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com Issue 6 2013

Rail & Public Transport
Safety & Security 2014
6 March 2014, London, UK
See Page 38
Philippe Citron (UNIFE),
Henrik Holtermann (Banedanmark) and
Pedro Fortea (MAFEX)
Network Rails capacity case for HS2,
Birmingham New Street station revamp
and Northern Rails new vision
European Railway Review 1 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Yes and no, as DB (German Rail) is having a devil
of a time getting its new Velaros passed for
passenger service, as manufacturer Siemens
has not yet jumped the hurdle of getting
them approved for multiple operation within
Germany, let alone getting them passed for
cross-border service. The signs are that DB will
not be introducing a service competing with
Eurostar through the Channel Tunnel until 2018
at the earliest, although hopefully DBs new
trains will come in on services from Germany to
Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam before that!
The original idea was that Eurostar would be
able to ride the coat-tails of DB in getting the
Velaro certified for cross-border service, but it
looks now as if things will be the other way round:
Eurostar will be blazing the trail on the
introduction of the new trains into international
service. In the circumstances, Eurostar is being
suitably cautious with its announcement about
the timing of the introduction of trains on the
Amsterdam route. Anyway, the principal purpose
of the new trains is to refresh the fleet on the
companys prime London to Paris route, where
Eurostar hopes to introduce them in mid-2015.
Nevertheless, London to Amsterdam is an
attractive market for Eurostar. The two services a
day planned in each direction, with a journey
time of about four hours, should win over a
sizeable number of the more than three million
passengers who travel this route annually by air.
The announcement about the London to
Amsterdam service had as much to do with
internal Dutch politics as it did the ambitions of
Eurostar. The Dutch Government appears to be in
difficulty the cancellation in the spring of the
order for Fyra high-speed trains for the Brussels
to Amsterdam route, following technical
problems with the units, leaves the expensive
Antwerp to Schiphol HSL Zuid high-speed line
woefully underused.
The under-utilisation of the line was already
a glaring problem even before the Fyra service
started fitfully in December last year. The line had
been ready since 2009 (although even that was
no triumph, as the civil engineering ran late, too).
With Fyra gone, the only trains using it now are
the Thalys Amsterdam to Paris services (one
every couple of hours) and the half-hourly Dutch
domestic trains between Amsterdam, Rotterdam
and Breda using Traxx dual-voltage locos and
conventional 160km/h rolling stock.
With the Dutch Government underwriting
the access charges on the new route and
passengers making only a small contribution at
present, the cost of the new line is a contentious
issue: being able to point to a through-service to
London in the near future is a big political bonus.
With the Fyra trains out of the picture, it will
take time to find suitable rolling stock for the
route, but NS (Dutch Railways) is arranging for
many more Dutch domestic services to use the
new high-speed line in 2016.
The HSL Zuid story has not been a happy one
so far, although hopefully it will have a good
ending. But experiences such as this make it
difficult to sell the idea of high-speed rail
elsewhere, in contentious corridors such as the
UKs High Speed 2 (HS2) between London
and Birmingham.
The case for high-speed rail on a heavily-
populated route such as HS2 is much stronger
than it is on many cross-border routes, such as
Perpignan to Figueres and Brussels to Aachen,
where the high-speed lines seem to have been
constructed more as a statement of faith in
a cohesive European Union than to meet any
real market need. Corridors within a single
country are usually busier, as they cater to
historic travel patterns.
It is no coincidence that Europes first high-
speed line was built between Paris and Lyon,
where the historic route had become full-up and
the French took the visionary step of building a
high-speed route between their two largest cities
as a relief line. Exactly the same logic applies to
HS2 in the UK.
It is welcome news that Eurostar intends to introduce through-services between London and Amsterdam in the
December 2016 timetable change. The intention is to utilise the companys new e320 Velaro multi-system sets on
this route, 10 units of which are currently being constructed by Siemens. That gives three years to get the units ready
for passenger service a leisurely timetable, surely, considering that the first unit is already on test in Belgium?
James Abbott
Technical Editor,
European Railway Review
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Utilising high-speed lines
James Abbott, Technical Editor, European Railway Review
Planning ahead to meet future demand
Stephen Hammond MP, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport, UK
A clear vision for rail in the North
Alex Hynes, Managing Director, Northern Rail
Rebuilding for a proper gateway
A look at the Birmingham New Street station revamp
Making the capacity case for HS2
Rupert Walker, Head of High-Speed Rail Development, Network Rail
New FGW franchise to build on improvements
Looking at what the new FGW franchise will bring
Investment, improvement and
modernisation at London Overground
Peter Austin, Managing Director, London Overground Rail Operations Ltd
Translink leads the way in sustainable
station development
Clive Bradberry, Infrastructure Executive, Translink
Combating the cold weather
Edd Stewart and Clive Roberts, Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and
Education, University of Birmingham
RFFs impressive rail network
modernisation plan
Matthieu Chabanel, Deputy General Director, Marketing and Planning, RFF
European Railway Review 3 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
The B 66 U is a high-output universal
tamping machine for S & Cs as well as
plain line track. The proven high
technology of the lining, leveling and
tamping tools allowing a lateral
movement of 2,800mm from the tracks
centre makes it particularly well-suited for
heavy switches on high-speed lines.
Editorial Board
Libor Lochman
Executive Director
Community of European Railway and Infrastructure
Companies (CER)
Robin Gisby
Managing Director, Network Operations
Network Rail
Alex Hynes
Managing Director, Northern Rail
Alex Veitch
EU Representative and Sustainability Manager
Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC)
Andrew McNaughton
Chief Engineer & Technical Director
High Speed Two Ltd
Poul Frsig
Senior Adviser on Transportation, EU
Interoperability, Signalling and Control Systems
UK MANUFACTURING Were investing in Britain and Britains railways. Our new state-of-the-art
manufacturing facility in Newton Aycliffe is creating over 700 jobs and major opportunities for the
UK supply chain. Our focus on delivering passenger trains which exceed expectation, combined
with our passion for exceptional service, delivers the ultimate rail experience. To find out more
about Hitachi Innovation in the UK and to follow our progress, visit our website.
Made Great in Britain | @hitachiRailEU
Total renewal in Denmark is on time
and on budget
Henrik Holtermann, Head of Secretariat in the Signalling Programme,
The European rail industrys commitment
to ERTMS implementation
Philippe Citron, Director General, UNIFE and Michel Van Liefferinge,
General Manager, UNISIG
The signalling sector opens the door
to the Spanish industry
Pedro Fortea, Director, MAFEX the Spanish Railway Association
Telecommunications: ringing in the new
ric Le Moal, Head of ERTMS and Telecom Services, RFF
FLEXX Compact the most successful bogie
platform for regional and commuter trains
Frederik Allert, Project Engineer, Bombardier Transport France S.A.S.
Reducing vibrations near railway lines
ways for finding effective measures
Wolfgang Behr, RIVAS Coordinator, UIC and Isabelle De Keyzer, Dissemination of
EU Co-Funded R&D Projects, UIC
Industry cooperation needed for
a less noisy railway
Siv Leth, Chairwoman, UNIFE Noise Mirror Group and Nicolas Furio, Coordinator,
UNIFE Noise Mirror Group
Speech intelligibility in trains
Jess Otero Yugat, Senior Test Engineer, CETEST and Igor Alonso Portillo, Director
Strategy and Business Development, CETEST
TAP TSI improving the customer
experience of European rail journeys
Rtger Fenkes, Project Leader, TAP TSI
European Railway Review 5 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
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watchdog service for
printed publications
European Railway Reviewcan guarantee its circulation is
7,494 (for the 6 issues distributed between 1 January 2012 and
31 December 2012). The publication is ABC audited .This is an
independent verification that our circulation is genuine.
Printed by
Registered Office as above.
Russell Publishing Ltd, is registered
as a Limited Company in England,
Number 2709148
VAT Number GB 577 8978 47
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Plasser & Theurer and Plasser are internationally registered trademarks
The new technology of the APT 1500 RL made by Plasser & Theurer is the
rst ash-butt welding machine that can weld rails fully automatically
without manual interaction. Thanks to the integrated capability of the
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quality: for travel on road or rail
Importantly, it will benefit from a step change in
investment. Rising passenger and freight
demand since privatisation had stretched the
capacity of the railway to its limits. In res-
ponse, the Government has embarked on the
biggest rail modernisation programme in
Britain for generations.
One of the tangible benefits will be an extra
140,000 seats at peak times by the end of the
decade. Between 2014 and 2019, infrastructure
operator Network Rail is planning to spend over
35 billion to run and expand the railway. Of that,
the Government is investing over 9 billion to
deliver major improvements across the country.
We are electrifying 850 miles of track, and
spending 5.8 billion on new rolling stock for our
main north-south lines. We are also building
Crossrail a new high capacity railway for
London and the South East.
Despite this increased level of expenditure,
we will be running out of capacity on our busiest
routes in the years ahead. Inter-city rail demand
has doubled in 15 years faster than the rest
of the network.
To address these challenges, we are pressing
ahead with HS2 a new high-speed network for
Britain running from London to Birmingham,
Manchester and Leeds. Construction is due
to start in 2017.
While high-speed rail will speed-up journeys
and improve connectivity, the real argument for
building HS2 is providing the capacity to meet
increasing passenger demand. HS2 would be
capable of carrying 14 trains per hour in each
direction, rising to 18 trains when the network
is complete each capable of carrying up to
1,100 passengers. It will link eight of our
10 biggest cities, deliver around 2 of economic
benefits for every 1 spent, and create at
least 100,000 jobs. As long-distance services
transfer onto HS2, capacity will be created on the
existing network.
All these investments will give Britain a world
class railway, with the capacity we need to
prosper. But the railway will need to change in
other ways.
Smart ticketing technologies will transform
the way that passengers use services. We recently
announced a trial of flexible ticketing, which,
for example, would offer discounted fares for
those travelling outside the peak, and flexible
season tickets for people who dont work
five days a week. Ultimately, passengers will
have a single smartcard to travel on diff-
erent routes and different modes of transport,
allowing for a system to be designed to suit
travellers individually.
We are also committed to simplifying the
current, complex system of fares where possible,
and making sure that the information provided is
clearer and more customer-friendly. And as our
economy recovers, we will make fares more
affordable. We have already made a start by
reducing average fare rises.
Looking at the structure of the industry in
Britain, I think we will see closer collaborations
between train and track operators. Partnerships
like the one formed by South West Trains and
Network Rail will help align objectives to improve
the railway for passengers, and ensure that
different parts of the industry do what they
do best whether it is selling tickets, running
signals, or fixing track. However, it is not
impossible to imagine alliances which include
building or infrastructure companies, as well as
train companies.
The next 20 years promise to be exciting ones
for Britains railway. By 2033, HS2 will be built and
running. Crossrail will be more than a decade old
and a familiar part of London life. Our current
mainlines will be largely electric. Services will be
faster, more frequent, more accessible and easier
to use than ever before.
Therefore the increase in passenger journeys
that we have seen since privatisation is likely to
continue. As our economy grows, rail demand will
grow. And this time, we will be ready to meet it.
European Railway Review 7 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
It is 20 years since Britains railways were privatised. At the time it was seen as a risky move, even though the
network had grown increasingly unreliable and inefficient under state operator British Rail. Responsibility for
tracks and trains was split, and private companies were invited to bid for regional franchises. Two decades later,
the benefits of privatisation are clear. Passenger journeys have doubled to a level not seen since the 1920s, rail
freight has grown by half, and revenue is up by more than 3 billion. And on a network roughly the same size as
then, our railway today is running 4,000 extra services a day. But how our railway will continue to succeed over the
next 20 years is now the key question.
ahead to meet
future demand Stephen Hammond MP
Parliamentary Under Secretary of
State for Transport, UK
The new generation
MATISA B 66 U tamping machine
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 8
Further Reading:
Do you want to know what the latest ERTMS plans
are in Denmark? Turn to page 40 in this issue of
European Railway Review to read an article from
Henrik Holtermann, Head of Secretariat in the
Signalling Programme at Banedanmark.
The new generation
MATISA B 66 U tamping machine
The European Union will co-finance with
11.5 million from the TEN-T Programme a
project to electrify the last missing section on the
CopenhagenEsbjerg rail line and build a new track
to the Port of Esbjerg.
The project, which was selected for funding
under the 2012 TEN-T Annual Call, will install an
electric overhead system with associated power
supply units throughout the entire 57km double-
track line from Esbjerg to Lunderskov, in Denmark.
The TEN-T funds will also support the upgrade
of the existing line from Esbjerg main station to its
port, as well as two 450m tracks connecting the
main railway system directly with the Port of
Esbjergs terminal area.
Completion of the project will eliminate
a bottleneck and optimise modal shift. The
electrification of the railway line will have a
positive impact on the environment by reducing
pollutant emissions and contribute to better
re-balancing of transport modes in favour of rail.
The initiative will be monitored by the
Trans-European Transport Network Executive
Agency (TEN-T EA) and is set to be completed by
the end of 2015.
EU to support
Danish rail
The B 66 U (fully compliant to EN requirements) is a
universal lining and leveling tamping machine capable
of handling all types of switches and plain line with
a very high performance in terms of output, flexibility
and ease of use.
Featuring three working and driving cabins with
an emphasis on ergonomics, view on the working
components and usage of space, this machine is
characterised by its compactness and light-weight for a
big, high-output machine.
The four tamping units are completely inde -
pendent in vertical, lateral and longitudinal directions.
In switches, the diverting track can be wedged at a
distance of 2,800mm from the track axis on which the
machine is operating. Each tamping unit has the
possibility to move 560mm longitudinally. In addition
to the combined hook and roller universal clamp, the
B 66 U is fitted with two synchronised telescopic
diverting track lifting devices, making the B 66 U
capable of handling the heaviest concrete sleepers
found on switches used on high-speed lines. This
machine can also handle switches fitted with hinged
sleepers and tracks featuring Y shaped sleepers.
The new generation B 66 U features: a new
Human Machine Interface (HMI) which allows easier
use of the machine controls, a more rapid interaction
and a greater comfort for the operator; a largely
improved diagnostics software that provides visual and
easily understandable fault finding capabilities; an
improved optical measuring system (NEMO) which
features completely new electronics and LED
technology; a new guiding software capability
(MIRIS); a reduced engine regime during work and a
variable engine regime during transit (with the benefits
of a hydrostatic drive) for lower energy consumption
and lower noise emission; an improved universal S & C
clamp (additional rotational degree of freedom) to
facilitate the lifting of the switches; an improved
diverting track lifting clamp (additional rotational
degree of freedom) in order to accommodate more
types of switches; a new control system of the vertical
movement of the tamping tools to allow for precision
positioning; a new ballast brush featuring an adjustable
axle to allow for the different sleeper shapes; and
integrated ballast compacting units.
MATISA has more than 50 years of know-how
and expertise in the design and making of on-track
machines and is always looking to improve for
the future.
Renfe and MAFEX
collaborate to
promote the rail
sector abroad
MAFEX (the Spanish railway association) and Renfe
(the Spanish rail operator) have recently signed a
cooperation agreement with the aim of promoting the
Spanish railway sector abroad and encourage a greater
international presence of Renfe and the Spanish
railway industry. The agreement, signed by the
Chairmen of RENFE and MAFEX, Julio Gmez-
Pomar and Victor Ruiz Pieiro, states that the parties
will develop different activities, such as technical
research and assistance, training programmes,
specialised visits and technology and innovation
promotion applied to rail transport.
Further Reading:
How is MAFEX currently working to promote the
Spanish signalling sector? Read more from Pedro
Fortea, Director of MAFEX, on page 48 in this issue of
European Railway Review.
Vossloh Espaa
EURO 4000
for ETF
The EURO 4000 is the most
powerful diesel-electric locomotive
manufactured in Europe
ETF the French rail construction company has
ordered two EURO 4000 locomotives from Vossloh
Espaa for freight services. The vehicles are intended
to transport building materials for the construction of
railway lines.
These new units will be in-service before summer
2014; ETF will use them on their high-speed lines
jobsites on the East European high-speed line and the
HSL ToursBordeaux.
The EURO 4000 is the most powerful diesel-
electric locomotive manufactured in Europe. It is a
highly innovative vehicle that stands up due to its
versatility, performance, technology and environmental
compliance, and it can pull longer and heavier freight
trains at faster speed than its competitors, which
increases the operators competitiveness and efficiency.
Alstom branded Pendolino
on West Coast Main Line
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 10
Rail & Public Transport
Safety & Security 2014
6 March 2014
Location: London, UK
Conference 2014
1-3 April 2014
Location: Istanbul, Turkey
Scandinavian Rail
Development 2014
29 April 2014
Location: Oslo, Norway
If you have a diary event you wish to
publicise, send details to Sarah Wills at:
Alstom has recently been awarded a contract worth over 12 million by Virgin to modernise its entire fleet of
56 Pendolino trains. The contract includes the refurbishment of the interiors, bar, kitchen facilities and toilets.
The work is being undertaken at Alstom Traincare Centres in Oxley (Wolverhampton) and Longsight (Manchester)
and will be performed over a period of eight months. The interior modernisation will enhance the comfort of around
20 million passengers travelling each year on lines from London to Birmingham or to Glasgow.
12m Alstom overhaul
of Virgin Pendolinos

STRAIL prides itself on creating solutions
alongside high levels of service and their customers
are testament to this with their satisfaction of the
many STRAIL products that have been installed on
level crossings worldwide.
In a digital-download of European Railway
Reviews Level Crossing Safety Supplement from
Issue 4 2013, an incorrect link was used to direct
viewers to STRAILs website. The correct website
address is:
Rubber level
STRAIL is the
world leader
The Swedish cities of Stockholm and Gothenburg will
soon be connected by a new open access express train
service operated by the MTR Corporation. MTR,
which also runs the large Stockholm Metro system,
will provide 110 weekly services in brand new trains
on the 455km-long route between Stockholm and
Gothenburg. The service is the latest development in
MTRs growth across Europe which has already seen
it expand London Overground under the LOROL
joint venture, which now runs 1,200 services a day
up from 400 when LOROL took over in 2007. MTR
is also shortlisted for four upcoming franchises and
concessions in the UK namely, Thameslink, Essex
Thameside, Crossrail and ScotRail.
MTR will invest over 66 million to purchase
six all-new train sets to operate on the Swedish route.
The trains will be designed and built to provide high-
quality, reliable services in Nordic weather
conditions. As part of the contract, the rolling stock
manufacturer, Stadler Rail AG, will provide
maintenance services for the new fleet.
Our strategy is to bring a fast, new premium-
quality service to Swedish intercity passengers.
We believe this will not only be attractive to existing
rail passengers, but will also draw other business
and leisure travellers to choose rail over other
modes of transport to commute between Swedens
East and West coasts, said Jay Walder, CEO of
MTR Corporation.
Jeremy Long, CEO of MTR Europe comm -
ented: We are excited to be providing this new
service to our passengers in Sweden. Introducing
new trains to an existing route, in harsh weather
conditions can be a challenge. We will draw on our
local Swedish management and our experience in
this area from our operations around the world,
including London Overground and Hong Kong.
MTR Express will be operated by MTR Nordic,
a wholly-owned subsidiary of MTR Corporation.
Delivery of the new train sets is scheduled for
Autumn 2014, and the MTR Express service will be
launched following testing and commissioning of
the new trains.
MTR to launch open access
train service in Sweden
Balfour Beatty has been awarded a 64 million
Crossrail contract by Network Rail for the
electrification of a 12.5-mile section of the Great
Western Main Line in the UK. The contract covers the
installation of new overhead line electrification
equipment on all lines between Stockley Junction and
Maidenhead on the Crossrail West Outer section. It also
includes supporting ancillary civils and power works.
For this contract, Balfour Beatty will use its new and
enhanced plant solutions including the new High
Output Wiring Train which offers safer and more
efficient installation of overhead lines.
64m Crossrail
electrification contract
to Balfour Beatty
railway rolling stock expertise. You beneft from a service that offers tailor-made solutions, meets your specifc requirements and complies
with your operational imperatives.
MASTERIS, a subsidiary of SNCF





Before I took up the role, looking at the scale
and complexity of the Northern network, the
natural assumption was that it shouldnt really
work, but it does, comments Alex. The size
of the network, the complex fleet with 13 differ -
ent classes of train, and interfaces with over
10 different train and freight operators, all
present their own challenges but the team
has worked hard to develop and maintain a
service that meets customer, stakeholder and
client needs.
Operating in five Passenger Transport
Executive (PTEs) areas, all of which (Merseytravel,
Transport for Greater Manchester, Metro West
Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Nexus Tyne
and Wear) are co signatories to the franchise
along with the DfT, Northern is a heavily
subsidised TOC.
The team has had much to prove; not only
to our industry partners but also to our
customers, explains Alex. They are very aware
that as a heavily subsidised TOC delivering good
value for money is something on the tip of
everyones tongue.
Alex continues: Independent research
estimates that each year our services generate at
least 690 million of economic and other benefits
for the UK economy, providing a 2:1 return to the
north of England on the subsidy we receive.
Its good but we know that we need to work hard
to find new and innovative ways of delivering
better value and improved services and facilities
at lower cost. Partnerships are essential to
helping us achieve this. With Network Rail we are
focusing on how we can work together to deliver
a better railway, looking at processes and
systems to ensure we get the best value for
money and reduce waste. A great example of this
is the depot at Allerton which reopened on
Merseyside in 2011. From an initial estimate of
three years construction, it went from derelict
site to fully-operational in six months and it was a
collaborative effort. People were willing to take a
fresh look at how we do things and come up with
new streamlined safe ways of working it was a
real will and desire to deliver.
Allerton is just one example of where
Northerns partnership with Network Rail has
resulted in value for money and efficiency
improvement and is a text book case for the
argument that shows TOCs could have a stronger
role to play in developing and implementing
major projects.
And its not just a good working relationship
with Network Rail, as Alex explains: Northerns
relationship with its stakeholders and the
engagement and investment that delivers was
one of the things that really attracted me to this
role. I was really struck by the level of support
stakeholders showed for Northern, its employees
and customers they really fight in our corner.
In my first month I attended some of our annual
stakeholder thank you events. It was a real
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 12
Operating 2,500 services every day, Northern Rail serves an area stretching from the Scottish Borders down to
Nottingham and Stoke and from Southport and Sellafield in the West to Whitby and Hull in the East. Its a wide
ranging landscape of rural communities, market towns and bustling urban centres where rail services are at the
heart of economic regeneration. The franchise was let in 2004 and originally set to run until September 2011
with no forecast of significant growth in passenger numbers. Fast forward nine years and customer journeys
have increased by an impressive 42% with journeys on target to total 96 million by the end of the year. After an
automatic extension for meeting performance targets, and a seven period continuation enacted by the
Department for Transport (DfT), the latest review of the franchising programme means the team at Northern is
now talking to the DfT about potentially operating for a further 22 months until February 2016. Enter new
Managing Director Alex Hynes. Previously Commercial Director at London Midland and most recently MD Rail
Development for Go-Ahead, Alex joined Northern in August and in an exclusive interview with European Railway
Reviewdiscusses the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.
A clear vision
for rail in the North
privilege to meet station adopters, friends of
groups and community rail partnerships who
give their time and effort to help make their local
stations and services more welcoming places
for their community. Whether its those that
volunteer their time, campaign for improve -
ments or corporate partners such as local
authorities and the PTEs their commitment and
determination to deliver a better railway for the
north of England is clear. These relationships
have realised over 100 million of investment
into services and facilities, which is great news for
our customers. Our stakeholders arent afraid
to challenge us either when they believe we can
do better.
A prime example of this is the recent
consultation Northern held for its May 2014
timetable change proposals. The introduction of
a fifth transpennine path between Manchester
and Leeds means that the local service patterns
need to be recast.
Alex continues: As a result of our consul -
tation some of our stakeholders challenged us to
do more for our customers on the Calder Valley as
we had removed some stops at some smaller
stations. With their local expertise we were able
to revisit the plans, and while we know we wont
please everyone the overall service pattern is
better as a result.
Its this understanding of rail as a driver of
economic regeneration, and a commitment to
deliver a better deal for customers across the
north of England that has meant stakeholders
and Northern have been part of a formidable
force that campaigned for the Northern Hub and
other infrastructure enhancements.
Its such an exciting time to be joining a
business like Northern, says Alex. The rail
network in the north of England is benefitting
from the biggest levels of investment since the
Victorian era.
He continues: The Northern Hub will deliver
significant capacity enhancements. Allowing an
extra 700 trains every day it will enable better
journey times, frequency and connectivity.
Coupled with 300km of track between Liverpool,
Manchester, Preston, Blackpool and Leeds
being electrified, its clear to see the progress
well underway. The first phase of electrification
is already complete with new electric trains
being introduced in the North West by the end
of the year.
These are just some of the schemes deliver -
ing capacity enhancements to cater for an
expected 23% national growth in passenger and
freight demand over the next five years. And its
not all about track enhancements. The roof has
quite literally been raised at Manchester Victoria,
which is benefitting from a 44 million invest -
ment to restore its position as one of the jewels in
the UK rail crown.
All these enhancement projects are vital to
increase capacity on our network but it is
important that we have the right quantity and
quality of trains to support this, says Alex.
Passenger journeys on our services have grown
by 42% since the start of the franchise but our
fleet has only grown by 19% and it is well
documented that our trains are some of the
oldest in the UK. Our engineering teams do a
fantastic job day-in day-out of maintaining our
fleet theyve used lean thinking to help to
reduce the time taken on exams and enhance
processes to drive real improvements in miles per
casualty and availability of units. Its essential as
even with every available carriage out on the
network, there are still times when we are leaving
customers standing on the platform and that is
just not good enough.
Alex continues: Yes I want new trains for our
customers but that is not something we will
achieve in the short-term. Electrification
will allow faster more reliable and sustainable
journeys but it could also, in the short and
medium-term, enable a cascade of vehicles to
help provide much needed capacity else-
where. I want to work with our stakeholders to
campaign for and secure the volume and quality
of trains our customers need and deserve. This
work needs to start now, and must tackle the
critical question of funding. Fare box income
alone has not yet proven itself capable of
supporting increased rolling stock procure-
ment, and it is clear that affordable finance in a
competitive market is key to easing these
capacity constraints.
Northern has a vision for rail in the North,
its one shaped by our customers, one that
supports our communities. We need to work
together; to deliver a strategic plan that converts
the challenges of capacity into a blueprint
leveraging the opportunities in growth.
With the future of Northerns operation not
yet confirmed by the Department, some might
want to take a cautious approach. On the
contrary, says Alex: We have to look to and plan
for the future for the good of our customers
and the economies of the north of England.
We need to act and make decisions now or the
momentum created by infrastructure invest-
ment will be lost.
European Railway Review 13 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Alex Hynes joined Northern Rail
as Managing Director in August
2013. Having spent his early
career as a consultant for
Halcrow Fox, Alex worked with
the Office of Rail Regulation
before joining the Go-Ahead
Group in 2005 as Strategic Planning Manager and,
in 2007, as Commercial Director at London
Midland, and finally, as Managing Director Rail
Development. Here Alex sat on the Executive
Committee and led the development and
delivery of Go-Aheads rail strategy including all
franchise bidding activity. As Managing Director
for Northern, Alexs industry experience positions
him well to implement the next programme of
improvements that will drive excellence and
deliver greater satisfaction for customers
and stakeholders across the Northern network.
Passenger journeys on Northern services have
grown by 42% since the start of the franchise
Network Rail Project Director Chris Montgomery
said: The New Street revamp is one of the most
complex construction projects in Europe, as not
only are we redeveloping a 1967 structure, we
are also undertaking major construction and
demolition over a live operating railway,
without impacting any rail services or disrupting
passengers as a result of our works.
And in April 2013, passengers saw the first
major change to the stations operations, as the
old concourse was shut and half of the planned
new concourse area was brought into use.
For those who are unacquainted with
New Streets charms, the 1960s building,
designed by British Rails in-house architect,
hid the 12 platforms under a concrete raft
and put the Pallasades shopping centre and
car park on top. Hence, unusually for a large
station, the platforms are considered to be
under ground and are subject to underground
fire and safety regulations.
The nature of the raft meant that a straight
demolition and rebuild was not possible. In fact
the pressure on the station is so great that
only one platform can be taken out of use at a
time without causing the railway to grind to
a halt, with a train arriving or departing every
37 seconds. So a design was created that would
see a hole punched in the centre of the building,
letting natural light down into a new concourse
to be 3.5 times the size of the old station and
created partly on the bones of the old and partly
in the former NCP car park.
April 2013 saw the former car park space
opened as a concourse, following the removal of
7,500 tonnes of concrete from within the
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 14
When the last round of redevelopment work began at Birmingham New Street in the 1960s, England were on the
verge of winning the World Cup and rail travel was forecast to decline. Since then rail travel has enjoyed rather
more success than the England football team and the station handles double the number of passengers it was
designed for 140,000 per day at the last count. Such was the overcrowding that four years ago Network Rail
and its delivery partner Mace began to rebuild
the station into a proper gateway for the City of Birmingham.
Rebuilding for a
proper gateway
The New Street revamp is one of the
most complex construction projects in Europe,
as not only are we redeveloping a 1967
structure, we are also undertaking major
construction and demolition over a live
operating railway, without impacting
any rail services or disrupting passengers
as a result of our works
structure. This was achieved by Mace con -
structing a track and hoyer system, where crane
rails were run the length of the building to act as
the track, and a gantry crane brought in to act
as the hoyer. The concrete was cut up and taken
away in 10 tonne chunks, largely recycled on
other construction projects in the region.
However, as if that wasnt enough, a solution
had to be found for moving the stations service
spine, which ran along the wall of the old
concourse. A modular solution was chosen,
which saw the new spine built in sections off-site
and bolted together inside New Street and
hidden in the roof space of the new concourse.
Once that was done, the original unloved
concourse could be closed and passengers
moved into part one of the new station. Despite
effectively only being half-time in the project, the
temporary concourse is still one and a half times
bigger than the old and offers passengers a more
modern, brighter environment with better ticket
office facilities and access to platforms.
Work is now underway on the old concourse
area, to create a large, inviting space, flooded
with natural light from an ETFE (Ethylene Tetra
Fluoro Ethylene) roof (the same material as used
in the Eden Project biomes) and the atrium the
height of eight double-decker buses. The 1967
structure was built as nine rectangular concrete
sections and the hole is being created by
removing the middle one, allowing the rest of the
structure to continue to support itself.
Natural light will also then permeate the
station and a new shopping centre, called
Grand Central, which will wrap around the open
area. Such has been the enthusiasm for the
project that more than 80% of Grand Centrals
200,000 sq ft floor space has already been let,
and it wont even open until 2015.
The project also received a major boost in
2011, when John Lewis announced it was joining
the scheme. Their 250,000 sq ft store the firms
biggest outside London is taking shape on the
site of a former housing tower block (Stephenson
Tower) which was demolished earlier in the
project. This and a new entrance will finally
link the north and south of the city centre for the
first time.
The transformation on this side of the
station will be vast, opening up this area of
the city for the first time since the arrival of the
railways in the 19th century, demonstrating how
prohibitive the previous station has been for city
connectivity, explained Chris. Were working
with Birmingham City Council on collaborative
employment initiatives for local people
throughout the life of the project.
Similarly, the 12 platforms and the con -
course will be linked by 30 escalators and
15 lifts, which will massively improve the
accessibility of the station and the throughput of
passengers. One platform at a time is being taken
out of use and refurbished, working across the
station in order, with materials brought in by
train. That same train is used to remove waste
and runs from the station twice a week, to a base
on sidings out at Bordesley. The nature of the city
centre site means lorry movements have to be
kept to a minimum.
But it has not all been plain sailing.
Originally, the car park atop the 1967
structure was going to be refurbished. However,
once work began it was discovered that salt from
the underside of cars parked there had mixed
with rainwater and found its way into cracks in
the concrete. This in turn cased the reinforcing
bars to corrode within the concrete and
consequently the building had to be demolished
and is now being re-built to serve Grand Central.
Similar problems were also encountered else -
where in the structure, requiring expert attention.
Meanwhile, with more than 80 contractors
working on the project, a small number have
fallen into administration as the work has gone
on, meaning new specialist workers had to be
appointed and a 24/7 shift pattern introduced
to hit deadlines.
But work continues at a great pace and more
than 1,000 construction staff are working
towards the 2015-opening of what is intended to
be a massive spur to regeneration.
As well as John Lewis, the Grand Central
shopping centre will bring more than 40 new
shops and 20 restaurants to the site, creating
more than 1,000 new jobs. When finished,
a polished stainless-steel casing will be fixed to
the exterior of the building (currently grey
concrete), to reflect the sky and the City of
Birmingham growing around it.
1. The Birmingham New Street redevelopment project is
funded by Birmingham City Council, the Department for
Transport, Centro, the European Union and the
Department of Business Innovation and Skills and is being
delivered by Network Rail and Mace.
European Railway Review 15 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
An artists impression of the Western view
of Birmingham New Street station
Work continues at a great pace and more
than 1,000 construction staff are working
towards the 2015-opening of what is intended
to be a massive spur to regeneration
Passenger demand in Britain has increased
by 50% over the last decade and this growth
is forecast to continue. By 2020 another
400 million journeys are forecast every year.
This growth in demand is hugely positive, but
the truth is our Victorian railway was never built
for this number of trains. We run more on our
network each day than Spain, Switzerland, the
Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined
and as a result the busiest parts of the network
are full at the busiest times of day. Just like a
busy motorway, even the smallest of delays
can have a big knock-on impact. Performance
is at an all-time high but we cant just keep
adding more trains without significantly
compromising punctuality.
Nowhere is that trade-off currently more
evident than on the West Coast Main Line (WCML)
Britains most economically vital rail corridor.
It is the busiest mixed-traffic railway in Europe,
carrying a quarter of all Britains rail freight and
hundreds of millions of passengers each year.
Twelve operators use the line, with different
trains stopping at different stations, at different
frequencies and other lines joining it at regular
intervals. Train paths are as precious as airport
take-off or landing slots and its terminus, London
Euston, handles more passengers every day
than Gatwick.
As the route gets more congested it gets
harder to recover from delays. Something as
simple as a blown fuse bears comparison to a
breakdown on the motorway it might be
fixed quickly but there are tailbacks for the rest
of the morning. We have invested heavily,
lengthening platforms to enable longer
trains to operate and will deliver further
upgrades to untangle bottlenecks and improve
performance. But in the longer term, demand
will still outstrip supply. We know that. Even
now, at the busiest times of day, there is no
more space to run additional services into
London Euston without causing knock-on
delays to others on the route and the
trains that do run see significant levels
of overcrowding.
We predict the number of commuters
arriving at Euston will grow by 26% between 2011
and 2023, but we cannot create enough train
paths to run the extra services required. By the
mid-2020s, both the trains and the line will be full.
The effects will be felt at the southern end first,
with many commuters unable to board their
trains at the busiest times, before similar
problems start to affect longer-distance
passengers. Although capacity is most
con strained at the southern end of the line,
long distance trains are often overcrowded,
usually outside of the London commuter peaks.
Between 2011 and 2023, we expect demand to
grow between London and Manchester by up
to 46% and even the most pessimistic scenario
predicts that London to Birmingham passenger
numbers will grow by a third within 30 years.
So what can we do to create the capacity we
need for the future? Our 2009 New Lines study
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 16
Britains railways are booming. Last year, more than 1.5 billion journeys were made by train and the network
moved around 100 million tonnes of goods. But railways do much more than just move people and freight; they
connect homes and workplaces, businesses with markets, they create jobs, stimulate trade and support the
growth of a balanced economy.
Making the capacity
case for HS2
Rupert Walker
Head of High-Speed Rail Development,
Network Rail

examined the capacity challenge on the
West Coast Main Line in detail. It concluded
that the gap between available capacity and
future demand was so great that upgrades
alone would not be enough. Only new running
lines could meet long-term demand and high-
speed lines would provide better value for
money. The government subsequently created a
company, HS2 Ltd, to bring forward proposals for
a new line.
HS2 is one of the few issues which enjoys a
broad political consensus among our three major
political parties and the current government
has worked hard to advance legislation which
lays the groundwork for construction to start
within the next few years. For many of us, HS2 is a
no-brainer the only practical answer to a very
real capacity crisis which would, left unchecked,
stifle economic growth and hurt communities the
length of Britain.
But we must also accept that there are
many people in this country including
members of parliament, council leaders,
business people and various media comm -
entators who believe that HS2 is an
unnecessary extravagance. Some have called
it a political vanity project. They say that the
necessary capacity can be provided by
lengthening trains and upgrading the existing
infrastructure. It cant.
In 2011, we were asked by the Department
for Transport (Dft) to review specific proposals
which sought to demonstrate that upgrades
alone could meet demand Atkins Rail Package
2 and the Optimised Alternative created by 51M,
a coalition of local authorities opposed to the
construction of a new line.
The 51M proposal suggests declassifying first
class carriages, lengthening trains and upgrading
infrastructure on the WCML in a number of areas.
Our report found that whilst the proposals do
have the potential to increase capacity (albeit at
greater cost and with more disruption than had
been assumed) they would only deliver a short-
term benefit. Even if all the upgrades could be
delivered, by the mid-2030s load factors on
commuter services would be back at 122% and
you would still need to build a new line. In
contrast to continued piecemeal upgrades, High
Speed 2 will provide a step-change in capacity on
the WCML.
Phase 1 between London and Birmingham,
which it is hoped will be operational by 2026, will
create the extra train paths we need to run more
commuter services as well as provide more space
for freight. An initial study carried out by Network
Rail into how these train paths might be used
showed that fast-growing commuter towns at
the southern end of the route could get more
trains an hour at peak times and a much better
chance of a seat for commuters. Other places
could see quicker journeys and new direct
services. Milton Keynes, for example which has
seen a 26% increase in passenger numbers in the
last five years alone will be a major beneficiary,
with up to 12 trains an hour to London Euston
(currently six) and a journey time reduction of up
to a third, as well as better connections to the
West Midlands and neighbouring towns.
Crucially, all passengers would have a reasonable
expectation of a seat, even at the busiest
times of day.
Phase 2, which will connect Birmingham
with Manchester and Leeds, will not only relieve
capacity constraints further north, it could
also see the rail network reshaped to deliver
a step-change in connectivity, bringing key
towns and cities closer together to help drive
economic growth.
A further initial study into how you might use
the capacity freed up by the completion of the
second phase of HS2 highlighted three possible
approaches to its integration. The first was a do
minimum approach, which would keep train
European Railway Review 17 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
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services on existing lines broadly the same,
offering reduced crowding and increased choice
for passengers between high-speed and
conventional long-distance services at certain
locations. The second was an incremental
approach, which seeks to replace long-distance
services on the existing network which are
replicated by those provided by HS2, allowing the
capacity to be used for improved inter-urban
connectivity and/or additional commuting
capacity. The third was a more radical approach
which we termed integrated connectivity an
exciting concept which would see all future rail
services planned in a hub and spoke model to
complement and work in conjunction with HS2.
Even the incremental approach identified
potential benefits for over 100 towns and cities
across Britain, although the integrated conn -
ectivity approach was supported by the majority
of stakeholders local authorities, passenger
transport executives and chambers of commerce
who helped us to produce the report.
We will follow up both these reports with
more detailed assessments in due course. It is
hugely important that we continue to work with
these stakeholders to consider and plan future
rail services to make the best use of the capacity
on both high-speed and existing lines. HS2
provides the kind of opportunity which doesnt
come along often to make strategic, well-
evidenced decisions about the kind of rail service
we want for the future.
Let me be clear; HS2 will not solve all of the
problems facing Britains congested railway.
We will still need to continue investing,
improving, upgrading the network to squeeze
ever more out of our ageing assets. Indeed,
Network Rail is investing around 5 billion a year
in renewing and upgrading the railway, and by
2019 we will have provided 170,000 extra
commuter seats at peak times, expanded
Londons rail capacity by 20% and provided
space for 700 more trains a day across the north
of England.
But in some places that will not be enough.
The challenge facing commuters at the southern
end of the WCML in a decades time will not be
getting a seat, but getting on the train in the first
place. The only answer to a railway running out of
space but facing huge demand is sustained
strategic rail investment to build new capacity on
the network and boost connectivity between
Britains towns and cities.
HS2 is a big decision. It is daunting both in its
scale and ambition. And, I fully accept, there are
big questions that will have to be answered along
the way. But the prize is big too a chance to
escape the constant frustration of bending every
sinew just to play catch up in a game you can
never win, no matter how hard you try. This is our
chance to move beyond that frustration and, for
once, to get ahead of the game.
As Head of High-Speed Rail
Development, Rupert Walker is
leading Network Rails involve -
ment in the development and
delivery of Britains high-speed
rail strategy. Rupert and his team
work closely with DfT, HS2 Ltd
and other stakeholders to inform and develop the
Governments plans and make sure that High
Speed Two is integrated with the wider network.
Bringing together people with expertise and
experience from across Network Rail, including
projects such as Crossrail, Kings Cross, West
Coast Route Modernisation and Birmingham
Gateway, Ruperts team is working closely with
local route team colleagues and the broader
business so that the value Network Rail adds to
this exciting project is maximised, and the railway
continues to evolve and provide vital support for
Britains economy. Rupert joined the railways in
December 2000 and has led the development of
projects including Thameslink, Reading, Crossrail
and ERTMS. His ambition is to ride a high-speed
train on the new line from London to Manchester
before his retirement!
European Railway Review 19 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
The First Great Western story
Running over 1,550 trains a day, First Great
Western (FGW) manages 210 stations and calls
at a further 60 across the South West network.
First Group made the decision in 2011 not to
take up a contractually permitted three-year
extension to the franchise, with a view to
retendering for a longer-term agreement.
The decision enabled the Department for
Transport (DfT) to develop plans for a longer-
term franchise that would benefit from and help
to deliver a number of major schemes, including
electrification of a significant part of the network,
the completion of Crossrail and the introduction
of the Intercity Express Programme bi-mode
trains. First Group was shortlisted to submit
a bid for this longer-term franchise, which was
due to begin in July 2013 and run for 15 years,
but this process was delayed following the
decision in October 2012 by the DfT to pause its
franchising programme.
First was asked to continue to operate the
Great Western network and extend the current
franchise for a further 28-week period before
entering into negotiations with the DfT to
operate the franchise under a short-term
Single Tender Award. A 23-month Single Tender
Award agreement was reached and commenced
on 14 October 2013.
The best provider
Service delivery for FGW passengers, in a safe
and efficient manner, remains at the top of the
FGW agenda following the decision to award
the new franchise. The DfT clearly saw FGW
as the best provider a testament to the high
standard of customer service delivered on a
day-to-day basis.
The 23-month Single Tender Award agree -
ment is good news for rail passengers, providing
continuity and consistency of service with FGW.
The award also allows the company to build
on the improvements its experienced team
made during the last franchise period from 2006
to the end of March 2013.
Much has been achieved by the rail operator
since 2006 passenger volumes have increased
by 25%, with a 40% increase in advance
purchase and off peak travel. Additionally, more
Running services out of London Paddington, across the South and West of England and South Wales, the former
Greater Western franchise began operating on 1 April 2006. Operated by First Group and branded as First Great
Western, the network combines the previous Great Western Intercity, London and Thames Valley, and West
Country regional franchises. A second, 23-month franchise agreement began on 14 October 2013.
New FGW franchise to
build on improvements
than 170 rolling stock vehicles have been
introduced to the network and perform-
ance and customer satisfaction rates have
improved considerably.
Yet, there is still much for FGW to do to
maintain record levels of passenger growth
and satisfaction.
In addition to the new 23-month agreement,
FGW are conducting further work with the DfT to
secure improvements, including the introduction
of a fleet of electric trains in the London Thames
Valley, plus the extension of Wi-Fi provision to its
high-speed train fleet and additional standard
class capacity. Conversations with the DfT could
also see the introduction of smart ticketing after
the company successfully launched a mobile
ticketing application for both iPhone and
Android handheld devices.
During the preceding franchise, in 2006, First
Group won the Great Western Franchise against
stiff competition with a promise to invest to
improve train services. At the time, the average
Public Performance Measure (PPM) for the
network was 82% and overall satisfaction
measured by the National Passenger Survey
remained static at 77%.
Rolling stock investment
Central to FGWs improvement plans was a
comprehensive 80 million re-engineering
programme for its high-speed train fleet,
replacing ageing engines in all 117 power
cars to improve reliability, efficiency and service
life. More visible to its customers than the
re-engineering of the power cars however, was a
65 million investment to provide new, high
quality interiors for the 400 carriages in the high-
speed train fleet.
The company now has the most high-speed
trains operating the Great Western network since
it was built, with increased frequencies.
During the last franchise, a 2 million
upgrade was also carried out to the now sought
after Night Riviera Sleeper which runs between
London Paddington and Plymouth/Penzance.
Following extensive consultation with service
users, all 17 sleeper carriages received a
comprehensive refurbishment with new interior
dcor, lighting and re-upholstered First Class
style seating giving the carriages a more
comfortable, relaxed feel. An additional carriage
was also leased to harness increasing demand.
More recently, in 2012, interiors were
refreshed with old blankets replaced by more
comfortable duvets. Since 2006, FGW have
managed to increase passenger numbers on the
service by 10% year-on-year and the new
23-month Single Tender Award will see two
additional carriages provided to harness demand.
More than 170 new rolling stock vehicles
were introduced since 2006, taking advantage of
the DfTs High Level Output Specification (HLOS)
programme. FGW secured 48 additional carriages
after negotiations with the DfT in 2011, to the
benefit of passengers travelling on an
increasingly congested network.
The deal, whereby FGW refurbished former
buffet cars, provided an extra 4,500 seats for
customers on peak services into and out of
London a capacity increase of 9%. Five Class
180 trains were also leased to replace Turbo
services on the North Cotswold line between
London Paddington and Worcester. The rolling
stock investment was specifically designed to
reduce crowding on the most popular peak
services on the network, particularly those into
and out of London.
The work with the Government to source
and invest in additional carriages, and sched -
uling improvements, has seen a reduction in the
number of services in the Governments most
overcrowded services list from all 10 of the top
10 to just one in the latest figures
FGWs expertise has also been harnessed
with the Governments Intercity Express
Programme which will see new bi-mode electric
and fuel Intercity trains replace the ageing high-
speed fleet and deliver further capacity improve -
ments from 2017.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 20
Plans for the West of England over the next 23 months
Continued provision of train services in the direct award franchise based on the Service Level Commitment
that applies in the current FGW franchise, thus retaining through-train services from London to Hereford and
Enhanced service scope through the provision of six additional return services between Swindon and
Westbury from Monday to Saturday, and five additional return services on Sundays (subject to agreement
with our partners).
Continued support to progress for the Metro West scheme.
Fitting more long-distance trains with Wi-Fi.
Working with the DfT on longer-term plans to address crowding and capacity challenges through the cascade
of rolling stock to the West of England.
Retaining additional services currently being run as per agreements between FGW and local authorities.
Since 2012 when Agility Trains, of which Hitachi
Rail Europe is the main shareholder, was awarded the
contract to finance, design, manufacture, maintain
and deliver the Class 800 series trains into daily
passenger service for the IEP, a lot of work has gone
into the programme.
British design company DCA Design was
picked to lead the interior design process for the
trains, ensuring that the sound engineering basis of
the trains is mirrored in the comfortable and
high-quality interior. A number of contracts were
awarded to British-based suppliers; Gateshead-
based Nomad will supply the On-Board Servers,
Knorr-Bremse will supply brake systems from their
base in Wiltshire, specialist glass-maker Romag from
County Durham will supply the side windows for the
trains, and Brecknell Willis are contracted to
manufacture the pantographs.
In addition to this, Volker Fitzpatrick is busy
with the refurbishment and new build of some of the
depots required for the maintenance of the fleet of
trains. Work in West Londons North Pole depot is
progressing well, and construction of the depot in
Stoke Gifford is also underway. New builds
in Swansea and Doncaster will commence during
the course of 2014. Construction of the train
manufacturing facility in Newton Aycliffe has greatly
moved forward and will continue during 2014, with
the facility opening in mid-2015.
Given the on-time delivery and successful track
record of the Hitachi Class 395 service currently in
operation, expectations are high for the delivery of
the Class 800 series train and 2014 will be an exciting
year full of progress and opportunity.
Project Update Intercity Express Programme
Passenger growth
The growth in the number of customers using
FGW services has been one of the great success
stories of the UKs privatised rail industry and
the number of people taking advantage of extra
services and capacity continues to increase.
A staggering 97 million passenger journeys were
undertaken on the First Great Western network
in the last year alone.
Passenger numbers on the West Country
community rail lines hit two million for the first
time last year, taking the increase on some
branch lines up by as much as 147% since 2006.
Over half a million people used the Tarka Line in
the past year; passenger numbers rose to over
175,000 on the Tamar Valley line; by over 104,000
on the Looe branch line; over 84,000 on the
Atlantic Coast line; over 600,000 on the Maritime
Line; and over half a million on the St Ives Line.
Additionally, the community rail line serving
Bristol fell just short of reaching a million
passenger journeys.
Among the fastest growing and most reliable
of all services offered by FGW, the community rail
line results show the value of local services and
how productive partnerships with community
rail groups and local authorities can really
deliver results.
Station transformation
First Group started its 2006 Great Western
franchise with a promise of a 14 million invest -
ment to transform stations across the network
of 210. By the end of the 2012/2013 financial
year, the total investment secured for station
improvements reached more than 85 million,
including funding for projects from FGW, the
DfT, Network Rail and local authorities.
A 10 million redevelopment of Bath Spa
station has not only increased the flow of
customers through the busy station, but helped
to re-invigorate the southern part of the city;
while a 1 million overhaul of Slough station
created one fit to transport people to and from
Eton Dorney, which hosted the London 2012
Olympic rowing events.
Government investment for the future of the
Great Western network is set to transform
Brunels greatest achievements. With 9 billion
already announced for the electrification of the
line, this paves the way for faster, more reliable
services and the most of planned investment in
new trains. The first of the new Intercity fleet will
be seen on the network from 2017.
Performance rise
During 2006 to 2012/13, FGWs performance
measured by the Public Performance Measure
(PPM) increased by more than 6% from
82% to in excess of 89%, and National
Passenger Survey results saw a corresponding
rise of 5%. Significant rises in the upkeep and
repair of stations, in cleanliness and in the
facilities provided, and in the provision of
information about train times and platforms
was also recorded.
The new 23-month franchise agreement will
provide continuity and consistency in the UK rail
network, allowing the experienced travel
provider to build on the improvements its team
has made over the last franchise period.
The networks longer-term future is very
promising if First, committed to supporting the
communities it serves, can take up the chall-
enge to provide innovative solutions in this
increasingly congested world.
1. Autumn 2012, published in Autumn 2013
European Railway Review 21 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
First Great Westerns Managing Director is
Mark Hopwood who was educated at Royal
Grammar School in High Wycombe and then
joined British Rail after A levels in 1989. Mark
was sponsored through the University of Essex
from 1990 to 1993 where he studied politics.
He undertook a variety of operational and customer
service roles in the Thames Valley for BR, Network
SouthEast and Thames Trains including Station
Manager at Slough and Performance Manager for
Thames Trains. In 2000 Mark joined Railtrack PLC
and worked as a Passenger Negotiations Manager
in its London HQ before re-joining a train oper-
ator in 2001 when he was appointed Operations
Director of First North Western. Mark returned
south in 2004 to be Operations Director of National
Express Groups London rail businesses which
included c2c, WAGN and Silverlink Metro and
County. He was made Managing Director of that
business in 2006 when it was reshaped to include
c2c, Gatwick Express and both Silverlink
Businesses. In 2008, Mark left National Express to
return to First as Performance Director and Deputy
Managing Director and he became Managing
Director of FGW in December of that year.
At FGW, Mark restored punctuality, achieved
Train Operator of the Year and worked to deliver
substantial investment with Network Rail in the
business and the routes it serves.
Plans for Thames Valley over the next 23 months
Continued provision of train services in the direct award franchise based on the Service Level Commitment
that applies in the current FGW franchise
Immediate start to declassify 21 First Class compartments on the Class 166 Turbo fleet to further improve the
standard class capacity, particularly for Thames Valley commuters
Working with DfT to put in place agreements to address crowding and capacity challenges on commuter
corridors through the provision of electric rolling stock for the Thames Valley area, Oxford and Newbury,
allowing for the cascade of DMUs to other areas of the network
Working in partnership with National Rail, DfT and local authorities to further the plans for the Oxford
station re-modelling.
Plans for Devon and Cornwall over the next 23 months
Continued provision of train services in the direct award franchise based on the Service Level Commitment
that applies in the current FGW franchise. Thus protecting through-train services from London and the
Sleeper Service
Fitting more long-distance trains with Wi-Fi
Provision of two additional sleeper service vehicles which will increase seasonal capacity (one sleeper and
one seated carriage)
Enhanced service scope through the introduction of an additional six return services between Newton Abbot
and Paignton each week day, two of which will go to and from Exeter St Davids (subject to final agreement
with our partners)
Enhanced service scope through the provision of a limited number of additional return services between
Exeter and Paignton (subject to final agreement)
Continued support for the Devon Metro and Tavistock service proposition
Supporting Cornwall Councils plans for the West Cornwall transport interchange.
Protecting additional services currently being run as per agreements between FGW and local authorities.
The last couple of years, in particular, have been
busy for LOROL. The challenge of unprece -
dented passenger numbers during the London
2012 Olympic Games and the opening of the
much anticipated East London Line extension
last December to deliver the Capitals first
orbital railway in nearly 130 years are two key
projects that the LOROL team has successfully
delivered throughout this time. And with the
project underway to increase the capacity of
the network with the introduction of five-car
trains from December 2014, the successful
invest ment, improvement and modernisation
activity at LOROL is on track to continue.
An Olympic success
LOROL played a key role in the delivery of
outstanding transport performance during the
London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
We ran the most intensive train services that the
network has ever run and carried more people
than ever before.
Approximately 2.8 million passengers were
carried during the first week of the Games alone,
and over the four week period of the London
Olympics, 11.2 million people travelled on
29,000 trains on the Overground network.
This represented a 45% increase in passenger
volumes for us compared with the same time in
the previous year and was significantly more
than had been estimated by industry experts
prior to the Games.
Since its inception LOROL has relied on
strong relationships with its stakeholders and
industry partners to deliver its contractual
commitments, as well as customer service and
punctuality to passengers. A key factor in the
success of LOROLs Olympic efforts is a result of
the strong foundations that have been laid here,
in particular with key industry partners including
TfL, the British Transport Police, Bombardier and
Network Rail.
Londons first orbital railway
for 128 years
Partnership working was one of the key
contributing factors to the successful opening of
the extension from Surrey Quays to Clapham
Junction on the Overground network, which
was inaugurated by Mayor Boris Johnson on
10 December 2012 and which represented the
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 22
Since 2007, London Overground Rail Operations Ltd (LOROL) has been actively transforming the London
Overground network, modernising the service, improving facilities and providing a better, safer, more
environmentally efficient and comfortable experience for its customers. And six years on, LOROLs delivery of
Transport for Londons (TfLs) extensive investment in the network is proving to be a real winner.
improvement and
modernisation at
London Overground
Peter Austin
Managing Director, London
Overground Rail Operations Ltd
final piece of the LOROL puzzle, completing
Londons first orbital railway for 128 years.
The network extension means an increase
in the number of trains on the Overground
around the capital from 945 to 1,090 every
day. TfL estimate that more than 12 million
pass engers will use the new route each
year, which links Surrey Quays on the East
London Line to Clapham Junction in the west
and which provides the local south London
area with greater options for travel. In the
past most rail journeys had to be made into
London terminals such as Victoria or London
Bridge stations, but the new extension has
given passengers the option of going around
the city to the east or west, and further up
to the north.
A rolling programme of
station refurbishment
From the very first day that LOROL took over the
Overground concession, it has been a business
priority to improve and maintain station
environments and ambience for both pass -
engers and staff. On-going investment in CCTV,
lighting, painted finishes and clean canopies, as
well as high quality signage have made a
positive difference for customers, ensuring
that the network benefits from deep rooted
improve ments that have passenger needs and
safety at their core.
Station refurbishment works that were
completed at Willesden Junction in July 2013,
for example, underline LOROLs commitment to
creating a safer environment for passengers and
staff, as well as the local community, with
improved road conditions, new lighting and an
increased number of CCTV cameras. Transport
links have also been improved at the station, with
new bus stops, shelters, cycle racks and short-
term parking bays.
This 750,000 scheme was funded by
Network Rail, TfL and the London Boroughs of
Brent, Ealing and Hammersmith and Fulham,
with project support from LOROL, along with
the main contractor, Walkers Construction,
and the local community group, the Harlesden
Town Team.
The Willesden Junction project demon -
strates what can be achieved on the railways
when different organisations pull together and
further emphasises the successful way in which
LOROL has encouraged multi-party working and
improvement schemes on the network since it
took over the concession.
Five-car trains on the
Overground network
The Overground network has come a long way
since LOROL took over the reins yet the rapidly
growing nature of the railway has meant the
business always needs to be looking ahead in
terms of the next service improvement or
project. In fact, passenger numbers have
quadrupled since the concession began and
future growth estimates confirm that this
trend will continue. We are already carrying
more passengers each week than we did during
the Olympic Games, which in itself saw journeys
at unprecedented levels. With this in mind, its
vital that LOROL works with TfL to further
expand the railway whilst continuing to
deliver punctual trains and first-rate levels of
customer service.
Five-car trains will increase the networks
capacity by 25% on all electric routes and the
London Overground Capacity Improvement
Programme (LOCIP), as its known within the
business, therefore represents the next major
project for LOROL and one that will have a hugely
positive impact on our customers, our stake -
European Railway Review 23 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
LOROLs Operational
Building Complex
Willesden Junction following the
station improvement works
TENCONI steel construction department has a reputation of excellence also for the
manufacture of special steel hollow sleepers, low friction slide chairs, insulated base
plates and many other railway products.
Mechanical workshop
CH-6780 Airolo
For more information contact:
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Tel.: +41 91 873 30 00
Mobile: +41 79 435 59 84
Manufacture of Insulated Rail Joints
in Hardomid for Railways and of
special hollow sleepers
TENCONI plastic division is the only manufacturer of the high quality insulated
rail joints also called "BENKLER" joints. The pieces are produced also in small
batches, according to customers' specifications and needs.
TENCONI UK based representative:
Direct Track Solutions Limited
Unit 1C, Midland Place
Midland Way
Chesterfield S43 4FR
Telephone: +44 (0)1246 810198
CH-6780 Airolo Switzerland
Telephone: +41 (0)918733000
holders and industry partners and the company
as a whole.
This 320 million project, funded by TfL,
includes the construction of longer platforms
at nine stations and the delivery of an extra
57 carriages. Improvement works are also
required at LOROLs Silwood and New Cross Gate
depots, with the first five-car trains officially
running on the East London Line from December
2014 and the project being successfully
completed on the North London Line in
December 2015.
A positive future for the Overground
LOROLs success in recent years has funda -
mentally been down to our highly trained and
skilled workforce and the strong partnerships
we have formed with other train operating
companies, stakeholders, industry partners and
our local community.
The LOROL team is particularly important
when it comes to this success and enables us to
realise our vision of Developing our railway
together, proudly connecting communities
around London.
The workforce, whether employees are
based in the head office, in the depots or on the
front line, are, by far, our best asset, and it is
rewarding to know that they are engaged with
the business. In fact, our latest employee
engagement survey confirms that support for
LOROLs vision is higher than ever before with
99% of employees confirming they are behind it.
Alongside this, 94% confirm they are proud to
work for LOROL and 96% of employees agree
they understand what to do to deliver excellent
customer service.
LOROL also relies on positive working
relationships with our partners to keep our
passengers moving safely and on time and
experiencing high levels of customer service.
Whether its the multi-party works to deliver our
demanding station improvement programme,
the strengthening of partnerships with
Bombardier for train maintenance and fleet
operations, or the partnerships that have
enabled us to deliver projects with a global
audience, such as the London 2012 Olympics, we
couldnt do what we do without them.
The most recent National Passenger
Survey further confirms that LOROL is on the
right tracks: once again it was voted by pass -
engers as one of the best rail services in the UK,
achieving 92% in overall passenger satisfac-
tion and on 85% of the factors used to measure
satisfaction such as punctuality, reliability,
cleanliness and helpfulness of staff LOROL
scored higher than other services in the
south east.
Our work and commitment over the last six
years to deliver TfLs vision for the Overground
was rewarded last year when LOROL secured a
two-year extension to operate the London
Overground network until 12 November 2016.
The extension recognises the efforts the
whole team at LOROL has made since 2007 and
the excellent operational delivery that has been
achieved. We have new challenges to meet in the
future, particularly with the implementation of
the LOCIP project, and look forward to doing so
whilst continuing to maintain the excellent levels
of industry-leading punctuality, performance
and customer service that we have become so
well known for.
Peter Austin is a Chartered
Accountant with experience of
both the private and public
sectors. Peter joined LOROL as
Finance Director from Laing Rail
in 2006 and was part of the bid
team. Prior to Laing Rail, Peter
spent three years at the Strategic Rail Authority
leading the procurement of franchise extensions
to Central Trains, Wessex Trains, Firth North
Western and Northern.
European Railway Review 25 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
During the summer of 2013, Translink success -
fully completed two major infrastructure
projects transforming passenger facilities in two
busy towns in the North East and South of the
country. The construction of Antrim Bus and Rail
Centre brought Northern Ireland its first
sustainable low carbon station and the re-
development of Portadown Train Station
provided an important gateway into an area
which had seen annual rail passenger
throughput increase by around 19% in the last
five years.
Both projects were funded by Northern
Irelands Department for Regional Develop-
ment and the European Unions INTERREG IVA
(Portadown) and IVB (Antrim) Programmes.
Antrim Bus and Rail Centre
Construction work on Antrims new 2.9 million
bus and rail centre began in early 2012. It forms
part of the European Unions innovative
SusStation: Achieving Sustainable Stations
project which supports the construction of
sustainable, low carbon stations.
SusStation involves five partner organisa -
tions from transport authorities across Germany,
the Netherlands, France and the UK. It is
committed to: delivering more sustainable
construction and management of station
buildings; lowering carbon emissions from the
rail sector; creating a rail industry environment
that encourages sustainable station develop -
ment; creating new marketing opportunities; and
working with the rail industry, government
and the public to change attitudes towards
sustainable transport.
The Antrim Bus and Rail Centre is an example
of European sustainable station development
best practice. An effective mix of old and new,
the project restored the original 1902 stations
Grade 2B architecture and faade, incorporating
it with the latest environmentally sound
technologies and major eco-refurbishments.
The facility reflects Translinks company-
wide focus on managing and minimising
its environmental impact. Innovative eco-
technology and biodiversity initiatives were
combined with excellent passenger comfort and
accessibility features to create a first-class
passenger facility.
Before construction began, Translink
customers in Antrim had to use two separate
facilities for bus and rail services. The railway
station at Antrim was a single-storey red brick
building with an interior concourse leading to the
main railway station platforms. It was a good
example of a traditional early 20th century
station house.
The separate Ulsterbus facility consisted of
four departure stands with no dedicated
bus forecourt or bus layover spaces; buses
parked on an ad hoc basis around an engin-
eering workshop. There was also no dedicated
pedestrian entrance and exit and no enclosed
facilities to service bus passengers.
New features
Key features and benefits of the new facility
include: improved integrated bus and rail
transport provision; park and ride extension to
cater for 180 cars; an integrated ticket and
information office; an enclosed accessible
passenger waiting area; a canopy construction
to cover most of the platforms; an electronic
passenger information system; fully accessible
toilet facilities plus a parent and baby room;
new traffic management and improved
pedestrian access; a CCTV system; covered
bicycle parking; vending machines; passenger
lift; and bus park extension.
Important sustainable features include:
reclaimed clay facing bricks; roof-mounted solar
panels; grey water harvesting system; natural
ventilation; naturally insulated green roof;
geothermal heating system; and Swift Bricks to
accommodate bird nesting at the site.
Translinks on-going approach to sustain -
Translink leads the
way in sustainable
station development
Clive Bradberry
Infrastructure Executive, Translink
In 2012/13, Translink rail passenger journeys reached a record breaking 11.5 million an increase of 7% on the
previous year. Overall, there were 78.5 million Translink passenger journeys on bus and train last year beating
the Northern Ireland governments target of 77 million.
able business has received high profile
industry recognition including The Carbon Trust
Standard, top Platinum status in the ARENA
Network Environmental Benchmarking Survey
and a Number 1 Northern Ireland ranking in the
Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy
Efficiency Scheme.
A range of business-wide actions have
contributed to these results such as installation
of energy efficient lighting, converting heating
systems to run on gas instead of oil and
installation of voluntary half-hourly electricity
metering. These have delivered business benefits
including: year-on-year reduction in energy costs;
cutting carbon emissions; and enhancing the
companys public image.
Portadown Train Station
The 3.6 million Portadown Train Station
Redevelopment Project commenced in
February 2012. The major refurbishment and
extension work saw the existing station building
stripped back to its base structure and
completely refinished inside and out to deliver a
visually striking regeneration to meet customer
needs now and in the future.
The new facility also complements
Portadowns recent public realm works which
have transformed the town centre with a
contemporary feel helping to rejuvenate the area
and boost civic pride.
The station is just a five minute walk from the
town centre and combined with modern trains
operating along the Portadown railway line,
it provides a considerable enhancement in
service quality.
During the last five years, Portadown Train
Stations annual passenger throughput grew to
over 930,000 an increase of approximately 19%.
In addition, there were around 3.5 million
passenger journeys made on the Portadown
railway line in 2012/13.
Translink maintained its customer-centric
vision for this facility so that accessibility,
passenger comfort, convenience and safety
remained of paramount importance throughout
all aspects of the redevelopment.
The quality of materials both inside and out
was carefully chosen to create a bright and
colourful environment. Passengers can also
enjoy enhanced comfort with an enlarged
waiting area.
A dedicated car turning head and passenger
drop-off areas combined with increased disabled
parking has enhanced park and ride conveni -
ence. A new bus stop and canopy also reflects
Translinks on-going integration between bus
and train operations.
With sustainability in mind, improved
integration of cycle facilities for employees and
passengers were provided and the environ-
ment around the station is enhanced through
attractive planting and landscape.
New features
In addition, enhanced station facilities include:
replacement of the old underpass with a new
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) compliant
overhead track-crossing incorporating pass -
enger lifts accessing island platforms; new DDA
compliant lifts and stairs installed at the
main entrance; a new passenger concourse
benefiting from natural lighting and high quality
tiled finishes; a crisp contemporary elevation to
the stations Northway due to new cladding and
glazing installation; a series of energy efficient
lighting systems; a new passenger canopy at the
main entrance creating a visible landmark in the
town; external PA system; electronic passenger
information screens; and a CCTV system.
Enhanced station technical design features
include: a fully-glazed wall to the train platforms
enabling passengers to clearly see trains coming
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 26
Portadown Train Stations new-look
One of the new eco-features of the Antrim Bus and Rail Centre is its green roof
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and going from the comfort of the passenger
waiting area; an improved interface between
employees and customers; new compre-
hensive lighting scheme resulting in a safe and
welcoming facility all year round; a focus on
sustainability the original fabric of the station
has been largely retained and upgraded to reach
the recognised BREEAM Environmental Rating;
improved general access to all external areas of
the building including cycle facilities, passenger
drop-off, taxi facilities and parking; and provision
of a new cantilevered signal gantry improving
train driver sight-lines, ensuring safety levels
are maintained.
Community engagement
The successful delivery of both Antrim and
Portadown projects also required the support
of the local communities. In tandem with
construction work, Translink delivered a
community engagement programme to keep
local people fully informed on construction
work progress. A selection of engagement
methods were used including on-site hard hat
tours for local politicians, customer informa-
tion sessions and regular media features.
In particular, the Antrim project adopted a
variety of creative measures to boost levels of
anticipation about the new facility and a sense
of community ownership.
At the start of the project, Translink teamed-
up with its contractors to deliver a school art
competition that asked children to design
artwork which was then enlarged and used
to decorate construction site hoardings.
Competition themes were determined in line
with Translinks corporate responsibility
objectives helping young people understand the
importance of embracing more sustainable
transport. Towards the end of the project,
Translink also invited the public to submit items
for an Antrim Bus and Rail Centre Time Capsule.
The capsule was then installed at the stations
main entrance and will remain on display until its
scheduled re-opening in 50 years time.
Looking ahead
Translink welcomed an additional 1.5 million
fare paying passengers on-board bus and rail
services in 2012/13 compared to the previous
year. To continue this success, Translink
remains committed to its vision of providing
integrated travel solutions that are attractive,
sustainable and good value. The Antrim and
Portadown construction projects have now
delivered two new innovative local transport
hubs that will play a huge role in supporting
passenger growth and contributing to eco -
nomic, social and environmental development
in Northern Ireland. They also provide best
practice examples for future station con -
struction projects.
Clive Bradberryis Infrastructure
Executive at Translink. He has
27 years of experience in the
delivery of public transport
ranging from heavy rail, metro
and light-rail projects to
tendered bus services. Clive
joined London Underground as a graduate civil
engineer in 1986 and was involved in the design
and construction of major works. In 1996 Clive
transferred to Transport for London and became
Project Manager for the 200 million Croydon
Tramlink PFI scheme. Once Tramlink was
operational, Clive moved to London Buses
Limited to gain operational experience as the
Performance Delivery Manager for all bus services
in south London. Upon moving to Northern
Ireland in 2001, Clive spent the first 18 months
commuting back to GB to work for Network Rail
on a variety of projects. Finally in 2003, Clive
became the Infrastructure Executive for Translink
heading a Division of approximately 200 staff
with responsibilities for all stations, depots,
garages, track, signalling and structures used to
deliver bus and rail public transport services in
Northern Ireland.
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European Railway Review 29 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Third rail
The vast majority of the UKs third rail network is
located south of London where it makes up a
significant portion of the lines. The network
itself is configured as a top running conductor
rail electrified at a nominal 750 V DC. This means
that the contact point between the trains
collector shoe and the third rail is on the rails
top surface. This configuration can have
significant disadvantages in winter conditions
as ice can form on the surface of the rail and
then act as an insulating layer between the
supply rail and the train. For this reason, top
running third rail systems in parts of the world
with climates any worse than the UK are often
shrouded against snow or ice formation.
In the UK, a number of different approaches
to the ice formation problem have been
With a national rail network extending from Penzance in the south to Thurso in the north, the vast majority of the
UKs railway infrastructure rests in a moderately agreeable band between 50.12 and 58.59. Even in this
comparably comfortable region, however, we are still at the mercy of the seasons. Spring rains threaten
embankments and floods in one part of the country can have countless knock-on effects elsewhere. In the
summer, our comparably moderate maximum temperatures still bring the risk of buckled rails. In the autumn we
must contend with issues of high winds, adhesion, and the infamous leaves on the line. And in the winter we are
plagued by both operational and maintenance disruptions caused by ice and snow. Since 2006, the Birmingham
Centre for Railway Research and Education (BCRRE) has been undertaking work to understand and mitigate the
effects of ice and snow on the UKs railway network. While some of this has involved taking measurements from
the live railway, the group has steadily been developing a suite of facilities and standard tests which can be used
to evaluate the winter resilience of a number of components of the railway infrastructure.
Combating the
cold weather
Edd Stewart and Clive Roberts
Birmingham Centre for Railway
Research and Education,
University of Birmingham
considered with tests undertaken at the
University of Birmingham to evaluate some of
the candidate solutions. The first work under -
taken was to consider the possibility of increasing
the contact force between the conductor
shoe and the rail. The tests made use of
BCRREs spinning rail facility shown in Figure 1.
The nominal contact force was varied through
static loading to identify any effects on the ability
of the conductor shoes to clear the formed ice.
The tests showed that the loading had limited
effect when compared to the condition of the
conductor shoe itself.
In 2008, further testing was undertaken.
This time the tests considered a number
of different shoe designs and looked at
the dynamics of the interaction between the
conductor shoe and the third rail. Example shoes
and outputs are shown in Figure 2. Custom ice
clearing shoes were moderately effective, but
those suitable for current collection worked less
well for ice clearance. While the different shoe
designs had limited effects or exhibited
prohibitive wear profiles, the instru mentation
indicated a correlation between pitching of the
conductor shoe and ice clearance. This was
attributed to the toe of the shoe digging into the
ice and causing sections of it to be removed
through fracturing. This pitching behaviour,
along with other shoe dynamics, was later
verified in a series of field experiments.
By 2010, the proposed methods for ice
clearance had largely moved from physical to
chemical. BCRRE developed a standard suite of
tests to be used in the evaluation of commercial
de-icing products offered to Network Rail for use
on the third rail network. The tests used the
spinning rail facility to not only evaluate the ice
clearing capacity of the products but also their
resilience to both mechanical wear by conductor
shoes (see Figure 3, page 31) and to further
precipitation. Testing in the 2010 season
also included evaluation of sleet brushes for
ice clearance. This highlighted appreciable
performance but also demonstrated an issue
relating to the alignment of the tines in which a
furrow effect still prevented rail/shoe contact
being made (see Figure 4, page 32). BCRRE staff
modified the test sleet brush with a new
alignment and repeated the test showing a
dramatic improvement in performance.
In 2011, Network Rail was searching not only
for reactive de-icers, but for preventative anti-
icier products to apply to the third rail. The
standard suite of de-icer tests was expanded to
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 30
Figure 1 The BCRRE spinning rail facility enclosed in an environmental chamber
Figure 2 Two conductor shoe designs and their ice clearing performances
In the UK, a number of different approaches
to the ice formation problem have been
considered with tests undertaken at the
University of Birmingham to evaluate some
of the candidate solutions
allow evaluation of anti-icing properties and a
new round of testing was undertaken. In addition
to conventionally applied (sprayable) chemical
products, Teflon and Silicone based rail coatings
were also evaluated. These form a coating over
the rail on which moisture pools such that when
it freezes it forms baubles with low surface
contact and adhesion. The removal of these
baubles was shown to be largely dependent on
the sharpness of the edge of the removing
conductor shoe.
More recently, in 2012, BCRRE have
worked with RVEL to test configurations and
deployment mechanisms for equipment to be
mounted to Snow and Ice Treatment Trains
(SITT). While initially involving alternative
mountings for castellated conductor shoes
and sleet brushes, these tests also involved
adapting the test facilities to support hot-lay
chemical de-icers. The testing itself consisted of
variations in component type and sequence
along the train as well as fluid deployment
sequence and rate.
While the formation of ice on the third rail
presents an operational issue, ice in the ballast
can result in substantial disruption to main -
tenance schedules. Holiday periods, such as
those around Christmas, are often used to
schedule track renewal works such that
disruption to commuter traffic is minimised.
Unfortunately these periods are among those
most likely to be affected by freezing conditions.
Ballast is used in track to provide support while
allowing drainage. Should the ambient temp -
era ture fall, however, any moisture remaining
in the ballast can freeze in the inter-particle
spaces bonding the ballast particles together.
Figure 3 Product performance in relation to mechanical wear
In 2010, BCRRE undertook work for
Network Rail to develop a series of tests to
evaluate the effectiveness of a number of
chemical de-icers when applied to sections
of frozen ballast
This bonded ballast is particularly difficult
to remove from the track and can have a
significant impact on the schedule of
renewals processes.
In 2010, BCRRE undertook work for
Network Rail to develop a series of tests to
evaluate the effectiveness of a number of
chemical de-icers when applied to sections
of frozen ballast. The tests considered two
situations the bulk ballast itself and the release
of panels of track embedded in frozen ballast.
As with all other chemical testing, the tests were
undertaken blind to cost and lead by Network
Rails dosing levels; but in this case the quantities
were also varied to identify those required for a
successful application.
Following the testing, Network Rail achieved
an improved capability for ballast removal during
renewals. At this point a second issue relating to
frozen ballast emerged. Once the ballast is
removed it must be replaced with fresh ballast
which is generally transported in auto-hoppers.
As the ballast is stored outside, it can become
damp and thus freeze into the auto-hoppers
preventing deployment. In 2011, BCRRE pro -
duced a pair of structures simulating the form and
mechanisms of an auto-hopper to identify
appropriate levels of chemical de-icers to be
applied in order for the units to remain functional.
The latest project undertaken by BCRRE in the
area of winter preparation relates to ice
formation in switches. This is a project funded by
the TSB and RSSB under the Accelerating
Innovation in Rail call. BCRRE are working with a
number of project partners including Heat Trace
Ltd. to develop self-regulating heating systems
for use on points. While the project partners are
looking at material substitutions, cable designs,
efficiency savings and safety improvements;
BCRRE have developed a thermal model (see
Figure 5) of the entire switch allowing rapid
evaluation of candidate designs and applica -
tions. Further to this, BCRRE have been
undertaking full-scale physical testing of
the most promising products and designs
using a B-type switch contained in a freezer
(see Figure 6, page 33). A number of evolutions of
cable designs and application strategies have
been tested along with multiple solutions for
powering the cables in order to maximise
compatibility with the railway environment.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 32
Figure 4 Sleet brush performance illustrating furrow effect
Figure 5 Thermal model with insets illustrating Computational Fluid Dynamics used for determination
of heat transfer coefficients
BCRRE are working with a number
of project partners including Heat Trace Ltd.
to develop self-regulating heating systems
for use on points
Top running third rail systems in parts
of the world with climates any worse
than the UK are often shrouded against
snow or ice formation
Going forward
During the course of the aforementioned work,
BCRRE has developed a substantial suite of
facilities and standard tests for winter prepara -
tion testing. This range is ever expanding with
future projects likely to build on the testing
already undertaken but also to link to other
areas of work favoured by the group. In
particular, the group has previously under-
taken substantial research into condition
monitoring of infrastructure assets such as
points machines. It is likely that future projects
may involve the extension of these condition
monitoring techniques and algorithms to
consider the performance of points machines in
freezing conditions.
European Railway Review 33 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Dr Edd Stewart is a lecturer in
digital logic and microprocessor
systems at the University of
Birmingham. His research work
is delivered through the
Birmingham Centre for Railway
Research and Education where
he leads on projects in the areas of condition
monitoring, energy, winter preparation, and non-
destructive testing. Edd is involved in research
programmes in the UK, Europe, and also in the
Far East where he is also involved in university
relations and overseas teaching.
Clive Roberts is Professor of
Railway Systems at the
University of Birmingham and
Director of Railway Research
for the Birmingham Centre for
Railway Research and Educa -
tion. He works extensively with
the railway industry and academia in Britain and
overseas. Clive leads a broad portfolio of research
aimed at improving the performance of railway
systems, including a strategic partnership in the
area of data integration with Network Rail and a
European Regional Development Fund project to
help SMEs develop products for the rail industry.
Clives current research interests lie in the areas
of: fault detection and diagnosis; system
modelling and simulation; optimisation and data
collection and decision support, applied to
railway traction, traffic management systems,
mechanical interactions and capacity. Clive
heads a team of 12 Research Fellows and 24 PhD
students. He is a Visiting Professor at Beijing
Jiaotong University and in 2010 was named as
one of the National Science Foundation of
Chinas International Young Scientists.
BCRRE would like to acknowledge their project partners and funders who have contributed to the work
described in this article. In particular, Network Rail, ARUP and RVEL for the third rail work; Network Rail for
the ballast projects; and the TSB, RSSB, Heat Trace Ltd. and other project partners for the switch project.
Figure 6 The BCRRE switch facility enclosed in an environmental chamber

Understanding the effects of ice and snow
on railway networks will help to combat
challenges that cold weather brings




systra, the leader in public transport infrastructure engineering,
is now a major player in a new form of mobility, that is more
generalised, more sustainable and better delivered.
systra creates the confidence that is essential for world progress.
moves the world
metro high speed rail tramway conventional rail freight other modes
SYSTRA has established itself as a
leading partner for many worldwide
high-speed rail projects. How is your role
in these projects different from SYSTRAs
work in the urban transport market?
SYSTRAs worldwide high-speed rail project
portfolio includes HS1 in the UK, South
Korea, Taiwan, Morocco and the Kuala Lumpa
Singapore HSR. We continue to advise the
Chinese Government on high-speed, and we have
worked on every high-speed project in France.
We are currently working on the South-
Europe Atlantic high-speed line from Tours to
Bordeaux where we are in charge of engineering
and taking part in the delivery of signalling
work and the future maintenance activities which
will be part of the final Concession. We are
also involved in another concession scheme
for the NimesMontpellier high-speed rail in
southern France. In these projects SYSTRA is also
involved in the manage ment of construction and
main tenance risks. We will certainly consider
looking to use similar business models for other
major rail infra structure projects, including major
metro projects.
How does SYSTRA contribute to the
environmental studies of high-speed
rail projects?
I believe that working in the rail sector means
that SYSTRA is very much part of the environ -
mental movement. We are encouraging the
shift from fossil fuel-based transport to more
efficient and less damaging means of travel.
For the rail industry, massive technological
improve ments are made each year and we see it
as part of our mission to help bring the benefits
of these technologies to the fore.
We have been advising Greengauge 21
(the UKs HSR lobby group) for over five years.
One recent study looked at the environmental
impact of the new HS2 line and we provided
evidence of measures that will improve its
environmental impact.
SYSTRA is at the forefront of developing
new ideas that will make environmental gains
for future generations to come, with a team
dedicated to innovation and developing state-of-
the art solutions to the worlds most complex
transport projects.
What was SYSTRAs role on the UKs HS1
project, and can you explain the work
you did on HS2s operational concept?
SYSTRA was a member of the HS1 project
management team Rail Link Engineering
which worked for the concessionaire London &
Continental Railways. The role of the RLE team
was to carry out the entire project reference
design, manage the selection of construction
contractors and to supervise their work up to
and including the railway approval and
handover to the operator Eurostar. Using a best
person for the job approach, we overcame
many considerable challenges.
For HS2, we advised that given the right
investment in engineering and rail systems the
line could run up to 18 trains per hour.
SYSTRAs main shareholders are the rail
operators SNCF and RATP, so we are focused
upon passengers in all our designs and advice,
making us unique in our ability to think through
a problem from a 360 perspective.
Tell us about SYSTRAs work in the UKs
Crossrail project how are things going?
Since 2001, SYSTRA has been part of the
Crossrail delivery team, working together with
Bechtel and CH2MHill to assist in project
management, design and construction super -
vision. With over 50% of the tunnelling works
complete, we are on target for opening
in 2018.
SYSTRA has around 50 staff working on
Crossrail in a variety of roles, helping the Crossrail
management team define the track, power and
signalling system requirements.
Now that the contractors are on board, we
are working together to ensure that the detailed
design and construction can proceed in
accordance with the project programme and
stringent specifications.
What are the core long-term
goals of SYSTRA?
We are already a world-leader in trans port
infrastructure engineering and we aim to stay
at the top.
In 2012 we reported revenues of 406 million,
of which over 50% came from international
projects and the other 50% from France. Our goal
is to double the turnover of the company by 2018.
The UK is a strategic market for us. We want
to build on our HS1 and Crossrail experience,
promoting our mainline and urban rail expertise
to Network Rail, HS2 and London Underground.
The launch of such a vast railway modernisa -
tion programme in the UK has given us the
opportunity to invest in the development of a
local engineering capability. For example, we
now have a UK-based electrification capability
with particular expertise in 2 x 25k V systems.
Pascal is based in SYSTRAs London office
please contact him at
European Railway Review 35 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
In an interview for European Railway Review,
Pascal Mercier, Senior Vice President for Northern
Europe at SYSTRA, discusses the companys position
in the high-speed marketplace, their UK presence,
and their focused-goal to double turnover by 2018.
Pascal Mercier
New approach to network maintenance
and modernisation key principles
Ambitions for the French rail network over the
next 10 years are running high, with the dual
target being to put the network back on track on
a sound and lasting basis, both financially and
technically, and to rise to a multiplicity of
overarching challenges (safety, traffic regularity
and growth, simplifying train usage, shift
towards renewable energies, etc.). To cater to
these challenges, a new approach to network
maintenance and modernisation is a must.
An end to piecemeal renewals
Underinvestment in the existing network,
combined with some of the unfortunate effects
of the administrative and budgetary demarca -
tion between renewal and maintenance, have
spawned a surfeit of small scattered main -
tenance or renewal operations, at inevitably
high unit costs. The upshot is a network with a
wide variety of different components and, by
extension, in less than optimum condition.
To modernise the network, it is therefore
necessary to begin by eliminating these
differences through thrusting renewal policies
geared towards re-establishing common
infrastructure standards and bringing network
condition back under control. Through a burst of
concentrated effort, it should be possible to catch
up with the maintenance backlog before
resuming a normal working rhythm, while
continuing to give renewal operations pride of
place. The creation of a fully-fledged infra -
structure manager will simplify this process.
A move towards bespoke maintenance
Parts of the network are already managed
differently high-speed lines, for example, are
not treated in the same way as conventional
lines. But current practices make insufficient
allowance for the particular features of the
various different types of line with the result
that maintenance is less than optimal. Some
little-used lines are maintained to a relatively
over-high standard while there are a number
of unacceptable defects on certain heavily-
trafficked lines. Ideally, each line and each
site should be considered individually with
regard to:

Reliability requirements and target availa -

bility levels

The acceptability of incidents and their


The split of engineering capacity (main -

tenance windows, works possessions, line
closures, etc.) between revenue service and
maintenance requirements

The economic viability of line maintenance.

Towards a route-based rationale
Heavy renewal operations have a major impact
on network availability. It is therefore vital
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 36
On 15 October 2012, Rseau Ferr de France (RFF) was ordered by Transport Minister, Frdric Cuvillier, to table
proposals to deliver major rail network modernisation (GPMR). Delivered to the Minister on 19 September 2013,
the plan proposed is consistent with efforts to create a shared, long-term vision for rail transportation.
According to the plan, 15 billion are to be earmarked for the network in other words 2.5 billion per year
while a further 2.3 billion are to be specifically devoted to maintenance. But modernisation plans are not an
exercise in allocating funds. The aim of the proposals set out in the GPMR is to lay the foundations for a new
methodical approach to the network, where user requirements are central to the works scheduling rationale.
The plan is, therefore, inextricably linked with the creation of a fully-fledged infrastructure manager and an
integrated industrial public-sector group. The purpose of this article is to highlight the key principles that will
shape network renewal and modernisation in the coming years.
Matthieu Chabanel
Deputy General Director,
Marketing and Planning, RFF
RFFs impressive
rail network
modernisation plan
that maintenance should be industrially and
consistently organised over entire lines or
corridors, and not in piecemeal fashion from one
administrative area to the next. There should
also be coordination with infrastructure
managers in neighbouring countries, in par -
ticular over European corridors. Equally
important, all maintenance operations should fit
in with a long-term rationale (at least 10 years).
Developing a common medium-to-
long-term vision for the network
Time in the railway world is long. This explains
why it is so vital for the network manager to
have a strategic roadmap designed in relation
to several different time horizons: short-term,
over the six years up to 2020, with the pursuit of
projects already in-hand and the start of a
number of new developments; medium-term,
up to about 2025, which is when todays new
and emerging projects should come to fruition;
long-term, in other words the final goal towards
which all steps taken in the shorter-term should
ultimately converge.
New methods involving all stakeholders
The strategic roadmap will contribute towards
overcoming the financial disequilibrium
prevailing on the network by ensuring that
common targets are set for infrastructure
(nature, performance, etc.) and agreement
reached over the requisite medium and long-
term resources.
A common roadmap is also vital for the
transport organising authorities and the railway
undertakings, which need to have a clear forward
vision and firm, to make realistic decisions
on which to plan their own investments. The
roadmap will also need to take their existing
planning documents into account.
This strategic vision of the network and
network policy should be established with the
State, the transport organising authorities,
the railway undertakings (not least SNCF),
and shipper and passenger representatives.
It will be the infrastructure managers resp -
onsibility to assist the public authorities in
consolidating this vision, thereby enabling the
State to produce a coherent network strategy
by the end of 2014.
Five-point programme
A five-point programme for designing tomorr -
ows service portfolio consists of:
1. Establishing capacity requirements
at regional level
This stage consists of using travel require-
ments at each of the different time horizons
to establish a clear picture of what future
transport services (passenger and freight)
should be and check their compatibility with
infrastructure. Should the two be incompatible,
the measures to be taken (operational and/or
infrastructure adaptations, etc.) will need to
be examined.
2. Ensuring the consistency at national level of
the requirements identified
The approaches adopted in the regions must be
consistent with a national vision based on the
work of the Mobility 21 Commission and
the decisions taken as a result. A national
approach of this nature will, of necessity,
involve ensuring that a corridor passing through
two regions receives similar treatment on either
side of the administrative divide.
3. Fixing performance requirements for
individual lines or sites
For each performance criterion, it will be
necessary to set local targets as a basis for
planning and undertaking maintenance
operations. To achieve optimum results,
requirements will be subject to close scrutiny
and resources tailored to actual needs.
4. Establishing maintenance requirements over
uniform geographical areas
In the face of capacity constraints, priority has
to be given to those renewal operations
required to bring infrastructure back up to
standard. In heavily-trafficked areas, in
particular, works possessions are in short
supply with the result that engineering
operations can only take place at night over
periods lasting, at most, five to six hours at a
stretch. This may result in trade-offs, with
development plans put on hold until services on
the existing network have been brought back up
to standard.
5. And what of the future of
lightly-trafficked lines?
For those parts of the network handling small or
medium volumes of traffic and essentially used
by TER trains, discussions will have to be held
between the infrastructure manager and the
regions to arrive at solutions combining
allowance for the economic possibilities of the
infrastructure manager with catering satis -
factorily to mobility needs.
Conclusion: a long-term action plan
The modernisation plan sets the foundations for
discussions with all stakeholders so that,
together, those concerned can produce
ambitious and challenging proposals for the
network. Fuller details should be available by
the end of 2013, after which the plan will be
cascaded down to the regions. Action should
start at once on a number of pilot worksites not
requiring major investment that can act as test
beds for the new methods and procedures
proposed in the GPMR.
For the men and women working on the
railway, the GPMR now to be finalised and
enforced, and by extension railway reform as a
whole, heralds not only new opportunities but
also major change. The success of the project will
depend, to a large extent, on the support given
them in negotiating this change.
European Railway Review 37 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Matthieu Chabanel has held
different posts during his career
including positions within
governmental bodies, most
notably being appointed in April
2010 as Technical Advisor for
Transport and Infrastructure
Planning in the Prime Ministers Office. Matthieu
joined RFF in April 2012 as Deputy Director
General in charge of the Commercial Centre.
: R
i (T
The Vigirail emergency action prevention plan
Following the derailment at Brtigny on 22 July 2013, SNCF and RFF began analysing the causes of the
accident, producing an emergency action plan, codenamed Vigirail, launched on 9 October 2013.
Under this plan, 410 million are to be invested between 2014 and 2017, with most of this amount to be
directed towards speeding-up switch renewal operations. The 300 million earmarked for the purpose will fund
the replacement of 500 sets of switches per year, compared with the 300 originally scheduled, and double the
number of switch replacements in le-de-France.
The second largest budget item (80 million) will be for video camera systems to monitor switches in the
track. 20 million will be invested in automating infrastructure inspection records to ensure 100% traceability.
Three further steps will be taken to flank these developments: creation of an express alert desk (3 million),
stepping-up staff training in new technologies (4 million) and improving and simplifying maintenance
reference documents (1 million).
Easy ways
to book:
+44 (0) 1223 345 600
+44 (0) 1959 563 123

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Assets & Revenue against Threats to Security?
Reducing Crime on a Shoestring
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Moving Security up the Companys Agenda
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Head of Security
Union of Railways
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Security & Continuity
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Network Rail
Antonio de
Santiago Laporte
Industrial Technical
Madrid Metro
Conor ONeill
Rail Vehicles
Group Manager
Metro Project
Peter Prak
Manager Security
Dan Taylor
Policy & Research
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Bob Gough
Security Manager
Serco Docklands
Wayne Dixon
Head of Station
Tyne & Wear Metro
Christian Schang
Operations Director
Marc Pearl
President & CEO
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Bob Crow
Signalling &
European Railway Review 39 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Total renewal in Denmark
is on time and on budget
Henrik Holtermann, Banedanmark
The European rail
industrys commitment to
ERTMS implementation
Philippe Citron and Michel Van Liefferinge, UNISIG
The signalling sector
opens the door to the
Spanish industry
Pedro Fortea, MAFEX
ringing in the new
ric Le Moal, RFF

European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 40
The best and the most
economical solution
The strategy envisages an investment of
2.5 billion and includes a total replacement
meaning that all existing equipment is to
be replaced regardless of age or level
of technology.
The programme represents a major change in
technology intended to maximise the possibilities
and benefits of re-signalling the Danish railway
network. In the rail sector, it is unique in its
approach of focusing on the economies of scale
and creating a competitive market solution to
ensure optimised price and quality. This approach
has resulted in a 0.6 billion saving compared to
the 2008 benchmark.
Customer benefits
All Fjernbane lines in Denmark will be equipped
with ERTMS level 2 baseline 3 which secures
interoperability. Across the network, pass -
engers can expect better punctuality, increased
line speed with higher capacity on selected lines
and shorter journey times on some routes.
Nationwide there will be a higher and more
homogenous level of safety. Future maintenance
will be more economical and the system will
provide an unprecedented foundation for better
centralised traffic control, energy optimisation,
and on-time passenger information.
All this is a major step in the implementation
of the political vision to double the number of
passengers by 2030.
In 2009, a broad political majority decided to fund a total replacement of the entire signalling system on the
Danish national network with ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) and all the signalling on
the Copenhagen S-bane with a CBTC system (Communication Based Train Control). So far, progress is on time
and on budget and with this, Denmark will be the first country to carry out a nationwide implementation of
ERTMS level 2 baseline 3 the newest European standard.
Total renewal in
Denmark is on time
and on budget
Henrik Holtermann
Head of Secretariat in the Signalling
Programme, Banedanmark
Major projects status at
September 2013
In August 2011, Banedanmark signed the
contract for the CBTC system with Siemens for
the supply and installation of the fully
automatic Siemens Trainguard TM train control
system, Sicas type electronic interlocking and
switch machines.
Siemens is to equip 170km of Copenhagen
double-track S-bane for CBTC with an automatic,
radio-based train control system and fitment
of the 135 S-bane trains with the CBTC on-
board equipment.
The equipment also includes a new opera -
tions control centre and a Wi-Fi radio
transmission network along the network as the
primary communication channel between train
and infrastructure. Finally the contract includes
maintenance services for 25 years.
Instalment on the early deployment line is
on-going. Serial installation of on-board
equipment has started and the first seven trains
are installed and back in service. The aim is to
have 61 S-trains from a total of 135 fitted with the
CBTC on-board system before the end of 2014.
The S-bane roll-out map
Punctuality, capacity and safety are at the heart of the Danish signalling
programme. With a total renewal of the signalling systems on more than
3,000 km of tracks by 2021, the programme will make Denmark the only
country in Europe to have carried out a total migration to
the new signalling technologies.
Fjernbane East and West
The Fjernbane consists of a West and an East
project covering 1,200km and 800km of line
respectively. In January 2012, the contracts
were signed with the Thales and Balfour Beatty
Rail consortium (West) and Alstom (East).
The contracts encompass the full design,
manufacture and supply of a ERTMS Level 2
baseline 3 signalling solution but also inter -
locking combined with rail field equipment
(e.g. train detection and point machines) and a
traffic management system with two new control
centres. The contract also includes maintenance
services for 25 years.
The two projects are to have completed their
preliminary design phase in November 2013 then
shifting to the final design phase parallel with
preparing the early deployment.
On-board equipment
In March 2012, Alstom and Banedanmark
signed the contract to deliver on-board
equipment to 41 railway operators in Denmark
and install its Atlas ERTMS on-board equipment
system on more than 700 trains, including
passenger train sets, locomotives and relevant
maintenance vehicles.
The project is responsible for ensuring that
the new train control system fulfils the
requirements to ERTMS standard for ETCS
on-board equipment. The on-board project
coordinates the contact to all train operation
companies and contractors who will implement
the new train control system on their vehicles.
The current preliminary design stage
is planned to end late-November 2013 and
the detailed surveys of all types of train have
now begun.
The project will provide education and training
of between 5,000 and 6,000 employees, most of
whom are drivers and traffic management staff,
so that they are able to operate under the new
signalling equipment and operate within the
new operational rules.
For the S-bane, the safety documents
as well as the training specifications for
safety critical and safety related roles have
been forwarded to the National Safety Agency
(NSA) for acceptance. Furthermore, the develop -
ment of course modules and materials
for a number of training pilots are almost
complete. With respect to Fjernbane, the
operators have received a presentation
of the training concept, method ology, and
duration etc.
Traffic Control Centres
The Signalling Programme includes two new
buildings needed for the new Traffic Manage -
ment Systems for both Fjernbane and S-bane.
These Traffic Control Centres (TCCs) will replace
the existing 15 TCCs across the country.
The TCC buildings will have a modern and
intelligent design with high architectural
standards, a high security level and future proof
levels of sustainability. The buildings will not only
house the control rooms but also the workplaces
for relevant support functions, training facilities,
a number of auxiliary facilities and technical
equipment rooms.
The first TCC is under construction in
Copenhagen and construction of the second TCC
will start in late-2013.
GSM-R voice and data infrastructure
Denmark is one of the last European countries
to change from a national proprietary radio
system to the ERTMS standard GSM-R.
The implementation is carried out in
two phases:

A voice network (completed in 2012) and

implementation of voice GSM-R radios in all
trains (due to be completed by 2014)

An upgrade of the network to cater for a

nationwide GSM-R network as the communi -
cation carrier for the ERTMS level 2 roll-out,
due to be completed by 2017. The prelimin -
ary design is currently being reviewed.
It has been decided to base the ERTMS roll-out
on a GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
solution, to overcome radio capacity problems
in bigger nodes such as stations and very
densely trafficked areas. Hence Banedanmark
is driving this development with other ERTMS
users in Europe to ensure this eventually
becomes a part of the ERTMS standard. A UIC
EoG (ECTS over GPRS) test was completed
in week 24.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 42
The Fjernbane roll-out map
SPOR20 (Signalling Programme Operational
Rules 2020) are developing a complete new set of
operational rules for the Infrastructure Manager
(IM) replacing all existing IM operational rules on
Banedanmarks network, which is aligned with
for the new signalling technology.
The new technology brings new possibilities
which results in a number of improvements
compared to the existing set of rules:

The new rule set will be approximately

60% the number of specific rules today
meaning simpler and safer rules and
reduced training time

Shunting is not a separate set of signalling

principles anymore but included as normal
train movements, which saves investment in
separate shunting signalling.
The rules for the S-bane are expected to be
approved by the (NSA) in late-October 2013.
The Fjernbane Operational Rules version 6.0 (in
line with the supplier preliminary design docu -
mentation) is being prepared for review.
Organisational implementation
Realisation of the benefits from the new
signalling systems depends on a successful
achievement and anchoring of the changes in
the Banedanmark organisation.
The changes vary in form and impact but
include changes in e.g. technical skills, comp -
etences, working processes, corporate and
organisational structures.
These changes are the responsibility of each
unit in Banedanmarks organisation. The
Signalling Programme are overseeing that this is
coordinated on the programme plan and that
necessary information flows back and forth.
Furthermore the programme facilitates and acts
as a catalyst for the change.
Test and Roll-out
For the entire signalling infrastructure a long
design and test period has been chosen
followed by a relatively aggressive roll-out.
Joint Test Lab
Joint Test Lab (JTL) is Banedanmarks testing
laboratory where suppliers must test their
systems against each other and against
existing systems to ensure that they comm -
unicate satisfactorily. The vast majority of
interaction problems are thus expected found
and corrected before installation on early
deploy ment lines. Hence the JTL is one of more
tools to mitigate the substantial risk of system
integration between many contracts and
existing system, which is a consequence of the
total roll-out.
Early deployment
The early deployment scheme includes the
first lines to be fitted and tested. The scheme
will build-up experience for both the suppliers
and Banedanmark.
The early deployment scheme outlines
implementation on the RoskildeKgeNstved
line on Zealand and the Frederikshavn
AalborgLang line in Jutland as the first lines
to mature baseline 3 and prove the comm-
ercial operation of the new systems on
the Fjernbane. These lines are planned for
supervised operation in 2016.
For the S-bane, the line Jgersborg
Hillerd is selected as the early deployment
line. Since May 2013 the installation on the
early deployment line has been on-going,
including cable laying, instalment of balises
and axle counters, and placement of technical
object buildings. The installation is expected
to be completed by the end of 2013. Headway
simulation for the line has been approved and
supervised operation is planned to start at the
end of 2014.
After reliability growth and type approvals,
the installation process moves on.
Roll-out will, as a principle, first take place on
the early deployment line then the main lines,
then on the regional lines and finally on the low
density lines.
As infrastructure signalling renewal is the
driving force for the programme, doubling-up
equipment of infrastructure is not feasible. As a
consequence the roll-out is based on Fjernbane
rolling stock fitted with ERTMS and a specific
transmission module (STM) that can interpret
the existing Danish ATC system. The S-bane
trains will be equipped for both the HKT and
CBTC systems.
According to the plan, S-bane roll-out is to be
completed by 2018 and the Fjernbane is to
be completed by 2021.
Henrik Holtermann is Head of
Secretariat in the Signalling
Programme at Banedanmark.
Before his current role, Henrik
held positions as Head of
Railway Division in the Ministry
of Transport and as Personal
Secretary to two Ministers of Transport.
Henrik has a degree in political science
and administration.
European Railway Review 43 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Installation of CBTC equipment in an S-bane train
In 2013 the trend was continued by Germany, a
country at the heart of Europe with the greatest
number of freight corridors that announced
that all their rail freight corridors will be
equipped with ERTMS. The first priority is to
equip Corridor A, which traverses four countries,
by 2018.
However, the ERTMS promoters cant be
complacent with these evolutions. The ERTMS
Deployment Plan adopted by the European
Commission targets full implementation of
ERTMS on the core network by 2030 and ERTMS
equipment on the comprehensive network by
2050. The plan should result in the creation of
several fully-equipped corridors, which account
for the major share of Europeans rail freight
traffic. In order to achieve this goal, Member
States need to accelerate the implementation of
ERTMS in their networks.
ERTMS deployment statistics
The UNIFE World Rail Market Study published in
2012, forecasts market growth for ERTMS in
Western Europe and predicted substantial
increase worldwide, in Africa, the Middle East
and the Asia Pacific regions. Nevertheless,
figures show that in 2012, the share of line
kilometres in Europe compared to outside
Europe slightly increased.
The UNIFE statistics show that today, almost
68,000km of railway tracks and 9,150 vehicles are
already running or contracted to be equipped
with ERTMS. Europe increased its share of
trackside investment to more than 57%;
nonetheless significant investments have been
on-going in Asia (26% of the total ERTMS
trackside investments) and in Africa and the
Middle East (14%).
The latest statistics also demonstrate that
there is a constant, stable rate of increase in
ERTMS investments in Europe. The smaller
Member States are continuously introducing,
extending and implementing ERTMS in their
network. A significant investment plan has
started in the UK, which is already testing
interoperability status by infrastructure suppliers
and the on-board equipment retrofit pro -
grammes for both passenger and freight vehicles
has commenced. The on-board fitting time plan
is linked to and in advance of the infrastructure
rollout focused on the TEN lines in the UK. Some
Central and Eastern European Member States
have also made progress on deploying ERTMS
in their network. Nonetheless, a rather slow
uptake is visible in CEE Member States despite
the availability of European funds. Countries
in the Magreb region of North Africa are also
showing a clear appetite to deploy ERTMS.
ERTMS in Europe
The ERTMS MoU, signed in April 2012, foresees
a number of measures to further facilitate
ERTMS deployment, in terms of maintenance
and stability of the specifications, technical
harmonisation, homologation and testing of
the equipment. UNIFE with its members from
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 44
2012 was a major milestone year for the further commitment and deployment of ERTMS in the European Union,
when a new ERTMS Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed by the European Commission and the
railway sector. This MoU makes a strong case for the strict implementation of the ERTMS Deployment Plan.
In addition, historic and strategic decisions were taken by Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands to carry out
countrywide implementation of ERTMS.
Philippe Citron
Director General, UNIFE
Michel Van Liefferinge
General Manager, UNISIG

The European rail
industrys commitment to
ERTMS implementation
ONE PLATFORM is all your
telecommunication needs!
for mission-critical telecommunications networks
the rail supply industry fully support the
initiative by delivering technical expertise to
advise and guide the European Railway Agency.
The introduction of Baselines 3 provides
stability and increased confidence to a system
that encourages future ERTMS deployment.
One of the industry commitments included
in the ERTMS MoU has been recently achieved by
UNISIG members. UNISIG is an Associated
Member of UNIFE and was created to develop
the ERTMS/ETCS technical specifications. The
European ETCS suppliers have signed a frame -
work agreement to enhance the collaboration
of the industry to carry out interoperability
tests for interested third parties, typically rail-
way operators, infrastructure managers,
national authorities or public institutions.
This agreement strengthens the cooperation
among the industry members to create a strong
case for interoperability.
As planned in the ERTMS MoU, the first
maintenance release of the Baseline 3 specifica -
tions is under preparation by the European
Railway Agency with the strong support of
UNISIG. Some important additional specifica -
tions have been delivered by UNISIG to the
Agency, among others the Train Interface and
the RBC-RBC Interface specifications (RBC
Radio Based Communication).
ERTMS as a global standard
Even though ERTMS was originally designed to
be the unique but ubiquitous signalling system
for Europe and support full interoperability
across the EU, the worlds increasing demands
for advanced, sustainable and safe railway
transport offered a further opportunity to
provide a modern, standardised and multi-
supplier sourced system for signalling.
ERTMS/ETCS was perfectly positioned to
address this fundamental requirement and it is
now regarded as the single, global, and the most
advanced railway signalling, automatic train
control and protection system for high-speed,
freight, urban and mixed traffic conditions.
ERTMS is indeed being implemented in a
growing number of countries worldwide. The
UNIFE figures also indicate that ERTMS is being
used in 37 countries and the number of track
kilometres equipped with ETCS outside Europe
exceeds 29,000km.
The conclusion is that non-European
customers have been just as committed, or in
some cases more committed, to adopting
ERTMS. The committed mileages nearly reach
the European levels. However, in 2012, a slight
slowdown was detected outside Europe, possibly
Figure 1 ERTMS investments worldwide by geographical area, trackside (km) Sept 2013 Source: UNIFE
reflecting the world economic slowdown and
funding availability. Fortunately, China has taken
a clear lead in adopting ERTMS on its new high-
speed lines and appears to be intending to
deploy their system on all future high-speed lines
in a huge national build plan.
The first European rail joint technology initiative
promoted and driven by the railway industry
has a strong focus on control-command and
signalling systems. SHIFT2RAIL seeks focused
research and innovation (R&I) and market-
driven solutions by accelerating the integration
of new and advanced technologies into
innovative rail product solutions and will
promote the competitiveness of the European
Rail Industry. This large-scale multi-annual
research programme will be under Horizon
2020, the EUs multi-annual R&I programme.
Among the five Innovative Programmes (IPs)
in SHIFT2RAIL, IP2 deals with advanced traffic
management system and control systems.
The objective of this pillar is to extend synergies
and interoperability with the urban and mass
transit railway sectors while maintaining the
dominance of ERTMS as a solution for railway
signalling and control systems across the world.
The technology demonstrators will support the
overall goal of developing a new generation of
signalling and control systems in order to enable
intelligent traffic management with auto -
matically driven trains. This new system
evolution will aim at optimising capacity and
reliability while minimising Life Cycle Costs.
The technology innovations in SHIFT2RAIL
will also enhance the signalling system by taking
into consideration worldwide requirements and
focusing on advanced future solutions such as
satellite positioning, Automatic Train Operation
and future communication systems that will
replace GSM-R.
Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)
UNIFE strongly believes that EU funding has a
critical role to play in ensuring the deployment
of ERTMS technology along the European
railway network. As the full benefits of
ERTMS are realised only when a significant
number of neighbouring countries have made
the necessary investments to upgrade their
network, EU funding is pivotal in increasing the
pace of ERTMS deployment along the European
railway network.
The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF), a
multi-annual financial framework will kick off on
1 January 2014. ERTMS is considered as one of
the main priorities to be tackled within the CEF.
For the 7-year period, an expected budget
between 700 million and 1.1 billion could
be allocated for financing ERTMS deployment.
The available planned budget is twice as high
as the current ERTMS budget in TEN-T and
three times higher than the budget spent
on ERTMS deployment during the last multi-
annual financial period.
UNIFE fully supports and promotes the
deployment of ERTMS which will bring signifi -
cant benefits in terms of interoperability, safety
and performance, thus contributing to the
objective of a single European railway area.
The European Commissions provision for
manda tory ERTMS implementation on the total
European rail network is therefore an essential
step in the right direction. In this respect, the
fast migration towards ERTMS will provide
considerable benefits not only for rail transport,
but also the environment and quality of life for
all Europeans.
The European railway industry is committed
and provides its full support to make ERTMS a
success and the role of the industry is to deliver
a stable system which is Baseline 3.
ERTMS is now a globally accepted train
control solution and is clearly becoming
the system of choice. Moreover, SHIFT2RAIL
will further reinforce this position by bracing
technical solutions to enhance the system to
encompass the worldwide needs. There should
be every confidence that ERTMS is THE solution
for a global signalling system.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 46
Philippe Citron joined UNIFE
in June 2011. He began his
career as a Transport Advisor at
the French Permanent Repre -
sentation to the EU in 1986 and
then became Member of the
Cabinet of the French Transport
Minister in 1990. In 1993, Philippe became
Manager and Chief of Staff at RATP Paris, and then
joined the SNCF as Strategy Director in 1999. Prior
to assuming his position at UNIFE, Philippe
served for eight years as CEO of Systra one of the
worlds leading public transport engineering
companies. Philippe is a graduate of Paris II
University in Public Law, holds a Diploma from
the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences
Po) and also studied at the Ecole Nationale
d'Administration (ENA), where he also lectured
about rail and urban transport.
Michel Van Liefferinge has a
background in telecommuni -
cation engineering. During
20 years, he has built a solid
experience in the signalling
division of Alstom where he has
occupied several managerial
positions including VP Railways, VP Technical, VP
ERTMS and Managing Director of Alstom Belgium
Charleroi, the Alstom development centre of
ERTMS solution and projects. Since April 2011,
Michel has been working as a consultant and
is currently acting as UNISIG General Manager
for UNIFE.
Figure 2 Figure 2: ERTMS investments in Europe, trackside (km) Source: UNIFE
European Railway Review 47 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
All products and solutions follow the EU
standards and regulations related to the SIL
and RAMS norms. The advantage with the
WaveTrain Systems Level Crossing Warning
System is that all components are installed in
the vicinity of the level crossing normally
within 15m. The solution from WaveTrain
Systems does not require long distance cabling
between the level crossing and the sensors, as
the prevalent conventional solutions do.
WaveTrain Systems has installations on
various continents, such as Europe, Africa and
Australia. Our biggest and most important client
at present is Network Rail in the UK. WaveTrain
Systems has currently installed more than
40 miniature level crossing systems, and a
recent statement from Network Rail said:
The traditional way to install a miniature level
crossing warning system is to hard-wire it into the
signalling system. That takes about two years
and would likely involve a 29-hour blockade
to install. The WaveTrain Systems solution
provides all the same benefits and can be up and
running within hours, and can be installed next
day when required. The system is really helping
us reduce the risk at level crossings.
During the whole process from initial
conversations through to todays status
Network Rail has been very helpful and supp -
ortive knowing this is new territory and
equipment for the Railway Authorities.
The eager support from Network Rails
Anglia Route (from the Managing Director and
the Route Infrastructure Maintenance Director)
to key resources out in the field has been amaz -
ing, says Richard Aaroe, CEO of WaveTrain
Systems. A process involving new tech-
nology, which normally takes between four
and six years, has now been completed by us
in 18 months. This is extraordinarily quick,
says Richard.
Following Network Rail, railway authorities
in both Africa and Australia have been following
the process and progress with the Anglia Route
in the UK and WaveTrain Systems are now also
running trial projects in these countries.
We like to see ourselves as the Game
Changer in the rail industry a name, in fact,
that our clients have given us, says Richard.
A Game Changer since we are changing
both the current suppliers costs and approach
regard ing protection at level crossings, but also
the fact that there will be a change in user
behaviour from pedestrians and road traffic.
The old phone process will now be secondary for
getting access to cross an unprotected crossing
in the future.
Apart from the Anglia Route, several of
the other routes in the UK are also now asking
when can we get hold of the solution from
WaveTrain Systems.
WaveTrain Systems is a company dedicated to railway safety, and in particular safety at level cross-
ings. WaveTrain Systems has developed a robust and reliable warning and safety solution for level crossings
based on innovational technology. The solution provides substantial savings to our clients, compared to current
systems, without compromising on quality. WaveTrain Systems helps railroad authorities meet their strategic
target of zero tolerance in the field of safety and accidents at level crossings.
WaveTrain Systems AS
the Game Changer in
the railway industry
Solutions from WaveTrain Systems AS
are present in Europe, Africa and Australia
Richard Aaroe is CEO of
WaveTrain Systems AS.
He received his education from
the Norwegian Military Academy
(the National Centre of
Excellence for Leadership), the
Norwegian Business School of
Administration as well as from George
Washington University in the United States
specialising in leadership, management and
administration. Richard has 26 years of experience
in project management and chief of operation in
various companies, and has held several positions
as Board Member. Prior to WaveTrain, Richard
held senior management positions in national
and international companies.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 48
In Europe, industry-contribution to signalling is
especially useful to achieve the goal of technical
interoperability through the implementation
of a common European system, compared to
the 20 systems that exist today. In this way, the
current operational barriers along different
corridors could be completely eliminated.
These developments play a key role to allow
railways to compete more successfully against
other means of transport. In the last decade, the
growing use of modern high-speed lines in
many European countries has been made
possible by the techniques used among
these we must highlight the mobile radio
system GSM-R as a communications support for
voice and data to the European signalling
system ERTMS.
On 19 May 2006 a milestone date in Spain
the first circulations took place between the cities
of Madrid and Lerida with series 102 trains
running at 250km/h operating ETCS level 1.
Since then, the high degree of progress made in
this area, and specifically the ERTMS system
in this country, is having an exponent of first
orders that makes its rail network a true example
of interoperability.
At present, Spain has 1,974km of track
equipped with ERTMS in service, of which
656km are also equipped with Level 2 and it is the
system that is implemented in new lines.
Apart from the great achievements in high-
speed, networks such as the Madrid commuter
line is also a pioneer at European level with the
implementation of an ERTMS signalling system
a facility which results in improved safety.
We must highlight that the operation of
systems such as ERTMS/ETCS offer a number
of advantages based on its versatility, allowing
operation in the same line with different levels,
with different scenarios of occupation and the
ability to adapt to each case. Nevertheless, its
implementation is a delicate process that
Signalling and telecommunications systems represent key technological support for rail operations in a number
of ways including both the management and control of traffic signals and remote controls. Technological
developments in these fields contribute in an essential way to the advancement of modern railway lines,
especially in high-speed operations.
The signalling sector
opens the door to the
Spanish industry
Pedro Fortea
Director, MAFEX the Spanish
Railway Association
requires special planning and the intervention of
highly specialised companies.
Indeed, the adaptation and coexistence of
the signalling and communication systems that
are registered in Spain has provided the industry
with a unique experience that is now exported
to Europe and those emerging markets where
there exists a commitment to rail as a means of
territorial and interurban mobility. Bulgaria,
Romania, Lithuania, Saudi Arabia, Turkey,
Morocco and Algeria are just some of the
countries that have taken this great know-how to
improve traffic management and traffic safety.
Spanish advances in worldwide
railway signalling projects
The engineering sector has created specialised
teams that have allowed them to work in the
most important high-speed lines developed in
Spain and around the world, with an intense
activity on railway systems, primarily focused
on the management, supervision and monitor -
ing of GSM-R projects, as well as signalling and
train protection projects.
Getinsa Ingeniera, after providing its
experience in numerous high-speed sections in
Spain, is at present active in international
projects such as on lines 1 and 2 from the branch
Kharj-Riyadh in Saudi Arabia the first network
of its kind in the area.
Ardanuy Ingeniera has also made its way
internationally. Among the most prominent
works, this Spanish company is responsible for
the study report of the high-speed railway line
project between Qued Tlelat and the Moroccan
border on the branch Tlemcen-Akkid Abbas a
report which includes signalling through ERTMS
systems, levels 1 and 2.
The high specialisation in the field of
signalling and telecommunications has also
opened the door to Spanish renowned groups
such as Idom ingeniera y consultora and TYPSA.
After their leading roles in the national network
such as the high-speed MadridBarcelona line or
the MadridGalicia line, they also carry out works
abroad of special magnitude in terms of technical
assistance, planning and coordination of
facilities, etc.
With them, companies like Invensys Rail
Dimetronic have contributed to the imple -
mentation of signage solutions in many
countries. Invensys Rail Dimetronic has co -
ordinated associated signalling systems of the
new high-speed railway line between Ankara and
Konya (Turkey), equipped with ERTMS Level 1.
It is also present in the Spanish consortium in
charge of the high-speed network between
Mecca and Medina (Saudi Arabia), which includes
the implementation of ERTMS Level 2 in track
to the 34 trains on the line, the Traffic Control
Centre, electronic interlocks and LED signals.
Beyond high-speed, awards have been made
for relevant projects such as the signalling of the
metropolitan area of Auckland (New Zealand),
with the installation of ERTMS.
Another technological exponent is CAF
Signalling who has carried out works in this
field for the upgrade of signalling with ERTMS
Level 1 for the new rail corridor between Bulgaria
and Romania, as well as the section around the
city of Pehlivankoy within the by-pass linking
several lines between Turkey and Greece.
Thales Spain has also managed to
strengthen their presence worldwide with
numerous contracts for instance winning a
recent award for the signalling modernisation of
the railway line between Cairo and Alexandria. In
this area of activity the company is already
present in Turkey, Algeria, Slovenia, Morocco
and Malaysia.
Bombardier Spain and SEMI provide other
examples of technological strength in railway
signalling and communications that join this
long list. Along with on-going projects, we
must highlight the role of Public-Private Partner -
ship in R & D. The company Indra have signed
agreements with the Railway Infrastructure
Administrator (ADIF) to create specialised GSM-R
laboratories for the communications technology
RBC-Train and the development of engineering
data for ERTMS, among others.
The greatest technological bet of the rail
industry to become a leader in the fields of
signalling and communications is supported
by the intense international outreach of the
Spanish Railway Association MAFEX. In its
programme of activities, the most important are
the trade delegations and visits to the main
forums for industry professionals to publicise
the contributions of member companies in
this field, as well as the range of services
and products with which these companies
have contributed to the development of rail in
recent years.
European Railway Review 49 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
A CAF Signalling CTC system
After spending some years as the
Assistant Manager at Fundigex
the Castings Exporters Associ -
a tion of Spain Pedro Fortea
became the Director of MAFEX in
2004 and has helped to develop
its professional activity. Pedro
has studied at ESADE Business School, Escuela
Universitaria (Cmara de Comercio de Bilbao)
and Deusto University.
About MAFEX:
The objective of the Spanish Railway Association
(MAFEX) is to carry out promotional activities in
other countries, as well as to defend their general
interests. Created in 2004, MAFEX currently has
71 members representing more than 85% of Spanish
rail industrys exports, according to official figures in
2012. Known as the official collaborating organisa -
tion of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and
Competitiveness through its Subsecretariat of Trade,
the Association is supported by GRUPO AGEX, to
which it belongs, and by different national and
international organisations and institutions.
As part of its general rail network upgrading
programme, RFF therefore began to explore a
number of avenues to make the French network
more intelligent by adopting information and
communications technologies conducive to
greater safety, punctuality and also capacity.
It was decided that infrastructure would
be replaced using technologies available
on the market in other words the IP protocol
(the international Internet standard), optical
fibre cables (now used by telecom networks
throughout the world), and the latest generation
railway wireless communication standard
(GSM-Rail) as the main features of the modernisa -
tion process.
The idea is to develop a backbone that can
then be fleshed out with the various dedicated
applications ensuring the different rail system
and control/command functions. This backbone
will also be used by RFF to develop a number of
added-value functionalities.
Optical fibre cables
RFF is responsible for developing and main -
taining a physical transmission network
dedicated to railway equipment and applica -
tions for example signalling, operations and
power supplies. The network originally
consisted of copper cables but these are now
coming to the end of their useful life, to say
nothing of the problems of theft so regularly
besetting the network. Copper cables are
therefore being replaced by optical fibre cables
which have the dual advantage of being more
reliable and better-suited to the latest systems.
Replacement operations are being conducted
as line upgrading and new line construction
programmes progress.
RFFs fibre plan is designed to give greater
definition and scope to the current roll-out
programme. Approximately 4,500km of optical
fibre cables are scheduled for installation
between 2012 and 2015 as a matter of priority
basically to cater to the GSM-R telephone
network and to first operations under the
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 50
Over the years, telecommunications systems have become a vital factor in rail network reliability. A mere boon
in the past, they are now essential to railway operating safety and network coordination. Modern telecoms
systems have to combine ever higher throughput with exemplary reliability and with that other key factor:
mobility. Although there are technologies on the market capable of meeting these needs, modernising a huge
network in constant operation represents a major challenge. In 2009, recognising the importance of telecoms in
the railway system, Rseau Ferr de France (RFF) joined forces with SNCF to draw-up an overall inventory of all
railway telecom equipment and came to the conclusion that looming obsolescence called for urgent action.
ringing in the new
ric Le Moal
Head of ERTMS and
Telecom Services, RFF
centralised network control project (grouping
together the 1,500 most important signal boxes
to form 16 regional traffic control centres).
A further 12,000km will then be installed to cover
all main rail network needs, also putting RFF in a
position to market optical fibres to telecom
operators. Whereas in the past some 100-200km
of cables were installed each year, it is now
necessary to up the pace to over 1,000km. The
whole process from organisation to industrial
roll-out has had to be completely re-thought.
InfraNet network
Performance achieved with optical fibre cables
is such that several separate transmission
networks can be accommodated at the same
time: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH);
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM);
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(DWDM); and the InfraNet network.
With a backbone comprising 90 routers and a
target service network of some 1,000 routers,
InfraNet provides the different applications with
more reliable data communications. It is based
on the Internet Protocol (IP) which is a stable and
lasting standard, and on Multi Protocol Label
Switching (MPLS). The performance offered by
these protocols is streets ahead of anything that
could be achieved with the old point-to-point
networks now on their way out.
Since continuous transmission is vital,
InfraNet offers fail-safe guarantees thanks to its
fault-tolerant network architecture. In addition,
the whole network and its equipment are
centrally monitored and controlled from Paris.
InfraNet is already used for railway operating
applications linked to the new generation of
computer-controlled signal boxes (crucial to
centralised network/traffic control) and for
infrastructure component monitoring applica -
tions. Very shortly, new generation railway
telephone equipment will be added to this list.
New generation railway
telephone equipment
Railway telephone equipment encompasses
all the telecom facilities used by operators
working trains on the rail network, dispatchers,
traffic controllers and drivers (via the ground-to-
train radio transmission system). Terminal
equipment in other words the different task-
specific control panels is linked to dedicated
switches processing railway-specific command
interfaces. There are some 4,000 operator
workstations for the national network.
RFF is planning to use InfraNet infrastructure
as a means of modernising this equipment.
IP switches are well on their way to becoming
the new standard. This new approach of blanket
connection to the InfraNet network will make it
easier to migrate towards standard products
with IP interfaces, foster an architecture that
separates call processing from fixed terminal
functions and make it simpler to combine data
and voice communications services. Not only are
IP solutions synonymous with technological
progress, their general use should also sub -
stantially drive down Life-Cycle Costs.
GSM-R the new ground-to-train
radio transmission system
As the communications systems used between
train operators and train drivers, ground-to-
train radio has long been a key factor in ensuring
safe and efficient train operations. The Global
System for Mobile communication for Railways
(GSM-R) is gradually being introduced to replace
the old analogue ground-to-train radio trans -
mission system fast coming to the end of its
useful life. The new digital communications
technology will enable the system to offer a
combination of voice and data transmission via
a single platform and will boost rail system
reliability and responsiveness. Another benefit
is that most of Europes railways have decided
to forge ahead with the introduction of the new
system for reasons of uniformity. Train radio will
be able to operate across borders as easily as
GSM mobile phone systems today. Last but not
least, GSM-Rail is needed to support the
European Rail Traffic Management System
(ERTMS) for, without it, equipping high-speed
lines in France with ERTMS Level 2 would
be impossible.
Since 2003, 3,000km of main lines have been
equipped with GSM-R. In 2010, in order to speed-
up roll-out through to 2015, RFF signed a PPP
agreement with SYNERAIL a company owned
by VINCI (30%), SFR (30%), AXA (30%) and TDF
(10%) for the installation of the GSM-Rail
network on 14,500km of track and its operation
over 15 years.
This last example of telecom system
modernisation is illustrative of the significance
and complexity of the programme in-hand.
Optical fibre cables, InfraNet, new generation
railway telephone equipment and the new
ground-to-train radio system all have the same
target namely that of making communications
better and more reliable, given their vital
importance for the safety and successful
management of the rail network as a whole.
Changes have been prompted by numerous
outside agents and the operations involved are
huge. Todays efforts to upgrade network
technology herald the entry of railway communi -
cations into the digital era.
European Railway Review 51 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
ric Le Moal is Head of RFFs
ERTMS and Telecom Services
Department, responsible for out -
sourcing and managing telecom
infrastructure projects for the
whole of the railway network,
with the assistance of SNCF for
operation and maintenance.
Driver using GSM-R
Todays efforts to upgrade network
technology herald the entry of railway
communi cations into the digital era
Developing Sustainable & Innovative
Urban Transport Networks
Norways investment plans
Jernbaneverkets plans for reducing travelling time,
with more trains and fewer delays, including plans for
a European Rail Trafc Management System in Norway
and multiple major projects.
The Scandinavian 8 Million City
Hear how by connecting Oslo and Copenhagen with
high-speed trains via Gothenburg and Malm, an extensive,
strong and coherent labour market area can be formed.
This will allow Scandinavia to successfully compete with
the major European and global metropolises.
Scandinavian Rail Projects
Banedanmarks rail projects including
Copenhagen to Ringsted and Ringsted-Fehmarn
Trakverkets largest investments in rail infrastructure
How the European Corridor will drastically reduce
travel times by expanding two major rail routes
Line: Stockholm - Gothenburg
Travel Time: 2 hours 15 minutes
Status: Some stretches will begin
being built, but no decision on
whether they really will be for
high-speed trains
Line: Stockholm - Malm
Travel Time: 2 hours 30 minutes
Status: No decisions made
Line: Copenhagen - Oslo
Travel Time: 2 hours 30 minutes
Status: No decisions made
P: +44 (0) 1223 345 600
F: +44 (0) 1959 563 123

Organised by
Europes leading rail industry journal
The FLEXXCompact platform is characterised by
a modular approach for maximum design
flexibility. The FLEXX Compact bogie family is
versatile in its range of features and perform -
ance due to wide use of adaptable modules and
proven standardised components. This gives
the advantages of a flexible bogie concept
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specific operational requirements. FLEXX
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performance and are easy to maintain with low
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Bogies of the FLEXXCompact family are light-
weight and have a torsionally elastic frame for
optimal safety against derailment. The bogies are
compact and therefore highly suitable for low-
floor vehicles where space for under-floor
equipment is limited or for double-deck vehicles
European Railway Review 53 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Compact is now a well-established name in the world
of bogies for railway vehicles. There are currently more than 7,000 FLEXX
Compact bogies in service or on order worldwide. Recently, the production
of the 1,000th FLEXX Compact bogie for SNCFs commuter train
was celebrated at Bombardiers site in Crespin, France. Simultaneously, the 1,400th
FLEXX Compact bogie for BOMBARDIER
2 trains for Deutsche Bahn left Bombardiers factory in Siegen,
Germany. The latest version of this type of bogie takes advantage of Bombardiers extensive experience in this
segment, with roots dating back to the 1990s with the bogies developed for BOMBARDIER
FLEXXCompact the
most successful bogie
platform for regional
and commuter trains
Frederik Allert
Product Engineer,
Bombardier Transport France S.A.S.
FLEXX Compact motor bogie for TALENT 2
where reduced height of the side beam is
required to accommodate the compact bogie to
carbody interface.
A wide and coherent family of bogies
FLEXX Compact is a family of bogies including
Jakobs and conventional bogies, which are
developed on a common base. Currently,
both types of bogies are available as trailer
and motor versions which optimise the use of
common elements and provides advantages in
terms of ease of maintenance.
Modular approach for maximum
design flexibility
As mentioned , the Jakobs and conventional
bogie are designed taking into account the
same design principle and maximise the use of
shared components, but this also applies to the
complete FLEXX Compact family as a large
percentage of the components can be used for
different applications. This also means that the
supply chain for subcomponents can be
extended and assured.
An enduring success story:
From single-deck DMU to double-deck EMU,
and from regional to commuter trains,
from coaches to tilting articulated vehicles
Initially the FLEXX Compact bogies were mainly
used as a set of bogies with conventional bogies
used as front or end bogies and Jakobs
bogies as the intermediate bogie of articulated
trains. These bogies were used in DMU and EMU
TALENT trains (for Deutsche Bahn and BB) and
in the widest fleet of EMUs ordered by SNCF
and currently in revenue service: AGC (Autorail
Grande Capacit).
In a similar way, it was feasible to share a
common design when developing the running
gear for the TALENT 2 EMU used for regional
application in Germany and the BOMBARDIER
articulated train for commuter
applica tions in the Parisian region. Naturally,
specific requirements of the final customer and
train characteristics were taken into account but
the common base design enabled shared
practices, such as validation planning, tooling
etc. It also permitted sharing of experience
and the ability to apply a proactive product
introduction plan.
One of the main evolutions between the
FLEXX Compact motor bogie generation used in
the AGC and the most recent generation is the use
of the semi-suspended gearbox coupled with a
fully-suspended motor.
It should be mentioned that FLEXX
Compact bogies are also used for coach
applications. For example, JUMBO coaches
coaches for the DOMINO
trains in Switzerland and coaches for LVS
Marschbahn in Germany are equipped with
FLEXX Compact Bogies.
The TALENT tilting trains delivered to NSB
(Norwegian State Railways) are equipped with
FLEXX Compact bogies adapted to the higher
axle loads, higher speed and to the harsh
Scandinavian winter conditions. These specific
FLEXX Compact bogies are equipped with
the unique ContRoll type of tilting system: no
swinging bolster is required between the bogie
and the car body, but hydraulic cylinders, fitted
between the anti roll bar system and the carbody,
directly actuate the tilting.
FLEXX Compact Heavy Do 2010
FLEXX Compact front motor bogie for Regio2N
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 54
From asynchronous to permanent
magnet motors, and from wheel-mounted
discs to tread brakes
Our FLEXX Compact bogies are also fitted to the
Regio2N train BOMBARDIER
the latest
vehicle developed by Bombardier for SNCF which
is very innovative from a design per spective
being an articulated train set mixing single-deck
and double-deck sections. One of the challenges
of this application was to be able to offer a
platform of bogies that were compatible, yet
operating under a very large number of train set
variants (including regional and commuter
application with axle loads up to 20,5 T and
performance requirements of 160km/h with
option up to 200km/h). For this application, the
motor bogie integrates a compact BOMBARDIER
TM 1510PS self-ventilated permanent
magnet motor with reliable electro-dynamic
braking allowing the use of tread brakes (and
also in this case the integration of a cast iron
tread brake for shunting purposes as required by
the final customer).
Latest developments
More recently, the architecture for mass-
optimised design was used in order to develop
the FLEXXCompact Heavy (FCH) bogie which will
equip the TWINDEXX
Vario Double Deck
Powerhead produced for the DO2010 contract
with Deutsche Bahn, Germany. This bogie allows
the integration of the powerful MITRAC TM
1800AF forced ventilated asynchroneous motor
and is able to bear up to 21T/ axle with a bogie
mass lower than 10T (interface bolster and
motorisation included). In contrast to the
original FLEXX Compact family which uses a
wheel diameter smaller than 840mm, in this
instance a wheel diameter of 920mm was
used in order to cope with the high traction
force, loads and the Life-Cycle Cost require -
ments. In this case, the interface with the
carbody was standardised with another
Bombardier bogie family: the FLEXX Load GIX
Bogie (Trailer Bogie) used for double-deck coach
application in Germany.
Another variant of the FLEXX Compact
family is the mechatronic bogie developed
for TWINDEXX Express double-deck trains for
SBB, Switzerland and integrating the FLEXX
Tronic WAKO active suspension (roll compensa-
tion device).
Today, the FLEXX Compact family is firmly
established in the major segments of regional
and commuter applications. We are expecting
to further develop the platform in order to cover
additional needs, such as:

Higher motorisation performance

Increased speed range up to 250km/h

Extended load range

Validation for specific weather conditions

and regional requirements.
A continuous improvement programme is also
in place in order to collect information on the
performance of our products in our different
markets and applications; this will enable us to
further optimise our design assumptions,
optimise our Life-Cycle Cost and guide our
new developments.
OMNEO, FLEXX and INOVA are trademarks of Bombardier
Inc. or its subsidiaries
2. Trademarks of Third Parties
European Railway Review 55 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
FLEXX Compact end motor
bogie for SPACIUM
FLEXX Compact trailer
Jakobs bogie for SPACIUM
FLEXX Compact Bogie equipped with FLEXX Tronic WAKOfor SBB
Frederik Allert studied at the
Facult Polytechnique de Mons
in Belgium where he acquired
the grade of Civil Engineer in
Mechanics. Frederik started his
career in 1994 as a Structural
Engineer in the Engineering
Office of the Belgian Subsidiary of Bombardier
where he collaborated in the development of
several bogies for LRVs and Metro applications.
Frederik joined the French site of Bombardier in
Crespin in 1999 as Project Engineer for the
development of the tilting HVP bogie of the Class
221 for the UK and continued with several
projects such as the Light Tyre Metro for Taipei
and the MF2000 for the Paris Metro. Frederik is
currently acting as Product Engineer in charge of
the management and development of the FLEXX
Compact Bogie Platform.

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Noise & Vibrations
European Railway Review 57 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Reducing vibrations
near railway lines
ways for finding
effective measures
Wolfgang Behr and
Isabelle De Keyzer, UIC
Industry cooperation
needed for a less
noisy railway
Siv Leth and Nicolas Furio,
UNIFE Noise Mirror Group
Speech intelligibility
in trains
Jess Otero Yugat and
Igor Alonso Portillo, CETEST

/ S

Transport policy of the European Union
Since future transport requires a system that is
able to move a lot more passengers and
freight than it is today, a high-capacity, efficient,
cost-effective and environmentally-friendly
transport system is necessary across Europe.
The Strategic Rail Research Agenda 2020
of the
European Rail Research Advisory Council
(ERRAC) expects rail transport to double.
However, an increasing number of people living
near railway lines are annoyed by noise and
vibrations as side-effects of rail transport and it
is therefore necessary to find ways to reduce
those effects.
Finding mitigation measures to reduce
vibrations near railway lines
The two main causes of annoyance induced by
railway traffic are noise and vibration. While
noise is an issue for nearly all kinds of transport
by car, train and plane, vibrations are relevant
especially to rail transport. Therefore during the
last three years, the RIVAS project tackled
the challenge of developing and analysing
vibration mitigation measures under the
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 58
Launched in 2011, RIVAS
is a collaborative rail research project co-funded by the European Commission
comprised of 27 partners from all over Europe and is aimed at finding Railway Induced Vibration Abatement
Solutions. The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement 26574.
Reducing vibrations
near railway lines
ways for finding
effective measures
Wolfgang Behr
RIVAS Coordinator, UIC
Isabelle De Keyzer
Dissemination of EU Co-Funded
R&D Projects, UIC
Figure 2 Some examples of real measured types of wheel out-of-roundness
Figure 1 The source of vibrations induced in the vicinity of a railway track is the interaction force
created at the wheel-rail contact point when a train passes on the track
S|ngle resonance |rack|orm
Zero cross|ng a| very low |requency
H|n|m|zed sens|||v||y |o bog|e |ype
|mproved RAHS
Rock0el|a inorganic resilient
technologies are Common Sense
A member of the ROCKWOOL Group
patronage of the European Commission (FP 7).
The 27 partners, led by the International Union
of Railways (UIC), represent end-users
(infrastructure managers and train operating
companies ADIF, DB, RATP SBB, SNCF and
Trafikverket), associations, manufactures
and suppliers (Alstom, Bombardier, EiffageRail,
Keller, Lucchini, Pandrol, RailOne, Sateba),
universities and research institutes (BAM,
CEDEX, Chalmers University, CSTB, ISVR, KU
Leuven) as well as consultants and associations
(D2S, Satis, TV Rheinland, Vibratec, Prose).
The source of vibration the backbone
of individual work packages of the
RIVAS project
The source of vibrations induced in the vicinity
of a railway track is the interaction force created
at the wheel-rail contact point when a train
passes on the track (see Figure 1, page 58).
This force is strongly influenced by the wheel
and rail irregularities. Irregularities resulting
from track evenness can be isolated defects,
insulated joints, corrugation of the rail, and
hanging sleepers etc. Irregularities of the wheel
can be flats or different types of out-of-round -
ness. Figure 2 (page 58) shows some examples
of real measured types of wheel out-of-
roundness. A classification of the wheel and
track defects with respect to vibration emission
was discussed during the project through
numerical simulations and measurements.
The generation of vibration and its influence
on the interaction force can by simulated using
experienced calculation tools based on spring
and damping models (see Figure 3).
The vibration which citizens feel in their
houses depends not only on the resulting
interaction force due to the wheel-rail contact
and the properties of the track, but also on
the propagation path (see Figure 4, page 60)
which can be simulated by mathematical
methods. Figure 5 (page 60) shows the effect
of a barrier in the propagation path for a
frequency of 30 Hz. But such calculations require
knowledge on the soil conditions which are
often poorly known.
As shown in Figure 4 (page 60) even the type
of building and its construction plays a role in
how the vibration will induce noise in it.
Therefore different types of houses and also
different types of soil conditions have been
investigated within the work of RIVAS (see
Figure 6, page 60).
Figure 3 The generation of vibration and its influence on the interaction force can by simulated using
experienced calculation tools based on spring and damping models
Based on the factors that are influencing
vibrations induced by rail traffic, the project has
been divided into the following five scientific
work packages (see Figure 7, page 61):

WP1 establishes the test procedures

to monitor and control the performance
of vibration mitigation measures under
realistic conditions

WP2 develops and evaluates mitigation

measures based on reducing the excitation
of vibration at the vehicle-track interface by
improved maintenance

WP3 develops and evaluates mitigation

measures for ballasted and slab tracks

WP4 will develop and evaluate miti-

gation measures based on sub-grade
improvement and ground barriers within the
railway infrastructure

WP5 addresses the impact of the vehicle.

Evaluating the efficiency of a measure
to reduce the effects of rail traffic
induced vibration
At first sight, it seems easy to measure the effect
of a solution to reduce vibration effects, i.e. with
under sleeper pads (USPs).
An under sleeper pad is a soft material
mounted under a concrete sleeper (see Figure 8,
page 61). So measuring the vibration level at a
certain distance from the track before and after
installing the USPs (that means exchanging
existing sleepers without USPs with new sleepers
with USPs) leads to a correct result under the
following conditions:

Nothing has been changed at the track

system except the sleeper (that is not
realistic since the status of the trackset and
the rail will change during the construction
by changing sleepers; even the roughness
of the rail can change slightly between

For both measurements, the same train

has to be running on the track due to the
imperative of having the same wheels with
the same out-of-roundness status. However,
this is not realistic since a test train is very
difficult to run several times on a given track
for management and financial reasons; also
using one test train is not a good idea due to
the known fact that the effect of a measure
will differ depending on the running train
due to the different static and dynamic
forces of each class of train (unsprung
masses of the wheels, distance of the wheels
within a bogie, distance of the bogies from
each other, etc.). Another method is to
measure a certain number of trains in order
to evaluate the average value of each class of
train. But also such measurement will take a
long time to carry out.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 60
Estimating vibrations
and structural noise
The need for increased rail infrastructure in densely
populated urban areas has over recent years
extended the use of light-rail, metros and main
lines, often using shallow tunnels for alignment due
to the high costs of acquiring right of way. This has
in many European countries often turned out to
conflict with environmental regulations for
vibrations and structural borne noise in neigh -
bouring buildings. When designing railways where
a demand for track damping measures can be
expected, the design challenge is to determine the
minimum damping solutions ensuring all
environmental regulations are met, as damping
measures are expensive to install.
Currently, several research activities within
developing better methods for estimating
vibrations and structural noise from railways is
on-going. Within the 7th EU research framework
the project RIVAS entertaining the problems of
developing such models to better accuracy and
outlining goals for harmonising limits is now
coming to an end.
In parallel with RIVAS, several rail network
owners have been working on their own in
developing more accurate models serving more
operational aims than theoretical. One of those is
Banedanmark who have engaged COWI A/S to
develop an accurate model for estimating
vibrations and structural noise within buildings
in close proximity to other buildings. Here the
approach has been an empirical model based upon
a probabilistic approach towards summarising
transfer functions measured from a high quantity of
locations and train types calibrated towards typical
geological situations for Denmark. The model will
be presented at EuroDyn 2014 in Porto.
Figure 4 The vibration which citizens feel in their houses depends not only on the resulting interaction
force due to the wheel-rail contact and the properties of the track, but also on the propagation path
which can be simulated by mathematical methods
Figure 5 The effect of a barrier in the propagation path for a frequency of 30 Hz
Figure 6 Different types of houses and also
different types of soil conditions have been
investigated within the work of RIVAS
Therefore a certain measurement method was
developed and used for all measurements
carried out within RIVAS (see Figure 9). Using a
combined procedure, the vibration levels are
measured at a certain distance from the track
(usually at a distance of 8m and 16m minimum)
for each train separately before and after the
installation of the mitigation measure (i.e.
installing of sleepers with USP). Differences
between the vibration levels at the test
section and the reference section at the
measurement before installing the mitiga-
tion measure may be caused by different
conditions (ballast parameters, stiffening of the
subsoil, soil parameters; possibly also rough -
ness and unevenness of the rail). In order to
minimise errors due to the measurement itself,
three different sensors positioned close to each
other at each measurement point are used.
Also additional measurements of the soil
conditions can be made.
Differences of the results in the unchanged
reference section before and after the installation
of the mitigation measure may be caused by
different track conditions itself (i.e. status of
tamping of the ballast) or by the running trains.
But these differences can be taken into account
by comparing the vibration results in the test
section before and after the installation of the
mitigation measure in order to decide which
effect is caused by the mitigation measure, and
which effect has other causes.
The detailed description how to use that
measurement protocol in order to obtain correct
results for the real effect of a measure to reduce
vibrations by a measurement campaign is given
in the deliverable D1.2 which can be downloaded
from the RIVAS project public website
Figure 4 (page 60) makes it very clear that
the same mitigation measures can have
completely different efficiencies depending on
the type of train and its velocity, the type of
track system, the soil conditions and even the
type of buildings.
Therefore all results from each single work
package within RIVAS will be evaluated with
respect to the need of decision criteria regarding
which measure will work best in specific
situations and conditions where annoyance
due to vibration occurs. This process is still on-
going and all results will be made public on the
RIVAS website
1. For further information, visit:
2. Strategic Rail Research Agenda 2020; European Rail
Research Advisory Council, May 2007
European Railway Review 61 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Dr Wolfgang Behr is Co -
ordinator of the RIVAS project,
ensuring that the project comes
to exploitable and imple -
mentable results in 2013. For the
RIVAS project, he was seconded
to the UIC from the Department
of Acoustics and Vibrations of DB Systemtechnik
GmbH in order to provide his long-standing
expertise in the field of vibration and vibration
mitigation from railways.
Isabelle De Keyzer has been
working for the UIC since
January 2008 where she is in
charge of the dissemination of
collaborative R&D projects
co-funded by the European
Commission under the FP7.
Isabelle holds a Master I degree in translation
from the Institut Suprieur de Traducteurs et
Interprtes (ISTI) of Brussels (promotion
1992). Within RIVAS, Isabelle is in charge of
the Work Package 6 Dissemination, exploitation
and training.
The authors would like to thank the following
people for contributing to this article: Dr. Dorothe
Stiebel, Expert in Acoustics and Vibrations, DB
Systemtechnik; Ms Lise Pesqueux, Project
Manager in Acoustics, Alstom Transport SA; Dr
Estelle Bongini, Project Manager in Acoustics,
SNCF; Dr. Geert Lombaert, Professor, KU Leuven;
and Mr. Adam Mirza, Noise and Vibration
Engineer, Bombardier Transportation Sweden.
Figure 9 RIVAS measurements
Figure 7Based on the factors that are influencing vibrations induced by rail traffic, the project has been
divided into five scientific work packages
Figure 8 An under sleeper pad is a soft material
mounted under a concrete sleeper
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 62
If the European Unions (EU) ambitious goal is to
improve interoperability, increase the capacity
and create future competitiveness in the rail
industry, noise is one of the key concerns that
must be addressed. The noise issue has, in many
previous studies, been identified as one of
the most important obstacles to win public
acceptance for new lines or increased traffic of
existing lines not least for freight traffic which
generally creates more noise than other traffic
and often also operates at night. The greening of
the transport sector is another EU objective
which goes hand-in-hand with the noise
mitigation initiatives. Therefore, there is a need
to improve European railway standardisation
and research activities regarding noise in the
upcoming years.
Improve standardisation:
vehicle track separation technique
Noise limits for pass-by are an essential part of
the Noise TSI, with the purpose of assuring
interoperability. Hence a vehicle cannot be
refused by a Member State because of its noise
performance. This must be compatible with
maintaining the competiveness of the railway
sector and with improving the environmental
protection. However, the present Noise TSI test
procedures for pass-by noise are not well related
to traffic noise emission in Europe because of the
definition of the reference track. Furthermore,
neither acoustical aspects of the infrastructure
nor maintenance or retrofit of cast iron block
brakes can be included in the Noise TSI.
This is an unwanted complication when it
comes to noise limit setting since there is a split
responsibility between rolling stock and
infrastructure. If Europe wants to have more
quiet rolling stock than the current Noise TSI can
assure, there is a need to further develop an
assessment procedure that can separate track
noise from vehicle noise.
The original purpose of the reference track
was to define it so that vehicle noise and not
track noise was measured. A reference track
should however also be easily accessible in all
European Member States and not too different
from standard track design. The final reference
track definition was a compromise meaning
the track noise contribution compared to the
vehicle noise contribution was higher than
desired and this is today the fact that restricts
The UNIFE Noise Mirror Group (MG) brings together experts from European rolling stock manufacturers and
aims to steer UNIFE work on standardisation, regulation and research of railway noise. The UNIFE Noise MG is
involved in the activities of the Noise Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) revision managed by the
European Railway Agency (ERA) and is driving UNIFE research activities for noise issues.

Industry cooperation
needed for a less
noisy railway
Siv Leth
Chairwoman, UNIFE Noise Mirror Group
Nicolas Furio
Coordinator, UNIFE Noise Mirror Group
Figure 1 Noise sources and separation of noise sources through the use of beamforming techniques
Explore us at
We have developed a new approach for modeling
vibration nuisance and structural noise in buildings
exposed to railway trafc.
This new emperical model is based upon a probabilistic
approach towards summating frequency response
functions obtained by thousands of measurements
at various locations passed by the most common train
types; all calibrated towards typical ground conditions.
The model works seamless with GIS software and can
provide results with uncertainties less than 3 dB.
Test the demo version of the model set up for a Danish
further progress. The definition of the reference
track as set out in ISO 3095:2013 is a spectral
definition of an envelope curve, setting maxi -
mum rail roughness limits and minimum
track decay rate limits. Any track with a lower
roughness and/or a higher decay rate than the
limit curve is accepted as reference track. With
the current reference track definition, reductions
of Noise TSI limits for pass-by will have small or
no impact on noise exposure of people.
One option would be to reduce the track
noise by tightening the reference track definition.
However, this option is not acceptable as it would
lead to even lower accessibility to test tracks and
increases the complexity and cost of today, whilst
already today, time and cost for certifying rolling
stock according to Noise TSI is a big issue for the
sector as a whole.
Another option would be to develop a
vehicle-track separation technique. It is import -
ant to have a consensus among railway
stakeholders around such a method. Taking
into account the cost aspect, this separation
tech nique must be simple to not lead to a
more complicated procedure than exists today.
As this method is not yet standardised, it would
be interesting to start a European research
project, dedicated to the definition of such a
method, with the objective to standardise it
in the future.
Step-change in European
railway research
There are two aspects of noise; exterior and
interior. For the exterior noise, the disturbance
to nearby residents should be minimised.
On some lines, the capacity is restricted
because of noise regulations for noise
reception. In such cases there is a tangible
economic drive to reduce the noise emission of
the passing trains to allow more of them to pass.
Exterior noise has been the focus of previous
public funded research.
For interior noise, the comfort and attractive -
ness for passengers and working conditions for
on-board staff is a complex challenge. It will be
crucial to offer an attractive product, in which the
noise and vibration performance is one
important feature, to revitalise the railway sector
and drastically increase the market share
compared to other transport modes. In par -
ticular, the introduction of light-weight material
and new design concepts to reduce energy
consumption and wear, will call for increased
attention to be paid to the acoustic design of a
rail vehicle. Also, the rapid development in IT and
infotainment systems should be utilised in future
generation passenger trains.
The competitiveness in the rail industry
becomes stronger with the presence of more and
more global players. In particular, the immense
expansion of Asian markets has led to a rapid
development of the Asian railway industry.
The European industry must speed up the
efforts to stay in front of the global competition.
It is important to combine high efficiency and
noise comfort through innovative and tech -
nological state-of-the-art products. The impact
on future railway systems will be important, since
a system approach considering the combination
of low noise rolling stock and low noise infra -
structure will assure the competiveness for a
green high capacity European railway system.
Therefore, the European rail sector is ready
to commit to major step changes in order to fight
noise issues in Europe and achieve the objectives
set out in the Transport White Paper and in the
Europe 2020 strategy. In order to make this
reality, railway stakeholders, including suppliers,
operators, infrastructure managers, rail clusters
and academia and research institutes are
teaming up in the SHIFT2RAIL proposal for a
flagship Joint Technology Initiative under
Horizon 2020. SHIFT2RAIL is one coherent and
flexible research instrument managed in a Joint
Undertaking within Horizon 2020. A dedicated
overall budget is estimated at around 1 billion
over a six to seven year period co-financed by
the private sector and the European Comm -
ission. The Rail Joint Technological Initiative
called SHIFT2RAIL is a sector-wide initiative to
develop European rail innovation and com -
petitiveness on a large scale and thereby
strengthen the position of the European industry
in the global competition. The CEOs of the largest
rail suppliers in Europe committed to this, until
now unprecedented initiative, to step up
common rail research and develop the rail
systems of the future. In particular, the focus will
be on improving capacity to absorb a bigger
share of traffic, increasing efficiency and
sustainability, and developing the most
customer-friendly, safe vehicles.
SHIFT2RAIL will develop and implement a
new way of addressing the challenges for
innovation in railway technology. Two key
objectives have been identified by the initiative;
the first one is increasing capacity so as to enable
rail to absorb a greater share of traffic growth;
and the second is to attract business and improve
the efficiency of the rail transportation mode as a
whole. The initiative will contribute to an
increase in the overall efficiency of the rail
transport system, satisfy transport users needs,
and at the same time help to foster the
competitiveness of the European manufacturing
industry, through the implementation of
technological innovation.
The future of railways in Europe and the
competitiveness of the European railway
industry are strongly linked to the acoustic
performance of the railway system. UNIFE
members through the UNIFE Noise Mirror
Group will dedicate their efforts in stand -
ardisation of separation techniques for vehicle
versus infrastructure noise together with a
strong and transversal participation in the
future SHIFT2RAIL Joint Technology Initiative.
The challenge is important but the cooperation
will lead to a less noisy and sustainable railway.
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 64
Siv Leth is Director for the
Global Centre of Competence
Acoustics and Vibration at
Bombardier Transportation and
certified Bombardier Fellow
Expert. She has industrial experi -
ence of vehicle noise control
from the aerospace, naval, mining, automotive
and railway industry for over 30 years.
Siv is Chairwoman of the UNIFE Noise Mirror
Group, plus Adjunct Professor at the Royal
Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Marcus
Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration
Research. Siv is the author of numerous papers
published in international journals and
conferences on acoustics of trains and aircraft
and is holder of patents in the area of active
noise control.
Nicolas Furio is a Civil Works
Engineer and has been the
Infrastructure Manager at UNIFE
since 2010. Nicolas is respons -
ible for UNIFEs technical
activities in the field of rail
infrastructure, energy and noise
and is also in charge of current and future
infrastructure, energy and noise research
projects. Before joining UNIFE, Nicolas was Project
Manager for Egis Rail. Nicolas holds a Civil Works
Engineering degree from the Engineering School
INSA in Lyon and a Masters degree in Industrial
Marketing and International Strategy from the EM
Lyon Business School.
RockDelta and RAIL.ONE launch the RHEDA RX metro track system
RockDelta, a company in the Rockwool Group,
together with RAIL.ONE has developed the
RHEDA RX solution for metro track systems
which assures effective attenuation of vibrations
produced by passing trains.
The solution was developed on the basis of
the proven RHEDA family of ballastless track
systems. These systems are chiefly characterised by
an in-situ concrete slab with integrated bi-block
sleepers. Since its initial application in 1972 at the
German train station Rheda, the namesake of
the system, this solution has been systematically
further developed by RAIL.ONE GmbH and adapted
to changing requirements.
Within the track system, RockXolid

stone wool
mats perform a dual function. Firstly, they represent
total decoupling of the track superstructure from the
tunnel, thereby providing the desired isolation level.
Secondly, they assure the likewise-desired elasticity
of the overall system. The required mat thickness is
selected in accordance with the design of the mass-
spring system and with the resulting relationship
between the required mass and spring. Available mats
include: RockXolid

MFS 30mm; RockXolid

50-50mm; and RockXolid


mats demonstrate numerous unique

material properties. Many of these characteristics
result from the stone wool core material, which is
inorganic and chemically inactive, and include the

Outstanding static and dynamic properties and an

optimal force-deflection plot

Exceptionally long service life, virtually without

modification of functional performance

Extremely great resistance to environmental factors

such as water, light, ultraviolet radiation, etc.

Complete re-usability

Resistance to fire and smoke, e.g. more

than 1,000C

Internal drainage system.

With its modular configuration and its end-to-end
systems engineering, the RHEDA RX ballastless
track represents a technologically mature and
customer-oriented solution for urban rail transport.
Figure 2 EMU example Pass-by-noise influence of the track
Recent projects where CETEST has performed
speech intelligibility tests include the new
tramway units for Stockholm in Sweden and
Zaragoza in Spain, and Electrical Multiple Units
for Trieste in Italy. Furthermore, CETEST is
currently preparing future speech intelligibility
tests for a dual tramway-train project for the city
of Cdiz in Spain.
What is speech intelligibility?
First of all, it must not be confused with speech
quality. Speech intelligibility is related to the
amount of speech items recognised correctly,
while speech quality is related to the quality of a
reproduced speech signal with respect to the
amount of audible distortions.
Tests are designed using the Speech
Transmission Index (STI) method. Besides
European Railway Review 65 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Speech intelligibility between passengers and the intelligibility of acoustical messages are an important matter
concerning the acoustic comfort inside a train. Passengers of high-speed vehicles, conventional trains and
tramways might be exposed to relatively high sound levels due to auxiliary equipment in operation such as the
HVAC system as well as general rolling noise. In this situation, speech intelligibility can be decreased by
the transmission path between the talker and the listener, or even between the communication and Public
Address (PA) systems of the train and the passengers. In recent years, CETEST has evaluated the speech
intelligibility inside railway vehicles by means of on-track dynamic tests. Customers of this acoustic testing not
only include vehicle manufacturers and train operators, but also infrastructure managers if we think of the
acoustic characterisation of stations.
Jess Otero Yugat
Senior Test Engineer, CETEST
Igor Alonso Portillo
Director Strategy and Business
Development, CETEST

Speech intelligibility
in trains
validating the tested trains from the point-of-
view of intelligibility, measurements of this index
can be used in order to improve the speech
intelligibility in new rail vehicle designs.
Testing on track is performed according to
the international standard IEC 60268-16.
Previous versions of this standard allowed
determining the Room Acoustics Speech
Transmission Index (RASTI) which focused on
direct communication between people without
making use of a communication system. The last
revision of this standard included a more
comprehensive methodology for evaluating
speech. Also, track tests are carried out in order to
obtain Speech Transmission Index for Public
Address systems (STIPA). Results of the tests
are summarised with a numeric index which
classifies the intelligibility (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 describes the quantification of the
deterioration of the speech intelligibility
produced by the transmission path. The STI
method applies a specific test signal to the
transmission path and by analysing the received
test signal, the STI index is determined and
expressed in a value between 0 and 1. Using this
value the speech intelligibility is modeled.
Test procedure
The test set-up needed for the evaluation of
speech intelligibility includes the instrumenta -
tion of the train by means of loud speakers and
sound metres, which represent respectively the
talker and the listener (see Figure 2).
There are two factors that determine the
speech intelligibility which are considered during
track tests. The first is the background noise,
or rather the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The
second is the acoustics of the passengers room,
which are related with the sound reflections and
the reverberation time in the room.
Several locations of each tested vehicle
are considered, with the purpose of charact -
erising the acoustic comfort. CETEST typically
evaluates the following motion and station-
ary conditions:

Conversations between adjacent pass -

engers are the most common tests, where
the aim is to obtain at least a good speech
index (see Figure 3)

Tests between remote passengers are

carried out in order to verify that a single
person does not hear the conversation
between distant passengers. In this case a
poor or bad speech index is required

Tests between drivers cab and seats

immediately behind the wall adjacent to
cabin, which purpose is to obtain a bad
speech index. This evaluation case is needed
to confirm that passengers close to this
wall do not listen to what happens inside
the cabin

Measurements using the communica-

tion and PA systems are also performed.
The reaction from passengers to acoustical
information is faster and stronger than the
one displayed on the screens located in
the interior of the vehicle, especially in case
of traffic problems.
In addition, several tramways and trains have a
communication system located outside the
vehicle which is used to notify information to
incoming passengers waiting in platforms.
CETEST also analyses this specific situation
placing sound metres at different locations
of the station (see Figure 4 opposite). The
evaluation signal is emitted by the PA system of
the vehicle.
Tests on platforms and stations can be useful
for train manufactures in order to design and
optimise the communication systems of the
future and actual units, taking into account
that volumes of very large stations have a
high reverberation time. These tests are
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 66
Figure 1 The numeric scale used for Speech Transmission Index (STI) tests
Figure 2 The test set-up for speech intelligibility tests Credit: Brel and Kjaer
Figure 3 Evaluation of speech intelligibility between adjacent passengers
also useful for operators and infrastructure
managers to understand and better design
platform operation.
Measuring speech: a useful tool
Although there are limitations to the STI
method, the use of this procedure has proved
useful in many situations and is gaining
international acceptance. In fact, the European
Commission through the European Railway
Agency (ERA) included in 2007 a new acoustic
regulation point in the Technical Specifica-
tion of Interoperability relating to people
with reduced mobility in the conventional
and high-speed rail system. This regulation
defines a minimum value of speech intelli-
gibility for spoken information in all areas of
the vehicle.
In conclusion, it is evident that each
railway unit must guarantee the intelligi-
bility during commercial service. CETEST
as a leader in railway testing has devel-
oped measurement solutions and know-how
for evaluating intelligibility and helping its
customers in ultimately providing better comfort
to the passengers.
Jess Otero Yugat holds a Ph.D
in Mechanical Engineering,
Fluids and Aeronautics from
the Polytechnic University of
Catalonia, Spain. He currently
works as a Senior Test Engineer
in the area of field testing at
CETEST and his main areas of involvement
include the verification of the behaviour of railway
designs from the point-of-view of noise,
acoustics, vibrations, running safety, track fatigue
and ride comfort.
Igor Alonso-Portillois Director
for Strategy and Business
Development at CETEST. He
holds a Masters degree in
Aerospace Engineering and has
worked in railways, aerospace,
defense and renewable energy.
His career in the railways includes positions such
as test engineer and researcher at Spanish
manufacturer CAF. He also worked at UNIFE as
Coordinator for joint research projects co-funded
by the European Commission.
Figure 4 Determination of speech intelligibility between the PA system and incoming passengers
Exchange information,
ideas & opportunities
Network online with
your industry peers
Members and
non-members are
welcome to join
the discussions
The EU Commission has addressed this
challenge by means of two key legislative

Passengers Rights Regulation (EC No

1371/2007): Concerned with the rights of
rail passengers to receive adequate
information before and during the journey
so they can make an informed purchasing
choice and feel reassured during the
journey as regards on-board services,
disruptions, connecting services, etc.

Interoperability Directive (2008/57/EC),

setting out the conditions for achieving
common technical specifications within the
EU rail system.
Both are at the roots of the new regulation on
Telematics Applications for Passenger Services
Technical Specifications for Interoperability
), which entered into force in May 2011
as Commission Regulation (EU) No 454/2011.
A key technical enabler
TAP TSI defines European-wide procedures and
interfaces between all types of railway industry
stakeholders. These stakeholders are notably
passengers, railway undertakings, infra -
structure managers, station managers, third
party ticket vendors and public bodies. TAP TSI
contributes to an interoperable information
exchange eco-system for the provision of
quality journey information and ticket issuing in
a cost effective manner, yet inviting businesses
to innovate and do better. The regulation
requires, amongst other things, that railways
make their timetable data broadly available in a
given format and level of quality. To achieve its
ends, the TAP TSI builds upon various pillars of
the railways legacy, notably UIC standards
(leaflets) and established rail sector databases.
Implementation now entering the
development phase
The regulation is being implemented in
three phases:
Phase One
Phase One implementation preparation was
run between May 2011 and May 2012 by a
project team of railway and ticket vendor
representatives. A multi-stakeholder Steering
Committee, co-chaired and co-funded by the EU
Commission and the rail sector, supervised the
project. It resulted in implementation concepts
that take the railways legacy into account as
best as possible and a master plan that shows
when the RUs and IMs will be compliant with the
regulation. Following a positive recomm -
endation by ERA, the EU Commission has
meanwhile accepted these deliverables.
Phase Two
Implementation development, formally starting
towards the end of 2013, continues to be run
in the same set-up. One of the key tasks is
setting up a sustainable long-term governance
structure that respects the rights of non-
railways and non-UIC members at large,
whilst ensuring minimal additional costs for
the stakeholders.
Phase Three
Deployment of the data exchange eco-system
and on-going operations.
Operations and ticket distribution
The provisions of the TAP TSI embrace two main
areas: communication between RUs and IMs
and functions related to ticketing.
The TAP TSI operational part (RU/IM comm -
unication for short) defines standards for the
electronic communication between Railway
Undertakings, Station Managers and Infra -
structure Managers. The purpose of these
standards is to enable railways by means of
standardised interfaces and messages for
interoperable services to order train paths,
control and manage their train services as well as
improve customer information. The RU/IM part is
closely related to the Telematics Applications for
Freight Technical Specifications for Inter -
operability (TAF TSI), for which reason both
projects collaborate closely and seek to realise
maximum synergies when it comes to imple -
menting both regulations. On the basis of the
solid expertise provided and the committed work
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 68
Not too long ago, travelling abroad by rail was a privilege reserved for a selected few.
With poor telecommunications, reservations made by telephone and recorded on
manual reservation coupons, journeys had to be arranged well in advance. Likewise, the
focus of the former national railway administrations was on domestic travellers. With the opening of the railway
markets and the emergence of cross-border high-speed services, a single European railway area has started to
evolve. Rail is set to become the backbone of the European passenger transport system. Substantial
infrastructure investments have been made over the past 20 years to overcome legacy signalling and control
systems, for instance. In the area of passenger information, distribution and ticketing, the emphasis has been on
domestic customers and services. The needs of international travellers in a competitive, multi-carrier and
intermodal environment, however, require new answers. Some experts claim that this is nearly as big a task as
harmonising the rail infrastructure across Europe.
TAP TSI improving the
customer experience of
European rail journeys
Rtger Fenkes
Project Leader, TAP TSI
performed, stakeholders in RU/IM communi -
cation are enabled to implement TAP and TAF on
a solid basis and with least impact on business
while providing the expected improvements for
companies and passengers alike.
TAP TSI obligations concerning ticketing aim
at improving the data exchange between
passenger RUs and between passenger RUs and
third parties ultimately providing travellers with
quality information. The focus is on making
timetable data widely available. Additionally,
there are provisions on tariff data, reservation,
ticket formats and the exchange of information
related to booking PRM assistance.
A long-term governance
structure needed
TAP TSI places an obligation on the railways to
establish and run in perpetuity a governance
structure that will be responsible for providing
those services that are needed for stake-
holders to be compliant with and to benefit
from the regulation. The main objective is to
ensure that regulatory services are available in a
non-discriminatory way. Such regulatory
services include:

An electronic registry, facilitating search

requests such as Where do I find railway Xs
timetable data?

Reference data such as standardised

location information and code lists

Data quality checking, allowing railways to

have their timetable and tariff data checked
against the regulatory quality requirements.
Over the past six months, a working group of
railway and ticket vendor representatives
together with the project team has assessed
structural options for such governance and
for an appropriate hosting environment
to ensure synergies can be found with exist-
ing processes.
Subject to further analyses, a positive vote
of the Steering Committee and ultimate
approval by the European Commission, the
working group favours the establishment of a
new legal entity such as a Belgian AISBL.
This way, the rights and obligations of parties
that are not members of any existing stake -
holder organi sation are respected and financing
and liability issues can be managed properly.
The entity would be very lean with a limited
budget and headcount. As recommended by the
working group, it would otherwise draw on
existing sector working structures.
Master plan to implement the
regulation across Europe
In the last quarter of 2012 the railways have
established their individual implementation
plans, summarising by when they expect to
meet the TAP TSI obligations. The individual
plans were subsequently consolidated by the
project into an overall master plan, which was
delivered to the EU Commission by the end of
April 2013.
More than 70 licensed railways participated
in the exercise. The turnout represents a
good mix of RUs and IMs, covering the majority
of the EU rail network both in terms of pass-
enger kilometres and network length, thus
demonstrating the sectors commitment to a
functioning TAP TSI.
The evaluation of the individual master plans
showed that a number of RU/IM functions are
already implemented on some networks, but
complete implementation of all functions across
RUs and IMs is expected to take until 2021. Also, as
regards the ticketing functions, a number of
functions have already been implemented by
several RUs. The general time band for compliance
is mid-2015 to mid-2017. Full implementation is to
take until end-2017 or somewhat later. The target
date for compliance with the mandatory
timetable data exchange obligation, for instance,
is Q3 2016. The target date indicates that by then at
least 80% of submitters plan to be compliant with
the regulation. Overall, the target dates for TAP TSI
implementation underline the willingness to
implement the regulation as soon as possible
whilst respecting economic considerations
such as funding systems modifications. In line
with TAF TSI implementation principles, the
EU Commission considers the target dates
binding for all railways falling under the TAP TSI.
However, companies that have submitted
their individual plans with implementation
dates beyond the target dates can expect to
be granted permission to follow their own
submitted planning.
The Master Plan Report provides the
route map for the development of the TAP TSI
and the target dates defining when stake-
holders will meet their regulatory obligations.
National Contact Points will also be nominated
in each country to supervise and facilitate
the implementation.
TAP TSI improves the railways
system sustainably
In a nutshell, TAP TSI offers numerous advant -
ages if fully adopted by the stakeholders.
It defines a framework for interoperability
in passenger rail with tangible passenger
benefits and a solid degree of business freedom
to go beyond. TAP TSI has also succeeded
in bringing together the actors involved in
passenger rail travel, including third party ticket
vendors and passenger organisations.
The Full Service Model
industry initiative
While TAP TSI has set the grounds for inter -
operability, technical developments in rail IT
accelerate at an ever increasing pace. Stake -
holders involved in passenger rail are facing
multiple challenges when it comes to keeping
up with customer needs and market demands.
The TAP TSI ticketing standards are based on an
off-line legacy data exchange, whereas real-
time connectivity is increasingly needed to
provide customers with choice and modern
retail channels. This will also affect processes
such as after sales, which are not covered by
the regulation.
Therefore, both the railways and the
ticketing vendors have agreed to launch a
voluntary industry initiative, the Full Service
Model (FSM), in which solutions for tomorrows
challenges will be explored.
This initiative intends to specify and design
an open IT framework for an end-to-end service
model. This will provide technical inter -
operability for the distribution of rail products
while ensuring that individual businesses
retain the freedom to design and market their
products as best as in line with their individual
business strategies.
European Railway Review 69 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Since spring 2011, Rtger
Fenkes has been leading the
TAP TSI regulation imple -
mentation project. Rtger
started his career in 1997 in
management consulting with
a focus on advising newly
liberalised industries in strategic and distribution
issues. In 2006 Rtger joined Deutsche Bahns
Corporate Development Department and from
2007 to 2010 Deutsche Bahn seconded Rtger to
the Railteam alliance where he was in charge of
distribution and travel information initiatives.
In spring 2013, Rtger became Head of Project &
Programme Management of Deutsche Bahns
Passenger Transport Division.
Heat Trace Limited (HTL) is a British manufacturer of
specialist heat tracing cables and associated equipment.
Although the majority of products are originally
designed for use in industrial plants, refineries and
process plants, the range of specialised heating cables
are frequently used within the rail transport industry to
provide safe, reliable and energy efficient winter
protection solutions.
These applications include points heating and 3rd
rail heating for main rail networks, light rapid transit
systems, tramways and monorails. Applications may
also include freeze protection solutions for water and
diesel fuel lines, rolling stock couplings, door threshold
heaters, as well as snow and ice prevention systems for
platforms, access ramps, walkways, steps, pedestrian
bridges, platform canopies and tunnels.
In addition to the heaters, HTL also supply a range
of energy efficient control and monitoring systems,
from simple ambient temperature thermostats to full
automatic weather monitoring systems with remote
control and data access from a central control room.
Working in partnership with the University of
Birmingham, in association with the UK Technology
Strategy Board, HTL has been developing a range of
main rail and live rail energy efficient heating systems.
Not only will these innovative systems ensure fewer
delays caused by winter weather, they will help
contribute to significant energy savings and reductions
in operating costs, as well as reducing annual CO
emissions across the UK rail network.
Europes largest
Network Rail has signed a deal with three steel
manufacturers to supply rail for the next five years as
the company continues its work to renew and
enhance Britains 20,000 miles of railway.
The largest part about 95% of the framework
agreement will see Tata Steels Scunthorpe plant
supply approximately 140,000 tonnes of rail per year,
depending on consumption. ArcelorMittal and
VoestAlpine are also part of the deal, which will see a
variety of rail types supplied to keep Network Rails
programme of improvements rolling for the next five
years with an option to extend for a further five years.
On signing the contracts, Patrick Butcher,
Network Rails Group Finance Director, said:
We are renewing and enhancing more and more of
Britains railway over the next five years and its
crucial that we have a trusted and secure supply chain
to help us achieve that safely and efficiently.
Network Rails plans for control period 5
(2014-19) include 10 billion of core renewals and a
further 10 billion of enhancements.
Henrik Adam, Chief Commercial Officer of Tata
Steel, said: This is fantastic news. I am delighted the
rail network in Britain will continue to be made and
maintained with our UK rail.
The latest Network Rail deal will account for
around 5% of the annual steel output from Tata
Steels Scunthorpe site and will include some of the
latest, harder-wearing high performance rail.
Network Rail signs new 5-year
rail supply deal
European Railway Review
Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013 70
Further Reading:
Want to know more about Denmarks re-signalling
programme? Turn to page 40 in this issue of
European Railway Review to read an article from
Henrik Holternmann, Head of Secretariat in the
Signalling Programme at Banedanmark.
Points Heating System in Milan, Italy
There is no precedence for upgrading an entire
countrys railway signalling infrastructure.
Nevertheless, this is the task facing a consortium
led by Ramboll and comprising Atkins,
Emch+Berger and Parsons that is currently
designing and planning Denmarks new signalling
system one of the most significant and ambitious
infrastructure projects in Europe today.
Denmark is the first country in Europe to
upgrade its entire signalling system to the European
Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) a
first step towards a total reorganisation of the trans-
European train operation, with an investment of
approximately 3.2 billion.
Internationally, there is no precedence for an
upgrade of an entire countrys signalling system.
However, the rest of Europe will be taking on
similar projects in the coming years, and we are
excited to be the first to take on the challenge, in
essence setting a standard for how this can be done.
We undoubtedly have the most technically
interesting work-environment within railway
control-systems in Europe, says Torben Arnbjerg-
Nielsen, Project Director in Ramboll and Head of
the Consortium Team.
Replacing analogue with digital
The programme covers 2,100km of lines and
3,200km of tracks and encompasses all signalling
equipment from basic train detection and point
machines to the overall traffic management system
and on-board systems. By implementing the
common European ERTMS Level 2 system on
intercity and regional lines, all existing analogue
radio systems will be replaced by digital GSM-R
technology for data communication between the
trains and the signal control systems. In addition, all
signalling on the Copenhagen S-train network will be
replaced by a CBTC metro/urban railway signalling
system that is customised for driverless operation.
A strong expert team
To accomplish the task, Ramboll, Atkins,
Emch+Berger and Parsons have created a team of
more than 100 experts originating from Denmark,
Switzerland, the UK and the USA, to combine local
knowledge of the existing system with inter -
national railway expertise. The team is placed in an
integrated organisation with the customer,
Banedanmark, at the customers offices in
Copenhagen. Together, the consortium partners
have 35,000 experts and have worked on some of
the worlds most advanced transportation and
signal-control projects. The new signalling system
is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2021.
Energy efficient electrical heat
tracing for rail network applications
As winter approaches, it is time to consider one of the
major problems that the railways face. Ice becomes a
significant factor affecting many aspects of rail
operation and hindering the efficient functioning of
both rolling stock and infrastructure in a number
of ways.
With an extensive product range and a long -
standing experience of de/anti-icing solutions, Kilfrost
is able to address the wide variety of challenges posed
by harsh winter conditions and provide its support to
the railway industry with specialised products.
Put through stringent testing procedures by
universities and independent laboratories dom-
estically and overseas, the Kilfrost product range is
approved for use on the UK network as well as
being approved by operators such as SNCF in
France or ProRail in the Netherlands who have full
confidence in the companys ability to treat and
prevent ice forming.
With over 80 years of global experience, to meet
the needs of the industry and play its part in keeping rail
services performing efficiently, Kilfrost is investing
heavily in the development of sustainable and
innovative solutions.
Its team of engineers and research chemists
working at the companys in-house laboratory facilities
is focusing on advancing de/anti-icing fluids. Research
in the dedicated Winter Division is concentrating on the
development of fluids that meet and exceed the ever-
increasing environmental demands of customers,
whilst also working to enhance the adherence qualities
of products against precipitation and increase their
robustness for use at high-speed.
Kilfrost products show that severe weather
conditions can be dealt with safely and effectively.
Kilfrost products
help railways move
during harsh winter
The company founded by Theodore Goldschmidt in
Berlin to supply chemicals to the textile industry,
and establish a facility for the development of
processes for refining metals and their oxides, set the
mould for a company that prises innovation as one
of its prime drivers to be a major partner to railway
infrastructure companies.
As a result of two years of intensive
development, one of Goldschmidt-Thermit
Groups most innovative companies, Thermit
Welding (GB) Ltd, can announce the launch of
Smartweld Monitor.
The Smartweld Monitor gives a robust
measuring and recording device, designed for use
with any Thermit welding process. The welder, his
company and the client can monitor the installation
throughout, including recording the portion and
moulds to be used, and by transmitting the
information to our secure server can provide
the client or user with an immediate electronic record
of the complete process.
The welding manager can plan the work and
transmit the information direct to the welding team
who will use the plan to record every stage of the
weld, even confirming the correct area of track
through the in-built GPS. On completion of the weld,
all appropriate weld data may be uploaded back to the
server from which numerous reports may be prepared
using a selection of systems tools available through
the secure website.
The system is being trialled on Network Rail
and will be available commercially at the start of
2014. What is more the system offers a complete
paperless weld process for weld installation.
Smartweld Monitor
cutting edge technology for
the 21st century rail welder
Eversholt Rail has awarded Bombardier Transportation a two-year contract worth in excess of 30 million to
undertake the enhancement and heavy maintenance of its fleet of Class 365 trains which are leased to First Capital
Connect (FCC).
The work to upgrade the fleet, which carries passengers on FCCs Great Northern Route, will be undertaken at
Bombardiers Ilford site in Essex, ensuring that the work will remain in the UK.
Eversholt Rail had originally placed an order to maintain Class 365 trains with Railcare. However, the work
was put out to re-tender after Railcare entered
administration on 31 July 2013.
Reaching this agreement enables work on the
Class 365 fleet to resume, with a view to recovering
the programme as quickly as possible and deliver-
ing the first refreshed train back to FCC. Eversholt
Rail took the opportunity to include under-frame heavy
maintenance within the scope of the contract to
maximise the availability of the 40 four-car fleet.
This significant investment will see the trains
transformed with refreshed interiors and fully
automated passenger information systems. The first
train is expected to enter service by early-2014
delivering significant improvements to the passenger
environment. Additional accessibility work will be
undertaken from spring 2014 bringing the trains in line
with the latest disability regulations.
Mary Kenny, Chief Executive Officer of Eversholt
Rail, said: We are pleased to have selected
Bombardier Transportation. This means that we can
continue with our programme to refresh the Class 365
trains, enabling passengers to enjoy the benefits of the
improved fleet. We will continue to look at future
opportunities to work with Knorr-Bremse Rail
Services, the new owners of Railcare.
Eversholt Rail awards 30 million
contract to Bombardier
European Railway Review 71 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Kapsch wins second major order this
year for train radio in Poland
Kapsch CarrierCom has won another order from the
Polish railway company PKP S.A. Kapsch will
handle the design, delivery and installation of the
GSM-R train radio system on the stretch of line
E20 from Kunowice to Terespol. The 26-month
project will be implemented in cooperation with
the local partner Torpol S.A. The total order volume
for the consortium Kapsch/Torpol amounts to
41.5 million.
Following the award for the expansion of the
GSM-R train radio on the E30 route in spring of
2013, this is already the second major order
Kapsch has received from the Polish railway
company within a year.
Poland has one of the largest railway networks
in Europe. It is a great success for us that our
competence and experience in digital train radio led
to success in this tender, explains Horst Kaufmann,
Managing Director of Kapsch CarrierCom S.p.s.o.o.
in Poland and Sales Manager for the CEE region at
Kapsch. With Torpol, we have a strong local partner
with expertise that ideally complements our own.
Digital train radio technology
and technical support
In this project, the GSM-R core network will be
expanded on the line E20 connection between
Kunowice and Terespol. The radio access network
between Kunowice and Lowicz will also be installed.
For this, Kapsch will install 114 base transceiver
stations (BTS) at 57 locations. In addition, base
station controllers (BSC), transcoder units (TCU) and
packet control unit support nodes (PCUSN) will be
supplied and integrated. Kapsch will be responsible
for the design and implementation of the GSM-R
project. Torpol will provide infrastructure and a fiber-
optic network. After completion of the 26-month
project, Kapsch will provide the expanded 5-year
guarantee requested by PKP S.A. while also handling
the technical support.
Harsco Rail is well-known for
maintaining rail track structures;
how does your novel technology
differ from other track maintenance
technology in the industry?
Technology differentiation is evident in each of
our products, with the common differentiator
being our Jupiter Control System which is
flexible, intuitive, and simple to operate and
maintain. It is a platform for continued innova -
tion for us and is recognised globally as a
leading vehicle control system. Our technology
is supported by unique algorithms specifically
designed to increase the machines efficiency
and accuracy so our customers achieve the best
possible result during operation.
Our aftermarket service offering is another
point of differentiation. Our products often
remain in our customers fleet for more than two
decades. We want to be with the customer
throughout the equipment lifecycle, offering
value added services, upgrades, and support.
In a tough global economic
climate, railways are seeking
cost effective solutions which still
meet safety standards; how does
Harsco Rail accomplish this?
We see complementary, not contradictory,
opportunities in the areas of safety and lifecycle
cost reduction. A comprehensive view of life -
cycle cost includes the cost associated with
safety incidents. That is, the safer a machine is
to operate and maintain, the lower the total cost
of ownership.
Furthermore, we are beginning to see an
increase in tenders across the globe calling for
lifecycle cost as criteria for purchase. This is a
good sign for OEMs focusing on customer
intimacy and technology development, both
core to Harsco Rails business. By moving away
from first price as the single purchasing decision-
making criteria, we are in a favourable position to
work with our customers in understanding how
the products are used, what the cost drivers are,
and what improvements will best impact their
bottom lines. The resulting innovations will range
from minor iterations in component design to the
deployment of major technological changes.
The perfect alignment in cooperative inno -
vation is achieved when product performance
data is collected, analysed, and subsequently
utilised by both parties to identify improve-
ment opportunities. This is exactly what our
COMPASS technology is designed to accomp -
lish. COMPASS is an option on Harsco Rail
equipment, integrated with the Jupiter Control
System, or sold as a standalone technology
on non-Harsco Rail equipment. COMPASS
collects product performance data and then
transfers it to the customer for further analysis.
Harsco Rail, as an expert in vehicle design and
manufacture, adds a level of value to the
data analysis the customer finds difficult to
achieve alone. We are currently demonstrating
COMPASS in the USA and UK and are confident
the technology will be standard on Harsco Rail
equipment in the near-term.
What has been the biggest
breakthrough in 2013 for Harsco Rail
that establishes you as a leader
within your field?
It is difficult not to immediately point to the win
in Switzerland as our biggest 2013 break -
through. Harsco Rail has focused a significant
amount of time since 2011 on strengthening our
business in Europe and preparing to bid for and
execute on a major tender like the one from
SBB. There is certainly excitement through-
out the company about the win and what it
represents to the future of Harsco Rail and
our industry. We are also excited to perform
for a globally well-respected railway authority
like SBB.
In addition to Switzerland, weve had major
new product development achievements as a
result of our continued R&D. Two of these
projects have applications in large product
categories globally. Both will come to market in
2014. If we speak again this time next year, I will
be in a position to elaborate further.
We continue to see breakthroughs in China
in the areas of follow-on orders of Production
Rail Grinders and growth in our rail grinding
service offering. Chinas railway authority is in the
process of manufacturing another 10 Production
Railway Grinders based on the Harsco Rail
technology. We have also accumulated more
than 10 rail grinding service customers; a
clear indication the market values our unique
service offering.
What are the core long-term goals
for Harsco Rail?
Harsco Rail will celebrate 105 years of operation
in 2014 a major achievement for any company
in any industry. Deploying our unique tech -
nology globally and continuing to create value
at the local level has been and will continue to
be core goals of our is vital for the
next 105 years.
European Railway Review 72 Volume 19, Issue 6, 2013
Joe Dougherty Vice President at Harsco Rail talks
to European Railway Reviewabout how their technology
performs in the industry, their recent breakthrough
into Switzerlands marketplace, and looking ahead
to the next 105 years in operation.
Joe Dougherty
Ins|ght ons|te.

Harsco Rail
A world class solution for track maintenance and construction.
Harsco Rail is a global leader for railway track
maintenance and construction. Harsco Rail engineers
high quality equipment, cutting-edge technology, and
global support, taking care of customers needs for
virtually all major aspects of track maintenance and
construction for over 100 years. Engineering innovation
and performance, Harsco Rail meets the demands of
the track every day.
For more information contact:
T (803) 822-9160 F (803) 822-8107
T +49 2102 937200 F +49 2102 37651
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Tel. +41 58 585 00 00
E-mail: traction. converters@ ch. abb. com
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