it cant be applied properly today. Today people worship demigods with sense enjoyment as in and all. BP: Veda vada ratas BG (7.20, 23) - only unintelligent, bewildered persons driven by a strong desire for sense gratification worship the demigods for the temporary relief of temporary problems. o BP: Ka says demigod worshippers are less intelligent, while impersonalists are abuddhaya no intelligence. Living entity has to be relieved from material bondage entirely to attain permanent relief on the spiritual plane, where eternal bliss, life and knowledge exist. r opaniad therefore instructs that we should not seek temporary relief of our difficulties by worshiping the dependent demigods With their advanced consciousness, human beings are naturally inclined to travel in outer space and to reach other planets, either by spaceships, mystic powers or demigod worship. In the Vedic scriptures it is said that one can reach other planets by any one of these three ways, but the most common way is by worshiping the demigod presiding over a particular planet. However, all planets in the material universe are temporary residences; the only permanent planets are the Vaikuhalokas. Result: One who worships the demigods and attains to their material planets still remains in the darkest region of the universe (as material world itself is dark).

CCP: E.g. of a prince who leaves his king father and start working for a common man for salary (gross materialism). Father sends his man in disguise and he tells the son that he will pay more. The prince starts working for him (karma ka). Slowly prince comes to know that the man works for his father. He starts getting feeling that his father is a nice man. So he starts working for father but still wants salary and doesnt want to take the whole kingdom (Sakama bhakti). Later he completely comes back to father and starts working as prince. (Niskama bhakti). CCP: E.g. of demigod worshippers who have been elevated: o Vallabhacarya Worshipper of iva and Viu. He had some problems, prayed fervently to Lord iva. Please give whatever is most dear to you. Lord iva gave deity of Ka and then he became worshipper of Ka. o Keava Kashmiri Worshipper of Sarasvati. Benediction youll beat everybody. Lord Caitanya defeated him. Requested goddess for clarification. He fell asleep, goddess came in dream I did not forsake you, I told youll not be defeated by anyone of this world. He is not of this world. He is master of my master. o Candi Dasa Worshipped Goddess Kl and brother worshipping lgrma il. CD had beautiful flowers. Brother asked to offer to lgrma no. Later brother just wished he could offer the flower to lgrma. That became mnasa-pj. When CD offered flower to Candi she appeared and said I am pleased. How? You offered flowers offered to Viu Oh Viu worship is supreme, why didnt you tell me earlier. You pleased me extra today CD became worshipper of Viu. CCP: From gross materialism, demigod worship is surely a step forward. If it is a path of progression towards Ka it is beneficial. But if people keep the conception that their demigod is supreme they do not progress. opaniad discusses about this possibility. But for devotees of Viu it is a step backwards.

CCP: Ka gives faith to a person to worship a particular demigod. Why? So keep him in His fold. E.g. king gives faith to son in his minister so at least he returns to kingdom. He gives faith as Paramatma and also as Puras where different demigods are glorified. So if Ka has created this system, what is the problem with it, it can go on like that. Ka gives answer the fruits of worshipping them are temporary while in same effort they can obtain something eternal. (Para 7 to 10 Pseudo religionists (modern myvds) are the worst offenders and most dangerous. Devotional Service is the only solution) The problems of life cannot be solved simply by going to the moon planet or to some other planet above or below it. Therefore r opaniad advises us not to bother with any destination within this dark material universe, but to try to get out of it and reach the effulgent kingdom of God. Pseudo Religionists: o Become religionists only for the sake of name and fame. o Do not wish to get out of this universe and reach the spiritual sky. o Want to maintain the status quo in the material world under the garb of worshiping the Lord. The atheists and impersonalists lead such foolish pseudo religionists into the darkest regions by preaching the cult of atheism. The atheist directly denies the existence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the impersonalists support the atheists by stressing the impersonal aspect of the Supreme Lord. Thus far we have not come across any mantra in r opaniad in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is denied. It is said that He can run faster than anyone. Those who are running after other planets are certainly persons, and if the Lord can run faster than all of them, how can He be impersonal? The impersonal conception of the Supreme Lord is another form of ignorance, arising from an imperfect conception of the Absolute Truth. The ignorant pseudo religionists and the manufacturers of so-called incarnations who directly violate the Vedic injunctions are liable to enter into the darkest region of the universe because they mislead those who follow them.

If such foolish men have any knowledge at all, it is more dangerous in their hands than ignorance itself. Such impersonalists do not even worship the demigods according to the scriptural recommendations. o In the scriptures there are recommendations for worshiping demigods under certain circumstances, but at the same time these scriptures state that there is normally no need for this. Since the entire material universe is impermanent, whatever is achieved within the darkness of material existence is also impermanent. The question is how to obtain real and permanent life. Solution to the question? - The Lord states that as soon as one reaches Him by devotional servicewhich is the one and only way to approach the Personality of Godheadone attains complete freedom from the bondage of birth and death. o The path of salvation from the material clutches fully depends on the principles of knowledge and detachment gained from serving the Lord. The pseudo religionists have neither knowledge nor detachment from material affairs, for most of them want to live in the golden shackles of material bondage under the shadow of philanthropic activities disguised as religious principles. By a false display of religious sentiments, they present a show of devotional service while indulging in all sorts of immoral activities. Such violators of religious principles have no respect for the authoritative cryas, the holy teachers in the strict disciplic succession. They ignore the Vedic injunction cryopsana"One must worship the crya"and Ka's statement in the Bhagavad-gt (4.2) eva parampar-prptam, "This supreme science of God is received through the disciplic succession." Instead, to mislead the people in general they themselves become so-called cryas, but they do not even follow the principles of the cryas. These rogues are the most dangerous elements in human society. Because there is no religious government, they escape punishment by the law of the state. They cannot, however, escape the law of the Supreme, who has clearly declared in the Bhagavad-gt that envious demons in the garb of religious propagandists shall be thrown into the darkest regions of hell (Bg. 16.19-20). These pseudo religionists are heading toward the most obnoxious place in the universe. BP: Prabhupda told 2 stories are 2 people who are afraid of going to hell (1) Liquor drinker One man was chastising a drunkard youll go to hell. My father, mother, brother, sister, wife, etc. drank. So well not mind going to hell. (2) Coal miner to Christian Priest how is hell like? Hot, dark, etc. O our mines are like that, we dont mind. But hell doesnt have newspaper. Oh! Then we do not want to go.

CCP: Till Baladeva Vidyabhusana, after many generations of fighting Vaiavas defeated myvda. But then foreign rule, ksatriyas, brahmanas became weak and poverty was perpetual. They tried to convert people to Christianity and Christianity doesnt have much philosophy. They opened schools, hospitals, etc. You Hindus are so confused, who is supreme. We have one god and since we love him we serve his children. Bengali intellectuals responded we should also do social service. SO they came up with slogans like Nara seva is narayana seva, manava seva hi Madhava seva, etc. Service poor is good, e.g. Prithu Mahraja. But serving poor in itself is not devotional service if not spiritual education is provided (though ksatriyas need to do it even it if it is not devotional). What is the use of watering Tulasi tree, water brinjal tree at least you will get something? What is use of studying BG, play football and eat meat? Strong attack on devotional culture. Better feed poor, not in temple. So rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvati Thkura and rla Prabhupda strongly criticized myvda. Then nationalistic leaders came how to unite people worshipping different gods. Make one reality. All gods are brahman only. They rejected Ka and converted Him only a metaphor to give their interpretation of BG.

CCP: HH Jayadvaita Swami myvds names end with nanda and their nanda ends with their names. CCP: Myvda doesnt give any nanda and so material life seems more attractive. Myvda as taught by akara was at least not khichdi had regulations and not

mixed nationalism, etc. But there has been resurgence of bhakti due to efforts of rla Prabhupda mainly. HPS: We have this tendency to become false Gurus, for material comfort, golden handcuffs. Everyone of us has this. I am Guru, I am a big book distributor. I am Guru, I am your mother. I am Guru, I expose all the false Gurus and give myself some concocted name and replace them. I have this fault! How can I, we, get free from this? Next Text? Main Points Discussed From Mantra Twelve we learn that those who worship demigods or the impersonal Absolute are covered by ignorance. The personal form of the Absolute Truth, Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord Himself, is fully independent and is the source of both the demigods and the impersonal spiritual effulgence. Knowing Him to be the highest realization of the Absolute Truth devotees render loving service unto Him. People worship the demigods for some material sense gratification or heavenly pleasures, but such happiness is only temporary and binds the soul to the cycle of birth and death. Worshippers of the impersonal aspect of the Lord as the Absolute Truth are also practicing another form of atheism as they deny the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These pseudoreligionists shall into the darkest regions of ignorance as they mislead their followers from eternal, spiritual life. 1. Destination of the worshipers of the demigods 2. Destination of the worshipers of the impersonal Absolute Truth 3. Even sages and demigods do not know how Ka appears in the form of a man. 4. Absolute Truth cant be understood by the process of negation. 5. How pseudo-religionists ruin the life of innocent people. Exercise Read: Read mantra twelve and purport, along with study guide summary. Focus: As long as we worship anything other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead we have to remain in this temporary world of darkness. Focus on the need of engaging in spiritual practices above any other activities, which only bind us to this material world. We can pray to recognize the eternal nature of serving the Lord, and to be accepted into such service. Consider: Observe how all the materialistic activities people engage in only lead to some temporary result. Even if we perfectly engage in religious activities which may lead us to a better life after this one, unless we re-establish our eternal relationship with the Lord all of our enjoyment is temporary. Imagine the value of engaging in activities which would lead us to an eternal life of bliss and knowledge. Describe: Describe some common activities and modes of worship people engage in today and how they only continue our attachment to this temporary material world. Question and Answers Q.1. What is destination of the demigod worshipers? Ans. Those who are engaged in the worship of the demigods enter into the darkest region of ignorance. Q.2. What is the destination of the worshipers of the impersonal Absolute? Ans. The Worshipers of the impersonal Absolute enters into the deep darkness of ignorance. They attain a destiny worse than the demigod worshipers. Q.3. Describe the two kinds of people who finally enter the darkest regions of ignorance. Explain which kind is worse? Ans. Two kinds of people who finally enter the darkest regions of ignorance are (i) worshipers of the demigods and (ii) worshipers of the impersonal Absolute. The worshipers of the impersonal Absolute are worse because such impersonalists do not even worship the demigods according to the scriptural recommendations. In the scriptures there are

recommendations for worshiping demigods under certain circumstances, but at the same time these scriptures state that there is normally no need for this. Q.4. What does the words asambhuti and sambhuti refers to? Ans. The Sanskrit word asambhuti refers to those who have no independent existence. Sambhuti is the Absolute Personality of Godhead, who is absolutely independent of everything. The absolute Personality of Godhead is r Krishna. Q.5. Why it is difficult for the great demigods and sages to know how Krishna appears in the form of a man? Ans. In Bhagavad-Gt (10.2) Krishna says, Neither the host of demigods nor the great sages know My origin or opulence, for in every respect I am the source of the demigods and sages. Thus, Krishna is the origin of the powers and delegated to the demigods, great sages and mystics. Although they are endowed with great powers, these powers are limited, and thus it is very difficult for them to know how Krishna Himself appears by His own internal potency in the form of a man. Q.6. Explain, why the Absolute cannot be understood by the process of negation? Ans. Many philosophers and great rsis, or mystics, try to distinguish the Absolute from the relative by their tiny brain power. This can only help them reach the negative conception of the Absolute without realizing any positive trace of the Absolute. Absolute can never be understood by negation because definition of the Absolute by negation is not complete. Such negative definitions lead one to create a concept of ones own; thus one imagine that the Absolute must be formless and without qualities. Such negative qualities are simply the reversals of relative material qualities and are therefore also relative. By conceiving the Absolute in this way, one can at the most reach the impersonal effulgence of God, known as Brahman, but one cannot make further progress to Bhagavan, the Personality of Godhead. Q.7. What does the mental speculators does not know about Lord Krishna? Ans. Such mental speculators, who try to know the Absolute Truth by the process negation, do not know that the Absolute Personality of Godhead is Krishna. They also do not know that the impersonal Brahman is the glaring effulgence of His transcendental body, nor that the Parmatma, the Supersoul, is His all-pervading plenary representation. Nor do they know that Krishna has His eternal form with its transcendental qualities of eternal bliss and knowledge. The dependent demigods and great sages imperfectly consider Him to be a powerful demigod and they consider the Brahman effulgence to be the Absolute Truth. Q.8. How the devotees of the Lord know that He is the Absolute Truth? Ans. The devotees of r Krishna by the dint of their surrendering unto Him and their unalloyed devotion can know that He is the Absolute Truth, the Absolute Person and that everything emanates from Him. Such devotees continuously render loving service unto Krishna, the fountainhead of everything. Q.9. Explain about the futility of the demigod worship as mentioned in mantra 12. Ans. In the Bhagavad-Gt (7.20,23) it is said that only unintelligent, bewildered persons driven by a strong desire for sense gratification worship the demigods for the temporary relief of temporary problems. Since the living being is materially entangled, he has to be relieved from material bondage entirely to attain permanent relief on the spiritual plane, where eternal bliss, life and knowledge exist. r opaniad therefore instructs that we should not seek temporary relief of our difficulties by worshiping the dependent demigods, who can bestow only temporary benefit and cant help in any other way. Rather, we must worship the Absolute Personality of godhead, Krishna, who is all-attractive and who can bestow upon us complete freedom from material bondage by taking us back home, back to Godhead. Q.10. What are the different ways to visit different planets? Ans. Human beings are naturally inclined to travel in outer space and to reach other planets. One can visit these planets either by spaceships, by mystic powers or by demigod worship. It

is said that the worshipers of the demigods can go to the planets of the demigods. The moon worshiper can go to the moon, the sun worshipers can go to sun. Modern scientists are now venturing to the moon and mares with the help of space crafts/rockets. The Vedic scriptures says that one can reach other planets by any one of the above three ways, but the most common way is by worshiping the demigod presiding over a particular planet. Q.11. How the vaikunthalokas are differentiated with respect to material universe? Ans. Right from the Brahmaloka (the highest planet in material universe) to the nether or the lowest planets of this universe known as patal lokas all are filled with dense darkness which is the reason it requires arrangements of illumination by sun and moon. The whole universe is covered by a gigantic material elements; it is just like a coconut covered by a shell and halffilled with water. Since its covering is airtight, the darkness within is dense, and therefore the sun and moon are required for illumination. Outside the universe is the vast and unlimited brahmajyoti expansion, which is filled with Vaikunthalokas. The biggest and highest planet in the brahmajyoti is Krishnaloka, or Goloka Vrindavana, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna Himself, resides. Q.12. How the impersonalists assist the atheists? Ans. The atheists deny the existence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the impersonalists support them by stressing the impersonal aspect of the Supreme Lord. The impersonal conception of the Supreme Lord is another form of ignorance, arising from the imperfect conception of the Absolute Truth. Q.13. What is destination of the impersonalists and their followers who pose as God? Ans. The impersonalists generally pose themselves as incarnations of god to foolish persons who have no knowledge of Vedic wisdom. This type of ignorant pseudo religionists and the manufacturers of so-called incarnations who directly violate the Vedic injunctions are liable to enter into the darkest region of the universe because they misled those who follow them. This type of people would have destination even worse than those who worship demigods because such impersonalists do not even worship the demigods according to the scriptural recommendations. In the scriptures there are recommendations for worshiping demigods under certain circumstances, but at the same time these scriptures state that there is normally no need for this. Q.14. Describe how pseudo-religionists ruin the life of innocent people? Ans. The ignorant pseudo religionists and the manufacturer of so-called incarnations by directly violating the injunctions of the Vedas are liable to enter in to the worst of the darkest region of the ignorance with their followers. These impersonalists generally pose themselves as incarnation of God to the foolish followers who have no knowledge of the Vedic wisdom. If such foolish men have any knowledge at all, it is more dangerous in their hands and ignorant itself. The pseudo-religionists have neither knowledge nor detachment which is essential for freedom of bondage. Such people by their false display of religious sentiments present a show of devotional service while indulging in all sorts of immoral activities. These rogues are the most dangerous elements in human society. Because there is no religious government, they escape punishment by the law of the state. They cannot, however, escape the law of the supreme, who has clearly declared in the Bhagavad-Gt that envious demons in the garb of religious propagandists shall be thrown into the darkest region of hell (Bg.16.19-20). Q.15. Briefly explain why one cannot know what the Absolute Truth is by negation? Ans. Definition of the Absolute Truth by negation is not complete therefore one cannot know the Absolute Truth by the process of negation. This helps one to reach the negative conception of the Lord. Such negative definition leads one to create a concept ones own which makes one imagine that the Absolute must be formless and without qualities. Such negative qualities are simply the reversals of relative, marginal qualities and are therefore

also relative. By conceiving the Absolute in this way, one can at the most reach the impersonal effulgence of God, known as Brahman, but one cannot make further progress to Bhagavan, the Personality of Godhead. Q.16 Fill in the blanks A. Fully understanding the Absolute Truth is impossible by mere speculation This is because one will tend to contemplate the Absolute by negating the qualities of the relative material world. This kind of attempt at knowledge therefore forces one to place his own conceptions upon the Absolute Truth and does not allow the Absolute Truth to be known in His own glory. Though speculation, one can only reach the ___________ ___________ _____________, but not Bhagavan, who is Supreme. B. Demigod worship is ultimately futile, as it gives temporary satisfaction, but does not elevate the soul People worship the demigods to obtain sense gratification and relief from material misery. The problem with this is that all awards the demigods can give are ___________, and the worshipper will soon find himself suffering again. The only way to find permanent relief from misery is to go back to Godhead. C. Unethical spiritual guides incur heavy karmic reactions Pseudo cryas and gurus lead others into darkness by glorifying material attempts at happiness (demigod worship. Space travel, etc.) as well as mundane religiosity. Others present themselves as incarnations or as cryas but do not show any __________. These types preach atheism and impersonalism. Some present a false display of religious sentiments, while secretly indulging in __________ ____________. They have no respect for the genuine ________ in disciplic succession. Because they mislead others toward ignorance, they are headed for the ____________ __ ____ _______ _________. Q. 17 Essay.3: What should our attitude be before the demigods? Mantra 13 - One result from worshipping Supreme, another from worshipping that which is not Supreme. anyad evhu sambhavd anyad hur asambhavt iti uruma dhr ye nas tad vicacakire It is said that one result is obtained by worshiping the supreme cause of all causes and that another result is obtained by worshiping what is not supreme. All this is heard from the undisturbed authorities, who clearly explained it. Connection: Mantra 12 explained that both worship of the dependent (the demigods) and the Absolute (impersonal Brahman) can lead to bondage. Mantra 13 explains that one achieves a different result when his understanding of the absolute is guided by a dhira. Summary of the Purport Again we find an interesting parallel, this time with Mantra Ten. The only difference is that in Mantra Ten the word Vidyaya is used in the first line, whereas sambhavd is used in the first line of thirteen, and avidyaya is used in the second line of Mantra Ten, and asambhavt is used in the second line of the thirteen. They save similary messages. Mantra Ten is pointing out there are different results achieved through cultivating either knowledge or nescience, and Mantra Thirteen explains that

different results are achieved through worshipping either that which is supreme or that which is not supreme. In both cases this has been decided by the dhiranam. If one hears from the dhiranam, the undistrubed transcendentalists in discipic succession, one will understand that Lord Ka is the supreme worshipable object and focus ones life on Him, avoiding lesser persons. This is confirmed by the important revealed scriptures, such as the Vedas and Upaniads, the Mahbharata, the Puranas, and ultimately Bhagavad-Gt and rmad Bhgavatm, which is the natural commentary on Vedanta-sutra. If one is trained properly in devotional service by the dhira spiritual master, particularly through hearing and chanting about Lord Ka, one will rise to the platform of understanding the Lord presence everywhere, as described in Mantras Six to eight, and the Lord in the heart will reciprocate. In this way one will perfect ones life. Overview Para 1 and 2 Qualities of bonafide acarya and different result achieved by different worship Para 3 & 4 Do not interpret. To correctly understand the message of Lord, follow the path of Bona fide acarya like Arjuna in disciplic succession Para 5 And what is the message of Lord? Para 6 to 8 Sastric Proof of Kas Supremacy Para 9 & 10 Hearing with faith and love from dhira acarya give conviction of Kas supremacy Para 11 to 13 Since Ka is Supreme real welfare work is done by teaching soul to surrender to and worship Ka Para 14 Process of Worship in this age is simple (hearing and chanting), the problem in pseudo spiritual masters Para 15 Simple process is to hear, but where to hear from? BG and SB Para 16 and 17 Brahminical stage mode of goodness - necessary to execute perfect devotional service. By this process everyone can become a Brahmana, worship the Sambhutim and go to Sambhutim Explanation

(Para 1 and 2 Qualities of bonafide acarya and different result achieved by different worship) Unless one hears from a bona fide crya one cannot have the real key to transcendental knowledge. Qualities of bonafide acarya: o Never disturbed by the changes of the material world o Has also heard the ruti-mantras, or Vedic knowledge, from his undisturbed crya o Never presents anything that is not mentioned in the Vedic literature o Cannot say that all paths lead to the same goal and that anyone can attain this goal by his own mode of worship of the demigods or of the Supreme or whatever. One achieves different results by different modes of worship o Worship Ka go to His eternal abode o Worship demigods elevation to their abodes o Planning Commission and Political Adjustment - Remain in this world Yat mat tat path theory is not supported anywhere in the scripture or by any bonafide acarya. Such theories offered by self-made spiritual masters not coming in parampara. Analogy: A person can reach his destination only when he has purchased a ticket for that destination. A person who has purchased a ticket for Calcutta can reach Calcutta, but not Bombay. o CCP: Impersonalist will say this argument is wrong. Do you think Absolute Truth is limited like a small place Delhi, Mumbai or Kolkata? Absolute Truth is in everywhere. But they do not understand the real thrust of example. The example doesnt talk about whether Absolute Truth is limited or unlimited but the thrust is whether the path to the Absolute Truth is a particular path or one can do anything and reach absolute Truth. Question to rla Prabhupda after university program Swami Ji, I do not know the verse but I have hear BG says whatever we do ultimately well reach God. Then why Ka spoke Bhagavad Gt? We can do anything and reach Ka. Ka clearly says two paths two results. So yes, AT is unlimited, if our consciousness is not evolved by a particular process, well not be able to perceive the Absolute Truth. Thrust of the example is not nature of destination, the thrust is different paths lead to different consciousness and not all consciousness are equal when it comes to perceiving the presence of Absolute Truth. This is based on both logic and scripture. First we have to know AT is a person and to come closer to person we have to know the person. People try so hard to please a mundane person, how much should be try to please the Supreme Person. Ka likes are not whimsical, they are according to scriptures. And more we understand them, more we become purified. What Ka likes is for our purification.

Verse of BG used by impersonalists to say that all paths lead to same goal:

CCP: rla Prabhupdas stress of this verse is the first and second line that Ka is reciprocal, as we surrender so He reciprocates. Myvds stress the next part, line 3 and 4. But this doesnt talk about all path, it talks about all people are on my path. What does it mean to say that all people are on my path? It is a very profound truth different people are attracted to different things of this world. But the attraction in that thing is ultimately a spark of Kas all-attractiveness. So all people are on my path means all people are attracted to my various manifestations. And this attraction will take them to different directions. E.g. person attracted to alcohol will go away from Ka and person attracted to Ka will go to Ka. Why people subscribe to such view that all paths lead to same goal? Let us look at from social-cultural perspective: CCP: If all paths are right then atheism is also right. Then all paths of religions are wrong. But we say all paths are right. So there is a contradiction. Exclusivism is narrow-mindedness, but pluralism is no-mindedness. Criterion of what is

correct according to Prabhupda whether one is developing love of God. This is the objective measurement of whether a path is bonafide or not. Yato mat tato pat is not supported by scriptures.

CCP: As devotees we are not exclusivist. Mukunda Mahraja and rla Prabhupda had gone for a show. There was a Christian priest and his disciple. Prabhupda agreed that by following Bible the priest will go to God, but the priest didnt agreed that by following Bhagavad-Gt, devotees will go to God. That is narrow-mindedness. But whatever you follow is good is also incorrect. Impersonalism if they do not offend the Lord and His devotees, then it is a step forward. rla Prabhupda would make strong statement against impersonalism because it could have so much bad effects. But when he would meet them, he would treat them very cordially. E.g. Dr. Mishra. Prabhupda would refute his ideas, but would also have friendly talks and cooked for him. Sometimes Prabhupda would use the words fools and rascals mostly in his conversations in a small group of intimate disciples only to make very clear to them. But in his purports (his primary authority) such words are very less. In 1976 a disciple wrote I want to transcribe all your lectures so I can understand your teachings better. He replied - I think your desire is praysa unnecessary. Whatever teachings I wanted to give I have given in my purports. That doesnt mean lectures need not be transcribed. We got a legacy of valuable teachings from his lectures too. But it means there is a hierarchy. HH Jayadvaita Mahraja gives that every word of Prabhupda is authority, but there are levels of authority Purports, lectures, conversations and letters. Prabhupda could use strong words due to authority of old age and authority of purity. Prabhupda used fools and rascals in a compassionate way, we will use in judgmental way, well alienate people. We dont have that potency of purity and transformation. People due to various reasons have emotional attachment towards a teacher. Before rla Prabhupda, most Indian teachers who preached in west were impersonalist. And they were nationalist. So they are talked about favorably in history books. So people have attraction for them. We should use that attraction to get that person to Ka. We can encourage, good you have spiritual inclination, and not many people have it. If you read rla Prabhupdas books and come to our program, youll get a philosophical understanding. If they ask what you think about this person, Prabhupda told us how to deal. Ask them, what his philosophy is. Most of the

time people do not know. So we can say Bhagavad Gt is accepted in all Vedic traditions, so you may read Bhagavad Gt As It Is and know the principles. Philosophy doesnt create emotions, names create emotions. As soon as emotions are hurt, peoples emotional filters are closed and they are closed to rational discussion. So we have to be careful. We have to speak in a way that their faith in us becomes stronger than their faith in the other teacher. Test of strong preaching is not the heavy words, but the test is strong transformation that happens in peoples hearts. Most people today are under myvda influence, they are not myvds. So they can be brought to Ka if dealt sensitively. Unless one has received knowledge from the bona fide spiritual master who is in the recognized line of disciplic succession, one cannot have the real thing as it is. (Para 3 & 4 Do not interpret. To correctly understand the message of Lord, follow the path of Bona fide acarya like Arjuna in disciplic succession) The Lord clearly told Arjuna (Bg. 4.3) that it was because Arjuna was His devotee and friend that he could understand the principles of the Bhagavad-gt. Only the Lord's devotee and friend can understand the Gt. This also means that only one who follows the path of Arjuna can understand the Bhagavad-gt. Interpreters believe neither in r Ka nor in His eternal abode. How, then, can they explain the Bhagavad-gt? (Para 5 And what is the message of Lord?) Only those who have lost their sense worship the demigods for paltry rewards (Bg. 7.20, 23). Ultimately He advises that one give up all other ways and modes of worship and fully surrender unto Him alone (Bg. 18.66). Only those who are cleansed of all sinful reactions can have such unflinching faith in the Supreme Lord. Others will continue hovering on the material platform with their paltry ways of worship and thus will be misled from the real path under the false impression that all paths lead to the same goal. (Para 6 to 8 Sastric Proof of Kas Supremacy) The word sam-bhavt, "by worship of the supreme cause," is very significant. In the Bhagavad-gt (10.8) the Lord says that He is the original Personality of Godhead, and everything that exists has emanated from Him. o Ka is the creator of everyone, including Brahm, Viu and iva. And because these three principal deities of the material world are created by the Lord, the Lord is the creator of all that exists in the material and spiritual worlds. In the Atharva Veda (Gopla-tpan Upaniad 1.24) it is similarly said, "He who existed before the creation of Brahm and who enlightened Brahm with Vedic knowledge is Lord r Ka." Similarly, the Nryaa Upaniad (1) states, "Then the Supreme Person, Nryaa, desired to create all living beings. Thus from Nryaa, Brahm was born. Nryaa created all the Prajpatis. Nryaa created Indra. Nryaa created the eight Vasus. Nryaa created the eleven Rudras. Nryaa created the twelve dityas." Since Nryaa is a plenary manifestation of Lord Ka, Nryaa and Ka are one and the same. The Nryaa Upaniad (4) also states, "Devak's son [Ka] is the Supreme Lord." The identity of Nryaa with the supreme cause has also been accepted and confirmed by rpda akarcrya, even though akara does not belong to the Vaiava, or personalist, cult.

The Atharva Veda (Mah Upaniad 1) also states, "Only Nryaa existed in the beginning, when neither Brahm, nor iva, nor fire, nor water, nor stars, nor sun, nor moon existed. The Lord does not remain alone but creates as He desires." o BP: Prabhupda first quotes Vedas. Ka Himself states in the Moka-dharma, "I created the Prajpatis and the Rudras. They do not have complete knowledge of Me because they are covered by My illusory energy." o BP: Moksa-dharma is part of Mahbharata. (Itihasa) It is also stated in the Varha Pura: "Nryaa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and from Him the four-headed Brahm was manifested, as well as Rudra, who later became omniscient." o BP: Now Prabhupda refers to Purana. So he first quotes Vedas, then Itihasa and then Purana. This systematic presentation will impress scholars. Prabhupda establishes scientifically and authoritatively that Ka is Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Brahma-sahit (5.1) also it is said that the Supreme Lord is r Ka, Govinda, the delighter of every living being and the primeval cause of all causes. The really learned persons know this from evidence given by the great sages and the Vedas, and thus they decide to worship Lord Ka as all in all. Such persons are called budha, or really learned, because they worship only Ka. (Para 9 & 10 Hearing with faith and love from dhira acarya give conviction of Kas supremacy) The conviction that Ka is all in all is established when one hears the transcendental message from the undisturbed crya with faith and love. One who has no faith in or love for Lord Ka cannot be convinced of this simple truth. The mhas deride the Personality of Godhead because they do not have complete knowledge from the undisturbed crya. Arjuna worshiped the Lord by fighting with his so-called relatives, and in this way he became a pure devotee of the Lord. Such accomplishments are possible only when one worships the real Ka and not some fabricated "Ka" invented by foolish men who are without knowledge of the intricacies of the science of Ka described in the Bhagavad-gt and rmad-Bhgavatam. (Para 11 to 13 Since Ka is Supreme real welfare work is done by teaching soul to surrender to and worship Ka) Sambhta is the source of birth and sustenance, as well as the reservoir that remains after annihilation (janmdy asya yata [SB 1.1.1] ). The source of all emanations is not like a dead stone but is abhija, or fully conscious. He is fully conscious of past, present and future and that no one, including demigods such as iva and Brahm, knows Him fully. Half-educated "spiritual leaders" who are disturbed by the tides of material existence cannot know Him fully. o They try to make some compromise by making the mass of humanity the object of worship, but they do not know that such worship is only a myth because the masses are imperfect. Analogy: The attempt by these so-called spiritual leaders is something like pouring water on the leaves of a tree instead of the root. The natural process is to pour water on the root, but such disturbed leaders are more attracted to the leaves than the root. Despite their perpetually watering the leaves, however, everything dries up for want of nourishment.

Worship of the mass of humanity by rendering bodily service, which can never be perfect, is less important than service to the soul. (Why?) The soul is the root that generates different types of bodies according to the law of karma. To serve human beings by medical aid, social help and educational facilities while at the same time cutting the throats of poor animals in slaughterhouses is no service at all to the soul, the living being. Real service to humanity is rendered when one teaches surrender to and worship of the Supreme Lord with full love and energy. That is the instruction of r opaniad in this mantra. BP: One man was arguing with rla Prabhupda that worship of men is worship of God. He was not getting convinced. So rla Prabhupda said, ok if worship of man is worship of God, then worship of God is worship of men, which is easier. You may try to serve men, but they are so many and no matter how much you serve even one of them, youll not be able to really please them, it is very hard. One of the Rockefellers attended a meeting in Kolkata. He was one of the richest men. A man came why dont you give your money to poor and serve them. Ok, Ill think about it, come tomorrow. Next day Ok, I agree to your proposal, Ill give my money to all poor people, starting with you. Here is your 20 cents. So it is so difficult to serve. But if you serve God patram puspam falam toyam

CCP: Movies and critics say why spend money on stones, better spend on beggars outside temples. But beggars are starving just outside temples, they are starving at many places, may be outside house of billioniares. People try to create emotional appeal by contrasting poverty outside with opulence of deity worship. Why not contrast beggars with 1000s of dollars spent on cricket, movies, etc. But making this contrast stops are sense gratification, while contrasting temples-beggars makes us feel superior to people who are worshipping and exempts us from going to temple. It is both misleading and doesnt solve the problem.

Old data figures might change, but point remains the same CCP: Since people identify with body and mind, they spend amount on decorating body and gratifying the mind. So if people became God conscious they will stop identifying with mind and body and hence this amount will be saved and can be spent on poor people. People argue, why do you see God only in temple, why not in poor beggars. Ok, then why dont you see God in slaughterhouses. If people became God conscious, they will become vegetarians and land required to grow food for animals will be saved. So same land can feed many more humans. So become vegetarians if you are serious about poverty. Also, people drink alcohol. Their cheers are tears in eyes of starving people. Alcohol comes from

sugarcane. In alcohol would not be there this land for growing sugarcane, it will be used to grow grains. And people will leave alcohol, once they become spiritual minded.

The Problem is Greed

CCP: So actual problem is not use of resources on God, but the problem is mismanagement due to greed. Cause of greed is non-god consciousness. If people are God conscious, people will not be self-centered and will be caring towards others.

CCP: Humanitarian work is solution for a very long time for a small number of people. The real solution is purifying the heart.

Spirituality is not just ritual, but it is the process of transforming us and others and thereby helping in solving the problems of this world.

CCP: Another problem, many poor people are addicted to bad habits. Helping such people is like putting water in a leaking jug.

CCP: The point is not to criticize social service, but to object that social service not be elevated above devotional service. Were not against social service, but it should not be divorced from devotional service. E.g. rla Prabhupda cured hippies.

CCP: What is happening? First you say social service is bad and then you say it must be done? It means these two should be complimentary. The point is, devotees heart should be soft and not hard to think just of own interest. A hard-hearted person cannot think about others in terms of their emotions. And ultimately we want to expand our hearts soft-heartedness and feel like serving Ka and feel like Ka. Feel like Ka means Ka thinks His children are suffering, they have to come back. So we have to think like that.

CCP: About Lokpal movement. Yes, a strong body is required, but please remember that Lokpal will punish, but only Gopla will purify.

CCP: There are many ways to make Madhava accessible, one way is making big temple. People are not attracted to small temple, they will be attracted to big temple. Prabhupda press conference in Hilton Hotel. Reporter You are a renunciant, why a press conference here? Prabhupda If I do under a tree, would you come?

(Para 14 Process of Worship in this age is simple [hearing and chanting], the problem in pseudo spiritual masters) The simple way to worship the Supreme Lord in this age of disturbance is to hear and chant about His great activities. The mental speculators, however, think that the activities of the Lord are imaginary; therefore they refrain from hearing of them and invent some word jugglery without any substance to divert the attention of the innocent masses of people. Such pseudo spiritual masters advertise themselves by inducing their followers to sing about them. In modern times the number of such pretenders has increased considerably, and it has become a problem for the pure devotees of the Lord to save the masses of people from the unholy propaganda of these pretenders and pseudo incarnations. (Para 15 Simple process is to hear, but where to hear from? BG and SB) The Upaniads indirectly draw our attention to the primeval Lord, r Ka, but the Bhagavad-gt, which is the summary of all the Upaniads, directly points to r Ka. Therefore one should hear about Ka as He is by hearing from the Bhagavad-gt or rmad-Bhgavatam, and in this way one's mind will gradually be cleansed of all contaminated things. (Para 16 and 17 Brahminical stage mode of goodness - necessary to execute perfect devotional service. By this process everyone can become a Brahmana, worship the Sambhutim and go to Sambhutim) One who is in passion cannot become detached from material hankering, and one who is in ignorance cannot know what he is or what the Lord is. Thus when one is in passion or ignorance, there is no chance for self-realization, however much one may play the part of a religionist. For a devotee, the modes of passion and ignorance are removed by the grace of the Lord. In this way the devotee becomes situated in the quality of goodness, the sign of a perfect brhmaa. Any lowborn person can be purified by the guidance of a pure devotee of the Lord, for the Lord is extraordinarily powerful. (SB 2.4.18) Follows the path of devotional service under the guidance of a bona fide spiritual master Attains brahminical qualifications (mode of goodness) Becomes happy and enthusiastic to render devotional service to the Lord Automatically the science of God is unveiled before him One gradually becomes freed from material attachments One's doubtful mind becomes crystal clear (He is liberated soul and can see the Lord in every step of life). This is the perfection of sambhava. Main Points Discussed Mantra Thirteen explains that one result is obtained from worshipping the Supreme Lord and a different result is obtained from worshipping that which is not supreme. If we worship the Lord we will reach Him in His eternal abode. As long as we worship any temporary, material personality, either demigod or human being, we will remain in this temporary material world. Thus, those of the highest intelligence worship only Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This faith is obtained by hearing submissively from one who has realized the Vedic conclusion. The simplest form of worship is to hear and chant the activities of the Lord. By the Lords mercy, such a devotee becomes free from material attachments and can then obtain the vision of the Lord. 1. System of hearing from undisturbed authority is approved 2. Real key of transcendental knowledge hearing from undisturbed authority 3. Different types of worshipers attains different destiny 4. All paths does not lead to the same goal different paths different goals

5. Supremacy of Lord Krishna Vedic evidences 6. Faithless peoples fools and rascals (mudhas) 7. Qualifications of acarya 8. Self-made spiritual masters misguide the followers 9. Worship of the Supreme Lord with full love and energy real service to humanity 10. Study of Bhagavad-Gt and rmad Bhgavatam-cleanses all material contaminations 11. Perfection of sambhava - worship of the supreme cause - the cause of all causes. 12. Brahminical stage mode of goodness - necessary to execute perfect devotional service Exercise Read: Read mantra thirteen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Only by engaging in devotional service can we reawaken to our eternal spiritual identity. Focus on the result of reviving our eternal loving relationship with the Supreme Person in the spiritual world. We can pray to gain faith and realization of this position which is awaiting us all. Consider: Pay attention to how everybody in this world is searching for an eternal loving relationship, but outside of devotional service to the Lord all of our attempts are doomed to failure. Still, consider how strong is this desire that it dominates our motivations in almost all of our endeavors and activities. We must recognize that the eternal relationship we are looking for is already there with none other than the Supreme Person. Describe: Describe how the happiness people are seeking in so many ways is actually available by engaging in the Lords devotional service. Question and Answers Q.1 How one can have the real key to transcendental knowledge? Ans. One can have the real key to transcendental knowledge by hearing from bona fide acarya who is never disturbed by the changes of this material world. The bona fide spiritual master, who has also heard the ruti mantras, or Vedic knowledge, from his undisturbed acarya, never presents anything that is not mentioned in the Vedic literature. Q.2. Indicate the underlined message of mantra 13 of r opaniad? Ans. The underlined message of mantra 13 of r opaniad is very similar to the message conveyed by Bhagavad-Gt (9.25) wherein it clearly said that those who worship the pitris, or forefathers, attain the planets of the forefathers, that the gross materialists who make plans to remain here, stay in this world and that the devotees of the Lord who worship none but Lord Krishna, the supreme cause of all causes, reach Him in His spiritual sky. Similarly, this mantra also verifies and confirms that one achieves different results by different modes of worship. If we worship the Supreme Lord, we will certainly reach Him in His eternal abode, and if we worship demigods like the sun-god or the moon-god, we can reach their respective planets without a doubt. And if we wish to remain on this wretched planet with our planning commissions and our stopgap political adjustments, we can certainly do that also. Q.3. How would you counter someone who preached that all paths lead to the same goal? Ans. It is completely absurd to say that all paths lead to the same goal. From our common understanding also everyone knows that not all paths lead to same goal. We cannot take a train to Chennai and reach to Delhi. Nowhere in the authentic scriptures also is it said that one will ultimately reach the same goal by doing anything or worshiping anyone. Such theories are offered by self-made spiritual masters who have no connection with the parampara, the bona fide system of disciplic succession. The bona fide spiritual master cannot say that all paths lead to the same goal and that anyone can attain this goal by his own mode or worship of the demigods or the supreme or whatever. Any common man can very easily understand that a person can reach his destination only he has purchased a ticket for that destination. A person who has purchased a ticket for Calcutta can reach Calcutta, but not Bombay. But the so-called spiritual masters say that any and all paths will take one to the

supreme goal. Such mundane and compromising offers attract many foolish creatures and become puffed up with their manufactured methods of spiritual realization. The Vedic instructions, however, do not uphold them. The Vedic literatures clearly say that one result is obtained by worshiping the supreme cause of all causes and that another result is obtained by worshiping what is not supreme. Therefore, it is not at all bona fide to accept the statement that all paths lead to the same goal. Unless one has received knowledge from the bona fide spiritual master who is in the recognized line of disciplic succession, one cannot have the real thing as it is. Krishna tells to Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gt (4.2) This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost. This chain of knowledge was re-started by the Supreme authority of all Knowledge, r Krishna through Arjuna. The Lord imparted this knowledge to Arjuna, because Arjuna was His devotee and friend. Only a devotee and a friend of the Lord can understand the imports of Bhagavad-Gt. At the present movement there are many unscrupulous interpreters of Bhagavad-Gt who has no regards for Krishna; they give their own motivated interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gt, so how can such people do any good to people. Such people can never understand Bhagavad-Gt and they will continue hovering on the material platform with their paltry ways of worship and thus will be misled from the real path under the false impression that all paths lead to the same goal. Q.4. Establish the supremacy of Lord Krishna citing Vedic evidences and prove that Lord Krishna is sambhavat which is mentioned in mantra 13 of r opaniad. Ans. In this mantra of r opaniad the word sambhavat, which means by worship of the supreme cause, is very significant. Lord r Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead and everything that exists has emanated from Him. In the Bhagavad-Gt (10.8) the Lord says aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate iti matva bhajante mam budha bhava samanvitah - I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts. Here is a correct description of the Supreme Lord, given by the Lord Himself. The words sarvasya prabhavah indicate that Lord Krishna is the creator of everyone, including Brahma, Viu and iva. And because these three principal deities of the material world are created by the Lord, the Lord is the creator of all that exists in the material and spiritual worlds. In the Atharva Veda (Goplaa-tapani Upaniad 1.24) it is similarly said, He who existed before the creation of Brahm and who enlightened Brahm with Vedic knowledge is Lord r Krishna. Similarly, the Nryaa Upaniad (1) states, Then the Supreme Person, Nryaa, desired to create all living beings. Thus from Nryaa, Brahm was born. Nryaa created all the Prajapatis. Nryaa created Indra. Nryaa created the eight Vasus. Nryaa created the eleven Rudras. Nryaa created the twelve Adityas. Since Nryaa is the plenary manifestation of Lord Krishna, Nryaa and Krishna is one the same. The Nryaa Upaniad (4) also states Devakis son [Krishna] is the Supreme Lord. The identity of narayana with the supreme cause has also been accepted and confirmed by rpada akarcrya, even though akara does not belong to the Vaisnava, or personalist cult. The Atharva Veda (Mah Upaniad 1) also states only Nryaa existed in the beginning, when neither Brahma, nor iva, nor fire, nor water, nor stars, nor sun, nor moon existed. The Lord does not remain alone but creates as He desires. Krishna Himself states in the Moksadharma, I created the Prajapatis and the Rudras. They do not have complete knowledge of Me because they are covered by My illusory energy. It is also stated in the Varaha Purana Nryaa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and from Him the four-headed Brahm was manifested, as well as Rudra, who later became omniscient.

Thus all Vedic literature confirms that Nryaa or Krishna is the cause of all causes. In the brahma Samhita (5.1) also it is said that the Supreme Lord is r Krishna, Govinda, the delighter of every living being and the primeval cause of all causes. The really learned persons know this from evidence given by the great sages and the Vedas, and thus they decide to worship Lord Krishna as all in all. Such persons are called budha, or really learned, because they worship only Krishna. Q.5. How the conviction that Lord Krishna is all in all can be established? Ans. The conviction that Lord Krishna is all in all can be established when one hears the transcendental message from the undisturbed acarya with faith and love. One who has no faith in and no love for Krishna cannot be convinced of this simple truth. Q.6. Which types of people are considered mudhas? Ans. Those who have no faith in and no love for Lord Krishna such people are considered as mudhas fools or asses - in Bhagavad-Gt (9.11). It is said that the mudhas deride the Personality of Godhead because they do not have complete knowledge from the undisturbed acarya. Q.7. Who has no qualification to become acarya? Ans. One who is disturbed by the whirlpool of material energy is not qualified to become an acarya. Q.8. How Arjuna became a pure devotee of the Lord? Ans. Before hearing the Bhagavad-Gt, Arjuna was disturbed by the material whirlpool, by his affection for his family, society and community. Thus Arjuna wanted to become a philanthropic, nonviolent man of the world. But when he became budha by hearing the Vedic knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gt from the Supreme Person, he changed his decision and became a worshiper of Lord r Krishna, who had Himself arranged the Battle of Kuruksetra. Arjuna worshiped the Lord by fighting with his so-called relatives, and in this way he became a pure devotee of the Lord. Such accomplishments are possible only when one worships the real Krishna and not some fabricated Krishna invented by foolish men who are without knowledge of the intricacies of the science of Krishna described in the Bhagavad-Gt and rmad Bhgavatam. Q.9. Analyze sambhuta and establish that the attempt of the so-called spiritual leaders is useless effort as far as the welfare of the soul is concerned. Ans. According to the Vedanta-sutra, sambhuta is the source of birth and sustenance, as well as the reservoir that remains after annihilation (janmady asya yatah). The rmad Bhgavatam, the natural commentary on the Vedanta-sutra by the same author, maintains that the source of all emanations is not like a dead stone but is abhijna, or fully conscious. The primeval Lord, r Krishna, also says in the Bhagavad-Gt (7.26) that He is fully conscious of past, present and future and that no one, including demigods such as iva and Brahma, knows Him fully. Certainly half-educated spiritual leaders who are disturbed by the tides of material existence cannot know Him fully. They try to make some compromise by making the mass of humanity the object of worship, but they do not know that such worship is only a myth because the masses are imperfect. The attempt by these so-called spiritual leaders is something like pouring water on the leaves of a tree instead of the root. The natural process is to pour water on the root, but such disturbed leaders are more attracted to the leaves than the root. Despite their perpetually watering the leaves, however, everything dries up for want of nourishment. Thus all their attempts are useless efforts as far as the welfare of the soul is concerned. r opaniad advises us to pour water on the root, the source of all germination. Worship of the mass of humanity by rendering bodily service, which can never be perfect, is less important than service to the soul. The soul is the root that generates different types of bodies according to the law of karma. To serve human beings by medical aid, social help and

educational facilities while at the same time cutting the throats of poor animals in slaughterhouses is no service at all to the soul, the living being. Q.10. How the real service to the humanity is rendered? Ans. The real service to the humanity is rendered when one teaches surrender to and worship of the Supreme Lord with full love and energy. Q.11. How to worship the Supreme Lord in this age of disturbance? Ans. The simple way to worship the Supreme Lord in this age of disturbance is to hear and chant about His great activities. Q.12. Why mental speculators refrain from hearing and chanting of the activities of the Lord? Ans. The mental speculators think that the activities of the Lord are imaginary; therefore, they refrain from hearing and chanting. Rather they invent some word jugglery without any substance to divert the attention of the innocent masses of people. Instead of hearing of the activities of Lord Krishna, such pseudo spiritual masters advertise themselves by inducing their followers to sing about them. In modern times the number of such pretenders has increased considerably and it has become a problem for the pure devotees of the lord to save the masses of people from the unholy propaganda of these pretenders and pseudo incarnations. Q.13. What is the perfection of sambhava? Ans. The word sambhava means worship of the supreme cause. When one attains brahminical qualification, he becomes happy and enthusiastic to render devotional service to the Lord. When one hears from Bhagavad-Gt and rmad Bhgavatam about Lord Krishna, his mind gradually becomes cleansed of all contaminations and when continues hearing he draws the attention of the Lord who helps the devotee by giving him proper direction. By the Lords inner direction the devotee becomes cleansed from modes of ignorance and passion and becomes situated in the mode of pure goodness, he then attains the brahminical stage and comes to know the science of God and then automatically the science of God is unveiled before him. He gradually becomes freed from material attachments and his doubtful mind becomes crystal clear by the grace of the Lord. One who attains this state is a liberated soul and can see the Lord in every step of life. This is the perfection of sambhava or worship of the supreme cause, the cause of all causes. Q.14 Fill in the blanks A. One must approach a true ____________, a dhira, to acquire transcendental knowledge. Spiritual realization is obtained only by following the proper process. Any other attempt is destined to fail. One must follow the ___________ to advance in spiritual understanding. Those who attempt to understand sastra without the guidance of the parampara miss the conclusion of stras and mislead others as well. B. r Ka is unequivocally the supreme causes of all causes (sambhavd) The word sambhavd indicates ____________, who creates the material cosmos. Nryaa is plenary expansion of Lord Ka. ______________ (the Supreme Cause) is described by rla Vyasadeva as abhijna. Abhijna means fully conscious. Therefore the Absolute Truth is not some abstract void, but I supremely conscious being from whom all existence emanates. r Ka is described as such throughout the Vedic literature. Because Ka is the ultimate truth, the goal of life is to understand Him and our ________ with Him. Teaching this truth to others is true service to humanity. Only by service directed for the __________ of the Lord will all people be satisfied (example of root and leaves). This is done by hearing of Ka from sastra. As one cultivates such hearing, the Lord personally purifies within the heart, leading him toward fuller realization.

Mantra 14 - One must realize eternal Lord, and temporary material world / Devotional Service Grants Immortality sambhti ca vina ca yas tad vedobhaya saha vinena mtyu trtv sambhtymtam anute One should know perfectly the Personality of Godhead r Ka and His transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes, as well as the temporary material creation with its temporary demigods, men and animals. When one knows these, he surpasses death and the ephemeral cosmic manifestation with it, and in the eternal kingdom of God he enjoys his eternal life of bliss and knowledge. Connection: Mantras 12 and 13 explained that one who conducts worship of the improper object or with the improper conception will not achieve spiritual emancipation. Mantra 14 states that one must know the spiritual and material energies properly, in their respective positions, to achieve liberation. Summary of the Purport There are similarities between this Mantra and Mantra Eleven, although Mantra Fourteen is more specific as to what transcendental knowledge is concerned with. Again rla Prabhupda explains the defects of modern mans attempts to overcome death by material means. If only they would learn to take shelter of Vedic knowledge. The Vedic scriptures explain clearly how this material realm is functioning, and the imperative importance of taking shelter of Ka in devotional service in order to become free from material life. By understanding the predicaments of the conditioned soul in the material world and his natural position in relation to Lord Ka, and then engaging in devotional service, one can go back to Godhead. Overview Para 1 and 2 Advancement in material knowledge cannot give deathlessness - first kind of failed attempt Para 3 to 6 Vedic literatures give knowledge of this world of death and the world of deathlessness Para 7 Who can enter into the world deathlessness only devotees Para 8 Ka or Nryaa dominates the world of deathlessness Para 9 Ka comes to this world of death to take us back, but foolish people misinterpret His teachings second kind of failed attempt social service Para 10 and 11 Dont be misguided, save yourself and fellow man in the right way Explanation

(Para 1 and 2 Advancement in material knowledge cannot give deathlessness - first kind of failed attempt) By its so-called advancement of knowledge, human civilization has created many material things, including spaceships and atomic energy. Yet it has failed to create a situation in which people need not die, take birth again, become old or suffer from disease. The scientist material science is progressing and that ultimately it will be possible to render man deathless, ageless and disease-less. Such answers prove the scientists' gross ignorance of material nature. In material nature, everyone is under the stringent laws of matter and must pass through six stages of existence: birth, growth, maintenance, production of by-products, deterioration and finally death.

CCP: Nature is cyclic day and night, rotation of season, etc. So this model is unnatural. Christian before Jesus everything pointed to his appearance and after his death everything is moving in direction of re-appearance of messiah. Science replaced Jesus with secular God progress and put todays men at top of history. But Vedic version puts the current lot of humanity at the bottom. It is not linear model, it is cyclic model four yugas repeat. Modern science restricts development just on material level. It doesnt give any chance spiritual progress by getting out of cycle. Even after so much material advancement, still there are miseries. Because people have no idea that they can progress at spiritual level.

The duration of life varies according to species. o Lord Brahm - millions and millions of years, while a minute germ lives for some hours only. o BP: Were not at all interested in long life. Lomaharsha Rishi was given benediction to live for as long as he has hair on his body. And one hair goes down in one day of Brahm. So he would outlive Brahm. He was sitting outside, disciples - let us built a hut for you. No, I am here only temporarily. o CCP: Life takes off, when we understand how soon life takes us off. Prabhupda for materialists Ka comes as time, for devotees time comes as Ka. Gara Pura - at death pain like 40,000 scorpions biting. But no one in the material world can survive eternally. Definition: Therefore the entire material universe is called Martyaloka, the place of death.

CCP: Materialists feel pain of losing all they had; they feel the current pain and are uncertain about future. But devotee feel much less pain, because he is not attached to body, all his relative, family, property are for Kas service only and they are sure about future. There might be sorrow of separating from devotees, but eagerness to re-

unite with Ka and group of pure devotees there. For devotees, suffering is not suffering, but only inconvenience. Broken bone and puncture of car tire are not same. And devotees consider even body to be external. So for devotees, problems are unavoidable, but suffering is avoidable. E.g. of a bride with no courtship period and a bride with a long courtship period. CCP: Sridhar Maharaja was introduced to KC through Isopanisad. He got severe problem in liver and doctor told youll die shortly. Miraculously he lived for dozen of year. Went to Mayapur. Always joking. ONGC can make a profitable business out of my stomach. Stomach was swollen, doctor checked, he asked, Its a boy or a girl? (Para 3 to 6 Vedic literatures give knowledge of this world of death and the world of deathlessness) Why do they make these attempts? Material scientists and politicians are trying to make this place deathless because they have no information of the deathless spiritual nature. This is due to their ignorance of the Vedic literature, which contains full knowledge confirmed by mature transcendental experience. There is another part of the Lord's superior energy that is different from both this material, inferior energy and the living entities. That superior energy constitutes the eternal, deathless abode of the Lord. Though life at upper planets is very long, still they come to an end. Two avyakta (unmanifested) stages one at the night of Brahm and one at the end of life of Brahm. But beyond these two unmanifested states is another unmanifested state, the spiritual atmosphere, or nature. There are a great number of spiritual planets in this atmosphere, and these planets exist eternally, even when all the planets within this material universe are vanquished at the end of Brahm's life. Inferior material nature is ekapd-vibhti while superior spiritual nature is tripdvibhti. (Para 7 Who can enter into the world deathlessness only devotees) The predominating Supreme Person residing within the spiritual nature is Lord r Ka. He can be approached only by unalloyed devotional service and not by the processes of jna (philosophy), yoga (mysticism) or karma (fruitive work). The karms, or fruitive workers - elevate themselves to the Svargaloka planets. Jns and yogs - still higher planets, such as Maharloka, Tapoloka and Brahmaloka o When they become still more qualified through devotional service they can enter into the spiritual nature, either the illuminating cosmic atmosphere of the spiritual sky (Brahman) or the Vaikuha planets, according to their qualification. No one can enter into the spiritual Vaikuha planets without being trained in devotional service. (Para 8 Ka or Nryaa dominates the world of deathlessness) On the material planets, everyone from Brahm down to the ant is trying to lord it over material nature, and this is the material disease. If we want to put an end to this process of repeated birth and death, as well as the concomitant factors of old age and disease, we must try to enter the spiritual planets, where we can live eternally in the association of Lord Ka or His plenary expansions, His Nryaa forms.

Sastric Proof: Lord Ka or His plenary expansions dominate every one of these innumerable planets, a fact confirmed in the ruti mantras: eko va sarva-ga ka ya/ eko 'pi san bahudh yo 'vabhti. (Gopla-tpan Upaniad 1.21) (Para 9 Ka comes to this world of death to take us back, but foolish people misinterpret His teachings second kind of failed attempt social service) No one can dominate Ka. The Lord comes here to re-establish the principles of religion, and the basic principle is the development of an attitude of surrender to Him. o Sarva-dharmn parityajya mm eka araa vraja. Foolish men have misinterpreted this prime teaching and misled the masses of people in diverse ways. o Open hospitals, dont study about devotional service. o Take interest only in temporary relief work, which can never bring real happiness to the living entity. o Start varieties of public and semi-governmental institutions to tackle the devastating power of nature, but they don't know how to pacify insurmountable nature. o Powerful nature can be pacified only by the awakening of God consciousness, as clearly pointed out in the Bhagavad-gt (7.14). (Para 10 and 11 Dont be misguided, save yourself and fellow man in the right way) One must perfectly know both sambhti (the Personality of Godhead) and vina (the temporary material manifestation), side by side. By knowing the material manifestation alone, one cannot be saved, for in the course of nature there is devastation at every moment (ahany ahani bhtni gacchantha yam-layam). Nor can one be saved from these devastations by the opening of hospitals. o BP: Your disprin and chyavanprash and biggest bank balance will not save you. You can use them when material nature needles you a bit. Gndh was so famous, but death came and threw him away. One can be saved only by complete knowledge of the eternal life of bliss and awareness. Service rendered to the sense objects is both misleading and degrading. If we want to be saved from repeated birth and death, we must take to the devotional service of the Lord. There can be no compromise, for this is a matter of necessity. HPS: Prabhupda and these verses are going back and forth, back and forth, between 3-5 elements (False gurus, scientists, yogis). That is the way to take it to heart, no? To dance with these elements of knowledge. Again and again. HPS: Next, in Texts 15-18, we see a series of verses going into direct worship of the Lord by praying to Him! Main Points Discussed Mantra Fourteen confirms that when we realize both the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead and the temporary nature of this material world we will enjoy an eternal life of bliss and knowledge in the kingdom of God. The practice of devotional service helps us to cultivate this attachment to spiritual life and detachment from material life. Everyone within this material world is trying to lord it over the material nature. But even such materially pious activities as opening government institutions, schools, hospitals, etc. will only lead us to frustration and death unless we awaken our Krishna consciousness and offer all of our activities to Him as devotional service. By such service we become qualified to enter into the Lords spiritual abode.

1. Knowledge of sambhuti (the Personality of Godhead) and vinasa (the temporary material manifestation) is necessary for saving oneself from onslaughts of the material existence 2. Materialistic scientist grossly ignorant about the purpose of material nature 3. Six stages of material existence no one can survive for ever in the material world 4. Trying to make this world deathless ignorance about the spiritual world 5. Different energies of Lord Viu 6. Different stages of manifestation and unmanifestation partial and complete annihilation 7. Life time of Brahm relativity of time 8. Ekapada vibhuti and tripada vibhuti material manifestation and spiritual manifestation 9. Transcending the material existence and entering the eternal spiritual existence 10. Consequences of dominating material nature remedy end to cycle of birth and death 11. Misleading of general masses by foolish misinterpretation of BG and Bhgavatam Exercise Read: Read mantra fourteen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Focus on how by developing an attraction for the eternal pleasures of spiritual life we can become detached from the temporary material life. We can pray to become absorbed in spiritual practices and enjoyment even while in this material world. Consider: Without the goal of eternal, spiritual life people are only left with temporary, material goals, which can never lead to a complete feeling of satisfaction. When we are in complete knowledge of spiritual life, and know how to engage even temporary material things in the Lords service, we have the full satisfaction of engaging in the highest goal of life. Observe how people today, lacking in spiritual knowledge, are continually frustrated due to a lack of eternally satisfying goals and activities. Imagine how many of the same activities people engage in today, from governing nations to raising families, would give much more satisfaction if they knew it were for a higher purpose in service to the Lord. Describe: Describe the lack of satisfaction in having only material goals as opposed to the satisfaction of serving the Lord. Question and Answers Q.1. How the gross ignorance of material nature of scientists is unveiled? Ans. Although the human civilization has created so many things like spaceships and atomic in the name of advancement of knowledge, it has failed to create a situation in which people need not die, take birth again, become old or suffer from disease and whenever an intelligent man raises questions of these miseries before the so-called scientists, the scientists very cleverly replies that material science is progressing and that ultimately it will be possible to render man deathless, ageless and disease-less. Such answers prove the scientists gross ignorance of material nature. Q.2. What are the six stages of material existence? Can anyone be beyond these six laws? Ans. In the material nature everyone is under the stringent laws of matter and must pass through six stages of existence which are birth, growth, maintenance, production of by

products, deterioration and finally death. No one in contact with material nature can be beyond these six laws of transformation. Q.3. Why no one can survive forever in the material world? Ans. Anyone in the contact with the material nature has to compulsorily pass through the six states of existence which are birth, growth, and maintenance, production of by products, deterioration and death. These laws are so stringent that no one whether demigod, man, animal or plant, can survive forever in the material world. The duration of life varies according to species. Lord Brahma, the chief living being within this material universe, lives for millions and millions of years, while a minute germ lives for some hours only. But no one in the material world can survive eternally. Things are borne or created under certain conditions they stay for some time, and, if they continue to live, they grow, procreate, gradually dwindle and finally vanish. Q.4. Why the material universe is called Martyaloka the place of death? Ans. According to the laws of nature everyone in the material universe who has taken birth must die today or tomorrow even though the life span may be for millions and millions of years like Brahma, everyone is liable to death. This is the reason this entire material universe is called Martyaloka the place of death. Q.5. Why the material scientists and politicians are trying to make this place deathless? Ans. The material scientists and politicians are trying to make this place deathless because they have no information of the deathless spiritual nature. This is due to their ignorance of the Vedic literature, which contains full knowledge confirmed by mature transcendental experience. Unfortunately, modern man is averse to receiving knowledge from the Vedas, Puranas and other scriptures. Q.6. Explain the different energies of Lord Viu. Ans. The Viu Purana (6.7.61) states Viu-saktih para prokta ksetrajnakhya tatha para avidya-marma-samjnanya trtiya saktir isyata Lord Viu, the Personality of Godhead, possess different energies, known as para (superior) and apara (inferior). The living entities belong to the superior energy. The material energy, in which we are presently entangled, is the inferior energy, which covers the living entities with ignorance (avidya) and induces them to perform fruitive activities. Yet there is another part of the Lords superior energy that is different from both this material, inferior energy and the living entities. That superior energy constitutes the eternal, deathless abode of the Lord. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad gt (8.20) paras tasmat tu bhavo nyo vyakto vyaktat sanatanah yah so sarvesu bhutesu nasyatsu no vinasyati - Yet there is another unmanifest nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is. Q.7. Elucidate the manifestation and un-manifestation of the material nature and life span of Lord Brahma. Ans. All the material planets upper, lower and intermediate, including the sun, moon, Venus etc. are scattered throughout the universe. These planets exist only during the lifetime of Brahma. Some lower planets, however, are vanquished after the end of one day of

Brahm and are again created during the next day of Brahma. On the upper planets, time is calculated differently. One of our years is equal to only twenty-four hours, or one day and night on many of the upper planets. The four ages of earth (Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali) last only twelve thousand years according to the time scale of the upper planets. Such a length of time multiplied by one thousand constitutes one day of Brahma, and one night of Brahm is the same. Such days and nights accumulate into months and years, and Brahm lives for one hundred such years. At the end of Brahms life, the complete universal manifestation is vanquished. Those living beings who reside on higher planets like the sun and the moon, as well as those on Martyaloka, this earth planet, and also those who live on lower planets all are merged into the waters of devastation during the night of Brahma. During this time no living being or species remain manifest, although spiritually they continue to exist. This unmanifested stage is called avyakta. Again, when the entire universe is vanquished at the end of Brahms lifetime, there is another avyakta stage. But beyond these two unmanifested stage is another unmanifested stage, the spiritual atmosphere, or nature. There are a great number of spiritual planets in this atmosphere, and these planets exist eternally, even when all the planets within this material universe are vanquished at the end of Brahms life. There are many material universes, each under the jurisdiction of a Brahma, and this cosmic manifestation within the jurisdiction of the various Brahmas is but a display of one fourth of the energy of the Lord (Ekapada-vibhuti). This is the inferior energy. Beyond the jurisdiction of Brahm is the spiritual nature, which is called tripad-vibhuti, three fourths of the Lords energy. This is the superior energy, or para-prakriti. Q.8. What is called as avyakta or unmanifest state? Ans. When during the night of Brahma, everything is destroyed the waters of devastation, no living beings or species remain manifest materially, although spiritually they continue to exist. This unmanifested stage is called avyakta. Again when the entire universe is vanquished at the end of Brahms lifetime, there is another avyakta state when everything enters into the body of MahViu the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Q.9. What is tripad-vibhuti? Ans. Beyond the jurisdiction of Brahm is the spiritual nature, which is called tripad-vibhuti, three fourths of the Lords energy. This is the superior energy, or para-prakriti. Q.10. What are the different stages one can elevate by the process of jna, yoga or karma and bhakti yoga? Ans. By the process of karma one can elevate only up the planets of Svargalokas that includes the sun and the moon. By the process of jna and mystic yoga one can elevate to still higher planets such as Mahrloka, Tapaloka and Brahmaloka. But when one performs bhakti yoga he can enter into the spiritual nature either the illuminating cosmic atmosphere of the spiritual sky (Brahman) or the Vaikuntha planets, according to their qualification. Q.11. What is the material disease? What is its effect? Ans. On the material planets, everyone from Brahm down to the ant is trying to lord it over material nature, and this is the material disease. As long as this material disease continues, the living entity has to undergo the process of bodily change. Whether one takes the form of a

man, demigod or animal, he ultimately has to endure an unmanifested condition during the two devastations the devastating during the night of Brahm and the devastation at the end of Brahms life. Q.12. How one can put end to the process of the cycle of repeated birth and death? Ans. One can put end to the process of the cycle of repeated birth and death by entering to the spiritual planets which is possible only by the process of devotional service. When one enters the eternal spiritual planets he is able to put an end to the process of repeated birth and death, as well as the concomitant factors of old age and disease. , we must try to enter the spiritual planets, where we can live eternally in the association of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Q.13. What happens when one tries to dominate or lord over the material nature? Ans. First of all, by constitution, no one can dominate or lord over the material nature. However, when one, in the conditioned state of life, tries to dominate he is subjected to the laws of material nature and consequently suffers the repeated birth, old age, disease and death. Q.14. How the general people misled by foolish misinterpretors from the actual import of Bhagavad-Gt to surrender to the Supreme Lord and render devotional service? Ans. The foolish misinterpretors misled the general masses of people in diverse ways. They urge people to open hospitals but not to educate themselves to enter into the spiritual kingdom by devotional service. They teach to take interest only the temporary relief work, which can never bring real happiness to the living entity. They encourage starting varieties of public and semi-governmental institutions to tackle the devastating power of nature, but they dont know how to pacify insurmountable nature. People are also misguided by temporary attractive things based on sense gratification without knowing that services rendered to sense objects is both misleading and degrading. Q.15. How the powerful nature can be pacified? Ans. The powerful nature can be pacified by awakening of God consciousness which is elucidated in Bhagavad-Gt (7.14) which states that the divine nature that is consisting of the three modes of material nature is very difficult to overcome, but those who surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna, can easily cross beyond it. Q.16. What is the principal teaching of mantra 14 of r opaniad? Or What is the main theme of Mantra 14 and purport? Ans. In this mantra, r opaniad teaches that one must perfectly know both, sambhuti (the Personality of Godhead) and vinasa (the temporary material manifestation), side by side. By knowing the material manifestation alone, one cannot be saved, for in the course of nature there is devastation at every moment (ahany ahani bhutani gacchantiha yamalayam). Nor can one be saved from these devastations by the opening of hospitals. One can be saved only by complete knowledge of the eternal life of bliss and awareness. The whole Vedic scheme is meant to educate men in this art of attaining eternal life. Q.17 In the purport of this verse, rla Prabhupda has analyzed the advancement of material knowledge in the light of Vedic information about the cosmic situation and the transcendental

overseer, r Krishna. Based on this analysis, draw a conclusion on how to pacify the powerful material nature and attain a problem free life. Ans. In the purport of this verse rla Prabhupda has clearly analyzed the knowledge of the Supreme personality of Godhead and the nature of the temporary material manifestation and how the living entity perpetually suffers in material existence by trying to dominate the material nature. By analyzing and quoting from different scriptures, he has established the supremacy of Lord Krishna and how He is the source of both ekapad vibhuti and the tripada vibhuti and also established how no one right from Brahm to the smallest ant can never be able to avoid the stringent laws of nature. He has also established the incompetence of the different process of God-realization viz. by jna, yoga and karma and how only by performance of devotional service one can transcend the stringent laws of material nature by the mercy of Lord Krishna. rla Prabhupda has very clearly mentioned in the purport of this mantra that the powerful nature can be pacified only by awakening of God consciousness which is elucidated in Bhagavad-Gt (7.14) which states that the divine nature that is consisting of the three modes of material nature is very difficult to overcome, but those who surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna, can easily cross beyond it. Q. 18 Fill in the blanks A. The only way to deathlessness is the path of devotion to the Lord by which one awakens ones dormant spiritual consciousness. Material scientists attempt to remove material miseries, aiming at a utopian earthly civilization. This idea is foolish as they will never ultimately stop ____________ ___________. Regardless of their promises, death is inevitable for all materially embodied beings. Such scientists aspire to conquer death because they have no information about eternal life in the spiritual world. Knowledge of Ka brings deathlessness, as it brings one to realize his eternal spiritual nature. As long as one is contaminated with the _____________ mentality, he is forced to suffer repeated birth and death in the material world. Only by taking shelter of r Ka in pure devotion can one end the cycle. Questions for Mantras 12-14 1. Why do only devotees of Krishna realize Him as the highest realization of the Absolute Truth? 2. Why does stressing the impersonal aspect of the Lord support atheism? 3. What is the contamination of the heart which needs to be cleansed? 4. Why can only those free from sin have complete, unflinching faith in the Supreme Lord? 5. Why can no one enter the spiritual world without practicing devotional service? 6. What temptations do false gurus, big money men and ill-motivated scholars of the Vedas offer to their followers to attract them? 7. From what kind of Guru should we hear? 8. Does anybody actually worship demigods in the world now? Answers for Mantras 12-14

Ans. 1: He is most pleased with those who seek to serve and reciprocate with Him as a person, and so He reveals Himself to them in order to reciprocate with their desire to please Him. Ans. 2: Impersonalism does not allow for the personal control and influence the Lord has over His creation, and thus is virtually no different from an atheistic philosophy... Ans. 3: The selfish desire to enjoy separately from Krishna. Ans. 4: One engaged in sin is still thinking there is some happiness separate from Krishna. Ans. 5: Devotional service is the essence of all activities in the spiritual world.

Mantra 15-18 Prayers for revelation of the varas Spiritual Form


The speaker feelingly appeals to the Lord to remove His dazzling bodily effulgence and reveal His personal form. The time of death is approaching and the devotee acknowledges that he is far from perfect, but prays that the Lord be merciful to him and, overlooking his shortcomings, accepts him as an eternal servant and gives him shelter at His lotus feet. BP: Mood is very different here. The speaker explains isvasya principle and advantages of following and disadvantages of not following it. After explaining the philosophical points, now he begs of mercy. A devotee at the time of death will not say, yes I am ready, I am qualified. Madhavendra Puri was praying at the time of death I failed, please help me. His disciple Ramacandra Puri why are you sentimentally lamenting, just concentrate on Brahman? You get out, if I see your face at the time of death, dont know where I will go. Isvara Puri appreciated the feeling. Result RP became impersonalist and IP got so much mercy that he became spiritual master of LC. RP even tried to correct LC. CCP: Two fingers of Damodara Lila our endeavor and mercy. Two fingers of Damodara Lila our endeavor and mercy. CCP: Purport of 17-18 are extremely devotional and hope giving to devotees. Mantra 15-16: Prayers to the Lord regarding showing His form / Prayers for Knowledge

There is one factor in our lives which determines the degree to which we realize spiritual knowledge and effectively follow spiritual practices. That factor is our own desire. Our desire for spiritual life will provide the necessary faith and determination to gain tangible realization. It will also inspire the Lord to bestow His mercy upon us by revealing Himself and engaging us in His service. The act of prayer both reveals and increases the strength of our desire. It also develops an internal relationship between us and the Lord, which continues to increase our faith and determination. In Mantras 15-16 the devotee prays to the Lord to reveal the knowledge of Himself as it was given within the vision of the r opaniad. Key Phrase: Lord, We Can Not See Beyond Your Glow, But It Is You We Wish To Know BP: Brahman realization is realization of Ka minus realization His form and personality. Then when we progress further, we get the eyes to see His form and personality. In 15-16, the speaker makes the same request twice. Mantra 15 - Prayer to remove the Lords effulgence so we may see Him / How Bhagavan is the highest manifestation of the Absolute Truth hiramayena ptrea satyasypihita mukham tat tva pann apvu satya-dharmya daye O my Lord, sustainer of all that lives, Your real face is covered by Your dazzling effulgence. Kindly remove that covering and exhibit Yourself to Your pure devotee. Key Phrase: satyasypihita mukham

Connection: Mantras 1214 described the necessity of understanding Ka in relationship with His material energies. Mantra 15 explains that one must also understand Kas relationship with His spiritual potency, the brahmajyoti, in order to achieve realization of Him. Summary of the Purport Mantra Fifteen is a prayer for the Lord to remove His impersonal effulgence so that His spiritual form may be revealed to His devotee. As rla Prabhupda described in his purport to the Invocation, the Lords effulgence is the all-pervading spiritual energy, known as Brahman. Further spiritual realization leads us to the localized form of the Lord within every atom and within the heart of every living being, known is Paramatma. But the highest spiritual realization is of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna. Krishna is always blissfully engaging in His own pastimes for the pleasure of His devotees. He also periodically exhibits these pastimes within the material world to attract the materially conditioned souls. By empiric philosophy one may realize the impersonal Brahman effulgence. By yogic practices one may realize the Paramatma feature of the Lord situated within the heart. But only by devotional service can one realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. Overview Para 1 Pan: Ka is the source and maintainer of everything, including Brahman and paramatma Para 2 - 5 satya-dharmya daye How Ka reveals Himself beyond the Brahman Para 6 Go beyond analysis and impersonal realization to know Ka Para 7 No knowledge of Lords potencies give impersonal realization and knowledge of only material potencies as exhibited by the three purua-avataras give only paramatma realization Para 8 Anu-atma is never equal to paramatma Para 9 and 10 Conclusion Only Bhagavn realization is complete Explanation HPS: We think this verse is so nice to combat the idea that the Upanisads, Vedas, present and impersonal idea of God. The word Mukham is so clear. The next Text continues with the same idea. This is Text 15 and if you look at BG 15.15 you see that it also falls into this same idea that the Vedas talk of Ka!

(Para 1 Pan: Ka is the source and maintainer of everything, including Brahman and paramatma) Bhagavad-gt (14.27) brahma-jyoti are Lords personal rays, the dazzling effulgence of His personal form. Three aspects of the same Absolute Truth Brahman (perceived by beginner), Paramatma (perceived by one have further progressed) and Bhagavn (ultimate). stric proof: Bhagavad-gt (7.7) - matta paratara nnyat. Therefore Ka is the source of the brahma-jyotir as well as the all-pervading Paramtm. Definition: His one plenary expansion, the all-pervading Paramtm, the Lord maintains the complete material cosmic creation. He also maintains all manifestations in the spiritual world. Therefore in this ruti-mantra of r opaniad, the Lord is addressed as Pan, the ultimate maintainer.

CCP: We may be attracted to a gulab jamuna or a pakora, but we will not be attracted to its individual elements. Similarly this world may seem attractive, but if we see its individual elements, well not be so attracted. This is the pursuit of sankhya. To understand the basic elements of everything so we may develop detachment. Just fragrance of gulab jamuna is like sat realization. Fragrance and visual is sat-cit and fragrance, visual and tasting is sat-cit-nanda. (Para 2 - 5 satya-dharmya daye How Ka reveals Himself beyond the Brahman) The Personality of Godhead, r Ka, is always filled with transcendental bliss (nanda-mayo 'bhyst). Everything the Lord did in Vndvana was for the pleasure of His associates there. o Killing demons o Enjoyed with mother, brother and friends o Naughty butter thief The Lord created these pastimes to attract the dry speculators and the acrobats of the so-called haha-yoga system who wish to find the Absolute Truth. Lord is always engaged in transcendental loving activities with His spiritual associates in on the various five rasas. CCP: Yogamy hides divinity of Lord, so people can interact in one of the 5 rasas. The Yogamy is an oxymoron. Yoga means connecting to Lord and my keeps one away from Lord. But Yogamy is my that strengthens relationship with Ka by making the person forget that Absolute Truth is Absolute Truth. It is the my that increases yoga. Since it is said that Lord Ka never leaves Vndvana-dhma, one may ask how He manages the affairs of the creation. Bhagavad-gt (13.14-18): The Lord pervades the entire material creation by His plenary part known as the Paramtm, or Supersoul.

(Para 6 Go beyond analysis and impersonal realization to know Ka) This system of God realization is a great science. The materialistic skhya-yogs 231analyse and meditate on the twenty-four factors of the material creation, for they have very little information of the purua, the Lord. The impersonal transcendentalists bewildered by the glaring effulgence of the brahma-jyotir. If one wants to see the Absolute Truth in full, one has to penetrate beyond the twentyfour material elements and the glaring effulgence as well. r opaniad points toward this direction, praying for the removal of the hiramayaptra, the dazzling covering of the Lord. Unless this covering is removed so one can perceive the real face of the Personality of Godhead, factual realization of the Absolute Truth can never be achieved. CCP: Previously most scientists were theists and when they saw extraordinary phenomenon in nature they would see connection to creator. But modern sankhyaites are not able to relate creation to creator. E.g. Lord Kelvin one thinks deeply, science will force one to believe in creator. Max I saw the atom and in it I could see the glory of the creator. (Para 7 No knowledge of Lords potencies give impersonal realization and knowledge of only material potencies as exhibited by the three purua-avataras give only paramatma realization) Three purua-avatras - Krodakay Viu (paramatma), Garbhodakay Viu and Kraodakay Viu. The yoga system teaches the serious student to meet the viu-tattvas after going beyond the twenty-four material elements of the cosmic creation. o The culture of empiric philosophy helps one realize the impersonal brahmajyotir. Reference BS 5.40, Muaka Upaniad (2.2.10-12) (Para 8 Anu-atma is never equal to paramatma)

Perfect knowledge means knowing Ka as the root of this Brahman effulgence. This knowledge can be gained from such scriptures as rmad-Bhgavatam. rla Vysadeva never states that the Supreme Truth is a jva, an ordinary living entity. The living entity should never be considered the all-powerful Supreme Truth. Argument: If he were the Supreme, he would not need to pray to the Lord to remove His dazzling cover so that the living entity could see His real face. (Para 9 and 10 Conclusion Only Bhagavn realization is complete) Conclusion: One who has no knowledge of the potencies of the Supreme Truth will realize the impersonal Brahman. Similarly, when one realizes the material potencies of the Lord but has little or no information of the spiritual potencies, he attains Paramtm realization. When one realizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Ka, in full potency after the removal of the hiramaya-ptra, one realizes vsudeva sarvam iti: [Bg. 7.19] Ordinary fruitive workers < jns < yogis < bhakti-yogis. Main Points Discussed The Lord sustains everything, but still the speaker cannot see Him. He longs to see the face of his beloved Lord, and asks that the brahmajyoti covering it be removed. The three features of the Absolute Truth are described, and rla Prabhupda explains that the Bhagavan feature is sustaining the others. Therefore the speaker is appealing to this feature of the Lord. To achieve the association of Lord Ka is r Vrndavana Dhama is the most wonderful thing, the supreme attainment. One might wonder how Ka is maintaining everything else in existence, but this is done through His Viu expansions. This is verse is proof that the impersonal theory that we and God are one is not true, as if it was, we would not have to pray to have the effulgence taken away so we could see the face of the Lord. The impersonal Brahman is the effulgence of His transcendental body, and one should understand clearly that behind this is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ka, Himself, and one should surrender to him in devotional service. 1. Three features of the Absolute Truth 2. Brahmajyoti glaring effulgence of the Personality of Godhead 3. Three features of Viu tattva 4. Bhagavan root of Brahman and Paramatma 5. Loving relationships with the Lord 6. Secrets of Lords Vrindavana pastimes 7. Perfect knowledge realization of Bhagavan feature of the Absolute Truth Exercise Look: Read mantra fifteen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Focus on receiving the mercy of the Lord to realize His personality. We can pray for the Lord to reveal Himself to us, as in the mantra. See: Observe how much faith you have within yourself that the Lord is actually a person capable of receiving your prayers and reciprocating with you in a personal way. Observe how much of a desire you have to know and reciprocate with Him. Observe how the Lord is trying

to reveal Himself to us through lessons learned in everyday life, through the scriptures, and within our hearts. Observe how much we are praying and allowing Him to reveal Himself. Show: Describe your faith and desire to know and reciprocate with the Lord as a person. Describe how He is trying to reveal himself and reciprocate with us. Question and Answers Q.1. How brahmajyoti is explained? Ans. In Bhagavad-Gt (14.27), the Lord explains His personal rays (brahmajyoti), the dazzling effulgence of His personal form as brahmano hi pratisthaham amrtasyavyayasya ca sasvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikantikasya ca - I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable and eternal and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness. Q.2. Describe the different aspects of the Absolute Truth and the source of Brahman and Paramatma? Ans. Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan are three aspects of the same Absolute Truth. Brahman is the aspect most easily perceived by the beginner; Paramatma, the Supersoul is realized by those who have further progressed; and Bhagavan realization is the ultimate realization of the Absolute Truth. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-Gt (7.7) where Lord Krishna says that He is the ultimate concept of the Absolute Truth mattah parataram nanyat there is no truth superior to me. Therefore, Krishna is the source of brahmajyoti as well as the all-pervading Paramatma. Q.3. How does the Supreme Lord pervade the entire universe? Ans. The Supreme Lord, r Krishna pervade the entire universe with a single fragment of Himself ekamsena sthito jagat. The Supreme Lord pervades the entire universe by His Paramatma feature a plenary expansion and maintains the complete material cosmic creation. Q.4. Explain the science of God realization in the light of mantra 15 and establish devotional service to Lord r Krishna as the highest process of God-realization. Ans. The Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna is realized in His three different aspects viz. (i) Brahman the supremely effulgent glaring of His personal rays known as brahmajyoti (ii) the all-pervading localized aspect who is present in all the atoms and within everything in the cosmic creation known as Paramatma, with this plenary expansion the Lord maintains the complete material cosmic creation and (iii) the ultimate realization of the Absolute Truth is the Bhagavan aspect of the Supreme Lord who is the source of Brahm brahmano hi pratisthaham and Paramatma ekamsena sthito jagat. The Bhagavan realization is the full realization of the Absolute Truth. Brahman is the aspect most easily perceived by the beginner; Paramatma, the Supersoul is realized by those who have further progressed; and Bhagavan realization is the ultimate realization of the Absolute Truth. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-Gt (7.7) where Lord Krishna says that He is the ultimate concept of the Absolute Truth mattah parataram nanyat there is no truth superior to me. Therefore, Krishna is the source of brahmajyoti as well as the all-pervading Paramatma.

The Personality of Godhead, r Krishna is always filled with transcendental bliss (nandamayo bhyst) and who is situated in His personal abode known as Goloka Vrindavana enjoying his variegated pastimes with His eternal associates and companions. The system of God realization is a great science. If one wants to see the Absolute Truth in full, one has to penetrate beyond the twenty-four material elements and the glaring effulgence as well. By the materialistic sankhya-yoga one can only realize and meditate on the twentyfour factors of the material creation, for they have very little information of the purua, the Lord. And the impersonal transcendentalists are simply bewildered by the glaring effulgence of the brahmajyoti. One can realize the Supreme Lord in full as Bhagavan when He removes the dazzling covering of the His glaring effulgence. One who has no knowledge of the potencies of the Supreme Truth will realize the impersonal Brahman. Similarly, when one realizes the material potencies of the Lord but has little or no information of the spiritual potencies, he attains Paramatma realization. Thus both Brahman and Paramatma realization of the Absolute Truth are partial realizations. However, when one realizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna in full potency after the removal of the hirmaya-patra one realizes vsudeva sarvam iti. Lord r Krishna, who is known as Vasudeva, is everything Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan. He is the root and Brahman and Paramatma are His branches. Q.5. Why the Lords fame as butter thief is not reproachable? Ans. The Lords fame as butter thief is not reproachable for by stealing butter the Lord gave pleasure to His pure devotees. Everything the Lord did in Vrindavana was for the pleasure of His associates there. Q.6. Why the Lord revealed His pastimes of Vrindavana? Ans. The Supreme Lord revealed His pastimes of Vrindavana to attract the dry speculators and the acrobats of the so-called hatha-yoga system who wish to find the Absolute Truth. Q.7. What are the different relationships in which the Lord is engaged in transcendental loving activities? Ans. The Lord is always engaged in transcendental loving activities with His spiritual associates in the various relationships viz (i) nta (neutrality) (ii) Dsya (servitorship) (iii) sakhya (friendship) (iv) vatsalya (parental affection) and Mdhurya (conjugal love). Q.8. When Lord Krishna never leaves Vrindavana than how He manages affairs of the creation? Ans. This is answered in Bhagavad-Gt (13.14-18) wherein it is mentioned that The Lord pervades the entire material creation by His plenary part known as the Paramatma or Supersoul. Although the Lord personally has nothing to do with material creation, maintenance and destruction, He causes all these things to be done by His plenary expansion, the Paramatma. Q.9. How one can perceive the real face of the Supreme Lord? Ans. The Lord is completely covered by hiramaya-ptra the dazzling covering of His own and unless He removes this covering no one can perceive the real face of the Personality of

Godhead. This way factual realization of the Absolute Truth can never be achieved. This is the reason, r opaniad is praying to Lord for removal of the dazzling effulgence. Q.10. Explain the three aspects of the Viu tattvas. Ans. The Paramatma feature of the Personality of Godhead is one of the three plenary expansions or Viu tattavas, collectively known as the purua-avataras. One of these Viutattvas who is within the universe is known as Krodakay Viu. He is the Viu among the three principal deities Brahma, Viu and iva and He is the all-pervading Paramatma in each and every individual living entity. The second Viu-tattva with the universe is Garbhodakay Viu, the collective Supersoul within all living entities. Beyond these two is Kraodakay Viu, who lies in the Causal Ocean. He is the creator of all universes. Q.11. What does the yoga system teaches about the Viu-tattavas? Ans. The yoga system teaches the serious student to meet the Viu tattvas after going beyond the twenty-four material elements of the cosmic creation. Q.12. What does the empiric philosophy helps one to realize? Ans. The culture of empiric philosophy helps one realize the impersonal brahmajyoti, which is the glaring effulgence of the transcendental body of Lord r Krishna. The brahmajyoti is Krishnas effulgence is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-Gt (14.27) as well as in the Brahma-Sahit (5.40) yasya prabha-prabhavato jagad-anda-koti. Q.13. Briefly explain brahmajyoti as described in the purport of mantra 15. Ans. The brahmajyoti as explained in the purport of mantra 15 is glaring effulgence emanating from the body of Lord r Krishna. This glaring effulgence has covered the Lord because of which no one can see the face of the Lord. The opaniad prays the Lord to remove the veil of the glaring effulgence so that one can see the face of the Lord. Brahmajyoti realization is the Brahman realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna. Brahman realization is considered preliminary understanding of the Lord. Brahmajyoti, as mentioned in Bhagavad-Gt (14.27) and Brahma-Sahit (5.40) is the prabha or effulgence of the Lord that pervades the entire cosmos yasya-prabha-prabhavato jagad-anda koti the pratistha or source of the brahmajyoti is the Lord Krishna Himself. All the planets in the entire spiritual and material creation are situated in the brahmajyoti. This brahmajyoti is but the personal rays of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, Krishna. The brahmajyoti effulgence is described in detail in several mantras of the Mundaka Upaniad (2.2.10-12). hirnmy pare kose virjam brahma niskalam tac chubhram jyotisam jyotis tad yad atma vido viduh na tatra suryo bhati no chandra-tarakam nema vidyuto bhanti kuto yam agnih tam eva bhantam anu bhati sarvam tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati brahmaivedam amrtam purastad brahma pascad brahma daksinatas cottarena adhas cordhvam ca prasrtam brahmai vedam visvam idam varistham

In the spiritual realm, beyond the material covering, is the unlimited Brahman effulgence, which is free from material contamination. That effulgent white light is understood by transcendentalists to be the light of the all lights. In that realm there is no need to sunshine, moonshine, fire or electricity for illumination. Indeed, whatever illumination appears in the material world is only a reflection of that supreme illumination. That Brahman is in front and in back, in the north, south, east and west, and also overhead and below. In other words, that supreme Brahman effulgence spreads throughout both the material and spiritual skies. Q.14. What is the meaning of the perfect knowledge and how it can be gained? Ans. The perfect knowledge means knowing Krishna to be the root of the Brahman effulgence and also knowing Him as fountainhead of all incarnations. This knowledge can be gained from such scriptures as rmad Bhgavatam, which perfectly elaborates the science of Krishna. Q. 15. How does Mantra 15 prove the supremacy of the personal feature of Godhead? Q.16 Fill in the blanks A. Bhagavan r Ka is the ultimate source and maintainer of all spiritual and material manifestation. The word _________ (Sustainer), describes how r Ka is the root of all spiritual potencies and all other forms of Godhead. This brahmajyoti is His impersonal energy. His expansion of Paramatma is the means by which He creates and maintains the material manifestation. Because Ka as Bhagavan maintains all manifestations, both material and spiritual, one must look beyond them to realize Him. B. Bhagavan is higher than Brahman or Paramatma realization, as it contains both of them _________-_________ is the topmost path as it leads to Bhagavan realization. C. Because the Absolute Truth is a person, He engages in variegated relationships with His devotee. The Lord reciprocates with all varieties of people in accordance with their ___________ to know him. ___________ realization is distinguished from the other levels because there is loving exchange, rasa. It is due to this rasa that one can experience the highest bliss through realization of r Ka. Q. 17 How does ISO 15 relate to BG 15.15? Q. 18 Essay.4: Krishna is enjoying His pastimes in Vrndavana eternally. How does He relate with this World? Q. 19 Give the English meaning of the term hiranmayena-patrena. Mantra 16 - Prayer to realize the Lord Himself and our relationship with Him / Prayers to the Absolute Truth culminate in devotional service pann ekare yama srya prjpatya vyha ramn samha

tejo yat te rpa kalya-tama tat te paymi yo 'sv asau purua so 'ham asmi O my Lord, O primeval philosopher, maintainer of the universe, O regulating principle, destination of the pure devotees, well-wisher of the progenitors of mankind, please remove the effulgence of Your transcendental rays so that I can see Your form of bliss. You are the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead, like unto the sun, as am I. Connection: This mantra continues the prayer of Mantra 15 for the Lord to reveal His spiritual form. This time the prayer is stronger. Text 15 says remove Your covering, but this Text seems to add the request (Pusan?) that Ka also lead us to Him! Summary of Purport Again the speaker feelingly appeals to the Lord to remove the brahmajyoti effulgence obscuring His beautiful face, referring to Him in different features in which Hs is kind to people. He and the Lord are one is quality, like the sun and its rays. rla Prabhupda quotes rla Jiva Goswami to again establish the supremacy of the Bhagavan feature of the Absolute Truth. As Bhagavan, Lord Ka, the Absolute Truth is very kind to His devotees, and brings them to the shelter of His lotus feet, something which the impersonal brahmajyoti is not able to do. rla Prabhupda concludes the purport: The Lord always helps the pure devotees by imparting necessary knowledge within their hearts, and this out of His special favour He dissipates all the darkness of ignorance. The speculative philosophers and yogis cannot imagine this, because they more or less depend on their own strength. As stated in the Katha Upaniad (1.2.23), the Lord can be known only by those whom He favors, and not by anyone else. Such special favors are bestowed upon His pure devotees only. r opaniad thus points to the favour of the Lord, which is beyond the purview of the brahmajyoti. Overview Para 1 and 2 Vyuha Rashmin - The Sun analogy Beyond Brahman is Bhagavan Para 3 Kalyana Tama Bhagavan Realization is the most auspicious Para 4 Analysis of word bhagavan to know why bhagavan realization is supreme Para 5 Pusann - Two topics. 1) Ka guides His devotees to Him. 2) His nature Para 6 and 7 - The Jivas. His differentiated expansions. Desires to be lords. He allows them, but ultimately He, as Paramatma, is the controller. Para 8 Bhagavan can be known only by those whom He favors Explanation

CCP: This mantra is an excellent example of acintya bhedabheda in action. Soham asmi impersonalist will use to say that I and God are same. Rupam kalyantamam persoanlists will use it. Soham asmi refers to qualitative oneness. (Para 1 and 2 Vyuha Rashmin - The Sun analogy Beyond Brahman is Bhagavan) The sun and its rays are one and the same qualitatively. Similarly, the Lord and the living entities are one and the same in quality. The sun is one, but the molecules of the sun's rays are innumerable. The sun's rays constitute part of the sun, and the sun and its rays conjointly constitute the complete sun.

Within the sun itself resides the sun-god, and similarly within the supreme spiritual planet, Goloka Vndvana, from which the brahma-jyotir effulgence is emanating Until one surpasses the glare of the brahma-jyotir, one cannot receive information of the land of the Lord. The impersonalist philosophers, blinded as they are by the dazzling brahma-jyotir, can realize neither the factual abode of the Lord nor His transcendental form. In this prayer, therefore, r opaniad petitions the Lord to remove the effulgent rays of the brahma-jyotir so that the pure devotee can see His all-blissful transcendental form. (Para 3 Kalyana Tama Bhagavan Realization is the most auspicious)

Brahman realization experience of auspicious aspect of the Lord. Paramatma realization experience of more auspicious aspect of the Lord. Bhagavan realization experience of most auspicious aspect of the Lord. Argument: Since He is addressed as the primeval philosopher and maintainer and well-wisher of the universe, the Supreme Truth cannot be impersonal. This is the verdict of r opaniad. The word pan ("maintainer") is especially significant, for although the Lord maintains all beings, He specifically maintains His devotees. CCP: In BG 8.14 Ka says bhakti is easy. Suppose we fall in ditch. Trying to come out on own effort is like trying to reach Absolute Truth without help of scriptures. Scriptures are like ropes. Devotees pray the person above pulls the rope. Jnanis and yogis try to climb rope by their own effort. In bhakti there is knowledge (I am not this body), taste (Oh! if I some Ka there is so much mercy and bliss) and grace. (Para 4 Analysis of word bhagavan to know why bhagavan realization is supreme) The full potency of the Absolute Truth is not realized in the brahma-jyotir; therefore Brahman realization is only partial realization of the Personality of Godhead. The first syllable of the word bhagavn (bha) has two meanings: the first is 'one who fully maintains,' and the second is 'guardian.' The second syllable (ga) means 'guide,' 'leader' or 'creator.' The syllable vn indicates that every being lives in Him and that He also lives in every being.

In other words, the transcendental sound bhagavn represents infinite knowledge, potency, energy, opulence, strength and influenceall without a tinge of material inebriety." CCP: Bha bharta, Ga Gamyate (one who takes to a particular destination), van vas (one who resides) (Para 5 Pusann - Two topics. 1) Ka guides His devotees to Him. 2) His nature) Ga: The Lord fully maintains His unalloyed devotees, and He guides them progressively on the path toward devotional perfection. Ga: As the leader of His devotees, He ultimately awards the desired results of devotional service by giving Himself to them. The devotees of the Lord see the Lord eye to eye by His causeless mercy; thus the Lord helps His devotees reach the supermost spiritual planet, Goloka Vndvana. Ga: Being the creator, He can bestow all necessary qualifications upon His devotees so that they can ultimately reach Him. The Lord is the cause of all causes. In other words, since there is nothing that caused Him, He is the original cause. Consequently He enjoys His own Self by manifesting His own internal potency. The external potency is not exactly manifested by Him, for He expands Himself as the puruas, and it is in these forms that He maintains the features of the material manifestation. (Para 6 and 7 - The Jivas. His differentiated expansions. Desires to be lords. He allows them, but ultimately He, as Paramatma, is the controller.)

The living entities are also differentiated expansions of the Lord's Self, and because some of them desire to be lords and imitate the Supreme Lord, He allows them to enter into the cosmic creation with the option to fully utilize their propensity to lord it over nature. Because of the presence of His parts and parcels, the living entities, the entire phenomenal world is stirred into action and reaction. Thus the living entities are given full facilities to lord it over material nature, but the ultimate controller is the Lord Himself in His plenary feature as Paramtm, the Supersoul, who is one of the puruas. Because the Paramtm fully cooperates with the tm, He is known as the constant companion of the living being.

CCP: This is tika of rla Jiva Gosvami on BRS of rla Rupa Gosvami. Vaisnavas reject aikatava jna and focus of jna that will bring them closer to Ka.

CCP: So in SB many times devotees pray Ill prefer to go to hell if I get opportunity to chant your name. They give up urge to merge.

(Para 8 Bhagavan can be known only by those whom He favors) The all-pervading feature of the Lordwhich exists in all circumstances of waking and sleeping as well as in potential states and from which the jva-akti (living force) is generated as both conditioned and liberated soulsis known as Brahman. o HPS: Interesting statement. Since the Lord is the origin of both Paramtm and Brahman, He is the origin of all living entities and all else that exists. One who knows this engages himself at once in the devotional service of the Lord. Such a pure and fully cognizant devotee of the Lord is fully attached to Him in heart and soul, and whenever such a devotee assembles with similar devotees, they have no engagement but the glorification of the Lord's transcendental activities. Those who are not as perfect as the pure devoteesnamely, those who have realized only the Brahman or Paramtm features of the Lordcannot appreciate the activities of the perfect devotees. The Lord can be known only by those whom He favors, and not by anyone else. CCP: Prabhupda: You may see sky and say oh sky I love you. How can you love a sky? You may get some peace. Similarly Brahman is everywhere, how will you love it? CCP: Chanting is both prayer and fulfillment of the prayer. We pray for service and serve the name by chanting respectfully and with clear pronunciation. If miracles are the criterion then circus will be the testing ground. Young girl: Swami Ji, when I chant I see a white light. Prabhupda: Keep chanting the light will go away. Devotional service itself is answer of the prayer. Main Points Discussed In Mantra Sixteen the devotee prays, along with realizing the form of the Lord, to also realize his own spiritual position in relation to the Lord. The living entities are compared to the rays of the sun, as they are qualitatively the same as the Lord. The name Bhagavan, signifying the personal form of the Lord, establishes Him as the maintainer and guardian of the living entities. For the devotees He personally guides them on the path of spiritual realization, thus giving Himself to them.

1. A petition to the Lord to remove the effulgent rays of the brahmajyoti to help the devotees to behold the all-blissful transcendental form of the Lord 2. Impersonalists blinded by brahmajyoti cannot realize the land and the form of the Lord 3. Supreme Truth cannot be impersonal 4. Bhagavan maintainer, guardian, guide, creator, leader, unlimited opulences 5. Complete conception of Absolute Truth Personality of Godhead non others 6. Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna cause of all causes, primordial cause 7. Special favor to pure devotees beyond the purview of the brahmajyoti 8. Atma and Paramatma Gulf of difference 9. Brahman and Paramatma realized cannot appreciate activities of pure devotees Exercise Read: Read mantra sixteen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: As the Lord reveals Himself to us we also realize our own spiritual position in relation to Him. Focus on realizing our relationship with the Lord as His eternal servants. We can pray to realize this relationship with Him. Consider: The living entities have the same individual spiritual nature as the Lord. Indeed, He is the spiritual source of our existence, and so is sometimes called the Self of all selves. Observe how everybody is searching for their own happiness by engaging in relationships with other living entities. Imagine the happiness to be obtained in relation to the unlimited source of all living beings. By serving and pleasing Him we would also receive so much pleasure, for He the source of our very being. Describe: Describe the limited nature of relationships with other living beings in comparison with the unlimited nature and satisfaction of a relationship with the Supreme Person, who is the source of our own self. Question and Answers Q.1. Explain the analogy of the sun and the sun rays with respect to the Supreme Lord and the living entities. Ans. The sun and its rays are one and the same qualitatively. Similarly, the Lord and the living entities are one the same in quality. The sun is one, but the molecules of the suns rays are innumerable. Similarly the Supreme Lord is one but His energies and expansions are unlimited. The suns rays constitute part of the sun, and the sun and its rays conjointly constitute the complete sun. Within the sun itself resides the sun-god, and similarly within the supreme spiritual planet, Goloka Vrindavana, from which the brahmajyoti effulgence is emanating, the Lord enjoys His eternal pastimes, as verified in the Brahm Samhita (5.29). The brahmajyoti is described as the rays emanating from the supreme spiritual planet, Goloka Vrindavana, just as the suns rays emanate from the sun globe. Q.2. When one can have information about the land of the Lord? Ans. When one surpasses the glare of the brahmajyoti, one can receive information about the land of the Lord (Goloka Vrindavana).

Q.3. Why the Impersonalists philosophers cannot realize the land of the Lord as also the form of the Lord? Ans. The Impersonalists philosophers, blinded as they are by the dazzling brahmajyoti, can realize neither the factual abode of the Lord nor His transcendental form. Limited by their poor fund of knowledge, such impersonalists thinkers cannot understand the all blissful transcendental form of Lord Krishna. Q.4. Why r opaniad beseeches the Lord to remove the effulgence of His transcendental rays (brahmajyoti)? Ans. The dazzling brahmajyoti effulgence glaring out of the Lord is actually blinding the beholder to see the all attractive, beautiful, transcendental form of the Lord. It is because of this, in this prayer, r opaniad petitions the Lord to remove the effulgent rays of the brahmajyoti so that the pure devotee can see His all-blissful transcendental form. Q.5. What is the progression auspiciousness on realization of different aspects of the Lord? Ans. When one realizes the impersonal brahmajyoti, one experiences the auspicious aspect of the Supreme, and by realizing the Paramatma or all-pervading feature of the supreme, one experiences an even more auspicious enlightenment. But by meeting the Personality of Godhead Himself face to face, the devotee experiences the most auspicious features of the Supreme. Q.6. Why the Supreme Truth cannot be impersonal? Ans. The Supreme Truth is addressed as the primeval philosopher and maintainer and wellwisher of the universe, He cannot be impersonal. By meeting the Personality of Godhead the devotees experience the most auspicious features of the Supreme whereas when they realize impersonal brahmajyoti they experience auspicious aspects of the Supreme and when they realize the Paramatma feature they experience more auspicious enlightenment. It is also the verdict of r opaniad. Q.7. What is the significance of the word pusan? Ans. The word pusan maintainer is especially significant, for although the Lord maintains all beings, He specifically maintains His devotees. Q.8. Establish that Lord r Krishna is the ultimate maintainer? Ans. The transcendental word bhagavan refers to Lord Krishna. One of the meaning of the first syllable (bha) from the word bhagavan means one who fully maintains. The Lord the ultimate maintainer is in the sense that everything required for the maintenance of everything in this cosmic world is provided by the Supreme Lord. Since the Lord r Krishna is the source of everything, He is the supreme maintainer. The word pusan used in this prayer especially significant, far although the Lord maintains all beings, He specifically maintains His devotees. The Lord provides facilities to all jiva those who desire to lord over and imitate the Supreme Lord. He creates this facility of material nature and allows the souls enter in to it with the option to fully utilize their propensity to lord it over nature. He also personally helps the living entities in the form of Paramatma by stirring everything into actions and reactions. The Lord is ultimate maintainer in the sense that He maintains even the blasphemers and those who deride his personal feature and His existence.

Q.9. When the devotee realizes the Absolute Truth in full? Ans. After surpassing the impersonal brahmajyoti and seeing the personal aspect of the Lord and His most auspicious eternal form, the devotee realizes the Absolute Truth in full. Q.10. Elucidate rla Jiva Goswamis statement about realization of the Personality feature of the Absolute Truth. Ans. In his Bhgavata-sandarbha, rla Jiva Goswami states: The complete conception of the Absolute Truth is realized in the Personality of Godhead because He is almighty and possess full transcendental potencies. The full potency of the Absolute Truth is not realized in the brahmajyoti; therefore Brahman realization is only partial realization of the Personality of Godhead. O learned sages, the first syllable of the word bhagavan (bha) has two meanings: the first is one who fully maintains, and the second is guardian. The second syllable (ga) means guide, leader or creator. The syllable van indicates that every being lives in Him and that He also lives in every being. In other words, the transcendental sound bhagavan represents infinite knowledge, potency, energy, opulence, strength and influence all without a ting of material inebriety. Q.11. Why the complete conception of the Absolute Truth is realized in Personality feature? Ans. The complete conception of the Absolute Truth is realized in the Personality feature or Bhagavan feature of the Godhead because He is almighty and possesses full transcendental potencies. Q.12. Why Brahman realization is partial realization of the Absolute Truth? Ans. The full potency of the Absolute Truth is not realized in the brahmajyoti; therefore Brahman realization is only partial realization of the Personality of Godhead. Q.13. What does the sound/word bhagavan represents? Ans. The transcendental sound bhagavan represents infinite knowledge, potency, energy, opulence, strength and influence all without a ting of material inebriety. The first syllable of the word bhagavan (bha) has two meanings: the first is one who fully maintains, and the second is guardian. The second syllable (ga) means guide, leader or creator. The syllable (van) indicates that every being lives in Him and that He also lives in every being. Q.14. Explain why the jiva should never be misidentified with Bhagavan? Ans. There is a gulf of difference between jiva and Bhagavan. Bhagavan is the maintainer, guardian, guide, creator, leader and possessor of infinite knowledge, potencies, energies, opulence, strength and influence all without any material inebriety whereas jiva is infinitesimal, insignificant, cannot act with the help of Paramatma, have no opulence always with begging bowl, no influence, no strength and no knowledge of the self also under conditioned stage, always under influence of either material energy or spiritual energy. Jiva is created and the Bhagavan is creator. Jiva has no independent existence whereas Lord is the shelter of everything that exists and supremely independent. When one has the full knowledge of the Absolute Truth can never misidentify the jiva with Bhagavan. It is only in the ignorance that one thinks of jiva to be bhagavan. Q.15. How the Lord helps His devotees to understand Him?

Ans. The Lord fully maintains His unalloyed devotees and He guides them progressively on the path toward devotional perfection. As a leader of His devotees, He ultimately awards the desired results of devotional services by giving Himself to them. The devotees of the Lord see the Lord eye to eye by His causeless mercy; thus the Lord helps His devotees reach the super-most spiritual planet, Goloka Vrindavana. Being the creator, He can bestow all necessary qualifications upon His devotees so that they can ultimately reach Him. The Lord always helps His pure devotees by imparting necessary knowledge within their hearts and thus out of His special favor He dissipates all the darkness of ignorance. Q.16. Why the Lord is called cause of all causes? There is nothing that caused the Lord. He is the original and primeval cause. Therefore He is called the cause of all causes. Q.17. How the Lord maintains the features of His material manifestation? Ans. The Lord maintains the features of His material manifestation by His purusa expansions that are called Viu-tattavas. By such expansions, He creates, maintains and annihilates the cosmic manifestation. There are three Viu expansions of the Lord. One of these Viutattvas who is within the universe is known as Ksirodakasayi Viu. He is the Viu among the three principal deities Brahma, Viu and iva and He is the all-pervading Paramatma in each and every individual living entity. The second Viu-tattava within the universe is Garbhodakasayi Viu, the collective Supersoul within all living entities. Beyond these two is Karnodakasayi Viu, who lies in the Causal Ocean. He is the creator of all the universes. Q.18. How the Lord facilitates to fulfill the desires of the living entities to be lords imitating the Supreme Lord? Ans. The living entities are also differentiated expansions of the Lords Self, and because some of them desire to be lords and imitate the Supreme Lord, He allows them to enter into the cosmic creation with the option to fully utilize their propensity to lord it over nature. Because of the presence of His parts and parcels, the living entities, the entire phenomenal world is stirred into action and reaction. Thus the living entities are given the full facilities to lord it over material nature. Q.19. What is the difference between the atma and Paramatma? Ans. There is a gulf of difference between the living entity (atma) and the controlling Lord (Paramatma), the soul and Supersoul. Paramatma is the controller, and the atma is the controlled; therefore they are in different categories. Paramatma is integrated expansion of the Supreme Lord whereas atma is differentiated expansion. Paramatma stirs the entire phenomenal world into actions and reactions whereas atma tries to lord it over without any success. Paramatma is Viu-tattava whereas atma is jiva-tattva. Paramatma is constant companion of the atma but atma forgets the existence of Paramatma in the pursuit of sense gratification with bitter and sweet fruits. Q.20. Who cannot appreciate the activities of perfect devotees? Ans. Those who are not as perfect as the pure devotees viz. those who have realized only Brahman or Paramatma features of the Lord, cannot appreciate the activities of the perfect devotees.

Q. 21What is the Sanskrit word for the Lord in His function as the maintainer? Q. 22 What four things are maintained by Bhagavan, or dependent on Him? Q. 23 Fill in the blanks A. The Lord the jiva souls are one and different simultaneously The jiva souls and the Lord are one in terms of __________ (example of the sun and sun rays), but are not completely the same as they lack His omnipotence. They are controlled and He is the controller. B. Ka is the maintainer of all, but He especially maintains His devotees. The Lord maintains His devotee by guiding them on the progressive path of ___________, ultimately giving them realization of Himself. C. The activities of pure devotees can only be understood by other pure devotees, not by Jnanis or yogis Just as knowledge of Ka is a mystery to those without the proper qualifications, so also is the knowledge of His pure devotees who relate with Him in Him highest aspect of Bhagavan. Ka gives special favor to devotees by ________ them from within. Such mercy cannot be experienced in the brahmajyoti. Questions for Mantras 15-16 1. Why does a devotee need to pray to the Lord to reveal Himself? 2. Why does the Lord, who is the source of all living entities and should therefore be impartial to all beings, especially favor His devotees? 3. Why would understanding the Lord to be the source of everything lead us to want to engage in His devotional service? 4. What is the ultimate purpose of realizing the Lord? 5. Why are these verses good for fighting Myvda ideas? Answers for Mantras 15-16 Ans. 1: Because the Lord is a person He need only reveal Himself to those He wishes, and so we must appeal to Him favorably and personally. Ans. 2: Desiring loving exchanges, the Lord reciprocates with the living entities as they reciprocate with Him. Ans. 3: We realize our most intimate, loving relationship with Him as the source of our own selves. Ans. 4: Engaging in a personal, loving relationship with Him.

Mantra 17-18: Protection against imperfection, for the sincere devotee / Prayers for practice

Connection: After praying for realization of the knowledge given, the devotee prays for the Lord to accept his spiritual practices, or service, in Mantras 17-18. Key Phrase: Lord, for spiritual life on you I depend, To always be there as a guide and a friend

Mantra 17 - Prayer for Lord to remember our service to Him / How devotional service prepares us for passing the exam of death vyur anilam amtam atheda bhasmnta arram o krato smara kta smara krato smara kta smara Let this temporary body be burnt to ashes, and let the air of life be merged with the totality of air. Now, O my Lord, please remember all my sacrifices, and because You are the ultimate beneficiary, please remember all that I have done for You. Key Phrase: o krato smara kta smara Connection: The prayers of the devotee continue from mantras 15 and 16. At mantra 17, the prayer has an emphasis of understanding Ka at the time of death. Summary of the Purport In Mantra Seventeen the devotee, while praying to abandon these temporary material bodies, begs the Lord to remember all his sacrifices and service. Our material bodies are given to us according to our desires, but actually these bodies are foreign coverings for the eternal spiritual soul. So that he may develop the desire for spiritual life the devotee constantly engages in the service of the Lord. The Lord blesses such a devotee with spiritual realization so that the devotees material attachments may decrease. Spiritual activities, or d evotional service, begin with hearing and chanting about the Lord. Overview Para 1 to 3 - This material body is a foreign dress that must be given up Para 4 and 5 Contrast of Devotees conclusion of this Foreign Dress to the position of the Brahmans who don't realize Santa-rasa Para 6 to 7 This burn me to ashes prayer is made at the time of death with full consciousness, Bhava, unlike the animals and impersonalists Para 8 to 9 Ka never forgets our service to Him Para 10 to 11 Kas mercy is ever available through devotional service Para 12 Bhagavatam elaborates this verse and all other verses Para 13 to 15 Prepare for death by devotional practice Explanation BP: 2 requests. One might think we should not ask Ka like that. Why not, what more can you do at the time of death?

(Para 1 to 3 - This material body is a foreign dress that must be given up)

The temporary material body is certainly a foreign dress. It is the material dress that is formless and that takes a shape according to the form of the indestructible person. No living entity is originally formless, as is wrongly thought by those with a poor fund of knowledge. This mantra verifies the fact that the living entity exists after the annihilation of the material body. (Para 4 and 5 Contrast of Devotees conclusion of this Foreign Dress to the position of the Brahmans who don't realize Santa-rasa) Material nature creates varieties of bodies for the living beings according to their propensities for sense gratification. E.g. pig for stool eating and tiger for eating flesh. Humans meant for none. In the cycle of evolution, the living entity changes bodies one after another. The highest developed form is this human form when it is possessed of a full sense of spiritual knowledge. The highest development of one's spiritual sense is described in this mantra: One should give up the material body, which will be turned to ashes, and allow the air of life to merge into the eternal reservoir of air. Yogis try to go at the time of death to planet of their choice. But still it is a transfer from one material body to another. But the highest perfection of such changes occurs only when the living entity is able to give up the material body altogether, and enter into the spiritual atmosphere, where he can develop a spiritual body, which never has to meet death or change. All of these living entities have bodies composed of matter in different shapes. The intelligent man sees oneness not in the variety of the bodies but in the spiritual identity. The human body is highly developed and has full consciousness. The culture of knowledge reaches perfection only when the knower comes to the point of surrendering unto the Supreme Lord, Vsudeva. Even after attaining knowledge of one's spiritual identity, if one does not come to the point of knowing that the living entities are eternal parts and parcels of the whole and can never become the whole, one has to fall down again into the material atmosphere.

The desire for lordship is the material disease of the living being, for under the spell of sense enjoyment he transmigrates through the various bodies manifested in the material world. Becoming one with the brahma-jyotir does not represent mature knowledge. Only by surrendering unto the Lord completely and developing one's sense of spiritual service does one reach the highest perfectional stage. (Para 6 to 7 This burn me to ashes prayer is made at the time of death with full consciousness, Bhava, unlike the animals and impersonalists)

In this mantra the living entity makes this prayer at the time of death, with full consciousness of his past deeds and of the ultimate goal. ya ya vpi smaran bhva the mind carries the living entity's propensities into the next life. Unlike the simple animals, who have no developed mind, the dying human being can remember the activities of his life like dreams at night; therefore his mind remains surcharged with material desires, and consequently he cannot enter into the spiritual kingdom with a spiritual body. o BP: Most interesting point. This prayer is given to remind the Lord of the devotee's sacrifices, but even if there is no such reminder, the Lord does not forget the service rendered by His pure devotee. BP: I was with Harikesa Swami. We were in car and there were rain and were stuck. I said let us pray to Ka, but he said no. But in few minutes, he got glass down and screamed Ka help. (Para 8 to 9 Ka never forgets our service to Him)

Two names from Sri Viu Sahastranaam CCP: Kas inner presence is not to catch us but to coach us. E.g. of Animisha Draupad, Ka finger cut, she bandaged with her sari, He returned much more. Nimisha Putan. When she came, Ka closed His eyes so He cannot see the faults. Ka will reward every single service we do. He doesnt forget us, even when we forget Him. He is always waiting for us as Paramtma. He never gets upset with us. He is ever-waiting and ever-willing. Nothing can stop Ka from loving us. Like nothing can stop sun from providing light. Also He is ever working. The Lord clearly describes His intimate relationship with His devotees in the Bhagavad-gt (9.30-34) apicet sudaracaro.kauteya pratijanatisti vaisyo sudrasdukhalayam asasvatamman mana bhava mada bhakto rla Bhaktivinoda hkura explains these verses o One should regard a devotee of Ka to be on the right path of the saints, even though such a devotee may seem to be su-durcra, 'a person of loose character.' o A conditioned soul has to act for double functionsnamely for the maintenance of the body and again for self-realization. o One must perform these two different functions along parallel lines, because a conditioned soul cannot give up the maintenance of his body. o The proportion of activities for maintenance of the body decreases, however, in proportion to the increase in devotional service. o As long as the proportion of devotional service does not come to the right point, there is a chance for an occasional exhibition of worldliness. o But it should be noted that such worldliness cannot continue for long because, by the grace of the Lord, such imperfections will come to an end very shortly. Therefore the path of devotional service is the only right path. o If one is on the right path, even an occasional occurrence of worldliness does not hamper one in the advancement of self-realization. o BP: Ajamila story. (Para 10 to 11 Kas mercy is ever available through devotional service) The facilities of devotional service are denied the impersonalists because they are attached to the brahma-jyotir feature of the Lord.

All the facilities suggested in this mantra can be easily obtained by constant contact with the personal feature of the Absolute Truth. Bhakti has nine processes. These nine principles of devotional servicetaken all together or one by onehelp a devotee remain constantly in touch with God. In this way, at the end of life it is easy for the devotee to remember the Lord. (Para 12 Bhagavatam elaborates this verse and all other verses) The explanation of this mantra and of practically all the mantras of the Vedic hymns is summarized in the Vednta-stra and properly explained in rmad-Bhgavatam. In rmad-Bhgavatam this particular mantra is explained in the questions and answers between Mahrja Parkit and ukadeva Gosvm at the very beginning of their meeting. Mahrja Parkit inquired from ukadeva because ukadeva was a greater spiritual master than any great yog or transcendentalist of his time. (Para 13 to 15 Prepare for death by devotional practice) Mahrja Parkit's main question was: "What is the duty of every man, specifically at the time of death?" ukadeva Gosvm answered: tasmd bhrata sarvtm bhagavn varo hari rotavya krtitavya ca smartavya cecchatbhayam "Everyone who desires to be free from all anxieties should always hear about, glorify and remember the Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme director of everything, the extinguisher of all difficulties, and the Supersoul of all living entities." (SB 2.1.5) One should not indulge in hearing and speaking of the rubbish activities of worldly politicians and so-called big men in society but should mold his life in such a way that he can engage in godly activities without wasting a second. r opaniad directs us toward such godly activities. Unless one is accustomed to devotional practice, what will he remember at the time of death, when the body is dislocated, and how can he pray to the almighty Lord to remember his sacrifices? Sacrifice means denying the interest of the senses. One has to learn this art by employing the senses in the service of the Lord during one's lifetime. One can utilize the results of such practice at the time of death. Main Points Discussed In this mantra the living entity prays to enter the spiritual kingdom of God after relinquishing his material body and material air. The devotee prays to the Lord to remember his activities and the sacrifices he has performed before his material body is turned into ashes. He makes this prayer at the time of death, with full consciousness of his past deeds and of the ultimate goal. The material body is an artificial imposition on the pure spirit soul, and our business in the human form of life is to become free of the constraints of material existence by surrendering to Ka. Through practicing devotional service one arouses ones dormant Ka consciousness, and receives the mercy of the Lord. Even if one makes some serious mistakes

in the course of such practice Ka will still be merciful and help His devotee become successful. How this occurs is elaborately explained by rla Bhaktivinoda Thkura. This practice of devotional service consists of nine activities, as explained in rmad Bhgavatam, in order to keep ones senses fully engaged on the spiritual platform and in this way avoid being distracted by material attractions. rla Prabhupda says: One has to learn this art by employing the senses in the service of the Lord during ones lifetime. Once can utilize the results of such practice at the time of death. 1. Prayer to the Supreme Lord at the time of death 2. Living entity exists even after annihilation of material body verified 3. Material nature displays wonderful workmanship 4. Cycle of evolution change of material body one after another 5. Highest development of spiritual sense giving up material body and allowing to life air to merge in to the eternal reservoir of air 6. Highest perfection of changing bodies occurs when attains spiritual body 7. Variegated bodies represents desires of living entities 8. Perfection of culture of knowledge realization of Vasudeva Krishna 9. Lord never forgets the devotional performed by devotees, even when devotee forget 10. Facilities of devotees denied for impersonalists 11. Nine process of devotional service great devotees succeeded by adopting even one 12. Unanimous declaration of Vedic literatures Absolute Truth is Supreme Personality Exercise Read: Read mantra seventeen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Focus on our service to the Lord, beginning with hearing and chanting, as being the only activity which will help us after this lifetime. We can pray to recognize the importance of our devotional service, and for the Lord to accept such service. Consider: Consider how all of our material accomplishments will be of no use to us after we have left behind this material body. The only activity beneficial on the eternal platform is devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Pay attention to your own priorities and activities. Are they focused on pleasing the Lord as devotional service to Him, or are they focused on simply maintaining attachment to this material world? Describe: Describe how devotional service is the only eternally beneficial activity. Describe your own realization of its importance and your desire to engage in such service. Question and Answers Q.1. What does mantra 17 verifies about the living entity? Ans. The fact that the living entity exists after the annihilation of the material body is verified in mantra 17 of r opaniad. The temporary material body is certainly a foreign dress. Bhagavad-Gt (2.20) clearly says that after the destruction of the material body the living entity is not annihilated, nor does he loses his identity. The identity of the living entity is never impersonal or formless; on the contrary, it is the material dress that is formless and that takes a shape according to the form of the indestructible person. No living entity is originally

formless, as is wrongly thought by those with a poor fund of knowledge. This is what is confirmed in this mantra. Q.2. Describe about the workmanship of material nature as described in mantra 17. Ans. In the material world, material nature displays wonderful workmanship by creating varieties of bodies for the living beings according to their propensities for sense gratification. The living entity who wants to taste stool is given a material body that is quite suitable for eating stool that of a hog. Similarly, one who wants to eat the flesh and blood of other animals may be given a tigers body equipped with suitable teeth and claws. But human beings is not meant for eating flesh, nor does he have any desire to taste stool, even in the most aboriginal state. Human teeth are so made that they can chew and cut fruit and vegetables, although there are two canine teeth so that primitive humans can eat flesh if they so desire. Q.3. Elucidate how the living entity changes bodies in the cycle of evolution? Ans. The living entity keeps changing their different bodies as per their desire for sense gratification. In the cycle of evolution, the living entity changes bodies one after another. When the world was full of water, the living entity took an aquatic form. Then he passed to vegetable life, from vegetable life to warm life, from warm life to bird life, from bird life to animal life and from animal life to the human form. The highest developed form is this human form when it is possessed of a full sense of spiritual knowledge. The living entity takes on different bodies according to his pious and vicious activities. The desire for lordship is material disease of the living being, for under the spell of sense enjoyment he transmigrates through the various bodies manifested in the material world. One who is completely under the rule of material nature remembers the heinous activities he performed during the existence of his material body, and consequently he gets another material body after death. Q.4. What is parameter to gauge the highest development of the spiritual sense? Ans. In the process of evolution when the living entity attains the form of a human being he can develop full sense of spiritual knowledge. The highest development of ones spiritual sense is described in this mantra according to which one should give up the material body, which will be turned to ashes, and allow the air of life to merge into the eternal reservoir of air. If one develops this sort of sense, it is the highest development of ones spiritual sense. Q.5. What is the process by which the perfect yogis can attain the desired planet? Ans. The living beings activities are performed within the body through the movements of different kinds of air, known in summary as prana-vayu. The yogis generally study how to control the air within the body. The soul is supposed to rise from one circle of air to another until it rises to the brahma-randhra, the highest circle. From that point the perfected yogis can transfer him to any planet he likes. The process is to give up one material body and then enter into another. Q.6. When the highest perfection of changing different, different bodies occur? Ans. The highest perfection of changing different, different bodies occurs only when the living entity is able to give-up the material body altogether, as suggested in mantra 17 of

opaniad, and enters into the spiritual atmosphere, where he can develop a completely different type of body a spiritual body, which never has to meet death or change. Q.7. How the desires of the living entities are represented? Ans. The desires of the living entities are represented in the various species of life, from germ to the most perfected material bodies, those of Brahm and the demigods. All material bodies are composed of different, different composition of matter in different shapes. Material nature forces the living entity to change his body due to his different desires for sense gratification. Q.8. How the intelligent person sees oneness? Ans. The intelligent person sees oneness in the spiritual identity not in the variety of the bodies composed of material elements. The spiritual spark, which is the parts and parcel of the Supreme Lord, is the same whether he is in a body of a hog or in the body of a demigod. Q.9. Which form of the material bodies is highly developed with full consciousness and what are its activities? Ans. The human form of the material bodies is the highly developed and has full consciousness. According to the Bhagavad-Gt (7.19), the most perfect man surrenders unto the Lord after many, many lifetimes of culturing knowledge and performs devotional services at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, r Krishna. Q.10. When the culture of knowledge reaches perfection? What happens when it doesnt? Ans. The culture of knowledge reaches perfection only when the knower comes to the point of surrendering unto the Supreme Lord, Vasudeva. Otherwise, even after attaining knowledge of ones spiritual identity, if one does not come to the point of knowing that the living entities are eternal parts and parcels of the whole and can never become the whole, one has to fall down again into the material atmosphere. Indeed, one must fall down even if he has become one with the brahmajyoti. Becoming one with brahmajyoti does not represent mature knowledge. Only by surrendering unto the Lord completely and developing ones sense of spiritual service does one reach the highest perfectional stage. Q.11. When the living entities are placed in the material world? Ans. The brahmajyoti, emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord is full of spiritual sparks that are individual entities with the full sense of existence. Sometimes these living entities want to enjoy their senses so they are placed in the material world to become false lords under the dictation of the senses. Q.12. Describe the petition of the devotee, as illustrated in this mantra, which he puts before the Lord at the time of death. Ans. In this mantra, the living entity prays to enter the spiritual kingdom of God after relinquishing his material body and material air. The devotee prays to the Lord to remember his activities and the sacrifices he has performed before his material body is turned into ashes. He makes these prayers at the time of death, with full consciousness of his past deeds and of the ultimate goal. Even at the time of death, a devotee does not remember his services to the Lord; the Lord does not forget him. This prayer is given to remind the Lord of the devotees sacrifices. But, even without such reminders the Lord does not forget the service rendered by

His pure devotee. Because the Lord has promised that even if one commits the most abominable action, but if he is engaged in devotional service he is to be considered saintly because he is properly situated in his determination of performance of bhakti and he quickly becomes righteous and attains lasting peace. He also says those who take shelter of Him, may be they of lower birth women, vaisya (merchants) or sudras (workers) can attain the supreme destination. Q.13. Elucidate rla Bhaktivinoda Thkuras explanation of Bhagavad-Gt (9.30-34) as described in the purport of mantra 17 of r opaniad. Ans. rla Bhaktivinoda Thkura explains these verses in this way: "One should regard a devotee of Ka to be on the right path of the saints, even though such a devotee may seem to be su-duracara, 'a person of loose character.' One should try to understand the real purport of the word su-duracara. A conditioned soul has to act for double functions--namely for the maintenance of the body and again for self-realization. Social status, mental development, cleanliness, austerity, nourishment and the struggle for existence are all for the maintenance of the body. The self-realization part of one's activities is executed in one's occupation as a devotee of the Lord, and one performs actions in that connection also. One must perform these two different functions along parallel lines, because a conditioned soul cannot give up the maintenance of his body. The proportion of activities for maintenance of the body decreases, however, in proportion to the increase in devotional service. As long as the proportion of devotional service does not come to the right point, there is a chance for an occasional exhibition of worldliness. But it should be noted that such worldliness cannot continue for long because, by the grace of the Lord, such imperfections will come to an end very shortly. Therefore the path of devotional service is the only right path. If one is on the right path, even an occasional occurrence of worldliness does not hamper one in the advancement of self-realization." Q.14. Why the facilities are denied to the impersonalists? Ans. The facilities of devotional service are denied the impersonalists because they are attached to the brahmajyoti feature of the Lord. They cannot penetrate the brahmajyoti because they do not believe in the personality of Godhead. Their business is mostly word jugglery and mental speculation. Consequently they pursue a fruitless labor as confirmed in Bhagavad-Gt (12.5). Q.15. What helps the devotee to remain in constant touch with the Supreme Lord? Ans. The nine principles of devotional service taken together or one by one helps a devotee remain constantly in touch with Supreme Lord. These principles of devotional service to the Lord consists essentially of nine transcendental activities: (1) hearing about the Lord, (2) glorifying the Lord, (3) remembering the Lord, (4) serving the lotus feet of the Lord, (5) worshiping the Lord, (6) offering prayers to the Lord, (7) serving the Lord, (8) enjoying friendly association with the Lord, and (9) surrendering everything unto the Lord. Q.16. Who were the devotees who were able to achieve the highest perfection by adopting either one or all the principles of devotional service? Ans. By adopting only one or all the nine principles of devotional service the following renowned devotees of the Lord were able to achieve the highest perfection: (1) By hearing of

the Lord, Mahraja Parkit, the hero of rmad-Bhgavatam, attained the desired result. (2) Just by glorifying the Lord, ukadeva Gosvami, the speaker of rmad-Bhgavatam, attained his perfection. (3) By praying to the Lord, Akrura attained the desired result. (4) By remembering the Lord, Prahlada Mahraja attained the desired result. (5) By worshiping the Lord, Pthu Mahraja attained perfection. (6) By serving the lotus feet of the Lord, the goddess of fortune, Lakshm, attained perfection. (7) By rendering personal service to the Lord, Hanuman attained the desired result. (8) Through his friendship with the Lord, Arjuna attained the desired result. (9) By surrendering everything he had to the Lord, Mahraja Bali attained the desired result by adopting all the nine principles of devotional service Mahraja Ambarisa attained the highest perfection of devotional service. Q.17. Explain how the essence of mantra 17 was discussed by Mahraja Parkit and rla ukadeva Gosvm. Ans. In rmad-Bhgavatam this particular mantra is explained in the questions and answers between Mahraja Parkit and rla ukadeva Gosvm at the very beginning of their meeting. Mahraja Pariksit's main question was: "What is the duty of every man, specifically at the time of death?" ukadeva Gosvami answered: tasmad bharata sarvatma bhagavan isvaro harih srotavyah kirtitavyas ca smartavyas cecchatabhayam "Everyone who desires to be free from all anxieties should always hear about, glorify and remember the Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme director of everything, the extinguisher of all difficulties, and the Supersoul of all living entities." (Bhag. 2.1.5) Q.18. What are general activities of the modern day human society and how they have dismissed the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Ans. The modern-day so-called human society is generally engaged at night in sleeping and having sex and during the daytime in earning as much money as possible or else in shopping for family maintenance. People have very little time to talk about the Personality of Godhead or to inquire about Him. They have dismissed God's existence in so many ways, primarily by declaring Him to be impersonal, that is, without sense perception. Q.19. What is the unanimous declaration of all the Vedic literature about the Supreme Being? Ans. All the Vedic literature - whether the Upaniads, Vedanta-sutra, Bhagavad-Gt or rmad-Bhgavatam-it is clearly declared that, the Lord is a sentient being and is supreme over all other living entities. His glorious activities are identical with Himself. One should therefore not indulge in hearing and speaking of the rubbish activities of worldly politicians and so-called big men in society but should mold their life in such a way that one can engage in godly activities without wasting a second. r opaniad directs us toward such godly activities. Q.20. What is meaning of sacrifice? Ans. Sacrifice means denying the interest of the senses. One has to learn this art by employing the senses in the service of the Lord during ones lifetime. One can utilize the results of such practice at the time of death. Q.21 How are the Lord and the soul different according to the final verses of r opaniad?

Q.22. How does the Lord assist His devotees in coming to Him? Q.23 Fill in the blanks A. The spirit soul is eternally individual; the body is made up of matter, which temporarily covers the spirit soul according to karma One will attain a certain body according to his __________ at death. When one has the spirit of independent material enjoyment, he takes a future birth in the material world according to the modes of enjoyment to which he is conditioned. Therefore the devotees try to focus their mind on Ka, in an attempt to forego this world and return to Him. B. Devotees return to Ka by the powerful process of bhakti-yoga The bhaktas prepare for remembrance of Ka at death by cultivating _________ during their lives. This is done by practicing the nine processes of devotional service, serving the Lord with all their senses. Because the Lord takes a personal interest in His devotees, He will help them even if they do not have perfect remembrance of Him at death. This again displays the special feature of reciprocation which is found in Bhagavan realization. Mantra 18 - Prayer for Lord to guide us on path to reach Him / How the omnipotent Lord guides the devotee to perfection agne naya supath rye asmn vivni deva vayunni vidvn yuyodhy asmaj juhuram eno bhyih te nama-ukti vidhema O my Lord, as powerful as fire, O omnipotent one, now I offer You all obeisances, falling on the ground at Your feet. O my Lord, please lead me on the right path to reach You, and since You know all that I have done in the past, please free me from the reactions to my past sins so that there will be no hindrance to my progress. Key Phrase: r opaniad brings one nearer to the Personality of Ka. Connection: Mantra 18 is the concluding prayer of the devotee, who desires to achieve Kas mercy. Summary of Purport In Mantra Eighteen the devotee prays for guidance on the spiritual path and the removal of past sinful reactions which may hinder his progress. One becomes perfect by thus surrendering unto the Lord, who at once takes charge of such a devotee. Gradually such a devotee develops all the qualities of a saintly person, such as truthfulness, sense control, tolerance, simplicity, and faith in God. The Lord thus guides the devotee on the path of righteousness and spiritual progress. He guides externally as the scriptures, saints, and spiritual master, and internally from within the heart. As one follows this path of the Lord one becomes a pure devotee. Overview Para 1 How obstacles on the spiritual path originate Para 2 and 3 High parentage doesnt guarantee self-realization, it is just a facility

Para 4 But if you dont use this facility for devotional service, youll degrade. On the other hand, a devotee will get all facility by the omnipotence of the Lord. Para 5 to 7 For a devotee, Lord gives direction and keeps him safe, while others are on their own Para 8 Stages from sravana krtana to pure devotion Explanation

HPS: Prabhupda discusses the different process for getting free from sinful reactions. As the Mantra suggests best way is to surrender and then Lord burns up our reactions. (Para 1 How obstacles on the spiritual path originate)

By surrendering to the Lord and praying for His causeless mercy, the devotee can progress on the path of complete self-realization. The Lord is addressed as fire because He can burn anything into ashes, including the sins of the surrendered soul. The karma-ka path of self-realization is the lowest stage in this endeavor. As soon as such activities even slightly deviate from the regulative principles of the Vedas, they are transformed into vikarma, or acts against the interest of the actor. (Para 2 and 3 High parentage doesnt guarantee self-realization, it is just a facility) Self-realization is possible in the human form of life, but not in other forms. The human form qualified by brahminical culture presents the only chance to obtain knowledge of transcendence. Analogy: Just as being born the son of a big man affords one a chance to become a big man, so being born the son of a brhmaa gives one a chance to become a brhmaa. Birthright is not everything, for one still has to attain the brahminical qualifications for himself. As soon as one becomes proud of his birth as the son of a brhmaa and neglects to acquire the qualifications of a real brhmaa, he at once becomes degraded and falls from the path of self-realization. Bhagavad-gt (6.41-42) - the yoga-bhraas, or souls fallen from the path of selfrealization, are given a chance to rectify themselves by taking birth either in the families of good brhmaas or in the families of rich merchants. BP: Nice verse in Rmyaa by Lord Ramacandra if a person once says that my dear Lord, from this day on I am Yours, then I will never forget that person. Rupa Gosvm quotes in NOD and rla Prabhupda quotes in 2-3 places. Context Vibhisana came to surrender to Lord Rama, Sugriva said let us kill, Lord angrily said no. Then He said this verse. (Para 4 But if you dont use this facility for devotional service, youll degrade. On the other hand, a devotee will get all facility by the omnipotence of the Lord.)

Karmajna (many lives) Vasudevam sarvam iti. This is the general procedure. But one who surrenders at the very beginning, as recommended in this mantra, at once surpasses all preliminary stages simply by adopting the devotional attitude. The Lord

at once takes charge of such a surrendered soul and frees him from all the reactions to his sinful acts (BG18.66). Karma-ka (lots of sins) jna (less sins) bhakti (practically no chance of sins) A devotee automatically attains the qualifications of an expert brhmaa authorized to perform sacrifices, even though the devotee may not have taken his birth in a brhmaa family. Such is the omnipotence of the Lord. He can make a man born in a brhmaa family as degraded as a lowborn dog-eater, and He can also make a lowborn dog-eater superior to a qualified brhmaa simply on the strength of devotional service. (Para 5 to 7 For a devotee, Lord gives direction and keeps him safe, while others are on their own)

Since the omnipotent Lord is situated within the heart of everyone, He can give directions to His sincere devotees by which they can attain the right path. Such directions are especially offered to the devotee, even if he desires something else.

As far as others are concerned, God gives sanction to the doer only at the risk of the doer. But in the case of a devotee, the Lord directs him in such a way that he never acts wrongly. Sastric support: SB 11.5.42. In this mantra of r opaniad, the devotee prays to the Lord to rectify him from within his heart. A conditioned soul is very often apt to commit mistakes, and the only remedial measure to take against such unintentional sins is to give oneself up to the lotus feet of the Lord so that He may guide one to avoid such pitfalls. Such directions are given to the sincere devotee in two ways: one is by way of the saints, scriptures and spiritual master, and the other is by way of the Lord Himself, who resides within the heart of everyone.

One can understand the Vedic mantras only by the grace of the Lord and the spiritual master, not by mundane educational procedures. (Para 8 Stages from sravana krtana to pure devotion) HPS: SB 1.2.17-20 explains further. Prabhupda cites this series of verses often. They are in BG 7.1 purport. Hearing and chantingcleansed of undesirable thingsones devotion becomes fixed upon the LordDevotee acquires brahminical qualificationsDevotee becomes fully enlightened and comes to know the path of Lord and the way to attain HimAll doubts diminishbecomes pure devotee. Main Points Discussed The speaker humbly throws himself at the lotus feet of the Lord, and begs for guidance and for help to become free from his karma. rla Prabhupda explains: By surrendering to the Lord and praying for His causeless mercy, the devotee can progress on the path of complete self-realization. The Lord is addressed as fire because He can burn anything into ashes, including the sins of the surrendered soul. One must utilize the opportunity of the human form of life to become God realized. The essence of this is surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which surpasses all other processes. When one surrenders, Ka takes control of the life of the devotee and help and guides him very mercifully, even removing his stock of sinful reactions, developed over many lifetimes in the material realm.

The Lord manifests also through the spiritual master, so He is helping the devotee both from within and from without. In this way the devotee is safe and secure on the spiritual path. As the devotee hears and chants about Lord Ka more and more his ways becomes cleared. rla Prabhupda concludes his commentary on r opaniad by saying: BY hearing and chanting the glories of the Lord, one becomes cleansed of all undesirable things, and then ones devotion becomes fixed upon the Lord. At this stage the devotee acquires the brahminical qualification, and the effects of the lower modes of nature completely vanish. The devotee becomes fully enlightened by the virtue of his devotional service, and this he comes to know the path of the Lord and the way to attain Him. As all doubts diminish, he becomes a pure devotee. 1. Prayer of the devotee - to rectify from within heart - free from reactions of past sin 2. Karma-ka lowest on the path of self-realization 3. Human form of life conducive to culture knowledge of transcendence 4. Brahmana and brahminical culture devotees far superior because surrendered 5. Birthright no qualification to attain Lord birth better opportunity to advance 6. Karma-ka, jna not sufficient to know Krishna only by bhakti it is possible 7. The Lord guides the devotee on path of perfection two ways 8. Mundane education not possible to know transcendental knowledge 9. Surrender to Guru and Krishna process of acquiring transcendental knowledge 10. Surrendered devotees no more chance to fall again in mire of material illusion Exercise Read: Read mantra eighteen and purport, along with its study guide summary. Focus: Focus on how the Lord is assisting and guiding us in our service to Him. We can pray for the Lord to continue to guide and protect us on the path of spiritual life, as in the mantra. Consider: Observe how the Lord has reciprocated with our attempts to know and serve Him by revealing the nature of spiritual life and engaging us in hearing, glorifying, and remembering Him. Notice how He has removed many of the doubts and obstacles on our path to serving Him. Describe: How has the Lord reciprocated with your attempts to serve Him? How can we continue to increase our desire to know and serve Him? Question and Answers Q.1. How the devotee can progress on the path of complete self-realization? Ans. By surrendering to the Lord and praying for His causeless mercy, the devotee can progress on the path of complete self-realization. Q.2. Why the Lord is addressed here as fire? Ans. The Lord is addressed as fire because He can burn anything into ashes, including the sins of the surrendered soul. Q.3. Why karma-ka is considered lowest on the path of self-realization?

Ans. Fruitive activities or the karma-ka is the lowest stage in the endeavor of selfrealization because as soon as such activities even slightly deviated from the regulative principles of the Vedas, they are transformed into vikarma, or acts against the interest of the actor. Such vikarma is enacted by the illusioned living entity simply for sense gratification and thus such activities become hindrances on the path of self-realization. Q.4. What is the chance to obtain knowledge of transcendence in the 8.4 million forms of life? Ans. There are 8.4 million species or forms of life of which, only the human form of life is qualified by brahminical culture to obtain the knowledge of transcendence. Self-realization is possible only in the human form of life and not in any other forms. Q.5. What does brahminical culture include? Ans. The brahminical culture includes truthfulness, sense control, forbearance, simplicity, full knowledge and full faith in God. It is not that one simply becomes proud of his high parentage. Being born the sun of a brahmana gives one a good chance to become a brahmana like son of a big man affords a chance to become a big man. So becoming brahmana is not birthright for one has to attain the brahminical qualification for himself. As soon as one becomes proud of his birth as the son of a brahmana and neglects to acquire the qualifications of a real brahmana, he at once becomes degraded and falls from the path of self-realization. Thus his lifes mission as a human being is defeated. Q.6. Is birthright a qualification for knowing Krishna? Ans. Every soul has the right to know Krishna. However, birthright is not a qualification for knowing Krishna. Higher births afford higher chance for self-realization and God-realization, but if these chances are misused due to illusion, one loses the good opportunity of human life afforded by the almighty Lord. The general procedure to know Lord Krishna is to surrender unto Him through the via media of the spiritual master and executive devotional service following all the regulative principles then one becomes eligible to know Krishna. When the devotee surrenders to Krishna, the Lord at once takes charge of such a surrendered soul and frees him from all the reactions to his sinful acts and then one can know Krishna as He is. Q.7. Compare the process of karma, jna and bhakti in the light of this verse Ans. There are many sinful reactions involved in karma-ka activities, whereas in jnaka, the path of philosophical development, the number of such sinful activities is smaller. But in devotional service to the Lord, the path of bhakti, there is practically no chance of incurring sinful reactions. Q.8. Explain how one becomes elevated than a brahmana by devotional service? Ans. After transmigrating through the 8.4 million species of life when one attains the human form of life, he gets a good chance for self-realization and God-realization by the culture of brahminical qualification which includes truthfulness, sense control, forbearance, simplicity, full knowledge and full faith in God. However, it is not by birthright that one becomes brahmana automatically; one has to cultivate brahminical qualification to qualify as brahmana. However, the devotee of the Lord may have been born in any family is far superior then a brahmana who is not a devotee. The devotees of the Lord simply by the

process of devotional service attains all good qualifications of the Lord Himself, what to speak of those of a brahmana. A devotee automatically attains all the qualifications of an expert brahmana authorized to perform sacrifices, even though the devotee may not have taken his birth in a brahmana family. Such is the omnipotence of the Lord. He can make a man born in a brahmana family as degraded as a lowborn dog-eater, and He can also make a lowborn dog-eater superior to a qualified brahmana simply on the strength of devotional service. Q.9. What two ways does the Lord guide the devotee? Ans. The omnipotent Lord is situated within the hearts of everyone. He gives direction to his sincere devotees by which they can attain the right path. The Lord personally takes charge of fully surrendered souls and gives directions on the path of devotional service. Such directions are given to the sincere devotees in two ways: one is by way of the saints, scriptures and spiritual master and the other is by way of the Lord Himself, who resides within the heart of everyone. Thus the devotee fully enlightened with Vedic knowledge, is protected in all respects. Q.10. How does Krishna, protects His devotee until he completes the entire process of devotional service and attains complete perfection? Ans. The omnipotent Lord is situated within the heart of everyone. He can give directions to His sincere devotees by which they can attain the right path. Such directions are especially offered to the devotee, even if he desires something else. As far as others are concerned, God gives sanction to the doer only at the risk of the doer. But in the case of a devotee, the Lord directs him in such a way that he never acts wrongly. The rmad-Bhgavatam (11.5.42) says: sva-pada-mulam bhajatah priyasya tyaktanya-bhavasya harih paresah vikarma yac cotpatitam kathancid dhunoti sarvam hrdi sannivistah "The Lord is so kind to the devotee who is fully surrendered to His lotus feet that even though the devotee sometimes falls into the entanglement of vikarma-acts against the Vedic directions-the Lord at once rectifies such mistakes from within his heart. This is because the devotees are very dear to the Lord." In this mantra of r opaniad, the devotee prays to the Lord to rectify him from within his heart. To err is human. A conditioned soul is very often apt to commit mistakes, and the only remedial measure to take against such unintentional sins is to give oneself up to the lotus feet of the Lord so that He may guide one to avoid such pitfalls. The Lord takes charge of fully surrendered souls; thus all problems are solved simply by surrendering oneself unto the Lord and acting in terms of His directions. Such directions are given to the sincere devotee in two ways: one is by way of the saints, scriptures and spiritual master, and the other is by way of the Lord Himself, who resides within the heart of everyone. Thus the devotee, fully enlightened with Vedic knowledge, is protected in all respects. The Lord gives assurance to His devotees (Bg.6.41-42) that even the yoga-brastas, souls fallen from the path of selfrealization will be given a chance to rectify themselves by taking birth either in the families of devotees or in the family of aristocrat which affords higher chance for self-realization and God-realization. Thus the Lord never gives up on His devotees rather guides the devotee birth

after birth until the devotee reaches the stage of perfection. The Lord says even if someone says only once that I am yours I protect him in all respect. Q.11. Why the Vedic knowledge cannot be understood by mundane educational procedure? Ans. The Vedic knowledge is transcendental therefore it cannot be understood by mundane educational procedure. Q.12. How one can understand the Vedic knowledge? Ans. The Vedic mantras can be understood only by the grace of the Lord and the spiritual master (yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau). Q.13. How there is no chance for a devotee to fall again into the mire of material illusion? Ans. If one takes shelter of a bona fide spiritual master, it is to be understood that he has obtained the grace of the Lord. The Lord appears as the spiritual master for the devotee. Thus the spiritual master, the Vedic injunctions and the Lord Himself from within all guide the devotee in full strength. In this way there is no chance for a devotee to fall again into the mire of material illusion. The devotee, thus protected from all around is sure to reach the ultimate destination of perfection. The entire process is hinted at in this mantra, and rmadBhgavatam (1.2.17-20) explains it further: Hearing and chanting the glories of the Lord is itself an act of piety. The Lord wants everyone to hear and chant His glories because He is the well-wisher of all living entities. By hearing and chanting the glories of the Lord, one becomes cleansed of all undesirable things, and then one's devotion becomes fixed upon the Lord. At this stage the devotee acquires the brahminical qualifications, and the effects of the lower modes of nature (passion and ignorance) completely vanish. The devotee becomes fully enlightened by virtue of his devotional service, and thus he comes to know the path of the Lord and the way to attain Him. As all doubts diminish, he becomes a pure devotee. Q. 14 Fill in the blanks A. The Lord purifies the conditioned souls of sinful reactions in order to allow them to advance in self-realization. The Lord gives everyone the opportunity to achieve freedom from _________ in the endeavor to advance in spiritual realization. The Lord has presented different path of purification for those of higher and lower material attachments. B. The Lord provides direction to those who aspire to realize Him. Externally through guru, sadhu and sastra. Internally through ___________ ____________ _______ ___ ____________ _______. Questions for Mantras 17-18 1. Why is engaging in the Lords service considered the highest form of spiritual realization? 2. How does praying to the Lord enhance our own sense of devotion? 3. Why are hearing and chanting the basic and most important aspects of our devotional service? 4. Why do devotees who recognize the Lords guidance find peace in all circumstances?

5. There are many means of deliverance from sinful reactions, such as giving charity, but what do these final Texts demonstrate is the best method? 6. What will happen if the devotee cannot remember to chant at the time of death? 7. Establish, in your own words, with appropriate evidence from r opaniad verses, purports, analogies and Prabhupdas r opaniad lectures, the personal form of the Lord. (Open Book) Answers for Mantras 17-18 Ans. 1: Engaging in devotional service to the Lord is our eternal, spiritual position and is thus most pleasing to the soul and the Lord. Ans. 2: We develop a conscious desire to please Him. Ans. 3: They are the easiest services to perform, and are the means for developing knowledge and attraction to the Lord and His service. Ans. 4: They understand everything the Lord does is for their eternal benefit.

Conclusion
We cannot obtain spiritual knowledge with our limited mind and senses. We must instead hear from the revealed scriptures, such as the Vedic literatures. The r opaniad, part of the Yajur Veda, gives us knowledge of the nature of the Absolute Truth and our relationship with Him, along with instructions on how to realize this knowledge. The Absolute Truth is, ultimately, a person, whose form is spiritual, being made of eternity, knowledge, and bliss. Since He is the source of everything, everything is meant to be engaged in His service. If we engage ourselves in His service we will revive our eternal loving relationship with Him. Being part and parcel of Him, we can only be happy in relation to Him. Any knowledge or form of worship which is opposed to this will only lead us to darkness and ignorance, taking us away from our relationship with Him. We can pray to the Lord to reveal to us the knowledge of the scriptures and to accept our service so that we may one day obtain a pure vision of our relationship with Him.

r opaniad - Analogies & Examples


Mahtm Gndh & Kennedy: one of the four defects is to make mistakes Own hands in a dark room: you cannot see them, the senses are imperfect Cow dung: Vedic principles sometimes appear contradictory Indian social norms (Asking Is this a Vedic injunction?): Vedic injunctions cannot be neglected ruti is like a mother: only the mother can say who the father is Radio programme: perfect knowledge, abda Hand severed from the body: we are parts and parcels of the complete whole The milk-giving cow only eats grass and grain: milk is part of the quota given to humans by Ka A house made of earth, wood, etc.: the builder is not the proprietor; bringing ingredients together does not transfer ownership Stolen bread: both capitalists and communists fail to see that everything belongs to Ka A tree lives for hundreds of years, bellows breathe, etc. Therefore live in the spirit of vsya, not uselessly The human body is a boat: to cross over the ocean of material existence, sastra and acaryas are the expert boatmen, facilities of the body are the favorable breezes Heat and light emanate from a fire: (Viu Purana) a fire in one place distributes heat and light. Similarly, Ka is fixed in Goloka Vrindavana but has His energies Prahlada Mahraja: knew the God was everywhere, even in the pillar Sparks in the fire: living entities are qualitatively one with the Lord, yet not equal quantitatively; amount of heat and light in the sparks not equal to fire Heat, light, and fire: no meaning to fire without heat and light; they are different, but in synthesis the same; no difference between the energy and the energetic; everything is the energy of the Lord Salt in a drop of sea water: the quantity of salt in a drop is never equal to that within the complete ocean Family & nation: the interest is one, but the members are individuals Father creates and maintains children: Ka wants pleasure from His children; obedience gives oneness and pleasure A cobra decorated with a jewel: dangerous, represents Godless education Decoration of a dead body: modern civilization devoid of spiritual education An ass: modern man is being converted into, by advancement of knowledge

Hiranyakasipu: even the greatest materialists fail, unable to stop death Fever: materialism should not be increased Temperature cannot be wiped out altogether, there is a normal condition = balanced programme of spiritual and material knowledge Coconut covered by a husk: the universe is covered by the material elements, thus is dark and airtight and needs the sun and moon A ticket to Calcutta doesnt take you to Bombay: different destinations according to mode of worship Watering a tree: water the root not the leaves. Similarly, philanthropic activities dont water the root, the soul The sun & its rays: compared to the Lord and the jivas, i.e. same in quality sun rays are innumerable sun has varieties of energy, ultimate source is the sun-god.

r opaniad Key Terms

opaniad 1 Knowledge Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: ____________________________________________________ opaniad 2 The Living Entities Key ISO Mantras/Passages:

References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: opaniad 3 Materialism Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: opaniad 4 Defeating Impersonalism Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: ____________________________________________________ opaniad 5 Bhakti Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: ____________________________________________________ opaniad 6 The Absolute Truth Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes: Further Notes: ____________________________________________________ opaniad 7 vsya Key ISO Mantras/Passages: References, other books: Related themes:

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