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# Ternary relations

## 29. Predicate Logic n-ary predicates

The Lecture

A ternary (3-place) relation binds three elements just as a binary relation binds two elements. x,y and z are on the same line is an important ternary relation on the plane. A ternary relation on a set M is any subset of M3, i.e. any set of triples (a,b,c), where a,b,c are from M. Relations are also called predicates.
Jouko Vnnen: Predicate logic
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## We allow vocabularies to have

" " "

Unary predicate symbols P0,P1, Binary predicate symbols R0,R1, Ternary predicate symbols R03, R13,

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n-ary relations
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## n-ary predicate symbols

!

! !

An n-ary (n-place) relation binds n elements just as a ternary relation binds three elements. x-y=z-u is a 4-ary relation on the reals. (Equidistance relation) Student x in course y got z credit points in exam u in the year z is a 5-ary relation. n-ary relations resemble databases. An n-ary relation on a set M is a set of ntuples (a1,,an) of elements of M.
Jouko Vnnen: Predicate logic
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## We allow vocabularies to have

" " "

Unary predicate symbols P0,P1, Binary predicate symbols R0,R1, n-ary predicate symbols R0n, R1n,

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!

## Identity axioms for n-ary predicates

Since we have new atomic formulas we have to also add new identity axioms: I1 !x x=x I2 !x!y(x=y!y=x) I3 !x!y((x=y & y=z)!x=z) I4 !x!y((x=y & Pn(x))!Pn(y)) I5 !x!x!y!y((x=y & x=y & Rn(x,x))!Rn(y,y)) I6 !x1!xn!y1!yn((x1=y1 & xn=yn & Rn

! !

There is no change to the rules of natural deduction and semantic trees. Deductions are made just as before. R03(x,y,z) is just like any other formula, e.g. one of the following:
! ! !

## except that it is atomic.

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(x1,,xn))!Rn(y1,,yn))
Jouko Vnnen: Predicate logic
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