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Anagnorisis Services 2014

The diagram shows a plant cell.


Which structure controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell?
A

Which liquid has the highest water potential at atmospheric pressure?


A

distilled water

leaf cytoplasm

root hair cell sap

soil water

The arrows represent the movement of salts into a root hair cell.
low salt concentration in soil water

high salt concentration in cell

What describes the movement of the salts?


A

active transport against the concentration gradient

active transport down the concentration gradient

diffusion against the concentration gradient

diffusion down the concentration gradient

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Four test-tubes containing egg white are incubated for ten minutes at 35 C. Different substances
are then added to the four test-tubes.
In which test-tube is the egg white first digested?
substances added

1 cm3 lipase solution and three drops of sodium hydroxide solution

1 cm3 protease solution and three drops of dilute hydrochloric acid

1 cm3 protease solution and three drops of water

1 cm3 lipase solution and three drops of water

The graph shows the rate of photosynthesis in a pea plant at different light intensities.
At which point is carbon dioxide concentration a limiting factor?

high carbon dioxide


concentration
C

rate of
photosynthesis

low carbon dioxide


concentration

B
0

0A

light intensity

The apparatus in the diagram is used to investigate whether carbon dioxide is given off by a
green plant.

air in

to air pump

potassium
hydroxide

clear limewater

Which precaution is not necessary?


A

enclosing the soil and the pot in a sealed plastic bag

placing the plant overnight in the dark before the experiment

putting a light-proof cover over the plant during the experiment

using fresh limewater

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The diagram shows the shapes of the cells in a section of a leaf.

3
Which cells contain chloroplasts?

1 and 2

2 only

2 and 3 only

2, 3 and 4

Bread contains dietary fibre, fat, protein and starch.


Which substance contributes least to the energy obtained by a person eating the bread?
A

dietary fibre

fat

protein

starch

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The diagram shows the position of the teeth in a human jaw.


1
2

Which teeth are found at the positions numbered 1, 2 and 3?

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10 The diagram shows the human gut.

1
5

3
4

Which numbered structures secrete digestive enzymes?


A

1, 2, 3 and 4

1, 2, 3 and 6

2, 3, 4 and 5

2, 3, 5 and 6

11 What are the functions of the xylem?


carrying
sugars

carrying
water

carrying
mineral ions

giving
support

key

= a function of xylem

= not a function of xylem

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12 Which graph shows the effect of increasing humidity on the transpiration rate of a plant?

transpiration
rate

transpiration
rate

0
0

0
0

humidity
C

transpiration
rate

0
0

humidity
D

transpiration
rate

0
0

humidity

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humidity

13 The graph shows pressure changes in the left side of the heart, during a single heart beat.

16
X

key

12
pressure /
kPa

pressure in atrium
pressure in ventricle
pressure in aorta

0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

time / s
Between points W and X, are the following valves open or closed?
atrio-ventricular

semi-lunar

closed

closed

closed

open

open

closed

open

open

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14 The diagram represents a tissue with an adjacent capillary.

arterial
end of a
capillary

venous
end of a
capillary
blood flow

Which substances can 1, 2 and 3 represent?


1

glucose

tissue fluid

carbon dioxide

oxygen

carbon dioxide

glucose

tissue fluid

glucose

oxygen

tissue fluid

oxygen

carbon dioxide

15 A vein has a wider lumen than an artery.


What is the advantage of this?
A

bringing blood into close contact with the tissues

offering less resistance to blood flow

preventing back flow of blood

resisting high blood pressure from the heart

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16 The diagram shows some structures in the thorax.

Which row in the table identifies the structures labelled 1, 2 and 3?


1

larynx

cilia

bronchus

larynx

bronchus

bronchiole

trachea

bronchus

bronchiole

trachea

cilia

bronchus

17 A students rate and depth of breathing are measured before exercise and then after exercise.
The results are plotted on two graphs showing the volume of air breathed in and out in
12 seconds.
before exercise

after exercise

5
volume of air
taken in at
each breath

volume
/ dm3

volume of air
taken in at
each breath

volume
/ dm3

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
time / seconds

0 2 4 6 8 10 12
time / seconds

After exercise, how much air does the student take in during 12 seconds?
A

0.5 dm3

1 dm3

1.5 dm3

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8 dm3

18 When yeast cells respire anaerobically, which substance is used and which substances are
produced?
substance used

substances produced

alcohol

carbon dioxide and water

alcohol

lactic acid and water

sugar

alcohol and carbon dioxide

sugar

carbon dioxide and water

19 The diagram shows the bones and muscles of the forelimb.

2
1

Which structures and functions are used in the straightening of the forelimb at the elbow joint?
type of joint used

muscle 1

muscle 2

ball and socket

contract

relax

ball and socket

relax

contract

hinge

contract

relax

hinge

relax

contract

5090/01/M/J/09

20 The diagram shows the human excretory system.

What is the function of X?


A

to excrete urea

to produce urea

to produce urine

to store urine

21 A person walks from a warm room into a cold one.


Which of these reactions occurs first?
A

cold receptors in the skin are stimulated

cooler blood reaches the brain

deep arterioles in the skin dilate

shivering begins

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22 The diagram shows the dorsal view of the central nervous system.
brain

dorsal
view

Which structures are visible?


A

cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, spinal cord

cerebrum, spinal nerves, spinal cord, cerebellum

spinal nerves, cerebrum, medulla, pituitary gland

spinal cord, medulla, cerebrum, hypothalamus

5090/01/M/J/09

23 The diagram shows part of a persons nervous system that has been cut at X.

sensory
neurone

motor
neurone

bee

A bee stings the finger, as shown.


What are the effects of this sting on the person?
pain felt

arm moved

no

no

no

yes

yes

no

yes

yes

24 What is an effect of insulin?


A

decreased cell respiration

decreased absorption of glucose by cells

increased excretion of glucose

increased synthesis of glycogen

5090/01/M/J/09

25 The diagram shows the human eye in section.


There are circular muscles at X and Y.

What happens to the circular muscles at X and Y when the eye focuses on a near object in bright
light?
X

contract

contract

contract

relax

relax

contract

relax

relax

26 Which substance is produced during cheese production and what is the effect of this substance
on milk proteins?
substance
produced

effect on milk
proteins

acid

solidifies

alcohol

digests

acid

digests

alcohol

solidifies

5090/01/M/J/09

27 The table shows some structures found in four different cells.


Which cell is from a fungus?
cell wall

cell
membrane

nuclear
membrane

chloroplasts

key

= present

= absent

28 A lake in a temperate country has warm summers. It has cool winters from November to March.
The graph shows populations of plant and animal plankton during one year.
plant
plankton

animal
plankton

population
size

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

time (months)

It was suggested that the plant population decreased due to a fall in water temperature.
Into which category does this suggestion fall?
A

It is a reasonable interpretation of the evidence.

It is a restatement of the evidence, not an interpretation.

It is contradicted or not supported by the evidence.

More evidence is required to support this interpretation.

5090/01/M/J/09

29 A sparrowhawk eats small birds that feed on caterpillars. Caterpillars feed on plant leaves.
Which diagram shows the pyramid of biomass for this food chain?
A

30 The change of nitrite ion (NO 2 ) to nitrate ion (NO 3 ) takes place by the action of
A

bacteria in root nodules of leguminous plants.

denitrifying bacteria.

nitrifying bacteria.

nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil.

31 Which method will not help to control the transmission of malaria?


A

draining areas of open water

ensuring that sewage does not contaminate water

sleeping under a mosquito net

spraying ponds and ditches with insecticide

32 Which term is used to describe both of these processes?


Process 1 In some towns, empty glass bottles are melted down. The new glass is used to make
new bottles.
Process 2 Bacteria in the soil break down protein in dead animals and plants. The nitrates
released by the bacteria are used by plants.
A

conservation

decomposition

pollution

recycling

5090/01/M/J/09

33 The table shows some features of cell division.


Which line correctly describes the division of a cell by mitosis?
number of
chromosomes

number of
daughter cells

new cells genetically


identical to parent cell

used in growth

halved

no

no

halved

yes

no

stays the same

yes

yes

stays the same

no

yes

34 The diagram shows some peas that have been left to germinate.

peas on wet cotton wool

peas covered with water


The peas in X germinate. The peas in Y do not germinate.
What is the reason for this difference?
A

The water in Y does not contain enough dissolved carbon dioxide.

The water in Y does not contain enough dissolved oxygen.

The water in Y does not contain enough nitrates.

The water in Y does not let enough light through.

35 When a fetus is in the uterus, what carries oxygen away from the placenta?
A

the amniotic fluid

the amniotic sac

the lining of the uterus

the umbilical cord

5090/01/M/J/09

36 The diagram represents three properties of gametes.


Which area describes all male gametes of animals?

haploid

microscopic

mobile

37 Downs syndrome and sickle cell anaemia are both genetic diseases.
How are they caused?
Downs syndrome

sickle cell anaemia

chromosomal mutation

chromosomal mutation

chromosomal mutation

gene mutation

gene mutation

chromosomal mutation

gene mutation

gene mutation

38 A couple have three children. The table shows some of the childrens characteristics.
child

sex

blood group

sickle-cell / normal

male

sickle-cell

female

AB

normal

male

normal

What do the characteristics show?


A

continuous variation only

discontinuous variation only

both continuous and discontinuous variation

neither continuous nor discontinuous variation

5090/01/M/J/09

39 A pure-breeding red-flowered plant was crossed with a pure-breeding white-flowered plant. All
the plants of the first generation had pink flowers.
If the pink flowered plants were self-pollinated and allowed to develop, which percentage of redflowered plants would be expected in the second generation?
A

25 %

60 %

75 %

100 %

40 In the leopard, coat colour is controlled by a single gene with two alleles, H and h. There are two
varieties - black panthers and spotted leopards.
The diagram shows a cross between a spotted leopard and a black panther. All the offspring in
the F1 generation were spotted leopards. The results of a cross between two animals of the F1
generation are also shown.

parents

spotted leopard

black panther

F1

F2

What are the genotypes of the original two parents?


spotted leopard

black panther

HH

hh

HH

Hh

Hh

hh

hh

HH

5090/01/M/J/09

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows a plant at 08.00 hours and Fig. 1.2 shows the same plant at 18.00 hours on
the same day.

Fig. 1.1

Fig. 1.2

(a) Name the condition shown by the plant in Fig. 1.2.


....................................................................

5090/02/M/J/09

[1]

(b) (i)

State two environmental conditions that may have led to the change in appearance
of the plant.
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

Explain how environmental conditions have brought about this change.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]

(c) In the space below, draw and label guard cells and stomata as they would appear in the
leaves of the plant in Fig. 1.1 and in Fig. 1.2.

in Fig. 1.1

in Fig. 1.2
[3]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

In the inheritance of the colour of mouse fur, the allele for yellow fur (D) is dominant to the
allele for grey fur (d).
(a) Two heterozygous yellow-coloured mice produce offspring. Use a fully labelled genetic
diagram to show how the colour of mouse fur is inherited by the offspring.
State the expected ratios of genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring.

[6]
A particular combination of these alleles is known as a lethal combination. Young that inherit
this combination die in the uterus during the very early stages of development. This results in
a 2:1 ratio of fur colour in the surviving offspring.
(b) Identify the lethal combination of alleles and explain how you reached this answer.
lethal combination ...............................................
explanation ......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 9]

5090/02/M/J/09

Fig. 3.1 is a graph of the temperature in a heap of decomposing organic matter (compost) over
a period of a month. The temperature changes are caused by the activities of microorganisms
in the compost.
80

60

temperature
40
/ C

20

12

16

20

24

28

time / days
Fig. 3.1
(a) (i)

Name two different types of microorganisms that could cause the changes of
temperature shown in Fig. 3.1.
1. ..................................................................
2. ..................................................................

(ii)

[2]

Name a type of microorganism that could not be responsible for the temperature
changes and give a reason for your answer.
microorganism .............................................
reason ................................................................................................................ [2]

(b) Name a chemical that would be found in the compost in higher concentration at day 30
than at day 1 and explain your answer.
chemical ..............................................................
explanation ................................................................................................................ [2]

5090/02/M/J/09

(c) (i)

The external temperature remained below 30 C.


Explain why the temperature of the compost heap changes between day 0 and
day 4.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]

(ii)

Suggest reasons for the temperature changes between days 16 and 28.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

Fig. 4.1 shows a pair of kidneys and some associated structures.


C

Fig. 4.1
(a) (i)

Identify structure A in Fig. 4.1.


............................................................

(ii)

[1]

Peristalsis occurs continually in structure A. Describe and explain how this helps
the structure to carry out its function.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]

(b) Identify structure B on Fig. 4.1 and state how the structural features of C and D enabled
you to make your identification.
structure B .................................................
structural features of C and D ..........................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]

5090/02/M/J/09

(c) On a hot day, a person consumed only meat before a day of energetic work. Explain the
likely changes in the composition of the persons urine during the day.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

Over a period of ten years, an antibiotic was used in a hospital to treat an infection. Fig. 5.1
shows the amount of antibiotic used and the proportion of bacteria that survived treatment
with the antibiotic over this period of time.

key
proportion of bacteria
surviving treatment
with the antibiotic /
arbitrary units
amount of antibiotic
used / arbitrary units

arbitrary
units

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

time / years
Fig. 5.1
(a) Name an antibiotic.
....................................................................

[1]

(b) State the period of time during which the antibiotic was most effective at treating the
infection in the hospital.
....................................................................

[1]

(c) Suggest and explain possible causes for the increase in the proportion of bacteria that
survived treatment with the antibiotic after 1994.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [5]
5090/02/M/J/09

(d) Suggest
(i)

two reasons for the decreased use of this antibiotic after 1997,
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

two possible ways of controlling the infection in the hospital after 1997.
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 11]

5090/02/M/J/09

Section B
Answer all the questions. Question 8 is in the form of an Either/Or question.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) List the chemical elements that make up


(i)

fats, ...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

proteins. ....................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) Explain why each of the following are important constituents of a balanced diet.
(i)

carbohydrates
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

vitamins
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

(iii)

water
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[8]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

(a) State the equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast.

[2]
(b) (i)

Describe and explain the changes that occur in breathing and heartbeat as a
person climbs a mountain.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]

5090/02/M/J/09

(ii)

Explain how these changes affect the working of the leg muscles during the climb.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

Question 8 is in the form of an Either/Or question.


Answer only question 8 Either or question 8 Or.

Either

(a) State the effect on a plant of the lack of


(i)

nitrates,
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................

(ii)

magnesium.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Explain the significance of leaf structure in the process of photosynthesis.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................... [7]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

Or

(a) Explain how root hair cells are suited to the functions they perform.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) Explain the significance of leaf structure in the process of transpiration.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................... [6]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/M/J/09

Which processes can take place in a root hair cell when oxygen is not available?
A

active transport only

diffusion only

active transport and osmosis only

diffusion and osmosis only

The diagram represents a cell as seen under the electron microscope.

What type of cell is this?


type of cell

reason

animal cell

outer layer is the cell membrane

bacterium

no chromosomes are visible

plant cell

cytoplasm is visible

plant cell

cell wall is visible

5090/01/O/N/09

The table shows the concentrations of some mineral ions in the root hair of a plant and in the soil
around it.

mineral ion

concentration in
the root hair
(arbitrary units)

concentration in
the soil
(arbitrary units)

magnesium

75

15

nitrate

126

47

How are these mineral ions absorbed from the soil by the plant?

magnesium

nitrate

active transport

active transport

active transport

diffusion

diffusion

active transport

diffusion

diffusion

Protease breaks down proteins into amino acids.


In the lock and key hypothesis, what is the lock and what is the key?

lock

key

amino acid

protease

protease

amino acid

protease

protein

protein

protease

The diagram shows some chemical reactions that occur in plants.


1
carbon dioxide and water

2
sugars

3
amino acids

Which stage or stages depend on the use of nitrate ions as a raw material?
A

1 only

2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

5090/01/O/N/09

proteins

The diagram shows a transverse section of a leaf.

1
2

4
5
Which cells absorb carbon dioxide?
A
7

1, 2 and 3

2, 3 and 4

2, 4 and 5

1, 3 and 5

Temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration are three limiting factors in
photosynthesis.
In an experiment, each factor is increased in turn. The graph shows the results.

rate of
photosynthesis

3
2
1

0
0

time

Which numbered points represent when each factor was increased?


carbon dioxide
concentration

light intensity

temperature

5090/01/O/N/09

Which row in the table correctly identifies the deficiency diseases caused by lack of vitamin C,
calcium and iron?
lack of
vitamin C

lack of
calcium

lack of
iron

anaemia

rickets

scurvy

brittle bones

anaemia

rickets

rickets

scurvy

brittle bones

scurvy

brittle bones

anaemia

Four bags made of partially permeable membrane are placed in tubes of water as shown in the
diagram.

tube 1
bag made
of partially
permable
membrane

tube 2

starch
solution

tube 3

reducing
sugar
solution

water

tube 4

starch
solution
and saliva

saliva

water

After 20 minutes at 35 C a sample of the water around the bag in each tube is boiled with
Benedicts solution.
What are the expected results?
tube 1

tube 2

tube 3

tube 4

blue

orange

blue

orange

blue

orange

orange

blue

orange

blue

orange

blue

orange

orange

blue

orange

5090/01/O/N/09

10 Four foods were analysed for protein, fat and carbohydrate.


Which food contains the most energy in a 100 g portion?
protein
%

fat
%

carbohydrate
%

20

10

20

0.5

0.5

11 During translocation in plants, which substance is moved and in which direction?


substance

from

to

sucrose

anthers

stigmas

sucrose

leaves

roots

water

roots

leaves

water

soil

root hairs

12 Which substances are transported in the phloem and which in the xylem?
phloem

xylem

nitrate ions

sugar

starch

nitrate ions

sugar

water

water

starch

13 Blood enters the left atrium (left auricle) of the heart through
A

the aorta.

the bicuspid valve.

the posterior vena cava.

the pulmonary vein.

5090/01/O/N/09

14 The diagram shows a plan of part of the circulatory system.

lungs

X
Y

liver

gut

kidney
Which vessel must the blood pass through in flowing from X to Y?
A

hepatic artery

hepatic portal vein

pulmonary artery

renal vein

5090/01/O/N/09

15 The graph shows pressure changes in the left side of the heart, during a single heart beat.
At which point do the semi-lunar valves open?
A

16
key
12
pressure /
kPa

pressure in atrium
pressure in ventricle
pressure in aorta

0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

time / s

16 The diagram illustrates changes in air pressure taking place inside the lungs during a complete
cycle of breathing.
Which position on the graph corresponds to the point at which the ribs are beginning to be
raised?

B
C
pressure
in lungs
A
D
expiration

time

5090/01/O/N/09

inspiration

17 The diagram shows part of the human gas exchange system.

Z
What are W, X, Y and Z?
bronchus

bronchiole

larynx

trachea

18 When breathing out, which changes occur in the volume of the thorax, the rib cage and the
diaphragm?
volume of thorax

rib cage

diaphragm

decreases

lowered

rises

decreases

raised

pulled down

increases

lowered

rises

increases

raised

pulled down

5090/01/O/N/09

19 The diagram shows an arm movement.

Which joint is working to allow this movement?


A

a ball and socket joint at the elbow

a ball and socket joint at the shoulder

a hinge joint at the elbow

a hinge joint at the shoulder

20 The diagram represents part of a kidney machine.

dialysis fluid out

blood in

dialysis fluid in
blood out
Which substance must be at the same concentration in the dialysis fluid and in the blood?
A

glucose

salt

urea

water

5090/01/O/N/09

21 When a person moves from a cold room into a hot room, the following responses occur.
1

The brain co-ordinates the response.

The skin begins to secrete sweat.

Sweat evaporates from the skin surface.

Temperature receptors are stimulated in the skin.

What is the correct sequence of events?


A

3412

2341

4123

1423

22 The diagram is a section through the human head showing the brain and associated structures.

Y
X

Where are the cerebellum and the pituitary gland?


cerebellum

pituitary gland

5090/01/O/N/09

23 A person is sitting in a dark room.


What happens in the eye when a light is switched on?
circular muscle of iris

size of pupil

contracts

decreases

contracts

increases

relaxes

decreases

relaxes

increases

24 Which disease can be caused by excessive consumption of alcohol?


A

bronchitis

cirrhosis

emphysema

lung cancer

25 A patient with a sore throat went to the doctor. The doctor examined the patient and then
prescribed an antibiotic as treatment.
What was the cause of the sore throat?
A

bacteria

tobacco smoke

viruses

yeasts

26 Two species of bacteria work together and make yoghurt.


What do they produce?
ethanol

lactic acid

protease

5090/01/O/N/09

27 The graph shows the rate of growth of the fungus Penicillium and the amount of penicillin
produced when grown in a fermenter.

rate of
growth /
arbitary
units of
Penicillium

10

600

540

480

420

360

Penicillium

300

penicillin

240

180

120

60

0
0

12

24

36

48

60

72

84

96

108

units of
penicillin
produced

0
120

time (hours)
After how long should the penicillin be removed from the fermenter to obtain the most yield in the
shortest time?
A

54 hours

80 hours

96 hours

120 hours

28 Which situation does not involve the cycling of the factor named?
A

carbon dioxide between plants, animals and the atmosphere

energy along a food web of producers and consumers

nitrogen between plants, animals, bacteria and the atmosphere

water in an ecosystem

5090/01/O/N/09

29 The diagram below shows part of a pond food web.

microscopic
animal

microscopic
algae

How many primary consumers are shown in this food web?


A

30 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


Which stage depends on nitrifying bacteria?
plant protein

animal protein

A
nitrogen

dead matter
B

D
nitrate

ammonia

31 What are the roles of the mosquito and the malarial parasite in the spread of malaria?
mosquito

malarial parasite

host

vector

pathogen

host

pathogen

vector

vector

pathogen

5090/01/O/N/09

32 A farmer sprays some fields with nitrogen fertilizers. Soon afterwards, the fertilizer is washed off
by heavy rain into a nearby lake. Then, a few weeks later, most of the organisms in the water die.
The list includes the main stages of this process.
P

Light is blocked from deeper water plants.

Plants cannot photosynthesise and die.

Algae multiply rapidly on the lake surface.

Oxygen levels fall and aerobic organisms die.

Aerobic bacteria feed on dead plants.

In what order do these stages occur?


A

PRTQS

QSPRT

RPQTS

STPQR

33 Male and female sea urchins release their sperm and eggs into the water where fertilisation takes
place.
How can their reproduction be described?
A

asexual reproduction which results in genetically dissimilar offspring

asexual reproduction which results in genetically identical offspring

sexual reproduction which results in genetically dissimilar offspring

sexual reproduction which results in genetically identical offspring

34 A plant P is pollinated. A seed from this plant develops into plant Q.


The cells of plant Q contain 14 chromosomes.
How many of these chromosomes are identical to chromosomes from plant P?
if P was self
pollinated

if P was cross
pollinated

14

14

14

14

5090/01/O/N/09

35 What is the sequence of structures through which a mammalian sperm passes after leaving the
penis and before fusing with an ovum?
A

ureter uterus vagina

vagina fallopian tube ovary

vagina urethra fallopian tube

vagina uterus fallopian tube

36 The diagram shows a fetus in the uterus.

Which substances will be at a higher concentration at Y than at X?


A

carbon dioxide and glucose

carbon dioxide and urea

glucose and oxygen

oxygen and urea

5090/01/O/N/09

37 The diagram shows two distinct forms of beetle. The difference between them is controlled by a
single gene. The allele for the black form is dominant to the allele for red.

red form
with black spots

black form
with red spots

What kind of variation is shown by the beetle and why?


A

continuous variation because it is controlled by genes

continuous variation because there are two forms

discontinuous variation because it is controlled by genes

discontinuous variation because the two forms are distinct

38 A pregnant woman is told by a genetic counsellor that her baby has equal chances of being blood
group A or blood group AB.
What are possible genotypes of the woman and her husband?
A

AA and BO

AB and BO

AO and BB

AB and AO

39 Which statement about the genotypes of organisms is correct?


A

Dominant alleles are only found in homozygotes.

One recessive allele always causes a recessive phenotype.

Recessive phenotypes must be homozygous.

The dominant phenotype must be heterozygous.

5090/01/O/N/09

40 The diagram shows the inheritance of a recessive characteristic that is controlled by a single pair
of alleles, T and t.
P

Q
key
normal male
normal female
affected male
affected female

T represents the dominant allele and t represents the recessive allele.


What are the most likely genotypes of individuals P and Q?
P

Tt

Tt

Tt

TT

TT

Tt

TT

TT

5090/01/O/N/09

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
1

Fig. 1.1 shows a parent plant (A) and two of its offspring (B and C).
plant
A
plant
B
D
D

plant
C

F
F
E

E
Fig. 1.1

(a) Name the type of reproduction shown in Fig. 1.1.


.................................................................................................................................... [1]
Plants A, B and C eventually separate and then produce offspring of their own using this
same method of reproduction.
(b) State a disadvantage to the plant species of reproducing in this way.
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [1]

5090/02/O/N/09

(c) State two commercial advantages of this type of reproduction.


1. ......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
(d) With reference to structures D, E and F, explain how plant C is able to grow before it
becomes attached to the ground.
structure D .......................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
structure E .......................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
structure F .......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 11]

5090/02/O/N/09

Fig. 2.1 shows three similar plant cells 5 minutes after being placed in different solutions,
G, H and I. One of these solutions has a composition and water potential exactly the same
as that of the cell sap in the cells.

cell in solution G

cell in solution H

cell in solution I

Fig. 2.1
(a) On one of the cells in Fig. 2.1, label clearly
(i)

with the letter J, a structure made of cellulose,

(ii)

with the letter K, the part of the cell that would contain the nucleus.
[2]

(b) Identify the solution that has a higher water potential than the cell sap.
Explain what has happened to cause the appearance of the cell in that solution.
solution ...................................................................................................................... [1]
explanation ......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
(c) (i)
(ii)

On the cell in solution I, shade all the regions that would contain solution I.

[1]

Explain your answer to (i).


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]
[Total: 11]

5090/02/O/N/09

During heart transplant procedures, it is possible to keep the heart beating while it is being
transported many miles from the donor to the patient. Fig. 3.1 shows diagrammatically how
the heart is kept beating during transportation.
container (reservoir)
where blood
composition can
be adjusted
blood
aorta

pump

Fig. 3.1
(a) Identify structures L and M on Fig. 3.1.
L .................................................................
M ................................................................

[2]

(b) Suggest two chemicals which must be added to the blood in the reservoir, and explain
your suggestions.
chemical 1 ........................................................................................................................
explanation ......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
chemical 2 ........................................................................................................................
explanation ......................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]

5090/02/O/N/09

(c) Using your knowledge of the structure of the heart, explain why blood entering the aorta
from the reservoir flows into the heart muscle and not into the left ventricle.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 9]

5090/02/O/N/09

Fig. 4.1 shows two models of seeds which use the same type of seed dispersal.

Fig. 4.1
(a) Name the structure within which a seed develops.
....................................................................

[1]

(b) Suggest the type of seed dispersal shown.


Explain how the structures in Fig. 4.1 are adapted for this type of dispersal.
type of dispersal ...............................................................................................................
adaptation and explanation ..............................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
Fig. 4.2 shows the percentage of seeds of a particular plant that germinate at different
temperatures.
40

30

number of
seeds
20
germinating / %

10

10

20

30

Fig. 4.2
5090/02/O/N/09

40

50

(c) State two possible reasons why no more than 40% of the seeds germinate, even at the
optimum temperature.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ................................................................................................................................ [2]
(d) Suggest three reasons why, after germination, many seedlings do not live to become
mature plants.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ................................................................................................................................ [3]
[Total: 9]

5090/02/O/N/09

In Fig. 5.1, curve P shows carbon dioxide uptake and release by a plant during a twelve-hour
period between 12.00 hours and 24.00 hours.

P
Q

..................................
..................................

CO2
release /
arbitrary
units

..................................
..................................

12.00

CO2
uptake /
arbitrary
units

18.00

24.00

time of day / hours


Fig. 5.1
(a) Name the process mainly responsible for the shape of graph P from 12.00 hours to
16.00 hours.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) (i)

State the time at which there is no net movement of carbon dioxide into or out of
the plant.
............................................................................................................................ [1]

(ii)

Explain the shape of the curve after this time.


..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]

5090/02/O/N/09

(c) Name a factor that might cause the curve to appear like curve Q rather than curve P in
Fig. 5.1.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) On Fig. 5.1, draw a curve to show the uptake and release of oxygen by the plant during
the same period of time.
Label your axis in the spaces provided on Fig. 5.1.
[4]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/O/N/09

Section B
Answer all the questions including questions 6, 7 and 8 Either or 8 Or.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
6

(a) Define a hormone.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) Describe how the nervous system is involved in producing a named reflex action.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [6]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/O/N/09

(a) State where DNA is found and describe its importance in living organisms.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) Describe the causes of
(i)

sickle cell anaemia,


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Downs syndrome.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[3]

(c) Explain, with the use of a genetic diagram, how a child may be born with a blood group
different from that of either parent.

[4]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/O/N/09

Question 8 is in the form of an Either/Or question. Answer only question 8 Either or question 8
Or.
8

Either
(a) State the disadvantages to the environment of deforestation.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [5]
(b) State examples of pollution caused by human activity and discuss the effects of each
example.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 10]
5090/02/O/N/09

Or
(a) Explain what is meant by the non-cyclical nature of energy flow.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) (i)

Distinguish between a food chain and a food web.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain the feeding relationships between the main groups of organisms in a food
web.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
5090/02/O/N/09

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[7]
[Total: 10]

5090/02/O/N/09

The graph shows the pH of the saliva in the mouth after eating sugar.

alkaline

9
8

neutral

7
6

pH

acid

4
3
2
1
0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
time / minutes

sugar
eaten
When are conditions in the mouth most likely to cause tooth decay?

0-5 minutes

5-25 minutes

25-45 minutes

45-60 minutes

The table shows the recommended daily intake of energy and of iron for females at four different
ages: 6 months, 5 years, 25 years and 75 years.
Which shows the recommended daily intake for the 25 year old?
energy / MJ

iron / mg

2.7

4.3

6.5

6.1

7.6

8.7

8.1

14.8

5090/12/M/J/10

Cubes of hard-boiled egg white are placed in test-tubes containing 5 cm3 of water. Other
substances are added to each tube as shown in the chart. The tubes are left for eight hours and
then tested for amino acids.
tube

solution added

results of test for amino acids

pepsin

absent

pepsin + alkali

absent

none

absent

pepsin + acid

large amounts

boiled pepsin + acid

traces

acid

traces

alkali

absent

Which tubes show that pepsin is an enzyme?


A
4

1 and 6

2 and 7

4 and 5

5 and 6

Identical pieces of potato are placed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations. After three
hours, the mass of each potato piece is measured.
Which graph shows the results of this experiment?
A

mass of potato
after 3 hours

mass of potato
after 3 hours

sucrose concentration

mass of potato
after 3 hours

mass of potato
after 3 hours

sucrose concentration

sucrose concentration

5090/12/M/J/10

sucrose concentration

Which of these processes require energy from respiration?


diffusion

osmosis

key

= energy required

= energy not required

In which regions of the alimentary canal does amylase act?


A

mouth cavity and pancreas

mouth cavity and ileum

stomach and pancreas

stomach and ileum

The diagram shows a section of the small intestine in which partially digested food is being
pushed along.
partially digested food
longitudinal
muscle
circular muscle
1

direction of movement

What is the state of the longitudinal muscles at 1and 2?


1

contracted

contracted

contracted

relaxed

relaxed

contracted

relaxed

relaxed

5090/12/M/J/10

antagonistic
muscles

The diagram shows a section through a leaf.

2
3

4
Which cells have the functions shown?

photosynthesis

transport

1 and 5

2 and 3

2 and 4

1 and 4

3 and 4

2 and 5

4 and 5

3 and 4

Which substances are transported in xylem and in phloem?


xylem

phloem

amino acids and mineral ions

amino acids and water

mineral ions and sucrose

starch and mineral ions

mineral ions and water

sucrose and water

starch and water

sucrose and starch

10 Which signs show that a plant has been grown in a culture solution deficient in magnesium?
A

purple leaves and poor root growth

small leaves and thin stem

white upper leaves and normal lower leaves

yellow stem and yellow leaves

5090/12/M/J/10

11 The photomicrograph shows onion epidermis.

Which term describes this onion epidermis?


A

cell

organ

organ system

tissue

12 The graph shows the rate of photosynthesis of a plant at increasing light intensities at two
different carbon dioxide concentrations. The temperature is kept constant.
Y
0.06 % carbon dioxide

rate of
photosynthesis

0.03 % carbon dioxide

light intensity

What may be limiting the rate of photosynthesis at X, Y and Z?


X

carbon dioxide

light intensity

carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide

light intensity

light intensity

light intensity

carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide

light intensity

carbon dioxide

light intensity

5090/12/M/J/10

13 The diagram shows a person doing pull ups on a horizontal bar.

In moving from the lower position X to the upper position Y, which muscles and joint movements
occur?
biceps

triceps

ball and socket joint

contracts

relaxes

rotates

contracts

relaxes

extends

relaxes

contracts

rotates

relaxes

contracts

flexes

5090/12/M/J/10

14 The diagram shows a reflex arc in which a bee sting causes the arm to be moved quickly.

Q
P

bee
R

If the relay neurone at Q is damaged, how will the transmission of nerve impulses in the reflex arc
be affected?
A

They cannot pass from P to Q.

They cannot pass from P to R.

They cannot pass from Q to P.

They cannot pass from R to Q.

5090/12/M/J/10

15 The diagram shows a section through the brain and part of the spinal cord.
P

Q
R

Which row correctly identifies the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, medulla and pituitary gland?
cerebral
hemisphere

cerebellum

medulla

pituitary gland

16 The diagram represents a blood capillary with an adjacent cell. The arrows represent the transfer
of substances between the capillary and the cell.

red blood cell

blood plasma

capillary wall

tissue fluid

cell
Which arrows represent glucose, carbon dioxide and oxygen?
glucose

carbon
dioxide

oxygen

R
5090/12/M/J/10

17 The diagram shows a vertical section through the heart.


2

left ventricle

What are the functions of the numbered blood vessels?


carries blood
to body

carries blood
to lungs

carries blood
from lungs

carries blood
from body

18 Which structures are all involved in controlling human body temperature?


A

blood vessels near the skin surface, the cerebellum and sweat glands

blood vessels near the skin surface, the hypothalamus and skeletal muscles

kidneys, the cerebellum and sweat glands

kidneys, the hypothalamus and skeletal muscles

5090/12/M/J/10

19 The graph shows changes in the air pressure within the lungs during one breathing cycle.
increase

air pressure in lung

pressure / kPa
100

decrease
stages in breathing cycle
What causes the change in air pressure during stage X?
A

contraction of diaphragm muscles

increase in volume of lungs

outflow of air from lungs

relaxation of internal intercostal muscles

20 What do the cilia do in the bronchi of the lungs?


trap bacteria

move mucus out of the lungs

key

 = function of the cilia

 = not a function of the cilia

21 Fitness training increases the concentration of lactic acid that runners can build up in their
muscles before pain stops them running.
What is a consequence of this increase?
A

Aerobic respiration in muscles can be more rapid.

Blood flow to the muscles is increased.

More anaerobic respiration can take place in muscles.

More energy is needed by the muscles.

5090/12/M/J/10

22 Which is not controlled directly by the nervous system?


A

blood glucose concentration

dilation of the blood vessels

heart rate

pupil diameter in the eye

23 A germinating seed is soaked in blue dye, which becomes colourless in tissues that are actively
respiring.
What will be the appearance of the cotyledons, plumule and radicle?
cotyledons

plumule

radicle

blue

blue

blue

blue

blue

colourless

colourless

blue

colourless

colourless

colourless

colourless

24 The diagram shows a section through a flower.

1
2

3
4
In which structures are haploid nuclei formed by reduction division?
A

1 and 3

1 and 4

2 and 3

5090/12/M/J/10

2 and 4

25 Five similar plants are placed in test-tubes as shown.

oil to prevent
evaporation
of water
water

Some of the plants have their leaves coated with grease to reduce transpiration. Each plant is
weighed in its test-tube at the start of the experiment and again two days later.
The results are shown in the table.
mass / g
plant 1

plant 2

plant 3

plant 4

plant 5

at the start of
experiment

105

121

107

111

119

after two days

103

97

84

110

93

Which plants had their leaves coated with grease?


A

1 and 2

1 and 4

2 and 5

2, 3 and 5

26 Which statement about human blood groups is correct?


A

A person with the blood group A cannot have an IO allele.

A person with the blood group B may have either the genotype IBIB or IBIO.

In a person with blood group AB, the IB allele is recessive to the allele IA.

The alleles IO and IB are co-dominant and have equal effect on a phenotype.

27 Which statement about chromosomes is correct?


A

Chromosomes are long DNA molecules called genes which are divided into sections.

Chromosomes include a long molecule of DNA divided into sections called genes.

Chromosomes include genes which are divided into sections called DNA molecules.

Genes include long DNA molecules called chromosomes.

5090/12/M/J/10

28 In maize, one allele of a particular gene allows chlorophyll production while the other allele
prevents this, giving plants with cream coloured leaves.
Half the seeds from a cross between two green-leaved plants were sown in trays kept in the dark.
The other half were sown in similar conditions except that they received light.
The table gives the results obtained.
numbers of seedlings
kept in the dark

kept in the light

green leaves

cream leaves

green leaves

cream leaves

405

320

110

What was the number of green-leaved plants formed from seeds germinating in the dark?
A

110

320

405

29 Bacteria were grown on an agar plate, until the plate was covered with visible yellow bacterial
colonies.
Four discs containing equal amounts of different antibiotics were then placed on the agar plate.
After two days, clear areas had formed around some of the discs, as shown in the diagram.
bacterial colonies
antibiotic disc
W

X
clear area

Which conclusion about this experiment is correct?


A

Antibiotic W is more effective against these bacteria than antibiotic X.

Antibiotic Y is more effective against these bacteria than antibiotic W.

Disc W has a higher concentration of antibiotic than disc Y.

Disc Z contains no antibiotic.

5090/12/M/J/10

30 The diagram shows the structure of a bacterium.

In what way does this differ from a cell of a fungus?


A

The bacterium has a cell membrane.

The bacterium has a cell wall.

The bacterium has cytoplasm.

The bacterium has no true nucleus.

31 Bacteria can be genetically modified to produce human insulin.


What is a possible danger of this procedure?
A

Bacterial insulin is less effective in treating diabetes than animal insulin.

The genetically modified bacteria may become insulin resistant.

The genetically modified bacteria may produce too much insulin.

The presence of a new gene in the bacteria may alter the way that existing genes work.

5090/12/M/J/10

32 The diagram shows how the blood of a human embryo flows close to the mothers blood in the
placenta.
mothers
blood
embryos
blood

X
Y

Which substances are present at X in higher concentrations than at Y?


A

carbon dioxide and glucose

carbon dioxide and urea

glucose and oxygen

glucose and urea

33 After sexual intercourse, sperm can survive for 3 days in the uterus and oviducts. Ovulation can
occur any time from day 13 to day 15 and an egg cell can live for 2 days after ovulation.
How long is the longest possible fertile phase of the menstrual cycle?
A

2 days

3 days

5 days

34 Which cannot be an example of excretion?


A

Carbon dioxide is breathed out from the lungs.

Undigested food leaves the body through the anus.

Urea leaves the body in urine.

Water is removed through the kidneys.

5090/12/M/J/10

7 days

35 The diagram shows a food web in woodland.

snakes

birds

lizards

beetles

toads

locusts

rats

aphids

snails

green plants
In this food web, the beetles are
A

carnivores.

decomposers.

herbivores.

producers.

36 Why is it important to control the amount of nitrate fertiliser used on farm land?
A

Nitrate causes acid rain which kills trees and fish.

Nitrate decreases the fertility of the soil.

Nitrate may lead to excessive growth of water plants.

Nitrate poisons many kinds of crop plants.

37 What would be an undesirable feature in an insecticide?


A

It becomes more concentrated at each stage in the food web.

It breaks down within a few months.

It destroys one particular insect only.

It destroys the immature forms of the insect.

38 Which bacteria convert urea to ammonia?


A

decay bacteria

denitrifying bacteria

nitrifying bacteria

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

5090/12/M/J/10

39 During the production of yoghurt and cheese, the pH of the mixture changes.
What causes this change in pH?
A

breakdown of lactose sugar

coagulation of milk proteins

production of ethanol

uptake of oxygen

40 Which control measure would not help to prevent the spread of malaria?
A

boiling drinking water

covering windows with netting

draining swamps

spraying insecticides onto stagnant water

5090/12/M/J/10

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) (i)

Name a hormone that is commonly produced using genetic engineering.


............................................................................................................................ [1]

(ii)

Name the organ that produces this hormone in the human body, and state two
functions of the hormone in the body.
organ .................................................
functions of the hormone
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................... [3]

5090/22/M/J/10

Fig. 1.1 shows how genetic engineering can be used to manufacture an enzyme (chymosin)
that clots milk in the stomachs of young mammals.
yeast cell

cell from the stomach


wall of a young mammal
nucleus

nucleus

strand of DNA taken from the nucleus

strand of DNA taken from yeast cell nucleus

DNA strand cut


A
part of strand
removed and inserted
into DNA strand
from yeast cell nucleus

waste
products

modified strand
replaced in a
yeast cell
key:
yeast cell
allowed to multiply
in a culture medium
(stage B)

= yeast DNA
= mammal DNA

chymosin
Fig. 1.1
(b) (i)

Name the thread-like structure of which the DNA strand is a part.


............................................................................................................................ [1]

(ii)

Name the part of the strand labelled A in Fig. 1.1.


............................................................................................................................ [1]

5090/22/M/J/10

(c) Suggest
(i)

how the yeast could be cultured during stage B,


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]

(ii)

the identity of the waste products that may be formed during this process.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/10

A container is filled with water. Nutrient salts and several floating water plants are then added
to the water. Fig. 2.1 shows a graph of the concentration of nitrate ions in the water over the
following ten days.
400

300
concentration
of nitrate ions
/ ppm
200

100

0
0

6
time / days

10

Fig. 2.1

(a) Use the graph to estimate the concentration of nitrate ions on day 5.
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
The plants in the container grew at their fastest rate between days 2 and 5.
(b) (i)

Explain why they grew fastest during this time.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]

(ii)

Suggest one way in which the rate of growth could have been further increased
during this time.
............................................................................................................................ [1]

5090/22/M/J/10

(c) A second container was set up in exactly the same way except that a chemical that
slows down the rate of respiration was added to the water.
Suggest and explain the effect that this chemical would have on the rate of growth of the
plants.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/M/J/10

Skimming is a process by which the constituents that collect at the top of fresh milk are
removed. Skimmed milk has had all these constituents removed.
Table 3.1 shows the nutritional contents of 100 cm3 of skimmed milk and 100 cm3 of
unskimmed milk.
Table 3.1
skimmed milk

unskimmed milk

energy

146 kj

267 kj

protein

3.4 g

3.4 g

carbohydrate

5.0 g

4.6 g

saturated fat

0.04 g

2.3 g

unsaturated fat

0.06 g

1.3 g

sodium

0.1 g

0.1 g

calcium

124 mg

119 mg

(a) Name two constituents of a healthy diet, not listed above, and state their importance to
a persons health.
constituent 1 .....................................................................................................................
importance
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
constituent 2 .....................................................................................................................
importance
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [5]
(b) Using the information in Table 3.1, suggest why skimmed milk is considered to be better
for the circulatory system than unskimmed milk.
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Explain why a mothers milk is better for her baby than milk from another species of
mammal.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/10

Fig. 4.1 shows some structures in a section through human skin.


C

D
Fig. 4.1
(a) The body is able to maintain its internal environment within narrow limits. State the term
for this process.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Structures C and D, in Fig. 4.1, are involved in the process of temperature regulation.
Identify structures C and D and state the part they play in the process.
C ................................................................
part played ........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
D ................................................................
part played ........................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
(c) The consumption of alcohol causes the muscles in artery walls to relax.
Taking this into consideration, suggest why people who work in environmental
temperatures below 5 C might be advised not to drink alcohol before or during work.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 8]
5090/22/M/J/10

Fig. 5.1 shows a section through a microscopic, one-celled organism often found growing on
the bark of trees.
E
cell wall
chloroplast

nucleus

Fig. 5.1
(a) Suggest the identity of the region labelled E in Fig. 5.1.
....................................................................
(b) (i)

[1]

List the structures visible in Fig. 5.1 which suggest that this organism might be a
plant.
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]

(ii)

List the ways in which this cell differs from a palisade cell in a plant leaf.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]

5090/22/M/J/10

Fig. 5.2 shows the same cell reproducing.

Fig 5.2
(c) Explain why successive generations of this organism have remained unchanged in
appearance for many thousands of years.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/10

Section B
Answer all the questions including questions 6, 7 and 8 Either or 8 Or.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) Describe how a molecule of carbon dioxide in the air becomes part of a carbohydrate
molecule stored in a leaf of a plant.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [7]
(b) Describe how a carbohydrate molecule stored in a leaf of a plant can become a starch
molecule stored in the root.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/10

Several insects, males and females from the same herbivorous species, were carried by
air currents to a distant island. Although the island had an established food web, it did not
include insects of this species.
(a) In terms of the food web on the island, suggest and explain what could happen over the
next few years.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [6]
(b) Explain why it is important to conserve species.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/10

Question 8 is in the form of an Either/Or question. Answer only question 8 Either or question 8
Or.
8

Either
A person cuts their hand on a piece of glass that they are picking up from the ground.
(a) Describe how the bodys defence mechanisms protect the person from infection.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [8]
(b) Explain how the person would know if the cut had damaged an artery.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/10

Or
Potatoes contain starch. Describe and explain what happens to a piece of potato, that has
been fried in oil, as it passes through the mouth (buccal cavity) and small intestine.
mouth (buccal cavity)
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
small intestine
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/10

The diagram represents the liver and associated blood vessels.

3
liver

small
intestine

After a meal, how is the blood affected by the liver as it passes between these blood vessels?

blood vessels

effect of liver

2 to 1

glucose added

2 to 1

urea removed

3 to 1

glucose added

3 to 1

urea removed

The symptoms of a disease include weakness, fatigue, aching and swollen joints, bruise-like
spots round the hair follicles and swollen and soft gums.
Which food is used to treat this disease?

liver as a source of iron

milk as a source of calcium

oily fish as a source of vitamin D

oranges as a source of vitamin C

Which chemical test shows the presence of an enzyme in a biological washing powder?
A

Benedicts

biuret

ethanol emulsion

iodine solution

5090/12/O/N/10

Vitamin C changes cholesterol into a form which is less likely to be deposited in artery walls.
Which dietary advice would help prevent coronary heart disease?

Eat more bread and less meat.

Eat more butter and less bread.

Eat more meat and less oranges.

Eat more oranges and less butter.

Which terms describe the parts of a plant?


leaf

leaf mesophyll

leaf epidermis

organ

cell

tissue

organ

tissue

tissue

organ system

tissue

cell

tissue

cell

cell

The diagram shows part of a flowering plant.


Where does most transpiration take place?
A
upper surface of leaf

B
lower surface of leaf

D
stem

C
root

5090/12/O/N/10

Which adaptations of a root hair cell make it suitable for water uptake?
partially permeable
cell membrane

surface area to volume


ratio of the cell

absent

high

absent

low

present

high

present

low

The diagram shows a root hair.


1

Which arrows show the direction in which it is possible for nitrate ions and water molecules to
move?
nitrate ions

water molecules

1 only

1 and 2

1 and 2

1 and 2

1 and 2

2 only

2 only

1 only

5090/12/O/N/10

A freshly picked leaf is placed in a sealed test-tube with some hydrogen carbonate indicator
solution. The tube is kept in the light during the day. The indicator changes colour as shown.

leaf

hydrogen carbonate
indicator

colour

amount of carbon dioxide


compared to average
atmospheric concentration

purple

less than normal

red

normal

yellow

more than normal

Which colour will the hydrogen carbonate indicator be at midday and at midnight?
at midday

at midnight

purple

yellow

red

purple

yellow

purple

yellow

red

10 The graph shows the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.

rate of
photosynthesis
/ arbitrary units

0
0

light intensity

Which statement could explain what is happening at higher light intensities?


A

All the available chloroplasts are fully occupied in light absorption.

High light intensities increase the temperature above the optimum for photosynthesis.

The chlorophyll in the chloroplasts has been damaged.

The products of photosynthesis accumulate and inhibit photosynthesis.

5090/12/O/N/10

11 Nitrates in the soil can be absorbed by plants. Nitrates can also be removed from the soil by the
action of
A

bacteria in the root nodules of legumes.

denitrifying bacteria in poorly aerated conditions.

nitrogen-fixing bacteria on ammonium compounds.

nitrogen-fixing bacteria on decaying plants.

12 Lack of nitrate ions (NO3) in flowering plants causes yellowing of leaves and poor growth
whereas lack of magnesium ions (Mg2+) causes yellowing between veins of leaves.
What explains these differences?
Mg2+

NO3

involved in
chlorophyll
synthesis

involved in
protein
synthesis

involved in
chlorophyll
synthesis

involved in
protein
synthesis

key

= true

= not true

5090/12/O/N/10

13 Which graph shows the effect of temperature on enzyme-controlled reactions?


A

rate of
reaction
/ arbitrary
units

rate of
reaction
/ arbitrary
units

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30

40

temperature / C

temperature / C

rate of
reaction
/ arbitrary
units

50

60

50

60

rate of
reaction
/ arbitrary
units

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

temperature / C

20

30

40

temperature / C

14 Four identical pieces of potato are treated in two stages, as shown.


Which piece of potato will be largest after 2 hours?
stage 1

stage 2

boiled in water for 10 minutes

placed in 10 % salt solution for 2 hours

boiled in water for 10 minutes

placed in distilled water for 2 hours

unboiled

placed in 10 % salt solution for 2 hours

unboiled

placed in distilled water for 2 hours

5090/12/O/N/10

15 The diagram shows the structures associated with a human kidney.

vena cava

aorta

What are the relative concentrations of urea in X, Y and Z?


A

X is sometimes higher than Y

Y is always higher than Z

Y is always lower than Z

Z is sometimes lower than X

16 Which sequence shows the shortest route taken by blood travelling from a leg to an arm in the
human body?
A

leg heart lungs heart arm

leg heart lungs kidney arm

leg kidney heart lungs arm

leg lungs heart gut arm

5090/12/O/N/10

17 The diagram shows a section through skin.

vessel X
sweat
gland

What happens if the body temperature starts to fall below normal?


sweat glands

blood flow in vessel X

secrete sweat

decreases

secrete sweat

increases

stop secreting sweat

decreases

stop secreting sweat

increases

18 The diagrams show two kinds of fruit.


fleshy,
colourful fruits

(1)

(5)

How are the seeds of these fruits dispersed?


1

birds

mammals

birds

wind

mammals

birds

wind

mammals

5090/12/O/N/10

19 What passes down a pollen tube after pollination?


A

female nucleus

male nucleus

ovule

pollen grain

20 The following changes take place in an athletes body during a 100 m race.
Which change occurs first?
A

increased availability of oxygen to muscles

increased breathing rate

increased carbon dioxide concentration in the blood

increased production of carbon dioxide by muscles

21 The diagram shows an experiment to study respiration in growing barley seeds.


at the start
of the
experiment
dead, sterile
barley seeds

after
four hours

at the start
of the
experiment
growing barley
seeds

vacuum
flask

cotton
wool plug

thermometer

The results of this experiment show that respiration


A

produces carbon dioxide.

releases energy.

requires glucose.

uses up oxygen.

5090/12/O/N/10

after
four hours

22 What happens to the muscles of the diaphragm, the external intercostal muscles and the position
of the diaphragm when breathing in?
diaphragm
muscles

external intercostal
muscles

diaphragm
movement

contract

contract

downward

contract

relax

upward

relax

contract

upward

relax

relax

downward

23 The diagram shows a blood capillary close to some tissue cells bathed in tissue fluid. Exchange
of nutrients takes place here.
direction of blood flow
plasma
red blood cell

capillary
walls

cell
tissue fluid

Which row shows the type of nutrient in the plasma and in the tissue fluid and the method of
transfer between the two?
plasma

tissue fluid

method of transfer

amino acid

amino acid

diffusion

amino acid

protein

osmosis

protein

amino acid

digestion

protein

protein

active uptake

5090/12/O/N/10

24 The diagram shows some nerve pathways involved in temperature control of the human body.

muscle
layer
temperature
receptor

blood vessel
sweat gland
surface of skin

Which part of the nervous system does X represent?


A

cerebrum

hypothalamus

medulla

pituitary gland

5090/12/O/N/10

skin

25 The diagram shows a section through the human brain.


W

What are the functions of the labelled regions?


memory

balance

26 The graph shows how the diameter of the pupil of a persons eye changed during the course of
two minutes.

pupil
diameter

time / minutes

What happens to the light intensity at X and which muscles begin to contract?
light intensity

iris muscles
contracting

decreases

circular

decreases

radial

increases

circular

increases

radial
5090/12/O/N/10

27 The diagram shows a section through the female reproductive system.


X

During pregnancy, where does mitosis occur in the cells of the embryo?
X

key

= takes place

= does not take place

28 What is a reason for breast milk being better for a baby than bottled milk?
A

It contains antibodies for disease protection.

It contains calcium ions for bone development.

It contains protein for growth.

It contains sugar for energy.

29 What makes the female mosquito an effective vector for malaria?


A

It has wings.

It lays many eggs.

It makes a noticeable noise.

It mates several times.

30 Which organisms are used, and what is their role, in the manufacture of cheese?
organism

role

bacteria

to lower the pH

fungi

to break down milk sugar

viruses

to curdle milk

yeast

to release carbon dioxide

5090/12/O/N/10

31 When are antibiotics likely to be most effective?


A

Infection is caused by a bacterium or fungus.

Infection is caused by a virus.

The disease is cancerous.

The pathogen can digest the antibiotic.

32 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


nitrogen in plants

nitrogen in animals
Q

S
nitrates

ammonium compounds

Which stages depend on bacteria?


A

P, Q, R and S

P and S only

Q and R only

R and S only

33 A single plant provides food for many herbivores. The herbivores supply food for a few
carnivores.
pyramid of numbers
W

pyramid of biomass

Which pyramid of numbers and which pyramid of biomass show this information?
pyramid of
numbers

pyramid of
biomass

5090/12/O/N/10

34 Lichens are organisms which are very sensitive to air pollution.


The graph shows how the distance from a coal-fired power station affects the number of different
types of lichen growing.
40
number of
different types
of lichen
20
growing

0
0

8
12
distance from
power station / km

16

Which conclusion can be drawn from this information?


A

Lichens grow faster near the power station.

Lichens grow more slowly near the power station.

Sulfur dioxide from the power station inhibits the growth of lichens.

There are fewer different types of lichen growing near the power station.

35 The inheritance of the ABO blood groups in humans is controlled by three alleles (IA, IB and IO),
only two of which can be present in one individual.
What are the possible blood groups of children born to a homozygous group A woman and a
heterozygous group B man?
A

A and B only

A and AB only

A, B and AB only

A, B, AB and O

36 The genotype for the height of an organism is written as Tt.


What conclusion may be drawn?
A

The allele for height has at least two different genes.

There are at least two different alleles of the gene for height.

There are two different genes for height, each having a single allele.

There is one allele for height with two different forms.

5090/12/O/N/10

37 The body cells of a mammal contain two copies of 24 000 genes, making 48 000 genes in total.
Of these 48 000 genes in the body cells of a mammal, how many would have been inherited from
its mother?
A

6 000

12 000

24 000

48 000

38 Which statement is evidence that genes may be copied and passed on to the next generation?
A

Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical offspring.

Different alleles of a gene can produce variation in phenotype.

Each species of a plant or animal has a fixed number of chromosomes.

Sexual reproduction produces genetically different offspring.

5090/12/O/N/10

39 The diagram shows part of a river into which sewage is being pumped.
Some of the effects of adding sewage to the river are plotted in the graph.
sewage pumping
station
1
2

river

3
W
relative
amount
/ arbitrary
units

X
Y
Z
1

position along river

Which graphs represent the bacteria and the oxygen content of the water?
bacteria

oxygen

40 Which bones meet at the elbow joint and what kind of movement do they allow?
bones

movement

humerus and scapula

in one plane only

humerus and scapula

in three planes

ulna and humerus

in one plane only

ulna and humerus

in three planes

5090/12/O/N/10

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows a vertical section through a human heart. The valves have not been shown.

B
A

Fig. 1.1
(a) Identify structures A and B in Fig. 1.1.
A ..............................................
B ..............................................

[2]

(b) Complete Fig. 1.1 by drawing the valves to show how they control the direction of blood flow
through the heart.
[4]
(c) On Fig. 1.1, draw arrows to show the direction of blood flow into, through and out of the heart.
[2]
Some people have a condition known as a hole in the heart. This allows a connection between
the left and right atrium at point X in Fig. 1.1.
(d) Suggest two problems this might cause.
1. ...............................................................................................................................................
2. ...........................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/O/N/10

Similar crops were grown on the same farm over a five-year period.
Fig. 2.1 shows the effect on the number of insects present on the crops when an insecticide is
used in each of the five years.
100

80

60
insects present /
% of original
number
40

20

time / years

spraying of
insecticide started
Fig. 2.1
(a) State one way an insect might be
(i)

helpful to the crops ............................................................................................................

(ii) harmful to the crops. ......................................................................................................[2]


(b) Explain why the percentage of insects began to rise in the second year until almost reaching
its original level.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[5]
5090/22/O/N/10

(c) Suggest three methods of improving the yield from the crops without the use of an
insecticide.
1. ...............................................................................................................................................
2. ...............................................................................................................................................
3. ...........................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]

Fig. 3.1 shows a water plant, bladderwort, that lives under water in a small lake. The bladderwort
traps then digests small water animals such as water fleas.
green
leaves

water flea being


digested in bladder

bladder
water flea

trap door

Fig. 3.1
(a) (i)

State the process by which the plant is likely to obtain its carbohydrates.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Suggest how the raw materials for this process are made available to the plant.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[4]

5090/22/O/N/10

The plant is able to supplement its nitrogen requirements by absorbing products from the digested
water fleas.
(b) (i)

Name an enzyme the plant must produce in its bladder in order to allow it to carry out
this process.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Name the chemicals absorbed by the bladder after digestion and suggest how the plant
uses them.
name .................................................................................................................................
use ....................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(c) State the form in which nitrogen-containing chemicals are absorbed by a plant growing on
land.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/10

In some tropical plants, such as a mangrove, seeds have already germinated before they leave
the parent plant.
Fig. 4.1(a) shows, in section, one of these germinated seeds still attached to the stem of its parent.
Fig. 4.1(b) shows a growing seedling after it has left the parent plant.
stem of
parent plant
remains of
flower

C
D

seed

fruit wall

soil
E

Fig. 4.1(a)
(a) (i)

Fig. 4.1(b)

Identify the structures C and D in Fig. 4.1(a).


C ..............................................
D ..............................................

(ii)

[2]

State the part of the embryo from which structure E has developed.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The air temperature is suitable for germination of the seed on the parent plant. Suggest how
the embryo obtains the other requirements for germination.
...................................................................................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]

5090/22/O/N/10

(c) Suggest and explain how the genetic make-up of the seedling compares with that of the
parent plant.
...................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/O/N/10

Fig. 5.1 shows a computerised image taken through the thorax (chest) of a person lying on their
back.

F
G
H

Fig. 5.1
(a) Draw a line on Fig. 5.1 to show the position of the chest wall if the person breathes in deeply.
[1]
(b) Identify the structures F, G, H in Fig. 5.1.
F ..............................................
G ..............................................
H ..............................................

[3]

(c) Explain the part played by structures H when the person breathes in.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................[5]
5090/22/O/N/10

[Total: 9]

Section B
Answer all the questions, including questions 6, 7 and 8 Either or 8 Or.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) Explain what is meant by a hormone.


...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) Give an example of a hormone and describe how it is involved in maintaining constant
conditions within the human body.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
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[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/10

(a) Describe the characteristics of bacteria.


...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) Explain how bacteria can be used in biotechnology to manufacture a useful product.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................[6]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/10

Either

Using an example to illustrate each process, describe how substances move into and out
of cells.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................[10]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/O/N/10

Or

Describe how a developing fetus in the uterus obtains and uses its metabolic requirements
and gets rid of its waste products.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................[10]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/10

The diagram shows a plant cell.

4
Which features are not found in animal cells?
A
2

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 4

2 and 5

1, 2 and 3

Below is a series of cell processes.


1

mineral ions entering root hair cells

glucose uptake by villus cells

water entering root hair cells

Which of these involve active transport?


A
3

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

The sentence describes the uptake of water by a plant.


Water moves into the root hairs of a plant by osmosis through a ...1... permeable cell
membrane, 2 a water potential gradient.
Which words correctly complete gaps 1 and 2?
1

fully

down

fully

up

partially

down

partially

up

5090/12/M/J11

Magnesium is an essential element for


A

the formation of cell walls.

the formation of chlorophyll.

the formation of proteins.

the process of cell division.

A dish is filled with agar jelly containing starch. Four holes are cut in the jelly and each hole is
filled as shown.
After 30 minutes, which hole will be surrounded by the largest area without starch?
amylase solution

A
pepsin solution and
hydrochloric acid

agar jelly

amylase solution and


hydrochloric acid

C
pepsin solution

5090/12/M/J11

The graph shows the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
Y
X
rate of
photosynthesis

CO2 concentration

What could be limiting the rate of photosynthesis at points X and Y?


X

carbon dioxide concentration

carbon dioxide concentration

carbon dioxide concentration

light intensity

light intensity

carbon dioxide concentration

light intensity

light intensity

5090/12/M/J11

The diagram shows a green shoot photosynthesising under a glass jar. This was used as a
control experiment in a laboratory investigation.

in sunshine
airtight
bung
glass jar

green plant

filter paper
water

water

Which diagram shows the other experiment that should be done to investigate the need for
carbon dioxide in photosynthesis?

A
in sunshine

in dark
airtight
bung

green plant

airtight
bung

glass jar

green plant

glass jar

water

hydrogencarbonate
indicator

water

filter paper
sodium
hydroxide
solution
C

D
in sunshine

in sunshine

airtight
bung

airtight
bung
green plant

hydrogencarbonate
indicator

glass jar

green plant

glass jar

oil layer
water

water

5090/12/M/J11

A protein solution is tested using three different reagents.


Which set of results is obtained?

iodine solution

Benedicts solution

biuret solution

black

blue

blue

black

red

blue

brown

blue

purple

brown

red

purple

What are the advantages of chewing food at the start of digestion?


increasing
surface area

lubricating
food

making food
soluble

10 Which row correctly gives a good source of vitamin C and its deficiency symptom?
good source

deficiency symptom

egg yolk

softening of bones

egg yolk

bleeding gums

fresh green vegetables

softening of bones

fresh green vegetables

bleeding gums

5090/12/M/J11

11 The photomicrograph shows part of a sunflower stem.

Which tissue transports water and mineral salts and which tissue transports sucrose?
water and
mineral salts

sucrose

5090/12/M/J11

12 A herbaceous plant, growing in a nutrient solution, is placed in a well-lit experimental chamber


through which humid air is being passed slowly. The diagram below shows a section through a
part of the plant.

Q
P

The speeds of movement of the fluids in tissues P and Q are measured. The humid air is then
replaced by dry air and the speeds of movement of the fluids change.
What are these changes?
tissue P

tissue Q

greatly increased upward movement

greatly increased downward movement

greatly increased downward movement

little change

little change

greatly increased downward movement

little change

greatly increased upward movement

13 The table shows the characteristics of the blood in one blood vessel in the body.
oxygen
concentration

carbon dioxide
concentration

pressure

high

low

high

Which blood vessel contains blood with these characteristics?


A

aorta

pulmonary artery

pulmonary vein

vena cava

5090/12/M/J11

14 How do veins differ from arteries?


width of
lumen

wall
thickness

elastic
fibres

muscles
in wall

narrower

thicker

more

less

narrower

thinner

less

more

wider

thicker

more

more

wider

thinner

less

less

15 The diagram shows a section through the human heart.


2

semi-lunar
valve

semi-lunar
valve

What happens as blood is being pumped out of the heart?


semi-lunar valves

vessel through which


blood passes to the lungs

open

open

closed

closed

5090/12/M/J11

16 An experiment is set up as shown.


tube 1

tube 2

potassium
hydroxide
solution

water

equal weights of
soaked pea seeds
coloured water

After four hours, the coloured water will


A

have gone down by the same amount in both tubes.

be higher in tube 1 than in tube 2.

be higher in tube 2 than in tube 1.

have gone up by the same amount in both tubes.

17 Which process does not depend on respiration?


A

active uptake of ions

conduction of nervous impulses

diffusion of glucose

muscle contraction

18 What happens to the diaphragm when breathing in?


muscle action

shape becomes

contraction

domed

relaxation

domed

contraction

flattened

relaxation

flattened

5090/12/M/J11

19 The diagram refers to the control of water concentration in the blood.


water in blood rising

water in blood falling


more water in urine
less water in urine

Why is this a negative feedback system?


A

It decreases the amount of water in the blood.

It increases any change in the amount of water in the blood.

It increases the amount of water in the blood.

It reverses any change in the amount of water in the blood.

20 What is not an excretory product of mammals?


A

carbon dioxide in expired air

undigested food in faeces

urea in sweat

urea in urine

21 What is the correct sequence of the bones in the arm of a mammal, from the hand to the
shoulder?
hand

shoulder

humerus

radius

scapula

humerus

scapula

radius

radius

humerus

scapula

scapula

radius

humerus

22 What decreases as a result of adrenaline secretion?


A

blood sugar level

digestive activity

heart rate

size of the pupils of the eyes

5090/12/M/J11

23 What are the functions of the relay, motor and sensory neurones in a reflex response?
relay neurone

motor neurone

sensory neurone

to connect neurones within


the central nervous
system

to conduct impulses to the


effector from the central
nervous system

to conduct impulses from


the receptor to the central
nervous system

to conduct impulses to the


effector

to connect neurones within


the central nervous
system

to receive the stimulus

to conduct impulses from


the central nervous
system to the effector

to conduct impulses from


the receptor to the central
nervous system

to connect neurones within


the central nervous
system

to conduct impulses from


the receptor to the central
nervous system

to conduct impulses from


the receptor to the central
nervous system

to conduct impulses to the


effector

24 The diagram represents a section through the brain and part of the spinal cord.
Which part of the brain controls balance?
A

D
C

25 Using the flow diagram, which organism is a fungus?


composed of cells
yes

no

has chloroplasts

yes

no

has cell nuclei


yes

no

5090/12/M/J11

26 The graph shows the relationship between the average age at death and the number of
cigarettes smoked per day.
75
74
73
average 72
age at
71
death
/ years 70
69
68
67
0

10
15
20
25
cigarettes smoked per day

30

Which conclusion from the graph is correct?


A

Most people living longer than 74 years are non-smokers.

People smoking five cigarettes a day live longer on average than those smoking 15
cigarettes a day.

The average length of life of people who smoke is 4.5 years less than that of non-smokers.

The main cause of death in people who smoke 30 cigarettes a day is lung cancer.

27 On decomposition, which substance in decaying plants is the major source of carbon for
carbon dioxide production by the micro-organisms involved?
A

cellulose

glucose

starch

sucrose

5090/12/M/J11

28 The diagram shows a fermenter used to produce penicillin.

culture solution
of Penicillium

bubbles of air
air in

Why is air pumped into the fermenter?


to mix culture

to provide
oxygen

key

= yes

= no

5090/12/M/J11

29 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


nitrogen in
the air

denitrification
fixation

nitrates in
the soil

organic
substances
in plants

organic
substances
in animals

death and
decay

Which substance at X forms part of this cycle?


A

cellulose

fat

protein

starch

30 Three statements about malarial parasites are listed.


1

Insecticides are used to kill the vectors.

Netting is used to keep the vectors away from people.

People take drugs that stop the malarial pathogen developing.

Which of these methods can be used to control malaria?


A

1 only

1 and 2 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2 and 3

5090/12/M/J11

31 The diagram shows part of a food web.


eagle

fox

small bird
goat

ant

locust

caterpillar

beetle

flowering plant

grass

tree

How many herbivores are shown?


A

32 Which statement correctly describes advantages or disadvantages of self-pollination to a plant?


A

It needs a lot of pollen but can happen when a plant is on its own.

It needs little pollen but there is a high chance of pollination.

It needs no agent to transfer pollen but pollination is unlikely.

It needs two plants of the same species but there is little variation in the offspring.

5090/12/M/J11

33 The diagram shows part of a flower at the time of pollination.


pollen grain
(contains male gamete)
style

ovule
(contains female gamete)

How does the male gamete reach the female gamete?


A

A pollen tube grows down the style.

The pollen grain moves down the style.

The male gamete digests its way down the style.

The male gamete swims down the style.

34 If high levels of nitrates are washed into rivers, the following changes may occur, causing fish to
die.
1

Water plants die and fall to the bottom.

Bacteria multiply rapidly.

Concentration of oxygen in the water decreases.

Increased growth of single-celled water plants makes the water green.

In which order do these changes take place?


A

1432

2314

3241

4123

35 Which disease can be cured by antibiotics?


A

HIV / AIDS

diabetes

emphysema

syphilis

5090/12/M/J11

36 The diagram shows a side view of the female reproductive system.


1
2
3
4

In which region are sperms released during sexual intercourse and where does fertilisation
usually take place?
sperms
released

fertilisation

37 A man is blood group A and his wife is blood group AB.


What are the possible blood groups of their children?
A

A only

AB only

A and AB only

A, B and AB

5090/12/M/J11

38 Flower colour is controlled by a single pair of alleles. The allele for red flowers is dominant to the
allele for white flowers.
A plant homozygous for red flowers is crossed with a plant homozygous for white flowers. All the
resulting plants have red flowers (F1 generation).
When the F1 generation are crossed with each other, 18 plants are obtained. 12 plants have red
flowers and 6 have white flowers (F2 generation).
What ratio is expected in the F2 generation and what ratio has been obtained?
expected ratio
red to white

obtained ratio
red to white

1:1

2:1

1:1

3:1

3:1

2:1

3:1

3:1

39 In the commercial manufacture of insulin, a human gene is inserted into which of these?
A

a chromosome of a human cell

a protein molecule in a yeast cell

the DNA of a bacterium

the nucleic acid in a virus

40 Which of these may be heterozygous?


A

a haploid cell

an allele of a gene

an organism with a dominant phenotype

an organism with a recessive genotype

5090/12/M/J11

Section A
Answer all questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows three types of organism (not drawn to the same scale).

Fig. 1.1
(a) Identify the three types of organism shown in Fig. 1.1.
A ...........................................................
B ...........................................................
C ...........................................................
(b) (i)

[3]

List the organisms in Fig. 1.1 in order of their actual size, starting with the largest.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

State which of these organisms might bring about decay of organic matter.
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) On Fig. 1.1, label

a structure (N) that is always made mostly of DNA,

a structure (P) that is made only of protein.

5090/22/M/J/11

[2]

(d) A microorganism, similar to one shown in Fig. 1.1, is used commercially to make human
insulin. Name the microorganism and suggest why this process is referred to as genetic
engineering.
microorganism name ...........................................................
why the process is called genetic engineering
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/11

Table 2.1 shows the masses of various substances in 100 g of banana fruit and in 100 g of avocado
fruit.
Table 2.2 shows a persons recommended daily intake for calcium, iron and vitamin C.
Table 2.2

Table 2.1
substance
fat
cholesterol
carbohydrate
fibre
protein
calcium
iron
vitamin C

banana

avocado

calcium

0.33 g
0.00 g
22.80 g
2.60 g
1.10 g
5.00 mg
0.26 mg
8.70 mg

14.60 g
0.00 g
8.53 g
6.70 g
2.00 g
12.00 mg
0.55 mg
10.00 mg

iron

13 mg

vitamin C

62 mg

500 mg

Bananas form a significant part of the diet of some communities.


(a) Explain why bananas can be a valuable part of a persons diet.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) Explain why a diet of only bananas is not suitable for a growing child.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(c) Explain which of the two fruits, banana or avocado, it would be better to eat just before running
a race.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/11

Fig. 3.1 shows energy flow in a habitat.


reflection
15.8%

D
0.2%
transpiration
50%

energy from
sunlight

green plants

to soil
32%
Fig. 3.1
(a) (i)
(ii)

Suggest the identity of X in Fig. 3.1. ..............................................................................[1]


State the form in which energy passes from the green plants to X.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Calculate the percentage of energy passing to X.

............................................................[1]
(b) State the name of the process D in Fig. 3.1 ..........................................................................[1]
(c) (i)

Describe how energy passes into the soil and is then released.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

Suggest how the release of this energy is useful to seeds in the soil.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 9]
5090/22/M/J/11

Fig. 4.1 shows a plant cell.

Fig. 4.1
(a) On Fig. 4.1, label a partially permeable membrane.

[1]

(b) It is possible to remove the cell wall of a plant cell by using an enzyme. Suggest and explain
what would happen if a cell that had been treated in this way, and also an untreated cell, were
both put into distilled water for an hour.
treated cell .................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
untreated cell .............................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[5]
(c) Cells are taken from one plant, treated with the enzyme described in (b), and then grown on
a culture medium. There, each of these cells divides to form a group of cells. Each group of
cells then develops into a new plant.
(i)

State the type of division that the nuclei of these cells have undergone.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Suggest and explain a possible commercial use of this procedure.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/M/J/11

Fig. 5.1(a) and Fig. 5.1(b) show graphs of the pulse and breathing rates of two students, E and F,
during and after one minutes vigorous exercise.

160
breathing rates / breaths per minute

50

pulse / beats per minute

140
120
100
80
60

3
4
time / minutes
Key:

40
30
20
10

5
student E

Fig. 5.1(a)

3
4
time / minutes

student F
Fig. 5.1(b)

(a) State how long it took for student Fs pulse and breathing rates to return to their original levels
after the student had finished exercising.
pulse rate .................................................
breathing rate ...........................................

[2]

(b) Explain why the pulse and breathing rates of both students increased during exercise.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(c) Suggest and describe possible reasons for the differences in the effect of vigorous exercise
on these two students.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/M/J/11

Section B
Answer all questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) (i)

State what is meant by transpiration.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

Explain how the transpiration stream is important for the production of proteins in a
plant.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Describe and explain how tissues in the stem of a plant become stained when a plant is
carefully removed from the soil and placed in a solution of dye for a few hours.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[5]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/11

(a) Describe the functions of the kidneys.


...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) Describe and explain the ways in which a person may be kept alive even when both of their
kidneys have stopped functioning.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[6]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/11

Section C
Answer one question from this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) Define the term drug.


...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Describe the possible effects of the abuse of a named drug.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[7]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/11

(a) Explain why there are approximately equal numbers of babies born of each sex.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) With the aid of a genetic diagram, describe the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the
offspring of two parents who both have codominant alleles for a named character.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

[7]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/M/J/11

A human cheek cell and a spongy mesophyll cell from a leaf are examined under a microscope.
Which structures are seen in both cells?

cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm

cell wall, cell membrane and nucleus

cytoplasm, cell wall and cell membrane

nucleus, cytoplasm and cell wall

Which process needs energy from respiration?


A

movement of carbon dioxide into the alveoli

movement of oxygen into red blood cells

uptake of glucose by cells in the villi

uptake of water by root hair cells

The mass of a cube of fresh potato is found. It is then placed in a test-tube containing a dilute
solution of sucrose. After an hour, its mass has increased.
Which process has occurred and what has happened to the concentration of the sucrose in the
solution in the test-tube?
process

sucrose concentration

active transport

decreased

active transport

increased

osmosis

decreased

osmosis

increased

5090/12/O/N/11

The photomicrograph shows a transverse section of a leaf.


Where does carbon dioxide enter the leaf?

Two test-tubes, P and Q, were set up each containing a solution of red hydrogen carbonate
indicator. Hydrogen carbonate indicator turns yellow when the carbon dioxide concentration
increases and turns purple if the carbon dioxide concentration decreases.
An aquatic plant was placed into tubes P and Q. Tube P was uncovered, tube Q was covered
with a black lightproof cover. The tubes were left in a warm room in sunlight for four hours.

black lightproof
cover
green
aquatic
plant

tube P

tube Q

What would be the colour of the hydrogen carbonate indicator in the two tubes after four hours?
tube P

tube Q

purple

red

purple

yellow

red

yellow

yellow

red

5090/12/O/N/11

Which graph shows the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis?


A

rate of
photosynthesis

rate of
photosynthesis

70

temperature / C

temperature / C

rate of
photosynthesis

rate of
photosynthesis

70

temperature / C

70

70
temperature / C

The diagram shows part of a transverse section of a leaf.

Q
R
S

Which cells conduct water into the leaf and which cells conduct sugars out of the leaf?
conduct water

conduct sugars

5090/12/O/N/11

The diagram shows a bolus of food moving along the oesophagus.


P

bolus of food

direction of
movement

Which row describes the condition of the muscles at P, Q, R and S?

contracted

relaxed

contracted

relaxed

contracted

relaxed

relaxed

contracted

relaxed

contracted

contracted

relaxed

relaxed

contracted

relaxed

contracted

The photomicrograph shows human blood.


Which component cannot function effectively if a persons diet lacks iron?

D
magnification 1000

5090/12/O/N/11

10 Which chemical elements are found in carbohydrates, fats and proteins?


carbohydrates

fats

proteins

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen

carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen

11 The diagram shows two plant cells, X and Y, drawn to different scales.

Samples of the contents of X and Y were tested for nutrients.


What results are expected?
X

Benedicts
reagent

iodine in
potassium
iodide
solution

Benedicts
reagent

iodine in
potassium
iodide
solution

key

= negative result

+ = positive result

5090/12/O/N/11

12 Which blood vessel carries absorbed food material from the small intestine to the liver?
A

coronary artery

hepatic portal vein

pulmonary artery

renal vein

13 The diagram shows an experiment on amylase.


Each beaker contains water at the temperature shown.

90 C

starch
solution

35 C

20 C

10 C

amylase
solution

ice

key
starch solution
amylase solution
After five minutes, each test-tube of amylase is poured into the test-tube of starch solution in the
same beaker.
After leaving the tubes for 5 minutes, samples of the mixture are then tested with iodine solution
and then tested again at 5 minute intervals.
Which results are expected?
90 C

35 C

20 C

10 C

blue-black after
30 minutes

goes yellow-brown
immediately

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

blue-black after
30 minutes

blue-black after
30 minutes

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

goes yellow-brown
immediately

blue-black after
30 minutes

goes yellow-brown
immediately

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

blue-black after
30 minutes

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

blue-black after
30 minutes

blue-black after
30 minutes

goes yellow-brown
after 5 minutes

5090/12/O/N/11

14 What are the products of anaerobic respiration in humans and in yeast?


humans

yeast

ethanol

lactic acid

ethanol and carbon dioxide

lactic acid and carbon dioxide

lactic acid

ethanol and carbon dioxide

lactic acid and carbon dioxide

ethanol

15 The diagram shows the ribs and some of the muscles used in breathing.
vertebrae
sternum
breathing
out
external
intercostals
lung

diaphragm
X

Which muscles relax in moving from position X to position Y?


diaphragm

external intercostals

no

no

no

yes

yes

no

yes

yes

5090/12/O/N/11

16 The diagram shows a section through part of a blood vessel.


1
2

What could be the first organs found in the directions 1 and 2?


1

heart

brain

intestine

liver

kidney

heart

lung

heart

17 The diagram represents the heart and some major blood vessels.
head

lungs
S

body

Which are possible blood pressures (in kPa) for the vessels shown on the diagram?
P

16

16

16

16

5090/12/O/N/11

18 The diagram represents a kidney dialysis machine.

fresh
dialysis fluid

blood
to patient

X
Y

used
dialysis fluid
blood
from patient

What are the parts labelled X, Y and Z?


bubble trap

roller pump

water bath for


temperature control

19 What helps heat retention in the human body?


A

actively secreting sweat glands

dilated skin blood vessels

fat in and under the skin

relaxed hair erector muscles

5090/12/O/N/11

20 The table shows the composition of inspired and expired air.


inspired air %

expired air %

0.04

20

16

79.96

carbon dioxide
oxygen
nitrogen and inert gases
What are the likely percentages at X and Y?
X

0.04

83.96

4.04

79.96

20.04

63.96

83.96

0.04

21 The diagram shows the bones of the forelimb.


6
5
4
1

3
2

Which labels show where the muscle that straightens the hinge joint is attached?
A

1 and 2

3 and 4

4 and 5

4 and 6

22 Foods can be made by treating milk in different ways.


1

Bacteria are added.

The milk is acidified.

The milk proteins are coagulated.

Which processes occur in both cheese and yoghurt production?


A

1, 2 and 3

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

5090/12/O/N/11

2 and 3 only

23 Two containers, X and Y, were filled with equal amounts of dough mixture for making bread.
The mixture in Y had yeast in it.
The containers were then left in a warm place for two hours. The diagram shows their
appearance after this time.

dough mixture
with yeast

dough mixture
without yeast

container X

container Y

Which substance produced by the yeast causes the difference between containers X and Y?
A

alcohol

carbon dioxide

lactic acid

oxygen

24 Why is a producer so called?


A

It produces carbohydrates.

It produces carbon dioxide.

It produces energy.

It produces oxygen.

5090/12/O/N/11

25 The diagram shows a section through the eye.

P
retina
Q
R

Which pair of structures focus light rays onto the retina?


A

P and Q

P and R

Q and R

Q and S

26 Which part of the central nervous system controls the bodys water balance?
A

cerebellum

cerebrum

hypothalamus

medulla

27 How does adrenaline affect glucose uptake by muscle cells and carbohydrate conversion by liver
cells?
glucose uptake

carbohydrate conversion

decreases

glucose to glycogen

decreases

glycogen to glucose

increases

glucose to glycogen

increases

glycogen to glucose

28 What is a major effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke?


A

It causes lung cancer.

It destroys cilia in the trachea.

It increases mucus production in the trachea.

It increases the desire to smoke.

5090/12/O/N/11

29 The diagram shows four ecological pyramids.

In a food chain, grass is eaten by cows. The cows have insects living on their skin. The insects
are eaten by birds.
Which is the pyramid of mass and which is the pyramid of numbers in this food chain?
pyramid of mass

pyramid of numbers

30 Which row shows a disease and the organism that causes it?
disease

organism that
causes it

AIDS

bacterium

AIDS

insect

malaria

insect

syphilis

bacterium

31 What is not a result of changing the size of the holes in fishing nets?
smaller holes

larger holes

bigger fish are caught

small fish pass through the net

many fish reproduce before they are caught

most fish do not reproduce

more fish are caught

fewer fish are caught

smaller fish are caught

larger fish are caught

5090/12/O/N/11

32 The diagram shows organisms in a habitat.


R

S
organisms on
decaying leaves

Which shows the feeding relationships of these organisms?


A

33 Which conditions are necessary to activate enzymes when a seed germinates?

light

A
C

suitable
temperature
B

water

5090/12/O/N/11

34 A recessive homozygote is crossed with a heterozygote of the same gene.


What will be the phenotypes of the F1 generation?
A

all dominant

75 % dominant

25 % recessive

50 % dominant

50 % recessive

25 % dominant

50 % heterozygous

25 % recessive

35 A child has blood group O.


Which couple could be the parents of this child?
blood group
of father

blood group
of mother

AB

AB

AB

36 Which process is used to produce insulin commercially?


A

extracting glycogen from the liver to stimulate production of insulin

extracting insulin from the pancreas of human volunteers

inserting a bacterial gene into a persons pancreas cells

inserting the human insulin gene into a bacterium

5090/12/O/N/11

37 New plants may be grown from groups of cells that are taken from other plants.
The diagram shows part of plant X.
From which structure will cell samples grow into new plants that are genetically identical to
plant X?

A
B

38 What is a major advantage of feeding breast milk rather than milk made up from milk powder to a
baby?
A

It contains a higher percentage of calcium for growth of the babys bones.

It contains all the carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins needed by the baby.

It contains antibodies from the mother, which protect the baby from infectious diseases.

It contains less protein, sugar and fat, which prevent the baby from becoming obese.

39 On which date is a woman most likely to ovulate if the first day of menstrual loss was 1 February?
A

5 February

14 February

28 February

1 March

40 Two heterozygotes are crossed. Some of the offspring show the recessive characteristic.
What is the probability that one of these offspring that shows the recessive characteristic is
homozygous?
A

0.00

0.25

0.50

5090/12/O/N/11

1.00

Section A
Answer all questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

A student was asked to make a model of a plant cell. She took a length of tubing made from a
substance that allows only water molecules to pass through and enclosed it in a flexible permeable
membrane as shown in Fig. 1.1.
flexible, permeable membrane

beads

tightly
tied

tightly
tied
marble

dilute sugar solution


Fig. 1.1

(a) Name the structures found in a plant mesophyll cell that are best represented by the following
items used in her model:
the marble .................................................................................................................................
the beads ..................................................................................................................................
the tubing ..............................................................................................................................[3]
(b) State a structure found in a plant cell that is not represented in the students model.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]

5090/22/O/N/11

(c) The student then placed her model into a concentrated sugar solution for half an hour.
State and explain the similarities between what might happen to her model during that time
and what would happen to a plant cell placed in the same solution.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[6]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/11

Fig. 2.1 shows the chromosomes present in the nucleus of a human cell.

13

14

15

19

20

10

11

12

16

17

18

21

22

23

Fig. 2.1
(a) Name the chemical contained within a chromosome that is responsible for inheritance.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) (i)

Name the type of cell division that occurs only in the sex organs to produce gametes.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

State how many chromosomes would be present in a gamete from this person.
........................................

[1]

5090/22/O/N/11

Fig. 2.2 shows the chromosomes present in the nucleus of a cell from a different person.

13

14

15

19

20

10

11

12

16

17

18

21

22

23

Fig. 2.2
(c) State the sex of this person and explain your answer.
sex ...........................................
explanation ...........................................................................................................................[2]
(d) Suggest a condition which the person whose chromosomes are shown in Fig. 2.2 has and
explain your answer.
condition ...........................................
explanation ...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(e) Suggest why offspring that are produced by crossing two different species are usually infertile.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/11

The following is a list of terms associated with a persons responses. Each term is identified by a
letter.
A brain
B contraction
C gland
D hormone
E impulse

F
G
H
I
J

motor neurone
muscle
receptor
sensory neurone
spinal cord

(a) Using their identifying letters only, place the terms in the order in which they are involved
in the following:
(i)

Peeling an onion causes a students eyes to water.


.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

A student decides to open a book.


.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

A student hears a sudden loud noise and, shortly afterwards, his heart beats faster.
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Name the type of response involved in (a)(i) and (a)(ii).


(a)(i) ..........................................................................................................................................
(a)(ii) .....................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) Describe how responses involving the nervous system differ from those that involve the
effects of hormones.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/11

Fig. 4.1 shows a flower with some of its parts removed.

M
Fig. 4.1
(a) Identify structures K, L and M on Fig. 4.1.
K

................................................................

................................................................

................................................................

[3]

(b) Name two different structures that have been removed from the flower.
1. ...............................................................................................................................................
2. ...........................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) Use a line labelled X to indicate where the pollen is deposited when pollination occurs.
(d) (i)

[1]

Suggest the most likely method by which pollination in carried out in this flower.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

State two features not shown in Fig. 4.1 that would confirm your answer to (d)(i).
1. ........................................................................................................................................
2. ....................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/O/N/11

Table 5.1 shows the relative amounts of fatty acids and amino acids found in a persons alimentary
canal as the contents of a meal, that contained neither of these chemicals, pass through.
Table 5.1
region of
alimentary canal

fatty acids

amino acids

oesophagus

low

low

stomach

low

increasing

duodenum

increasing

increasing

ileum

decreasing

decreasing

colon

low

low

(a) Name the process that causes food to move through the alimentary canal.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Name the constituent of a healthy diet that provides the greatest amount of energy per unit
mass.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Explain the changes in the amounts of fatty acids
(i)

in the duodenum,
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

in the ileum.
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(d) (i)

Explain why the amount of amino acids began to decrease in the ileum.
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Suggest why the amount of amino acids continued to increase in the duodenum.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 11]
5090/22/O/N/11

Section B
Answer all questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Explain the importance to a plant of


(a) the distribution of its chloroplasts
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) the presence of stomata
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(c) the position of its vascular bundles
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/O/N/11

Describe how blood is made to flow in a continuous circulation around the body with reference to
(a) the heart
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) the arteries
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(c) the veins
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/11

Section C
Answer either question 8 or question 9.
Write your answer in the spaces provided.

(a) Describe how anaerobic respiration in muscles differs from anaerobic respiration in yeast.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Describe the part played by the cells lining the trachea.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]
(c) Explain what may happen to the cells lining the trachea in a smoker, and how this may affect
the persons health.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/O/N/11

(a) Describe how energy enters and then flows through a biological system.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) (i)

Explain how energy is made available in cells.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

State the uses of energy in the human body.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/11

Some structures found in cells are listed.


1

cell wall

cell membrane

chloroplast

cytoplasm

nucleus

Which structures are found in both animal cells and plant cells?

Which processes can only occur through a membrane?


active transport

diffusion

osmosis

5090/12/M/J/12

Identical pieces of potato are placed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations. After three
hours, the mass of each potato piece is measured.
Which graph shows the results of this experiment?

mass of potato
after three hours / g

mass of potato
after three hours / g

sucrose concentration
/ arbitrary units

sucrose concentration
/ arbitrary units

mass of potato
after three hours / g

mass of potato
after three hours / g

sucrose concentration
/ arbitrary units

sucrose concentration
/ arbitrary units

Starch is digested to maltose by the enzyme amylase.


According to the lock and key hypothesis, which is the key and which is the lock?
key

lock

amylase

maltose

amylase

starch

starch

amylase

starch

maltose

5090/12/M/J/12

If a condition is a limiting factor for photosynthesis, what does this mean?


A

Changing the condition may either increase or decrease the rate of photosynthesis.

Changing the condition will only increase the rate of photosynthesis.

Changing the condition will only decrease the rate of photosynthesis.

Changing the condition will not affect the rate of photosynthesis.

The diagram shows cells in a section through a leaf of a green plant.


(No cell contents are shown.)
1

3
4

Which cells contain chloroplasts?


A

1 and 2

1 and 4

2 and 3

5090/12/M/J/12

2 and 4

Two aquarium tanks are set up as shown.

air bubbles

air bubbles

snail
pump

pump

snail

tank X
contains animals and plants

tank Y
contains animals

After a week, all the animals in tank Y show signs of distress.


This is because the animals have run out of

carbon dioxide.

food.

nitrate.

oxygen.

Which process is stimulated by adrenaline in the cells of the liver?


A

breakdown of glycogen, increasing the blood glucose level

breakdown of excess amino acids, forming urea

breakdown of proteins, releasing amino acids into the blood

conversion of excess blood glucose to glycogen

Which fact about proteins makes them essential components of the human diet?
A

They are an energy source.

They are used in synthesising hormones.

They can be stored as a food reserve.

They provide amino acids for cell growth.

10 Transpiration increases when conditions become


A

less humid and less windy.

less humid and more windy.

more humid and less windy.

more humid and more windy.


5090/12/M/J/12

11 The diagram shows a section through a green leaf.

The arrows represent the movement of


A

carbon dioxide during respiration.

oxygen during photosynthesis.

sugars during translocation.

water during transpiration.

12 The diagram shows the direction of blood flow in the human body.

capillaries in
the lungs

right side
of the heart

left side
of the heart

2
capillaries in
the organs of
the body
Which numbered stages have blood containing the most oxygen?

1 and 2

2 and 3

3 and 4

5090/12/M/J/12

4 and 1

13 The graph shows pressure changes in the left atrium and in the left ventricle during one
heartbeat.
20

atrium
ventricle

pressure
10
/ kPa

0
0

time / s
X

What is the state of the valves in the heart at time X?


atrio-ventricular
valve (bicuspid)

semi-lunar valve (in


aorta)

closed

closed

closed

open

open

closed

open

open

14 What is a difference between plasma and tissue fluid?


plasma

tissue fluid

less dissolved glucose

more dissolved glucose

dissolved glucose

no dissolved glucose

more protein molecules

fewer protein molecules

no white blood cells

white blood cells

5090/12/M/J/12

0.8

15 What are the products of aerobic respiration in yeast?

alcohol

carbon
dioxide

lactic acid

water

16 The diagram represents the human respiratory system.

X
Y

Which structures contain muscles that contract when breathing in?


A

X only

X and Y only

Y and Z only

X, Y and Z

17 Which substance builds up in a muscle as a result of anaerobic respiration?


A

carbon dioxide

ethanol

lactic acid

oxygen

5090/12/M/J/12

18 The diagram shows apparatus used to investigate breathing.


M

orange
hydrogencarbonate
indicator
solution

tube Y

tube X

At the start, both tubes contain orange hydrogencarbonate indicator solution.


The solution is orange when atmospheric air passes through it.
The solution changes to red when air with less carbon dioxide passes through it.
The solution changes to yellow when air with more carbon dioxide passes through it.
Which changes occur to the hydrogencarbonate indicator solution in tubes X and Y when a
person breathes in and out through the tube M?
solution in tube X

solution in tube Y

becomes red

becomes yellow

becomes yellow

becomes red

stays orange

becomes red

stays orange

becomes yellow

19 The diagram shows a pair of chromosomes from the same cell.


P

What do the lines labelled P point to?


A

the site of an allele made up of two or more genes which are always the same

the site of an allele made up of two or more genes which might be different

the site of a gene made up of two or more alleles which are always the same

the site of a gene made up of two or more alleles which might be different

5090/12/M/J/12

20 Which substances can be removed from the blood by kidney machines?


A

glucose, glycogen and proteins

glucose, proteins and urea

glycogen, urea and some salts

urea and some salts only

21 The diagram shows skin temperature of a human when exposed to warm air and then exposed to
cold air.

human in warm air

human in cold air

key

skin
temperature
above 26 C
26 C or below

What causes the observed change in skin temperature on exposure to cold air?
A

less blood flowing just below the skin

less blood going to the heart and lungs

more blood flowing just below the skin

more blood going to the heart and lungs

22 A child is frightened by a loud noise and shouts for help.


In which order are the different types of neurone involved in this response?
involved first

involved last

motor neurone

relay neurone

sensory neurone

motor neurone

sensory neurone

relay neurone

sensory neurone

motor neurone

relay neurone

sensory neurone

relay neurone

motor neurone

5090/12/M/J/12

23 Which of these is a sign of diabetes mellitus?


A

lack of haemoglobin

raised blood glucose levels

reduced urine production

too much insulin

24 How many planes of movement are possible at the elbow and shoulder?
elbow

shoulder

one

two

one

three

two

three

two

two

25 Which listed substances are all broken down by the liver?


A

alcohol, drugs and progesterone

drugs, adrenaline and urea

oestrogen, water and drugs

urea, alcohol and drugs

26 An ocean is polluted by an oil spill. Which is least likely to speed up the rate of decomposition of
oil by microorganisms?
A

aerobic conditions

mixing by wave action

presence of salt water

spraying surface of sea with hot water

5090/12/M/J/12

27 The diagram shows a cell.


cell wall

strand of DNA

cytoplasm
1 m

To which group of organisms does the cell belong?


A

bacteria

fungi

plants

viruses

28 By which process do producers obtain energy?


A

digestion

photosynthesis

translocation

transpiration

5090/12/M/J/12

29 The diagram shows a food web in a pond.

Which of the organisms is a carnivore, which is a herbivore and which is a producer?


carnivore

herbivore

producer

30 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


Which process is carried out by decomposing bacteria?
atmospheric
nitrogen

plants

proteins
D

B
A
nitrates

proteins in
bacteria

5090/12/M/J/12

ammonium ions

31 Which method of control would not be effective against the spread of the malarial parasite?
A

drainage of swamps and marshes

safe disposal of sewage solids

sleeping under a mosquito net

spraying walls of houses with insecticide

32 A farmer spread inorganic fertiliser on his fields in a valley bordering a river. During heavy rainfall
the fertiliser leached into the river. Several days later the fish in the river started to die.
Which sequence of events led to the death of the fish?
plant growth
in the river

number of
dead plants

number of
bacteria

amount of
oxygen

key

+ = increases

= decreases

33 An insect carries pollen from one flower to another flower on the same plant.
What is the type of reproduction and what is the type of pollination in this plant?
reproduction

type of pollination

asexual

cross-pollination

asexual

self-pollination

sexual

cross-pollination

sexual

self-pollination

34 The diagram shows the life cycle of a species of plant.


During which stage does meiosis (reduction division) occur?
mature plant

A
C
ovule

daughter
plant
seed

5090/12/M/J/12

pollen

35 Pregnant women are advised to eat a diet with enough protein, calcium and iron for the
developing baby.
Which needs are supplied by these constituents of food for the babys bones, growing tissues
and red blood cells?
bones

growing
tissues

red blood
cells

calcium

protein

iron

carbohydrate

calcium

protein

iron

carbohydrate

calcium

protein

iron

carbohydrate

36 How are sperm cells different from egg cells in size and in number?
size of sperm cell

number of sperm cells

larger

fewer

larger

more

smaller

fewer

smaller

more

37 The grids show the alleles and offspring of four pairs of parents.
Which grid shows codominance amongst the offspring?
A

IA

IO

IA

IAIA

IAIO

IA

IAIA

IAIO

IA

IO

IA

IAIA

IAIO

IO

IAIO

IOIO

IO

IO

IA

IAIO

IAIO

IB

IBIO

IBIO

IA

IB

IA

IAIA

IAIB

IO

IAIO

IBIO

5090/12/M/J/12

38 What is the primary function of DNA?


A

controls the absorption of nutrients

controls the production of protein

controls the rate of reproduction

controls the rate of mutation

39 Two individuals are heterozygous for a particular gene.


Which statements about their offspring are correct?
1

Their offspring may show two phenotypes as a result of this gene.

Offspring with the recessive phenotype will be homozygous for this gene.

Their offspring have a 50 % chance of being heterozygous for this gene.

1, 2 and 3

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

5090/12/M/J/12

40 The heights of 500 pea plants of the same age were measured to the nearest 20 cm. The results
are shown in the chart below.

number
of plants
of each
height

41-60

61-80

81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201-220 221-240

height / cm

Variation in height of these pea plants shows


A

continuous variation only.

discontinuous variation only.

both continuous and discontinuous variation.

neither continuous nor discontinuous variation.

5090/12/M/J/12

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows the human eye in horizontal section.

Fig. 1.1
(a) (i)

Identify A and B that are labelled on Fig. 1.1.


A .............................................
B .............................................

(ii)

[2]

Describe what happens to A when light entering the eye becomes less intense.
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii)

Place a letter Z on Fig. 1.1 where a response occurs as a result of a reflex action.
[1]

(b) In some peoples eyes, the retina becomes completely detached from the tissues
beneath. Explain how this will affect their ability to see.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
5090/22/M/J/12

(c) As people get older, cloudy (opaque) patches sometimes form in the lens of the eye.
These are called cataracts.
Suggest how cataracts might affect the ability of the lens to carry out its function.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/12

Fig. 2.1 shows some of the information on the packets of two breakfast cereals.
Cereal C

Cereal D

Nutrition Information

Typical value per 100 g


Nutrition Information

Typical value per 100 g


ENERGY
PROTEIN
CARBOHYDRATE
of which sugars
starch
FAT
of which saturates
FIBRE
SODIUM
SALT
VITAMINS:
VITAMIN D
VITAMIN C
THIAMIN (B1)
RIBOFLAVIN (B2)
NIACIN
VITAMIN B6
FOLIC ACID
VITAMIN B12

1623 kJ
13 g
78 g
24 g
54 g
1.5 g
0.5 g
2.5 g
0.4 g
1g
(% GDA)
7.4 g (147)
88 mg (147)
2.1 mg (147)
2.4 mg (147)
26.5 mg (147)
2.9 mg (147)
294 g (147)
1.47 g (147)

MINERALS:
IRON

16.2 mg

(73)

ENERGY

1600 kJ

PROTEIN

10 g

CARBOHYDRATE

68 g

of which sugars

20 g

starch

48 g
5g

FAT
of which saturates
FIBRE
SODIUM
SALT
VITAMINS:
THIAMIN (B1)

0.9 g
9g
0.01 g
0.03 g
(% GDA)
1 mg

(73)

2.3 mg

(145)

13.1 mg

(73)

VITAMIN B6

2.9 mg

(145)

FOLIC ACID

290 g

(145)

VITAMIN B12

0.73 g

(73)

10.2 mg

(73)

RIBOFLAVIN (B2)
NIACIN

MINERALS:
IRON

Fig. 2.1
(a) The Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) of energy for an average adult is 8 400 kJ.
(i)

Calculate the percentage of this GDA a person would obtain by eating one 25 g
serving of Cereal D. Show your working in the space provided.

Answer .......................% [3]


(ii)

State how the daily energy requirement of a hard-working farmer would differ from
the GDA described above.
............................................................................................................................. [1]

5090/22/M/J/12

(b) Cereal D is considered to be better for people suffering from constipation than Cereal C.
Suggest a reason for this.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Rickets is a condition that affects some children.
(i)

Describe the symptoms of rickets.


..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

State which cereal, C or D, should be eaten by children to prevent rickets and


explain your answer.
cereal .....................
explanation ...............................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/M/J/12

In Fig. 3.1, the line drawn represents the cell membrane of a plant cell.

Fig. 3.1
(a) On Fig. 3.1 draw, name and label
(i)

a structure that gives the cell its rigid shape,

(ii)

a structure that contains chromosomes,

(iii)

a structure that contains varying amounts of water, ions and sugars.

[3]

(b) List three structural changes that must occur in young, unmodified plant cells as they
develop into xylem tissue.
1 .......................................................................................................................................
2 .......................................................................................................................................
3 .................................................................................................................................. [3]
(c) A small, leafy branch is cut from a tree. After some hours, the stem of the branch
remains firm but the leaves become limp. Suggest an explanation for this.
stem remains firm ............................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
leaves become limp .........................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/12

Fig. 4.1 shows a section through a ripe fruit of a tomato plant.

red, shiny epicarp


fleshy mesocarp
seed with an enzyme-resistant
covering and surrounded by jelly

Fig. 4.1
(a) Suggest and describe how seeds in this fruit may be dispersed.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [5]
(b) Normal tomato plants are diploid (2n), having two sets of chromosomes in each cell.
However, some tomato plants are triploid, having three sets of chromosomes (3n) in
each cell. This can be an advantage as these plants produce larger fruits.
(i)

Suggest a reason why it may be a disadvantage to have three sets of chromosomes.


............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Suggest why the triploid condition is more common in plants than in animals.
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) Explain how two parents who do not have Downs syndrome can produce a child who
has the syndrome.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total:11]

5090/22/M/J/12

(a) Fig. 5.1 shows the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme E.

rate of activity /
arbitrary units

enzyme
E

20

40

60

80

100

temperature / C
Fig. 5.1
(i)

State the optimum temperature for enzyme E. .................

[1]

(ii)

Suggest a possible identity for enzyme E, where it is found, and its function.
identity of enzyme E ...............................................
where it is found .......................................................................................................
function .....................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Fig. 5.2 shows the effect of temperature on the activity of another enzyme, F.

rate of activity /
arbitrary units
enzyme
F

20

40

60

temperature / C
Fig. 5.2
5090/22/M/J/12

80

100

State and explain what would happen to the activity of enzyme E at the optimum
temperature for enzyme F.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/M/J/12

Section B
Answer both questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) Describe the structure of a seed, stating the functions of the features you mention.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [7]
(b) Describe and explain the processes that occur when a seed germinates.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/12

(a) Explain what is meant by the term pyramid of numbers.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) Explain the fact that energy flow is non-cyclical.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [6]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/M/J/12

Section C
Answer either question 8 or question 9.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
8

(a) (i)

Explain the term osmosis.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [4]

(ii)

Explain the ways in which active transport is different from osmosis.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [4]

(b) Explain how it is possible for oxygen in the lungs to diffuse rapidly into the blood.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]
5090/22/M/J/12

(a) Describe the removal of excretory products from the human body.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [8]
(b) Explain why the removal of faeces from the body is not regarded as excretion.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/12

Some processes which occur in flowering plants are listed.


1

ion uptake by roots hairs

water uptake by root hairs

ion movement up the xylem in the stem

water vapour loss by the mesophyll cells of the leaves

Which processes are controlled by cell surface membranes?

1 only

1 and 3

2 only

3 and 4

Through which organs do carbon dioxide molecules, magnesium ions and nitrate ions enter
plants?
carbon dioxide molecules

magnesium ions

nitrate ions

leaves

roots

leaves

leaves

roots

roots

roots

leaves

leaves

roots

leaves

roots

The diagram shows some cells in the root of a plant that is absorbing water from the soil.

1
2

How does the water potential of the cell marked 2 differ from the water potentials of the cells
marked 1 and 3?
A

higher than cell 1 and cell 3

higher than cell 1 and lower than cell 3

lower than cell 1 and higher than cell 3

lower than cell 1 and lower than cell 3

5090/12/O/N/12

According to the lock and key hypothesis, which is the lock and which is the key for the enzyme
lipase?
key

lock

fatty acids

lipids

lipase

lipids

lipase

fatty acids

lipids

lipase

The graph shows the rate of photosynthesis in a plant in full sunlight at two different temperatures
and different concentrations of carbon dioxide.

30 C
20 C

rate of
photosynthesis
/ arbitrary units

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

concentration of carbon dioxide / %

At normal atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, what limits the rate of photosynthesis?
A

carbon dioxide concentration

light intensity

temperature

water availability

5090/12/O/N/12

The diagram shows a plant cell.

Compared with the rest of the cell, which row describes the concentrations of oxygen and
magnesium inside structure P during the daytime?

oxygen

magnesium

high

high

high

low

low

high

low

low

For which processes do plants need either nitrate ions or magnesium ions?
synthesis of
cellulose

synthesis of
chlorophyll

synthesis of
proteins

key

= nitrate ions or magnesium ions


needed

= nitrate ions or magnesium ions not


needed

A person tries eating a diet consisting only of lettuce leaves and water.
Which condition might develop?
A

constipation

heart disease

rickets

scurvy

5090/12/O/N/12

When a person eats some egg white, protein and water enter the stomach. Which substances
are found leaving the stomach and leaving the small intestine?
leaving
the stomach

leaving the
small intestine

amino acids
and water

amino acids
and water

fatty acids, glycerol


and water

fatty acids, glycerol


and water

protein and water

fatty acids
and glycerol

protein, amino
acids and water

water

10 The table shows the compositions of four foods.


Which food provides the most energy per gram?
carbohydrate
%

fat
%

protein
%

water
%

16

28

55

83

13

88

25

20

23

35

11 The diagram shows a tree trunk, with a ring of bark, which includes the phloem, removed.

ring of bark
removed

The tree will eventually die because this action cuts off the supply of
A

mineral salts to the leaves.

organic nutrients to the roots.

oxygen to the roots.

water to the leaves.

5090/12/O/N/12

12 The diagrams show a plant in a flask of water. It is left in the light at 16 C for six hours.

cotton
wool
layer
of oil

6 hours

water

321.75 g

326.75 g

balance

What explains the change in mass after six hours?


A

absorption of water into the root hairs

evaporation of water from the flask

photosynthesis in the leaves of the plant

transpiration from the leaves of the plant

13 In the human circulatory system, what causes the transfer of materials from the capillaries to the
tissue fluid?
A

active transport

blood pressure

capillarity

osmosis

5090/12/O/N/12

14 The diagram shows a section through the human heart.


Q
P

S
U

Which labelled features suggest that blood leaves the heart at different pressures, when going to
the lungs and to the body?
A

Chambers R and S have different volumes.

The walls of the atria are thinner than the walls of the ventricles.

Valve P is stronger than valve Q.

Wall T is more muscular than wall U.

15 Which blood vessel carries blood with the highest concentration of urea?
A

hepatic artery

hepatic vein

renal artery

renal vein

16 The table shows the percentage composition of four samples of air.


Which sample has been breathed out by a person?
oxygen

carbon dioxide

water vapour

16

0.3

saturated

16

saturated

21

0.03

trace

21

trace

5090/12/O/N/12

17 What properties make the alveoli walls efficient at gas exchange?


elastic tissue
in walls

equal oxygen
concentrations
inside and out

walls one cell


thick

18 What are the products of anaerobic respiration in muscle?


alcohol

carbon dioxide

glucose

lactic acid

water

19 What is not an excretory product of mammals?


A

carbon dioxide in expired air

undigested food in faeces

urea in sweat

urea in urine

20 Which process is not a result of negative feedback?


A

A decrease in the surrounding temperature leads to a decrease in respiration rate.

A decrease in the surrounding temperature leads to a decrease in sweating.

A decrease in the surrounding temperature leads to a decrease in blood flow through the
skin surface.

A decrease in the surrounding temperature leads to shivering.

5090/12/O/N/12

21 Three directions in which nerve impulses in neurones can travel in the nervous system are listed.
1

away from the central nervous system

towards the central nervous system

within the central nervous system

In which direction do impulses in sensory and relay (intermediate) neurones travel?


sensory neurone

relay neurone

22 The diagram shows a section through the brain.


Z

Y
W

Which regions control balance, breathing and memory?


balance

breathing
rate

memory

5090/12/O/N/12

23 How do the biceps and triceps muscles work to straighten the arm?
A

The biceps contracts and the triceps contracts.

The biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes.

The biceps relaxes and the triceps contracts.

The biceps relaxes and the triceps relaxes.

24 The diagram shows a section through a human eye.


Which structure contains muscle fibres that contract in response to sudden changes in light
intensity?

A
B
C
D

5090/12/O/N/12

25 The graphs show changes in percentage of smokers and number of lung cancer deaths in a
country between 1950 and 2000.

number of
lung cancer
deaths per
thousand

percentage
of smokers

1950

1975

2000

1950

year

1975

2000

year

What could have caused the change in the number of deaths from lung cancer between 1950
and 1975?
A

lower percentage of smokers before 1950

lower percentage of smokers after 1950

higher percentage of smokers before 1950

higher percentage of smokers after 1950

26 Which muscles contract when breathing out powerfully, such as when playing the trumpet?
diaphragm

external
intercostals

internal
intercostals

no

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

yes

yes

no

5090/12/O/N/12

27 The diagram shows a fermenter used for the production of antibiotics.

motor

water out
pH and
temperature
sensors
stirring
paddles

water in

Where do air and nutrients enter, and where do antibiotics and waste leave?
air in

antibiotics out

nutrients in

wastes out

5090/12/O/N/12

28 The diagram shows part of a food web.


grass

trees

sheep

cows

insects

foxes

humans

birds

decomposing organisms

What is the original source of energy for this food web?


A

decomposer organisms

light

oxygen

producer organisms

29 The presence of high concentrations of nitrogen-containing fertilisers in a pond can lead to the
death of fish.
What is the sequence of events leading to the death of the fish?
A

increase in algae algae die increase in bacteria drop in oxygen

increase in algae drop in oxygen increase in bacteria algae die

increase in bacteria drop in oxygen increase in algae algae die

increase in bacteria increase in algae algae die drop in oxygen

30 Nitrogen is cycled in ecosystems. In what form is most of the nitrogen in animals?


A

amino acid

nitrogen gas

proteins

urea

31 To transmit malaria in the human population, how many times must a mosquito feed on human
blood?
A

only once

twice

three times

more than three times

5090/12/O/N/12

32 What is correct for the organisms at the beginning of every food chain?
A

They cause decay and provide minerals for the ecosystem.

They feed on animals and recycle energy.

They feed on plants and provide food for animals.

They absorb nutrients and photosynthesise.

33 The diagram represents gametes P and Q fusing to give cell R. Cell R then produces gametes S,
T, U and V.
S

T
R

Which statement about the numbers of chromosomes in the cells and gametes is correct?
A

The numbers of chromosomes in P and Q are different.

The numbers of chromosomes in P and S are the same.

The number of chromosomes in S is one quarter of the number of chromosomes in R.

The number of chromosomes in T is half the number of chromosomes in Q.

5090/12/O/N/12

34 Six bean seeds were soaked in cold water. Three of them were boiled and cooled. The boiled
and the non-boiled seeds were chopped up and then placed on the surface of agar jelly
containing starch.
After two days, all the seeds were removed and the jelly was tested with iodine solution.
The diagram shows the result of the experiment.
boiled seeds

non-boiled
seeds

key
yellow/brown
colour
blue/black
colour
position of chopped
seeds at start of
experiment

What is the explanation for the results with the non-boiled bean seeds?
A

They absorb iodine.

They absorb starch.

They contain acid.

They contain amylase.

5090/12/O/N/12

35 The diagram shows a developing fetus in the uterus.

What is the liquid at X called?


A

amniotic fluid

blood

urine

water

36 Which statement correctly describes how a method of birth control works?


method

mechanism

chemical

prevents eggs from passing down the fallopian tubes

hormonal

paralyses sperm after ejaculation

mechanical

inserts a barrier between egg and sperm

surgical

cuts the urethra so no sperm can emerge

5090/12/O/N/12

37 The diagram shows the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell that divides by mitosis.

Which diagram shows the chromosomes in the nucleus of one of the daughter cells produced?
A

38 The diagram shows inheritance of blood groups in two different families.


family 2

family 1

parents

genotype
IAIA

children

genotype
IBIB

genotype
IOIO

genotype
IAIO

For each of P and Q, what is the probability that they have a co-dominant genotype?
P

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

0.5

5090/12/O/N/12

39 The bar chart shows the heights of pea plants grown from 500 pea seeds.

number
of
pea plants

height of plants

What variation do the plants show?


A

continuous variation only

discontinuous variation only

both continuous variation and discontinuous variation

neither continuous variation nor discontinuous variation

40 A man of blood group A, and his wife of blood group O, had two children, both of blood group A.
The man concluded that he must be homozygous for the allele IA, since he thought half his
children would be of group O if he were heterozygous.
Why was his conclusion unsound?
A

Blood group mutations are common.

Genetic ratios are unreliable for small numbers.

His wife might have been heterozygous.

The expected ratio for a heterozygous father and group O mother is 3 group A: 1 group O.

5090/12/O/N/12

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1(a) shows a section through a persons head and throat. Fig. 1.1(b) shows the same
person swallowing a bolus of food.

bolus of
food

C
A
B
Fig. 1.1(a)

Fig. 1.1(b)

(a) Identify structures A and B shown on Fig. 1.1(a).


A ............................................................................................
B ............................................................................................

[2]

(b) Name the process that will carry the bolus to the stomach.
.....................................................................

[1]

(c) Describe and explain what happens to structure C when the person swallows the bolus.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]

5090/22/O/N/12

(d) (i)

Name a chemical process that may be taking place in the bolus.


............................................................

(ii)

Describe and explain your answer to (d)(i).


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [4]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/12

Species D lives in a forest. Fig. 2.1 shows what can happen, over the same period of time, if
some members of species D migrate from the forest to a desert region.
migration
species D continues to
live in the forest

to desert region

variation

natural selection

further variations

further natural selection

species D
continues

species D has
become species E
Fig. 2.1

(a) Name the two main causes of variation in organisms.


1. ................................................................
2. ................................................................

[2]

(b) Name the process involving variation and natural selection that has led to the
development of species E.
....................................................................

5090/22/O/N/12

[1]

(c) Suggest how the processes of variation and natural selection may have acted to produce
the new species E in the desert.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
(d) Members of species D are no longer able to breed successfully with members of new
species E. Suggest reasons for this.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/O/N/12

Fig. 3.1 shows a plant and the position in which it grows in the dead leaves that collect where
two branches of a tree join.

thick
canopy of
leaves

roots
penetrating
dead leaves
aerial roots, green
in colour and covered
by spongy absorbent tissue

dead leaves
collecting where
branches join

Fig. 3.1
(a) State two ions that the roots of the plant will absorb from the dead leaves. For each ion,
state its importance to the plant.
ion 1 ...........................................................
importance .......................................................................................................................
ion 2 ...........................................................
importance ................................................................................................................... [4]

5090/22/O/N/12

(b) Explain how the ions you have mentioned in (a) are made available to the plant from the
dead leaves.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
(c) Suggest and explain why the aerial roots of the plant are green and covered with a
spongy absorbent tissue.
green
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
covered with a spongy absorbent tissue
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/O/N/12

Fig. 4.1 shows a person sitting on a chair with his legs crossed, watching the television.
A friend notices that the persons foot is making very slight regular kicking movements as
indicated by the arrow on Fig. 4.1.

Fig. 4.1
The friend times the movements with her watch and announces that the persons heart is
beating 70 times per minute.
(a) (i)

Explain how the friend was able to make this deduction.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [4]

(ii)

Explain why the persons leg kicks at a faster rate when there is an exciting
programme on the television.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

5090/22/O/N/12

Fig. 4.2(a) shows a chair leaning against a wall, carefully balanced and with a scale pan
hanging from the front of the seat. Fig. 4.2(b) shows what happens when a mass is then
added to the scale.

chair swings forwards


to rest on all four legs

chair resting on rear


legs and against
wall

weight
added to scale pan
scale pan
suspended from
front of chair

Fig. 4.2(a)

added
weight
Fig. 4.2(b)

A student sits in a chair, leaning against a wall as shown in Fig. 4.2(a), and remains perfectly
still.
(b) Use your knowledge of how blood moves through the circulatory system to suggest an
explanation for why, after a few minutes, the chair falls forwards similar to the chair in
Fig. 4.2(b).
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/O/N/12

The graph in Fig. 5.1 shows the concentration of nicotine in the blood of a person before,
during and after smoking a cigarette.

concentration
of nicotine
in the blood
/ arbitrary
units
0

10

20 30 40
time / minutes

50

start
smoking
cigarette
Fig. 5.1
(a) Use Fig. 5.1 to find the time taken for the person to smoke the cigarette.
....................................................................

[1]

(b) Suggest why the concentration of nicotine in the persons blood was not zero before
starting to smoke the cigarette.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Name two components of the cigarette smoke, other than nicotine, that may be harmful
to the person. For each component, state the harm that it may cause.
component 1 ..............................................
harm it may cause ...........................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
component 2 ..............................................
harm it may cause ...........................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]

5090/22/O/N/12

(d) Fig. 5.2 shows the blood pressure of the same person over the same time period.
12

blood 11
pressure
/ kPa
10

10

20 30 40
time / minutes

50

Fig. 5.2
(i)

Use Fig. 5.2 to describe the effects of smoking the cigarette on this persons blood
pressure.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

Suggest how smoking a cigarette resulted in this effect on blood pressure.


..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii)

Suggest possible harmful effects of this change in blood pressure.


..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/O/N/12

Section B
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
6

Fig. 6.1 and Fig. 6.2 show two tissues found in plants.

K
H

Fig. 6.1

Fig. 6.2

Identify the tissues and describe their functions. Your descriptions should make appropriate
reference to the importance of G, H, J and K.
name of tissue in Fig. 6.1 ........................................................................................................
description ...............................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
name of tissue in Fig. 6.2 ........................................................................................................
description ...............................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
[Total: 10]
5090/22/O/N/12

(a) Define the term, excretion.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) Describe how a kidney machine carries out the functions of a kidney for a person
suffering from kidney disease.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [7]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/12

Section C
Answer either question 8 or question 9.
Write your answer in the spaces provided.

(a) Explain what is meant by the lock and key hypothesis for enzyme action.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
(b) Describe how enzyme action is affected by an increase in temperature.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/12

(a) Explain what is shown by a pyramid of biomass.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [6]
(b) Explain how, for the same organisms, a pyramid of numbers can differ from a pyramid of
biomass.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/12

Which structures are present in a root hair cell?


nucleus

chloroplast

key

= present

= absent

What is an example of active transport?


A

movement of glucose molecules into the cells of the villi

movement of glucose molecules down a concentration gradient

movement of ions in blood plasma

movement of water in the transpiration stream

The roots of a plant are placed in a dilute solution containing chloride and nitrate ions.
The graph shows how the rate of uptake of chloride and nitrate ions by the roots of the plant
varies with oxygen concentration.
nitrate

rate of ion
uptake

chloride

oxygen concentration /
arbitrary units

What can be concluded about how chloride and nitrate ions enter the roots?
chloride

nitrate

active transport

active transport

active transport

diffusion

diffusion

active transport

diffusion

diffusion

5090/12/M/J/13

Four test tubes, each containing 2cm3 of amylase solution are treated as follows:
1

boiled, then cooled to 1 C

boiled, then cooled to 25 C

frozen, then warmed to 1 C

frozen, then warmed to 25 C

10 cm3 of starch solution were then added to each tube and after 5 minutes, 2 drops of iodine
solution were added to each tube.
Which row shows the results?

black

black

black

yellow

black

yellow

black

yellow

yellow

black

yellow

black

yellow

yellow

yellow

black

In an investigation of photosynthesis, 4 leaves are set up as shown in the diagram.


After 24 hours in the light each leaf is tested for starch.
Which tube is used to investigate whether chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis?
A

black
paper

liquid to
absorb
carbon dioxide
water

water

5090/12/M/J/13

variegated
leaf

water

What describes the upper cuticle of a leaf?


A

a single layer of cells containing many chloroplasts

a single layer of transparent cells allowing light to enter the leaf

a thin non-cellular layer preventing water loss from the leaf

a permeable layer allowing water to enter the leaf

A green leaf is picked at time 07.00 and immediately placed in a sealed test-tube containing
hydrogen carbonate indicator solution. The tube is kept near a window for 24 hours. The table
shows how the indicator changes in colour.

leaf

hydrogen carbonate
indicator

colour

amount of carbon dioxide


compared to average
atmospheric concentration

purple

less than normal

red

normal

yellow

more than normal

Which colour will the hydrogen carbonate indicator be at times 12.00 and 24.00?

at 12.00

at 24.00

purple

yellow

red

purple

yellow

purple

yellow

red

Which classes of foods contain the elements shown?


carbohydrates

fats

proteins

C,H,O

C,H,O

C,H,O and N

C,H,O

C,H,O and N

C,H,O

C,H,O

C,H,O and N

C,H,O and N

C,H,O and N

C,H,O

C,H,O

5090/12/M/J/13

A positive food test produces an orange precipitate.


Which test was performed?
A

Amino acids were mixed with cold biuret solution.

Glucose was heated with Benedicts solution.

Protein was heated with Benedicts solution.

Protein was mixed with biuret solution and heated.

10 The diagram represents the liver and some associated structures.

from heart
to heart

liver

P
ileum
What does the blood in blood vessel P transport?
A

bile to the ileum

glucose to the liver

glycogen to the liver

urea to the ileum

5090/12/M/J/13

11 The diagram shows a cross-section of a leaf.


From which part does most of the water evaporate during transpiration?
A

12 In an experiment to investigate the transport of water, the roots of a plant are placed in water
coloured with a dye.
The diagrams show sections of the leaf, stem and root.
leaf

stem

root

Which numbered parts will become stained by the dye as the water is initially absorbed?
leaf

stem

root

5090/12/M/J/13

13 Compared to a vein, an artery has


A

a thinner wall.

a wall with more elastic tissue.

a wider lumen.

valves.

14 Which row shows the blood vessels carrying blood to and from the organs listed?
blood vessel
carrying blood to
the organ

organ

blood vessel
carrying blood from
the organ

aorta

heart

pulmonary vein

hepatic artery

liver

hepatic portal vein

pulmonary artery

lung

pulmonary vein

renal vein

kidney

renal artery

15 Two hours after eating a meal, which vessel contains blood with the highest concentration of
glucose?
A

aorta

hepatic portal vein

pulmonary vein

renal vein

5090/12/M/J/13

16 The graph shows how the pressure and volume inside the lungs change during one complete
breath.
At which point are the muscles of the diaphragm starting to contract?

B
2.5

volume

pressure
in lungs

volume of
lungs / dm3
pressure

2.0

A
0

time / secs
17 A new organism is discovered. It is found to be made of cells and contains DNA.
To which group of organisms could it belong to and to which group could it not belong?
could be

could not be

bacteria

fungi

bacteria

viruses

fungi

bacteria

viruses

bacteria

5090/12/M/J/13

18 The graph shows the amount of oxygen produced by a green plant, growing outdoors, during a
24-hour period.

amount of
oxygen
produced
per hour
X

time

Which processes are occurring at time X and Y?


time X

time Y

photosynthesis

respiration

photosynthesis

respiration

key

= occurring

= not occurring

19 What gives the comparison between anaerobic respiration in humans and in yeast?
chemical

anaerobic respiration in
humans

anaerobic respiration in
yeast

alcohol

more is produced

less is produced

carbon dioxide

not produced

produced

glucose

used

not used

oxygen

not used

used

20 If the air temperature is higher than the core body temperature, which processes can increase
heat loss from the body?
shivering by
muscles

evaporation
of sweat

vasodilation
in the skin

key

= can increase heat loss

= cannot increase heat loss

5090/12/M/J/13

21 The diagrams represent three bones from the forelimb of a human skeleton not drawn to scale.
3

Between which parts will a ball and socket joint be formed?


A

1 and 3

1 and 4

2 and 5

3 and 5

22 Which processes help the excretion of carbon dioxide from the lungs?

diffusion

A
evaporation

B
D
C

muscle
action

5090/12/M/J/13

23 The diagram represents a section through the human brain.

2
3
What are the numbered parts?
cerebrum

cerebellum

medulla

hypothalamus

24 Insulin is a hormone, synthesised in the pancreas and is distributed around the body by the
blood.
What describes its rate of secretion and its concentration in the blood?
rate of secretion

concentration in
the blood

constant

constant

constant

varied

varied

constant

varied

varied

5090/12/M/J/13

25 The diagram shows the appearance of the side view of the lens when it focuses on objects at
different distances from the eye.

Which shows the appearance of the lens when a person focuses first on a near object and then
on a distant object?
near object

distant object

26 During the production of yoghurt and cheese, the pH of the mixture changes.
What causes this change in pH?
A

anaerobic respiration of lactose

coagulation of milk proteins

production of ethanol

release of bubbles of carbon dioxide

27 Which component of cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer?


A

carbon dioxide

carbon monoxide

nicotine

tar

5090/12/M/J/13

28 The diagram shows energy flow in a food web.


2

sunlight

Which number represents an organism that eats both plants and animals?
A

29 The diagram represents the flow of substances within a balanced ecosystem.


The boxes are various trophic levels.
Which box represents producers?

key

shows flow of
organic substances
C

shows flow of
carbon dioxide

30 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


nitrogen compounds
in plants

S
nitrates

Which stages depend on bacteria?


A

P, Q, R and S

P and S only

Q and R only

R and S only

nitrogen compounds
in animals

5090/12/M/J/13

ammonium compounds

31 Which factor does not help to make the mosquito an effective vector of malaria?
A

Mosquitoes are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide.

Mosquitoes lay their eggs in water.

Mosquito saliva stops blood from clotting.

The malaria pathogens live in mosquito salivary glands.

32 What is not a consequence of global warming?


A

reduction in sea level

reduction in thickness of polar ice

species migration to cooler habitats

spread of deserts

33 What describes cross-pollination?


A

when one flower pollinates a different flower on a different plant of the same species

when one flower pollinates a different flower on the same plant

when one flower pollinates a flower of a different species

when one flower pollinates the same flower

34 The diagram shows cells at different stages in the life cycle of an organism.
At which stage does meiosis occur?

gametes

A
zygote

2n
D

B
adult

2n
C
n

5090/12/M/J/13

gametes

35 Where does the placenta allow the exchange of materials to take place between mother and
fetus?
A

oviduct wall

umbilical cord

uterus wall

vagina wall

36 The graph shows the concentration in the blood of three of the four hormones FSH, LH,
oestrogen and progesterone.

concentration
in blood

14

21

time / days

Which hormone is not shown?


A

FSH

LH

oestrogen

progesterone

37 The genotype for the height of an organism is written as Tt.


What conclusion may be drawn?
A

The allele for height has at least two different genes.

There are at least two different alleles of the gene for height.

There are two different genes for height, each having a single allele.

There is one allele for height with two different forms.

5090/12/M/J/13

28

38 A scientist takes 4 pairs of samples from a wild cherry tree.


In which pair of samples could there be cells with different genotypes?
A

two fruits

two leaves

two petals

two root cuttings

39 How many chromosomes are there in a zygote which develops into a baby with Downs
syndrome?
A

23

24

46

47

40 Which statement describes an example of artificial selection?


A

It has been found that some strains of bacteria produce antibiotics.

It is common practice to mate bulls with cows that produce the most milk.

It is possible to control caterpillars on food crops by releasing small wasps which lay their
eggs in caterpillars and kill them.

Mosquitoes have developed strains that are resistant to insecticides.

5090/12/M/J/13

Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
1

Fig. 1.1 shows a vertical section through a pair of guard cells and some other cells on the
lower surface of a leaf.

A
Fig. 1.1
(a) (i)
(ii)

Name the type of cell labelled A on Fig. 1.1. ....................................................... [1]


Draw an arrow on Fig. 1.1 to show the position of the stoma.

[1]

(b) Fig. 1.1 shows the guard cells as they appear at 1300 hours. In the space below, draw a
diagram to show the guard cells, in surface view, as they would appear at 0100 hours.
On your diagram, draw and label the structural features of one of the guard cells.

[4]
5090/22/M/J/13

(c) Explain the advantage to the plant of the difference in the guard cells at 1300 hours and
at 0100 hours.
1300 hours .......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
0100 hours .......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/M/J/13

In 1822, a man, Alexis Bidagan, suffered an injury from a gun fired at close range. The injury
was in the form of a hole about 10 cm in diameter, penetrating both his chest and stomach
walls, below his diaphragm. When the wound healed, the edge of the hole in his stomach
sealed itself with the edge of the hole in his chest wall. Fig. 2.1 shows the position of the
opening that remained to Alexiss stomach until he died 58 years later.

position of
the injury

Fig. 2.1
(a) Name two organs, other than the stomach, that would have been exposed to infection
through the hole before the wound healed.
1 ..........................................................................
2 ..........................................................................

[2]

(b) Suggest why there would have been less chance of the inside of his stomach suffering
from an infection than other organs.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]

5090/22/M/J/13

(c) If the wound had extended above his diaphragm, explain why Alexis would have
experienced some breathing difficulties until the wound healed.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/13

Lupins are leguminous plants. Fig. 3.1 shows a lupin plant with nodules on its roots.

nodules

Fig. 3.1
(a) (i)
(ii)

State the type of microorganism found in the nodules. ........................................ [1]


Explain the role of these microorganisms in the nitrogen cycle.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Commercially produced lupins have flower spikes that are larger and with a greater
variety of colours than wild lupins.
Suggest how these changes have come about.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
(c) Wild lupins growing at very high altitudes are much smaller than other varieties. Suggest
two factors that may be responsible for this.
1 .......................................................................................................................................
2 ................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 11]
5090/22/M/J/13

Fig. 4.1 shows part of the circulatory system, and some of the structures associated with
organ B.
C

ORGAN
B

blood
blood

blood
blood
HEART

LUNGS

to
bladder
Fig. 4.1

(a) Name organ B in Fig. 4.1 ..................................................


(b) (i)

[1]

Name blood vessels C and E in Fig. 4.1.


C ..................................................................
E ..................................................................

(ii)

[2]

Name the chambers of the heart, in the order in which blood passes through them
from D to E in Fig. 4.1.
............................................................

............................................................ [2]

(c) Complete Table 4.1 to show four differences between the contents of F and the blood
vessel, C, in a healthy person.
Table 4.1
difference

1
2
3
4
[4]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/M/J/13

Fig. 5.1 shows a fermenter used for the large-scale production of antibiotics by
microorganisms.
motor

gases
out

water out
pH and
temperature
sensors
stirring
paddles
J
water in
G

product
out
Fig. 5.1
(a) State the term for the manufacture of antibiotics using a fermenter.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) State the purpose of the water which enters the fermenter at G.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Explain the importance of controlling the pH and temperature of the contents of the
fermenter.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]

5090/22/M/J/13

(d) Describe the function of part H and part J.


part H ...............................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
part J ...............................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
[Total: 9]

5090/22/M/J/13

Section B
Answer all questions in this section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
6

(a) Crops can be grown under controlled conditions in large buildings.


Describe and explain how such buildings can provide the conditions needed for
maximum crop production.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [7]
(b) Suggest why seeds from crops grown in this way may produce fewer offspring and only
small variations compared with crops grown naturally.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/13

(a) List the components of a balanced diet. State one use of each component.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [6]
(b) Explain how this diet should be modified for each of the following people:
(i)

a person with diabetes


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

a person with a history of heart problems.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/13

Section C
Answer either question 8 or question 9.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
8

(a) Define the term hormone.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) State where male hormones and female hormones are produced in mammals and
describe their roles in reproduction.
male hormones ................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
female hormones .............................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [7]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/13

(a) Describe the structure and functions of capillaries in the circulatory system.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [5]
(b) Describe the functions of each of the following:
(i)

white blood cells


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

(ii)

platelets.
.................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/M/J/13

A plant is grown in bright sunlight. The diagram shows what is seen when a cell from this leaf is
placed under a microscope. After a few hours, a leaf from this plant is stained with iodine
solution.
What will be stained blue / black?
A

C
D

The diagram represents apparatus used to investigate osmosis.

solution level

tube

water
concentrated
starch solution
partially permeable
membrane
Which molecules will move across the partially permeable membrane and which change will
occur in the solution level?
molecules

solution
level

starch

fall

starch

rise

water

fall

water

rise

5090/12/O/N/13

The small intestine of a person contains a lower concentration of glucose than is present in the
blood.
The cells of the villi absorb glucose.
By which process is the glucose absorbed?

by active transport against the concentration gradient

by active transport with the concentration gradient

by diffusion against the concentration gradient

by diffusion with the concentration gradient

In an enzyme action, where is the active site and where are the lock and the key?
active site

key

lock

on the enzyme

on the substrate

on the enzyme

on the enzyme

on the enzyme

on the substrate

on the substrate

on the enzyme

on the substrate

on the substrate

on the substrate

on the enzyme

In photosynthesis, which substances are used up, which are produced and which are necessary
but remain unchanged after the reaction?
used up

produced

remain

carbon dioxide

water

oxygen

chlorophyll

carbon dioxide

water

oxygen

starch

cellulose

water

oxygen

chlorophyll

5090/12/O/N/13

The graphs show how two different conditions affect the rate of photosynthesis.
graph 1

graph 2

rate of
photosynthesis

rate of
photosynthesis

increase

increase

Which conditions are being altered in graphs 1 and 2?

graph 1

graph 2

carbon dioxide concentration

light intensity

carbon dioxide concentration

temperature

temperature

carbon dioxide

temperature

light intensity

The diagram represents a section through part of a leaf.

How do carbon dioxide and water enter the leaf?


carbon dioxide

water

active transport

through tissue P

active transport

through tissue Q

diffusion

through tissue P

diffusion

through tissue Q

5090/12/O/N/13

The diagram shows some food moving through the digestive system.
muscle
contracting

food

Which process is shown?

diffusion

digestion

ingestion

peristalsis

What are the substrate and end-products of digestion by the enzyme lipase?
substrate

end product

carbohydrate

glucose

fat

amino acid

fat

fatty acids and glycerol

protein

fatty acids and glycerol

10 The products of digested food are present in the ileum.


Which substances enter a blood capillary and a lacteal in a villus?
blood capillary

lacteal

amino acids and glucose

fatty acids and glycerol

amino acids and glycerol

fatty acids and glucose

fatty acids and glucose

amino acids and glycerol

fatty acids and glycerol

amino acids and glucose

5090/12/O/N/13

11 The diagram shows a transverse section of the central portion of a root in a dicotyledonous plant.

3
4

Which tissues transport amino acids and sugars?


amino acids

sugars

12 Four similar leafy shoots are exposed to different conditions. The rates of water uptake and the
rates of water loss are measured.
The results are shown in the table.
Which shoot is most likely to wilt?
water uptake
/ mm3 per min

water loss
/ mm3 per min

14

13

10

12

13 What is the correct route for blood flow in a human?


A

left atrium left ventricle lungs right ventricle right atrium

left atrium left ventricle right ventricle right atrium lungs

right atrium right ventricle left ventricle left atrium lungs

right atrium right ventricle lungs left atrium left ventricle


5090/12/O/N/13

14 Which row describes the functions of the blood components?


plasma

platelets

white blood cells

antibody formation

clotting

transport of nutrients

clotting

transport of nutrients

antibody formation

clotting

antibody formation

transport of nutrients

transport of nutrients

clotting

antibody formation

15 In the liver, which substances are present in higher concentration in the hepatic vein than in the
hepatic artery?
A

carbon dioxide and protein

carbon dioxide and urea

oxygen and protein

oxygen and urea

16 The diagram represents some of the muscles involved with breathing.


spine
rib
sternum
Q
P
R

Which muscles are contracting during breathing in?


A

P and Q

Q and R

P and R

P, Q and R

17 Which process does not result in an overall loss of energy from the organism?
A

a boy running a hundred metres

photosynthesis in a green plant

respiration in an animal

the germination of a seed of a flowering plant

5090/12/O/N/13

18 Which substances are produced by anaerobic respiration in yeast?


carbon
dioxide

alcohol

lactic acid

water

key

= produced

= not produced

19 Which parts of the skin are involved in the control of body temperature?
sweat
glands

temperature
receptors

blood
vessels

20 How is the shape of the lens changed when the eye focuses on a distant object?
ciliary muscles

suspensory ligaments

lens

contract

pulled tight

pulled thin

contract

slackened

allowed to bulge

relax

pulled tight

pulled thin

relax

slackened

allowed to bulge

21 In a kidney dialysis machine, which substance will not diffuse from the patients blood into the
dialysis fluid?
A

protein

salts

urea

water

5090/12/O/N/13

22 Which structure in the brain registers changes in the blood concentration?


A

cerebellum

hypothalamus

medulla

pituitary gland

23 The diagram shows the position of a muscle in the forelimb of a human.

To which bones is the muscle attached?


origin
(bone not moved)

extensor or flexor

humerus

radius

radius

ulna

scapula

radius

scapula

ulna

5090/12/O/N/13

24 A local anaesthetic is a drug used to block nerve impulses. The diagram represents part of the
nervous system. X,Y, and Z show sites where the anaesthetic can be injected.
brain
spinal cord

sensory nerve
Z
X
Y
motor nerve

In an experiment, one person can feel a pin prick their leg but cannot move their leg.
Where was the anaesthetic injected in this person?
A

at X

at Y

at Z

at X and at Y

25 Chemicals in tobacco smoke lead to the breakdown of the elastic tissue in the walls of the alveoli.
What is the name of this condition?
A

bronchitis

emphysema

lung cancer

pneumonia

26 The table shows the characteristics of four microorganisms.


Which one could be a virus?
contains DNA

contains one or
more cells

contains one or
more cell nuclei

produces
spores

key

= true

= false

5090/12/O/N/13

27 When cheese is being made, which organisms are used and what is their function?
organisms

function

bacteria

to lower the pH

bacteria

to raise the pH

fungi

to break down milk sugar

fungi

to release carbon dioxide

28 Which organisms always obtain their energy from dead organic matter?
A

consumers

decomposers

fungi

producers

29 What eventually happens to all the energy in an ecosystem?


A

It is lost from the system as heat.

It is recycled by decomposers.

It is used by the producers.

It is used by the top carnivore.

5090/12/O/N/13

30 The diagram shows a building in a tropical country.

latrine

stream

maize
crop

What would be the most effective way of preventing a person who sleeps in the building from
catching malaria?
A

Divert the stream away from the house since mosquitoes breed in water.

Move the latrines further away from the building since sewage attracts mosquitoes.

Put netting over the door and window to prevent the entry of mosquitoes.

Spray insecticide on the maize crop to kill mosquitoes.

31 The diagram shows parts of the nitrogen cycle.


Which arrow represents the action of the root nodule bacteria of leguminous plants?
nitrogen-containing
green plants
A

nitrates

B
nitrogen gas in
the atmosphere

decaying
remains
C
ammonia and
ammonium compounds

nitrites

5090/12/O/N/13

32 Which plants are most likely to adapt successfully to a climatic change in their environment?
A

plants that are cross-pollinated

plants that do not rely on wind-pollination

plants that grow rapidly

plants that reproduce asexually

33 What is pollination?
A

fusion of a pollen gain with an ovule

fusion of a pollen grain with an ovum

transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma

transfer of pollen from a stigma to an anther

34 Cell X first divides by mitosis and then cell Y divides by meiosis.

Z
How does cell Z compare to cell X?
cell Z
same number
of chromosomes
as cell X

genetically
identical to cell X

key

= true

= false

5090/12/O/N/13

35 What is the result of cutting both sperm ducts in a man?


A

He is unable to develop sperms.

He is unable to pass urine.

Male sex hormones no longer circulate in his blood.

Sperm are not emitted from the urethra.

36 The diagram shows a section through the female reproductive system.


X

Z
During pregnancy, where does mitosis occur in the cells of the embryo?
X

key

= takes place

= does not take place

37 Two parents both have blood group A. Their first child has blood group O.
What is the probability that their second child will also have blood group O?
A

0.00

0.25

0.50

5090/12/O/N/13

1.00

38 The table shows the genotypes and phenotypes for hair colour for the members of a family, but
one phenotype is shown incorrectly.
genotype

phenotype

family member

allele 1

allele 2

hair colour

mother

brown

father

brown

son 1

blonde

daughter 1

blonde

son 2

brown

daughter 2

brown

Which family member has the incorrect phenotype?


A

daughter 1

daughter 2

son 1

son 2

39 A gene is a unit of inheritance that controls the production of


A

a chromosome.

an allele.

a protein.

DNA.

40 What is a result of natural selection?


A

dogs that are friendly to humans

grapes that contain no seeds

mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides

onion crops that have a pleasant taste

5090/12/O/N/13

Section A

For
Examiners
Use

Answer all the questions in this section.


Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows a demonstration related to blood circulation.

Both fingers are pressed firmly


on blood vessel A.

Both fingers remain pressing on the blood


vessel. The finger on the left is then drawn
along the blood vessel and stops when
it reaches B. It is then removed and
replaced at C.

C
B

The finger on the right continues to


press firmly on the blood vessel. The
finger on the left is then pushed
gently but firmly towards B which
increases in size.
Fig. 1.1

(a) (i)

Name the type of blood vessel labelled A in Fig. 1.1.


.....................................................................

(ii)

[1]

Name the structure leading to the effect shown in this blood vessel at position B.
.....................................................................

5090/22/O/N/13

[1]

(b) In the space below, draw a longitudinal section (cut along its length) through the blood
vessel as it appears at position B.

[2]
(c) Suggest why, at the end of the demonstration, the blood vessel is no longer visible
between positions B and D.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
(d) Suggest why a rod was repeatedly gripped tightly before carrying out this demonstration.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Fig. 2.1 shows how an alcoholic drink is produced in some countries.


then spat
into a container

water
added

For
Examiners
Use

container
left in open
air for
several
days

crushed and boiled


tubers chewed for
several minutes
cassava
plant

sediment
root tubers
crushed and
boiled

drink
ready for
consumption
Fig. 2.1

(a) The root tubers of the cassava plant store starch. After removal from the plant, the
tubers are crushed and boiled.
Suggest the effect that crushing and boiling will have on the cells of the tubers.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
(b) After they have been crushed and boiled, the cassava tubers are chewed for several
minutes.
Explain what happens to the starch during this time.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]

5090/22/O/N/13

(c) (i)

Name the process that must occur in the container to produce alcohol and, in the
space below, give an equation for this process.
process ..............................................................
equation

[3]
(ii)

Name the type of organism, whose spores are found in soil and floating in the air,
that will bring about the production of alcohol.
................................................... [1]

(d) Suggest why the sediment in the bottom of the container increases in quantity as the
container is left to stand for several days.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Fig. 3.1 shows six different animal and plant cells.

cell 1 ...................

For
Examiners
Use

cell 2 ...................
cell 3 ...................

E
cell 4 ...................

cell 5 ...................

cell 6 ...................

Fig. 3.1
(a) (i)

Name cells 4 and 5. Write your answers below.


cell 4 .............................................................
cell 5 .............................................................

(ii)

[2]

Describe the function of structure D in cell 4.


..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

5090/22/O/N/13

(b) You are now required to identify each cell by letter, following a series of instructions.
When you have identified each cell, write the appropriate letter beneath the identified
cell in Fig. 3.1, in the space provided.
Cell E has already been identified for you.
Select a cell in Fig. 3.1, then ask yourself the following questions.
Q1 Does the cell have a cell wall?
if it does, go to Q2
if it does not, go to Q3
Q2 Does the cell have chloroplasts?
if it does, go to Q4
if it does not, then it is cell E
Q3 Does the cell have a nucleus?
if it does, go to Q5
if it does not, then it is cell F
Q4 Does the cell show more than 5 chloroplasts?
if it does, it is cell G
if it does not, then it is cell H
Q5 Does the nucleus occupy more than half of the cells cytoplasm?
if it does, it is cell J
if it does not, then it is cell K
When you have completed this process for the cell you selected, repeat the process for
another cell, and continue until all cells have been identified by letter.
[5]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Fig. 4.1 shows a large jar in which plants are growing.


tightly-fitting cork

clear glass jar

moist, unsterilised
soil
Fig. 4.1
This jar provides an environment in which plants can live for many months without adding
water or removing the tightly-fitting cork to allow air to enter.
(a) State the reason for placing the jar where it can receive a supply of sunlight.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Suggest why the plants in the jar show only very limited growth compared with similar
plants growing under natural conditions.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(c) The cork prevents atmospheric air from entering the jar. Explain how the plants are able
to remain alive without a continuous supply of fresh air.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

(d) Explain why no water needs to be added to the jar.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 11]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Fig. 5.1(a) shows several members of the same species of small mammal. Some of these
have white fur and some have black fur. They live in a region with very light-coloured soil.
Fig. 5.1(b) shows the effect of predation by a hawk (a carnivorous bird) after several years.
representative sample
of small mammals

several years
later

light-coloured soil

Fig. 5.1(a)

Fig. 5.1(b)

(a) State the term for groups of animals and plants of different species linked together in a
feeding relationship in the same environment.
................................................... [1]
(b) Explain what has happened to the small mammal population in the time between
Fig. 5.1(a) and Fig. 5.1(b).
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(c) A change in agricultural practice caused the soil to become slightly darker.
(i)

Suggest two genetic changes that might occur in this population of small mammals.
1 ................................................................................................................................
2 ............................................................................................................................ [2]

(ii)

Explain how these genetic changes might help these small mammals to survive
such an environmental change.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 8]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Section B

For
Examiners
Use

Answer all the questions in this section.


Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) State the similarities between sweating and transpiration.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) Describe the differences between sweating and transpiration.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [7]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

(a) Explain why the lungs are considered to be organs of excretion.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) Describe how the kidneys maintain blood at a constant concentration.
Explain the importance of this function.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [7]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use

Section C

For
Examiners
Use

Answer either question 8 or question 9.


Write your answers in the spaces provided.

(a) Describe the part played by an ovule in the reproduction of a plant.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) State the products of an ovary in a woman and describe the roles of each of these
products.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [6]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

(a) Describe the methods by which the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may
be controlled.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) Describe the control of malaria in terms of the measures taken against its vector. Explain
the effect of each measure on the vector.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [6]
[Total: 10]

5090/22/O/N/13

For
Examiners
Use