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Ultimate Limit State Assessment of Tankers Considering Common Structural Rules

TSCF, 2007 Shipbuilders Meeting, Busan, October 24th and 25th, 2007

Structure Research Part Marine Research Institute Samsung Heavy Industries

Ship and Offshore Structural Mechanics Lab. Pusan National University

Contents

Introduction of Ultimate Limit State (ULS) design

ULS assessment for plates and stiffened panels - ANSYS nonlinear FEA method - DNV PULS method - ALPS/ULSAP method

ULS assessment for hull girders (by progressive collapse analysis) - IACS CSR method - ALPS/HULL method

Conclusion

Limit State Design Issues

Limit state is a condition where the structure fails to perform its intended function designed beforehand. Serviceability limit states (SLS) elastic buckling, permanent set, stability, station-keeping, vessel weathervaning, vessel motion exceedance, vibration and noise, mooring line vortex induced resonance oscillation Ultimate limit states (ULS) elastic-plastic buckling collapse Fatigue limit states (FLS) crack initiation, propagation Accidental limit states (ALS) collisions, fire, gas explosion, dropped objects

Necessity of ULS Assessment


Safety factor = Ultimate load (stress) / Design load (working stress)

Linear elastic response Load A

Ultimate strength

Buckling strength Design load level

Proportional limit

Displacement

Aim and Scope

Benchmark study and the best-practice development on ULS assessment of ship structures Object ship: AFRAMAX double hull oil tanker designed by pre-CSR and CSR methods Candidate methods: ANSYS nonlinear FEA method, DNV PULS, ALPS/ULSAP, ALPS/HULL Type of structure: Plates, stiffened panels, hull girders

Object Ship: AFRAMAX Double Hull Tanker


Design by IACS pre-CSR method Design by IACS CSR method (with approximately 1,000ton increase of structural weight)

Design by Pre-CSR Method

Design by CSR Method

Object Ship: AFRAMAX Double Hull Tanker

Corrosion margin values specified by CSR Method for oil tankers

Candidate Methods

ULS assessment for plates and stiffened panels - ANSYS nonlinear FEA method - DNV PULS method - ALPS/ULSAP method

ULS assessment for hull girders (by progressive collapse analysis) - IACS CSR method - ALPS/HULL method

Working Stresses in Hulls Design Condition


Starboard AFT. FWD.

-173.0 MPa
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130

-157.8 MPa

-171.6 MPa -157.7 MPa


0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Port

-130 -140 -150 -160 -170 -180

sx

sy

sx

t=12 .5mm t=13 mm

t=13m m t=14. 5mm t=16m m t=13.5 mm

sx

t=13 .5m

sx
Lateral pressure = 0.16MPa

sy

Deck Panel

Bottom Panel

Nomenclature and Presumptions


be t N. hw tw zp A.
N. hw tw tf bf be t zp A.

be t N. hw tw tf bf zp A.

Transverse frames

Initial distortions: wopl = b/100 for plating woc = wos = a/1000 for stiffeners

a
b b

a
b b b

L
Longitudinals

a
b

Nomenclature and Presumptions Net Scantlings


0.5tf_corr. tf_net tw_net 0.5tw_corr. tp_net
Corrosion Addition (tcorr.) Required Net Thickness (tnet) Predicted corrosion in 2.5 years (0.5mm) Corrosion Magrin

Required Renewal Thickness

0.5tp_corr.

Design

Service

Nomenclature and Presumptions Equivalent Thickness


t eq = 1 entire plate surface area
300

actual panel weight stiffeners volume


Logitudinal stress s x (MPa)
200

Actual plate thickness Equivalent plate thickness

a/2 a a/2
t=12 .5m m t=13 mm

sx B

100 FEA:

sxu=237.82MPa (Actual plate thickness)


me Tr an s.

sxu=240.03MPa (Equivalent plate thickness)


0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

sx

t=13 .5m m

fra

Strain (x10-3)

ULS Assessment of Plates


ANSYS nonlinear FEA method DNV PULS method ALPS/ULSAP method

ANSYS nonlinear FEA modeling, deformed shape, and stress distribution at ULS

ULS Assessment of Plates


1.0 FEA (p=0 MPa) FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALSP/ULSAP (p=0.0 MPa) ALSP/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.0 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

b=2.27

0.8

0.6

syu/sY
0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

sxu/sY

0.6

0.8

1.0

ULS Assessment of Plates


1.0 FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

b=1.99

1.0

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALSP/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

b=2.19

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

syu/sY

syu/sY
0.4
0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

0.0

sxu/sY

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

sxu/sY

0.6

0.8

1.0

ULS Assessment of Plates


1.0 FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALSP/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

b=2.27

0.5

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

b=2.36

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.3

syu/sY

0.4

syu/sY
0.2

0.2

0.1

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

0.0

sxu/sY

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

sxu/sY

0.6

0.8

1.0

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels

Deck stiffened panel


sx

t=12

.5m m t=13 mm

sx

t=13

.5m m

Bottom stiffened panel

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


a/2 a a/2
t=12

sx B

Extent of nonlinear FEA

.5m

sx

t=13

.5 m m

Tr an s.
ns Tra e am . fr

fra me

t=13 mm

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


a/2 a a/2 B sx

Design by pre-CSR method

t=16

.5m m t=16 mm

sx

t=15

.5m

Tr an s. f

ram e

a/2 a a/2
t=19

sx B

mm

sx

Tr an s. fra

t=15 mm

me

Design by CSR method

t=18

mm

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


300

sxu=243.37MPa (ALPS/ULSAP)

sxu=252.27MPa (FEA)
Method

FEA (MPa)

ALPS/ULSAP (MPa)

Logitudinal stress sx (MPa)

200

sxu=241.60MPa (ALPS/ULSAP)

sxu=246.63MPa (FEA)

Design

s xu
246.63

s xu
241.60

ULSAP /FEA

Pre-CSR

0.98

100

CSR

252.27

243.37

0.96

CSR deck stiffened panel Pre-CSR deck stiffened panel 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Strain (x10-3) 0.8 1

CSR/ Pre-CSR

1.023

1.007

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


Geometric properties of deck stiffened panels

Note: ns= number of longitudinal stiffeners.

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


Type of plate thickness and number of stiffeners for deck panels

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


300

DNV PULS Ultimate strength Ultimate strength


200

Ultimate strength

Logitudinal stress s x (MPa)

ALPS/ULSAP
ALPS/ULSAP:

FEA

sxu=227.46MPa
DNV PULS:

sxu=245.00MPa
100 FEA:

sxu=232.02MPa

0 0.0 0.2 0.4

Strain (x10-3 )

0.6

0.8

1.0

Case D1

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


Ultimate strength computations for the deck stiffened panel with varying the spac ing of longitudinal stiffeners and deck frames

ULS Assessment of Deck Stiffened Panels


0.9

Deck Stiffened Panels


FEA (Transverse frame spacing = 4300mm) FEA (Transverse frame spacing = 3762.5mm) ALPS/ULSAP (Transverse frame spacing = 4300mm) ALPS/ULSAP (Transverse frame spacing = 3762.5mm) DNV PULS (Transverse frame spacing = 4300mm) DNV PULS (Transverse frame spacing = 3762.5mm)

0.8

sxu / s Y
0.7 0.6 760 770 780

Longitudinal stiffener spacing (mm)

790

800

810

820

830

840

850

860

870

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

Deck stiffened panel


sy sx

t=13m m t=14. 5mm t= 16m m t=13. 5mm

sx
Lateral pressure = 0.16MPa

sy

Bottom stiffened panel

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

B a/2 a
Tra ns. flo or

a/2

Tr an s. f

lo or

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


sy
sx

Design by pre-CSR method


t = 17 .5 m m t = 15 . 5m m t = 18 mm t=16

sx
Lateral pressure = 0.16 MPa

.5 m

m t = 16

.5 m

sy
m

470 8

AH

+17 5

19 FB (T) A

sy

sx

460 8

AH

+17 5

17 F B( T) A

t=1 3

.5m m

t=16 .5 m

m t=1 8.5m m t=19 mm t=1 6.5m

Design by CSR method

sx
Lateral pressure = 0.16 MPa

sy
m

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

250

CSR bottom stiffened panel Pre-CSR bottom stiffened panel

200 Logitudinal stress sx (MPa)

sxu=195.74MPa (ALPS/ULSAP)

sxu=198.12MPa (FEA)
Method

FEA (MPa)

ALPS/ULSAP (MPa)

s xu
150

s yu

s xu

s yu

ULSAP /FEA

sxu=174.91MPa
(ALPS/ULSAP)

sxu=185.04MPa (FEA)

Design

100

Pre-CSR

185.04

51.53

174.91

48.69

0.94

50

CSR

198.12

55.17

195.74

54.45

0.99

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 -3 Strain (x10 ) 0.8 1

CSR/ Pre-CSR

1.071

1.119

Mode III Failure

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

Mode I-1: Overall collapse of a uniaxially stiffened panel

Mode I-2: Overall collapse of a Mode II: Plate induced failure yielding at the corners of plating cross-stiffened panel between

Mode III: Plate induced failure - yielding of plate-stiffener combination at mid-span

Mode IV: Stiffener induced failure - local buckling of the stiffener web

Mode V: Stiffener induced failure - lateral-torsional buckling of stiffener

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


Geometric properties of bottom stiffened panels

Note: ns= number of longitudinal stiffeners.

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


Type of plate thickness and number of stiffeners for bottom stiffened panels

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

0.5

Case B1 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 782mm Transverse floor spacing: 4300mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.4899, syu/sY=0.1342 (t=14.19mm) DNV PULS: sxu/sY=0.6984, syu/sY=0.1904 (t=14.19mm)

0.5

Case B2 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 815mm Transverse floor spacing: 4300mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.4813, syu/sY=0.1318 (t=14.25mm) DNV PULS: sxu/sY=0.6793, syu/sY=0.1873 (t=14.25mm)

0.4

0.4

0.3

syu/sY

FEA: sxu/sY=0.5172, syu/sY=0.1416

0.3

0.2

syu/sY

FEA: sxu/sY=0.5117, syu/sY=0.1400

0.2

0.1

0.1

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.0

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

sxu/sY

sxu/sY

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

0.5

Case B3 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 850mm Transverse floor spacing: 4300mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.4612, syu/sY=0.1263 (t=14.23mm) ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.6571, syu/sY=0.1809 (t=14.23mm)

0.5

Case B4 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 782mm Transverse floor spacing: 3762.5mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.5302, syu/sY=0.1452 (t=14.19mm) ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.7365, syu/sY=0.2031 (t=14.19mm)

0.4

0.4

0.3

syu/sY

syu/sY

FEA: sxu/sY=0.4923, syu/sY=0.1348

0.3

FEA: sxu/sY=0.5556, syu/sY=0.1521

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

sxu/sY

sxu/sY

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels

0.5

Case B5 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 815mm Transverse floor spacing: 3762.5mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.5100, syu/sY=0.1397 (t=14.25mm) ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.7174, syu/sY=0.1968 (t=14.25mm)

0.5

Case B6 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 850mm Transverse floor spacing: 3762.5mm


ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.4878, syu/sY=0.1336 (t=14.23mm) ULSAP: sxu/sY=0.6920, syu/sY=0.1904 (t=14.23mm)

0.4

0.4

0.3

FEA: sxu/sY=0.5460, syu/sY=0.1494

syu/sY

0.3

FEA: sxu/sY=0.5227, syu/sY=0.1431

0.2

syu/sY
0.2 0.1

0.1

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

sxu/sY

sxu/sY

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


0.5

0.4

FEA (p=0 MPa) FEA (p=0.16 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0 MPa) ALPS/ULSAP (p=0.16 MPa) DNV PULS (p=0MPa) DNV PULS (p=0.16 MPa)

0.3

syu/sY
0.2 0.1

Case B2 Longitudinal stiffener spacing: 815mm Transverse floor spacing: 4300mm


0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

sxu/sY

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


Ultimate strength computations for the bottom stiffened panel under biaxial co mpressive loads with keeping lateral pressure loads constant at the design value of 0.16MPa, with varying the spacing of bottom longitudinal stiffeners and tra nsverse floors

ULS Assessment of Bottom Stiffened Panels


1.0

Bottom Stiffened Panels


FEA (Tansverse floor spacing = 4300mm) FEA (Tansverse floor spacing = 3762.5mm) ALPS/ULSAP (Tansverse floor spacing = 4300mm) ALPS/ULSAP (Tansverse floor spacing = 3762.5mm) DNV PULS (Tansverse floor spacing = 4300mm) DNV PULS (Tansverse floor spacing = 3762.5mm)

0.8

sxu / s Y
0.6 0.4 760 770 780

Longitudinal stiffener spacing (mm)

790

800

810

820

830

840

850

860

870

Uncertainty Analysis
1.0

0.8

: ALPS/ULSAP-Stiffened panel (Bottom) : DNV PULS-Stiffened panel (Bottom) : ALPS/ULSAP-Stiffened panel (Deck) : DNV PULS-Stiffened panel (Deck) : ALPS/ULSAP-Plate (Bottom) : DNV PULS-Plate (Bottom) Solid: with lateral pressure (p=0.16 MPa) Hollow: without lateral pressure (p=0.0 MPa)

Bias = 0.9419 for ULSAP = 1.1024 for PULS COV = 0.0398 for ULSAP = 0.1677 for PULS

(sxu/sY)FEA

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2

(sxu/sY)ALPS/ULSAP, (sxu/sY)DNV PULS

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Application to 3D Hull Structure

Panel: Buckling collapse of side Lenght= 6960mm Width= 4300mm Thickness:15.0mm Mode 1= 1.650 Mode 2= 1.049 Mode 3 or 31 =1.145 Mode 4= 1.043 Mode 5= 1.028 Panel collapsed in mode=5

Panel: Buckling collapse of upper deck Lenght = 19568mm Width= 4300mm Thickness:19.2313mm Mode 1= 1.119 Mode 2= 1.072 Mode 3 or 31 = 1.023 Mode 4= 1.033 Mode 5= 1.018 Panel collapsed in mode=5

Panel: Buckling collapse of side Lenght= 4300mm Width= 3400mm Thickness:13.875mm Mode 1= 2.563 Mode 2= 1.827 Mode 3 or 31 =2.063 Mode 4= 1.558 Mode 5= 1.772 Panel collapsed in mode=4

Panel: Buckling collapse of bottom Lenght= 16300mm Width= 4300mm Thickness:17.975mm Mode 1= 1.521 Mode 2= 1.485 Mode 3 or 31 = 1.463 Mode 4= 1.381 Mode 5= 1.433 Panel collapsed in mode=4

Progressive Hull Collapse Analysis


IACS CSR ALPS/HULL method

Between transverse frames

Between transverse bulkheads

Progressive Hull Collapse Analysis

ALPS/HULL progressive collapse analysis results

Von Mises Stress distribution

Collapse mode distribution of individual components

Progressive Hull Collapse Analysis

Vertical bending moment versus curvature curves


2.0E+010

Musag_CSR/ Musag_req. = 1.111 Muhog_CSR/ Muhog_req. = 1.915 Buckling mode shape: Musag_HULL/Musag_req. = 1.083 Muhog_HULL/Muhog_req.= 1.640 Hungry horse mode shape: Musag_HULL/Musag_req. = 1.252 Muhog_HULL/Muhog_req.= 1.732

Muhog_HULL=9.993 GNm Muhog_CSR=11.049 GNm Muhog_HULL=9.465 GNm Muhog_req.=5.768 GNm

Vertical bending moment (Nm)

1.0E+010

Hog
0.0E+000

Sag
Musag_req.=7.686 GNm Musag_CSR=8.540 GNm Musag_HULL=9.262 GNm Musag_HULL=8.329 GNm
-2.0E+010 -4.0E-004 -2.0E-004
1) w wopl= b/200, oc=wos=0.001a 2) wopl= b/200, woc=wos=0.001a 1) buckling mode shape 2) hungry horse mode shape

-1.0E+010

Curvature (1/m)

0.0E+000

2.0E-004

4.0E-004

Conclusions

Ultimate strength of CSR deck stiffened panels is increased by 0.7~2.3%, compared to pre-CSR deck panels. Ultimate strength of bottom stiffened panels is increased by 7~12%, compared to pre-CSR bottom panels. Ultimate bending capacity of CSR hull is increased by 8.3% for sagging, and 10.6% for hogging, compared to pre-CSR hull. Safety margin of CSR hull against IACS CSR requirements is 5.4~8.3% for sagging, and 64.0~65.6% for hogging.