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Xing Yi Nei Gong Xing Yi Health Maintenance and Internal Strength Development

compiled and edited by Dan Miller and Tim Cartmell

Xing Yi Nei Gong

Xing Yi Health Maintenance and Internal Strength Development

compiled and edited by Dan Miller and Tim Cartmell High View Publications, Pacific Grove, CA

Xing Yi Net Gong Xing Yi Health Maintenance and Internal Strength Development

Copyright 1994 Dan Miller and Tim Cartmell I S B N 1-883175-04-6 All R i g h t s R e s e r v e d Published by High View Publications P.O. Box 51967 Pacific Grove, CA 9 3 9 5 0

Printed in the United States of America

Disclaimer T h e author, translator, and publisher of t h e book a r e not responsible f o r a n y i n j u r y w h i c h m a y r e s u l t f r o m following t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d herein. Before e m b a r k i n g on a n y of the physical activities described in this book, t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d c o n s u l t h i s o r h e r p h y s i c i a n f o r a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r individual suitability for performing such activity.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgments Dedication Preface Translator's Preface Forward

Chapter 1

- W a n g |i Wu a n d t h e L i n e a g e of his X i n g Yi Q u a n

1 26 30 33 34 36 36 39 40 42 43 43 44 44 45 SO S3 55 57 58 63 68 73 76

W a n g j i Wu's Xing Yi Quan Students Wang Ji Wu's Principles of Living Chapter 2 Liu He X i n Yi Q u a n W r i t t e n T r a n s m i s s i o n s

Introduction Dai Long Bang's Forward Essential Knowledge for Martial Arts Practice San Ti Shi (Trinity Posture) T h e hive Element Fists The Mutual Creation and Destruction of the Five Elements T h e Twelve Forms T h e Earth Dragon C a n o n Three Fists, Three Clubs Xing Yi Sword Important Points of Body, Form, and Martial Practice Body, Stepping, and Hand Methods Internal Training (Net Gang) Combat C h a p t e r 3 - X i n g Yi Q u a n S t a n d i n g Practice Introduction Basic Concepts Postures and Images Images from the Xing Yi Classics Practicing San 71 Shi C h a p t e r 4 - X i n g Yi Health a n d Body S t r e n g t h e n i n g Exercises: An Introduction An Introduction by W a n g l.ian Yi A Brief Introduction to the Sixteen Health Exercises

87 88 99

Chapter 5

W a n g Ji W u ' s Body Strengthening a n d Health M a i n t e n a n c e Exercises

107 108 110 11S 119 124 128 1.34 138 144 148 152 156 160 164 168 172 176 179 181 182 18.3 185 186 187 189 192 194 196 199 200

Editor's Introduction Exercise O n e : Uniting the Original Qi Exercise Two; T h e Jade Dragon Weaves Around the Body Exercise Three: Opening and Closing Soothes the Meridians Exercise Four: Ju Que and Xuan Wu Divide the North and South Exercise Five: Uphold the Heavens and Firm the Root Exercise Six: Empty t h e Eoot and Lift a Single Hand Exercise Seven: Concentrate the Spirit and (laze at the Heel The Golden Cock Eats Rice Exercise Eight: Ape Arms Enliven the Blood Exercise Nine: Raising the Back Seven Times Exercise Ten: Both Fists Strike the Back Exercise Eleven: Rotating the Waist Strengthens the Kidneys Exercise Twelve: Moving the Hips to the Left and Right Exercise Thirteen: Pressing the Knees Regulates the Meridians Exercise Fourteen: Rubbing the Knees and Stretching the Body Exercise Fifteen: Yin Opens and Yfln^Closes Exercise Sixteen: The Heels Kick Back Supplemental Exercise: The Crawling Tiger Song of the Sixteen Health Exercises Afterward Xing Yi Exercises Performed Lying On a Bed C h a p t e r 6 - X i n g Yi Five E l e m e n t S p e a r Introduction Splitting Spear Drilling Spear Smashing Spear Pounding Spear Crossing Spear About t h e Translator About the Editor

f the dan tian is lacking, the qi will not be sufficient. With insufficient qi, power will be inadequate. The five elements and the twelve forms will be empty. In this state, in defense one will be as a city surrounded by a dry moat, in attack, one will be like a strong soldier with a weak horse. One must practice diligently everyday. Sitting in meditation trying to become immortal will not cultivate the dan tian. - from Dai Long Bang's Written Transmissions of Xin Yi Liu He Quan

Acknowledgements
First a n d f o r e m o s t w e w o u l d like t o a c k n o w l e d g e M r . Z h a n g B a o Y a n g a n d Mr. W a n g J i n Yu for their w i l l i n g n e s s to share this i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e English s p e a k i n g w o r l d . A d d i t i o n a l l y I w o u l d like t o t h a n k t h e t r a n s l a t o r s w h o h e l p e d to translate interviews with Z h a n g Bao Yang and W a n g Jin Yu w h e n T i m C a r t m e l l w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e : Bill T u c k e r , H u a n g G u o Q i , a n d X u Y u H o n g . T h e i r skill i n t r a n s l a t i o n a n d p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h e l o n g h o u r s of interviews is greatly appreciated. W e w o u l d a l s o like t o t h a n k V i n c e B l a c k f o r p r o o f r e a d i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g a forward t o this b o o k , N a n c y Miller for her p a t i e n c e a n d proofreading, a n d T i m ' s wife Gu Feng M c i for her h e l p in translating t h e written material.

Dedication

Wangji Wu (1891 - 1991)

This book is dedicated to the m e m o r y of Xing Yi Quan Master W a n g Jt Wu. His l i f e l o n g d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e m a r t i a l a n d h e a l i n g arts a n d willingness to share these arts o p e n l y w i t h others should serve as an inspiration a n d e x a m p l e for future generations.

Preface
T h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s b o o k i s a c u l m i n a t i o n o f n e a r l y 1 0 0 years o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e art o r X i n g Y i Q u a n b y M a s t e r W a n g J i W u (JL .*8 over 40 years of e x p e r i e n c e for each of W a n g ' s students, Z h a n g Bao Yang "f t), W a n g Jin Yu * ) . ) , a n d H e Y u Q i (fT ^'Hc), a n d o v e r t w o years o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n W a n g ' s students, myself and T i m Cartmell. This material is straightforward, p r a c t i c a l , easy t o l e a r n , a n d t i m e t e s t e d . T i m C a r t m e l l a n d 1 first m e t Z h a n g B a o Y a n g o n t h e s i x t h o f O c t o b e r , 1 9 9 2 , i n B e i j i n g , C h i n a . W e w e r e a t t h e h o m e o f X i e Pei Q i (HfflH), a well k n o w n B a G u a practitioner in Beijing. X i e had k n o w n we were c o m i n g and had invited s o m e o f h i s m a r t i a l arts f r i e n d s f o r t h e o c c a s i o n . D u r i n g o u r s t a y a t X i e ' s h o m e t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n w a s X i e Pei Q i a n d h i s B a G u a , h o w e v e r , I c o u l d n o t h e l p but notice a distinguished looking elder g e n t l e m a n sitting quietly in the corner observing the interview. Just before we were about to leave I asked to be i n t r o d u c e d to t h e g e n t l e m a n a n d found o u t he was X i n g Yi Q u a n Master Z h a n g Bao Yang, President of the Beijing Xing Yi Q u a n Association. Z h a n g gave me his n a m e c a r d a n d I a s k e d i f w e c o u l d visit w i t h h i m i n a f e w d a y s . Z h a n g a g r e e d and we arranged to m e e t h i m at his h o m e on the eighth of October. W h e n T i m a n d I arrived a t Z h a n g ' s h o m e , t w o o f h i s X i n g Y i b r o t h e r s , H e Y u Q i a n d Pan Z h i Y u a n (iijfeSS). w e r e t h e r e w i t h h i m . I a s k e d Z h a n g a n d h i s classmates about their X i n g Yi and they brought out s o m e photographs of their teacher, W a n g Ji W u , and s o m e written material they had c o m p i l e d over t h e y e a r s . T h e o l d p h o t o g r a p h s f a s c i n a t e d m e , e s p e c i a l l y a series o f p h o t o s s h o w i n g W a n g J i W u p e r f o r m i n g a set o f e x e r c i s e s . I a s k e d a b o u t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a n d Z h a n g e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s e w e r e a set o f s i x t e e n h e a l t h a n d b o d y s t r e n g t h e n i n g e x e r c i s e s t h a t his t e a c h e r h a d s t u d i e d o v e r h i s l i f e t i m e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n p r a c t i c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e . His t e a c h e r h a d s y s t e m a t i z e d t h e set and taught t h e m to each of his Xing Yi Q u a n students as foundational training f o r X i n g Yi. Z h a n g a s k e d i f I w o u l d like t o s e e t h e set a n d a l l o w e d m e t o f i l m h i m p r a c t i c i n g all o f t h e e x e r c i s e s . I w a s v e r y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e e x e r c i s e s a n d t h e t h o r o u g h n e s s o f t h e e x e r c i s e set. Z h a n g Bao Y a n g a n d his classmates were very o p e n a n d g e n e r o u s during our first m e e t i n g . Z h a n g n o t o n l y s h o w e d u s t h e s i x t e e n h e a l i n g e x e r c i s e s a n d several o f t h e i r X i n g Y i Q u a n f o r m s , b u t h e a l l o w e d m e t o c o p y all o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s he had collected of his teacher and o t h e r X i n g Yi Q u a n masters d u r i n g h i s 4 0 years o f s t u d y i n g t h e a r t . T i m a n d 1 w e r e s o i m p r e s s e d w i t h Z h a n g a n d h i s k n o w l e d g e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n t h a t o n O c t o b e r 1 1 t h w e w e n t b a c k t o visit h i m to c o n d u c t a m o r e in-depth interview. During this interview we gathered m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t W a n g J i W u a n d his X i n g Y i ( J u a n . As impressed as Tim and I were about Zhang Bao Yang's knowledge of X i n g Y i , w e w e r e b o t h e q u a l l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h his p e r s o n a l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r . T i m c o m m e n t e d m a n y times about t h e clarity o f Z h a n g ' s s p o k e n word a n d his ability t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f v e r b a l l y . T i m said t h a t i t w a s o b v i o u s t h a t Z h a n g w a s a m a n viii

o f h i g h e d u c a t i o n . Z h a n g ' s h o m e a n d his p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e w e r e v e r y n e a t a n d tidy, h e w a s a l w a y s e n e r g e t i c , h a d a v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , w i l l i n g l y a n s w e r e d a n y o f o u r q u e s t i o n s , a n d n e v e r h a d a b a d thing, t o say a b o u t a n y o n e else o r a n y o t h e r X i n g Y i s y s t e m . W h i l e m a n y A m e r i c a n s h a v e a s o m e w h a t r o m a n t i c v i e w o f t h e " s c h o l a r l y b o x e r " a n d t h u s t h i n k t h a t t h e s e are c o m m o n q u a l i t i e s f o u n d i n all o f t h e o l d b o x i n g m a s t e r s , t h e fact i s t h a t Z h a n g B a o Y a n g i s a rare i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e b o x i n g w o r l d i n m a i n l a n d C h i n a . I left C h i n a a t t h e e n d o f O c t o b e r , h o w e v e r , T i m s t a y e d I n t h e m a i n l a n d f o r several m o r e w e e k s b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o T a i w a n . D u r i n g his t r a v e l s T i m r a n a c r o s s a b o o k c a l l e d Shen (Jong {Jfttf) w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n by W a n g J i W u ' s s o n , W a n g I.ian Y i j H j . O n e of t h e chapters contained the sixteen exercises which Zhang Bao Yang had shown us in Beijing. I began thinking about p u b l i s h i n g a b o o k w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h i s e x e r c i s e set a n d s o I a s k e d T i m t o t r a n s l a t e w h a t w a s w r i t t e n i n W a n g Lian Y i ' s b o o k . I r e t u r n e d t o B e i j i n g i n April 1 9 9 3 a n d a g a i n visited w i t h Z h a n g B a o Y a n g o n several o c c a s i o n s . 1 t o l d Z h a n g of my i n t e r e s t in p u b l i s h i n g a b o o k of his teacher's exercises a n d b e t h o u g h t that it would be a g o o d idea. During this trip Z h a n g w e n t t h r o u g h e a c h o f t h e s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s i n great d e t a i l w h i l e Bill T u c k e r t r a n s l a t e d a n d I t o o k n o t e s . W h e n I r e t u r n e d h o m e I c o m p i l e d all o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t I had received from Z h a n g Bao Yang with t h e i n f o r m a t i o n T i m h a d t r a n s l a t e d f r o m W a n g L i a n Yi's b o o k t o f o r m t h e first r o u g h draft o f t h i s b o o k . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 3 , 1 r e t u r n e d t o B e i j i n g a n d s h o w e d t h e first r o u g h d r a f t o f t h e b o o k to Z h a n g . I f o u n d out that he a n d his classmates h a d also been busy p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l for t h e b o o k . T h e y p r e s e n t e d m e w i t h r e v i s e d c o p i e s o f t h e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l t h e y h a d g i v e n m e d u r i n g m y first visit a n d a l s o g a v e m e a v e r y detailed written description of each of the exercises. Z h a n g Bao Yang and W a n g J i n Yu were not particularly f o n d of the way W a n g Ji W u ' s son h a d presented t h e material in his b o o k . They felt t h a t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s t o o e s o t e r i c a n d i n v o l v e d t o o m u c h o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e . Z h a n g a n d W a n g felt t h a t t h e e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d i n a v e r y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , useful m a n n e r a n d s o t h e y w a n t e d m e t o u s e t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e e x e r c i s e s . Y o u will f i n d t h a t I h a v e p r e s e n t e d b o t h W a n g l.ian Yi's m a t e r i a l a n d Z h a n g B a o Y a n g a n d W a n g J i n Yu's material in this b o o k . After r e t u r n i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I s e n t t h e n e w m a t e r i a l t o T i m C a r t m e l l to translate. T h e n e w m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d t h e X i n g Y i Written Transmissions, Explanations of the sixteen exercises, and historical information pertaining to W a n g Ji Wu and W a n g Fu Yuan. Additionally, the biographies of W a n g ' s students were included. B e t w e e n N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 3 a n d M a r c h 1 9 9 4 , 1 p u t t o g e t h e r all o f t h e t r a n s l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , wrote a biography of W a n g Ji W u ' s X i n g Yi lineage, added s o m e material T i m h a d written about Xing Yi's s t a n d i n g practice, a n d printed a s e c o n d r o u g h draft o f t h e b o o k . I n April 1 9 9 4 , T i m C a r t m e l l a n d i w e n t b a c k t o visit Z h a n g B a o Y a n g a n d W a n g J i n Y u a n d s h o w e d t h e m t h e s e c o n d d r a f t . Z h a n g and W a n g were b o t h pleased with t h e w a y t h e b o o k was s h a p i n g u p . D u r i n g these m e e t i n g s , we asked s o m e m o r e detailed q u e s t i o n s about t h e e x e r c i s e s , t h e w r i t t e n t r a n s m i s s i o n s , a n d X i n g Yi's s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e . Z h a n g B a o Y a n g a l s o p o s e d f o r all o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n s o n t h e sixteen exercises a n d t h e standing practice. Additionally, Zhang gave us a video

t a p e h e h a d p r e p a r e d w h i c h c o n t a i n e d all o f t h e s o l o f o r m s , t w o - p e r s o n sets, w e a p o n s forms and supplemental exercises from their X i n g Yi system. Included o n t h i s t a p e w a s a l s o a p o w e r t r a i n i n g set w h e r e b y Z h a n g p e r f o r m e d X i n g Yi's five e l e m e n t s w i t h a l o n g s p e a r . S i n c e 1 w a n t e d t h i s b o o k t o r e p r e s e n t all o f t h e s u p p l e m e n t a l h e a l t h a n d strength building exercises that a X i n g Yi practitioner might practice in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d X i n g Y i f o r m s a n d t w o - p e r s o n sets, 1 d e c i d e d t o a d d a c h a p t e r o n t h e p o w e r t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h t h e l o n g s p e a r . After o u r t r i p t o B e i j i n g i n April, I i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e n e w m a t e r i a l w i t h t h e draft v e r s i o n o f t h e b o o k a n d t h e result i s w h a t y o u n o w h o l d i n y o u r h a n d s . T h e e x e r c i s e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s b o o k are s i m p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l . T h e r e i s n o t a n y t h i n g " e s o t e r i c " o r " m y s t i c a l " a b o u t t h e m . Like t h e art o f X i n g Y i itself, t h e s e e x e r c i s e s a r e d i r e c t , p r a c t i c a l , a n d t h e y p r o d u c e results i f p r a c t i c e d d i l i g e n t l y . In the Spring of 1 9 9 3 , V i n c e Black, T i m Cartmell, a n d I were interviewing a X i n g Y i master i n T a i w a n . W e h a d b e e n asking q u e s t i o n s o f this g e n t l e m a n for a c o u p l e o f h o u r s a n d a s t h e i n t e r v i e w c a m e t o a c l o s e V i n c e said, " B e f o r e w e e n d this interview, are t h e r e a n y words of advice t h a t y o u can give us regarding t h e p r a c t i c e o f X i n g Y i . " T h e g e n t l e m a n t h o u g h t f o r a m i n u t e a n d t h e n said, " Y o u c a n n o t b e t o o s m a r t a n d p r a c t i c e X i n g Yi. A t t a i n m e n t o f X i n g Y i skill r e q u i r e s r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s a m e t h i n g t h o u s a n d s o f t i m e s . I f y o u t h i n k t o o m u c h y o u will n o t be c o n t e n t with repeating the same m o v e m e n t s so m a n y times. Practice hard, keep it simple, a n d d o n ' t be t o o s m a r t ! " T h i s is t h e same as t h e X i n g Yi Q u a n adage to "practice t h e plain without e m b e l l i s h m e n t , practice simple m o v e m e n t s until t h e y are highly r e f i n e d . " T h e s a m e a d v i c e a p p l i e s t o t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s b o o k . For b e s t results, t h e s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e a n d h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d b e p r a c t i c e d e v e r y d a y b e f o r e a n d a f t e r f o r m s p r a c t i c e . D o n o t t r y t o read t o o m u c h i n t o t h e e x e r c i s e s , k e e p t h e m s i m p l e a n d p r a c t i c e e v e r y d a y a n d t h e g o o d results will n a t u r a l l y follow. We h o p e that you enjoy this book. Dan Miller Summer 1994 Pacific Grove, CA

Translator's Preface
by Tim Cartmell
T h e r e h a v e b e e n m a n y b o o k s o n X i n g Y i Q u a n f o r m s b u t v e r y little w r i t t e n o n t r a i n i n g t h e b a s i c s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y t r a i n i n g . All m a r t i a l arts i n c l u d e b o t h f o r m s t r a i n i n g (quart too) as w e l l as s u p p l e m e n t a r y p o w e r t r a i n i n g (Han gong). T h e r e i s a f a m o u s q u o t e i n t h e C h i n e s e m a r t i a l arts w o r l d w h i c h s t a t e s , " I f o n e p r a c t i c e s m a r t i a l f o r m s w i t h o u t a l s o t r a i n i n g f o r p o w e r , i n t h e e n d o n e will h a v e achieved nothing." I t i s o u r h o p e t h a t t h i s b o o k will b e u s e f u l t o t h o s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n ( o r a n y o t h e r m a r t i a l art) w h o are l o o k i n g f o r traditional m e t h o d s of p o w e r training to s u p p l e m e n t their art. It s h o u l d be noted that in addition to the potential increase in martial power that these e x e r c i s e s a f f o r d t h e y are a l s o e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h b u i l d i n g m e t h o d s i n t h e i r o w n right. W h y i s i t t h a t t h e C h i n e s e a u t h o r s o f b o o k s o n X i n g Y i Q u a n are w i l l i n g t o write extensively on the practice of b o x i n g forms, but supplementary power t r a i n i n g i s u s u a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n p a s s i n g , i f a t a l l ? T h e a n s w e r lies i n t h e fact t h a t b o x i n g f o r m s are useless u n l e s s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r h a s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f h o w t h e y are applied a n d t h e power to apply t h e m . As simple a n d basic as some of t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y exercises m a y seem, they were generally kept "secret." T h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f m a r t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n w a s t o drill a s t u d e n t i n f o r m s u n t i l t h e t e a c h e r w a s c o n v i n c e d o f his s i n c e r i t y a n d m o t i v e s b e f o r e t h e m e t h o d s o f power training and application were revealed. And these m e t h o d s were usually c o n c e a l e d from t h e general public. Although in t h e m o d e r n world such ideas m a y s e e m a bit a r c h a i c , k e e p i n g i n s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n s e c r e t i s still c o m m o n a m o n g m a n y teachers. Dan Miller a n d I were fortunate e n o u g h to m e e t Z h a n g Bao Yang by c h a n c e . He h a d at o n e time been the head of the Beijing X i n g Yi Quan Association and n o w serves a s a n a d v i s o r . Z h a n g w a s o n e o f t h e t o p s t u d e n t s o f W a n g J i W u , w h o in t u r n was o n e of t h e great X i n g Yi Q u a n masters of this c e n t u r y . Z h a n g B a o Y a n g i s o n e o f t h o s e rare i n d i v i d u a l s w h o p u t s t h e p r o m o t i o n o f h i s art a b o v e his o w n personal gain. He m e t w i t h D a n a n d I several t i m e s a n d was c o m p l e t e l y o p e n i n s h a r i n g h i s k n o w l e d g e w i t h u s . H e t a u g h t u s t h e set o f s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s f o r h e a l t h w h i c h his t e a c h e r h a d s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d w h i c h f o r m e d t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e i r b a s i c t r a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e m e t h o d i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a set o f h e a l t h b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e s , t h e s e m o v e m e n t s are a l s o t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f p o w e r t r a i n i n g . In Xi An 1 c a m e u p o n a c o p y of a b o o k written by a n o t h e r of W a n g Ji W u ' s s t u d e n t s (his s o n W a n g l.ian Yi) w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e s i x t e e n h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s a n d from w h i c h s o m e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n in this b o o k is taken. But t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d w o r k left o u t m a n y o f t h e f i n e r p o i n t s w h i c h Z h a n g B a o Y a n g later i n c l u d e d . A n o t h e r o f W a n g j i W u ' s students, W a n g J i n Y u was also most helpful i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e f i n e r p o i n t s o f t r a i n i n g . T h e last t i m e w e v i s i t e d Z h a n g , h e a l s o s h o w e d us advanced m e t h o d s of power training with a long spear which should p r o v e t o b e m o s t useful t o a d v a n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t h e a r t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e

is a rather extensive section on the benefits and practice of stance keeping, a n o t h e r pillar o f X i n g Y i Q u a n b a s i c t r a i n i n g . I t h i n k t h i s b o o k i s a n i m p o r t a n t first s t e p i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e " o t h e r s i d e " o f X i n g Y i Q u a n t r a i n i n g a n d I h o p e y o u will f i n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d h e r e u s e f u l t o y o u r o w n t r a i n i n g . Tim Cartmell Summer 1994 Taipei, Taiwan

Ml

Foreword
by Vince Black
It is a privilege to write t h e forward to such an i m p o r t a n t piece of work on t h i s lesser k n o w n a s p e c t o f t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e m e t h o d s . T h i s b o o k v e r y n e a r l y s t a n d s a l o n e i n its o r i g i n a l i t y a s a c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o m a m o s t s e n i o r m a s t e r (and his students) of a traditional school of internal pugilism. This u n i q u e p o s i t i o n i s s h a r e d b y few o t h e r s , p e r h a p s o n l y S u n L u T a n g a n d W a n g Z i P i n g , d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t few b o x e r s a t t a i n s u c h h i g h level skills a n d k n o w l e d g e i n b o t h m a r t i a l arts a n d t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e , a s w e l l a s p o s s e s s i n g t h e l i t e r a r y skill o f w r i t i n g , e a c h o f w h i c h r e q u i r e s y e a r s o f s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c q u i r i n g e x p e r t i s e i n t h e s e v a r i e d skills w h i l e t r y i n g t o s u r v i v e t h e t u m u l t u o u s h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d o f t h e last c e n t u r y i n C h i n a w a s a m o n u m e n t a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n a n d o f itself. T h e fact t h a t w e o n l y n o w h a v e i t all c o n s o l i d a t e d i n b o o k f o r m is a n o t i o n that requires m o r e t h a n a passing t h o u g h t to appreciate. W a n g Ji Wu a n d his students, in two g e n e r a t i o n s s p a n n i n g o n e h u n d r e d years, steadfastly p e r s e v e r e d i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f a life o f p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e a n d m e d i c i n e t h r o u g h f a m i n e s , wars, m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s , n o n e o f w h i c h a l l o w s easily t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d p u r s u i t o f t h e s e a r t s . I n s p i t e o f t h e d i s c o r d a n d c o n s t a n t d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e i r lives, t h e s e i n v e t e r a t e b o x e r s c o n t i n u e d t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r arts a n d t h i s b o o k i s t e s t i m o n y n o t o n l y t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t but to their willingness to share this knowledge o p e n l y with us. W a n g J i W u lived t o 1 0 0 y e a r s o f age r e m a i n i n g r e m a r k a b l y spry t o v e r y l a t e i n l i f e . T h i s i m p r e s s i v e s t r e t c h o f t i m e a l l o w e d h i s w o r l d v i e w t o e n r i c h itself several g e n e r a t i o n s longer t h a n most people; t i m e t o refine a n d focus o n t h e p o i n t s t h a t r e a l l y m a t t e r . His l e g a c y w a s t h e n c a r r i e d o n h y h i s s t u d e n t s Z h a n g B a o Y a n g , W a n g J i n Yu, H e Y u Q i , W a n g L i a n Yi, a n d o t h e r s w h o h a v e r e m a i n e d c l o s e a n d c o n t i n u e t o f o l l o w his e x a m p l e . Mr. Zhang Bao Yang and his associates have worked together to produce this work in m e m o r y of their teacher a n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f all t h o s e w h o v a l u e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f p h y s i c a l c u l t i v a t i o n o f b o d y , m i n d , a n d spirit. I n m y o w n p u r s u i t o f X i n g Y i Q u a n , s p a n n i n g t h e last t w e n t y years, I h a v e researched m a n y different expressions of X i n g Yi from various sources. W h i l e e a c h o n e m a y h a v e t h e i r o w n s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e , t h e y all s h a r e t h e s a m e e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e art i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e m p h a s i s , f o r m y p e r s o n a l n e e d I have selected several senior masters of X i n g Yi f r o m w h o m I draw to d e v e l o p m y p e r s o n a l a r t . M y first " t r u e t e a c h e r " i n X i n g Y i w a s Hsu H o n g C h i of Taipei, T a i w a n w h o s e s y s t e m 1 studied for ten years until his passing. T h e o t h e r s f r o m w h o m I g l e a n e d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s a n d m e t h o d s are all m e n w h o h a v e f o r t y t o f i f t y y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n X i n g Y i a n d all o f t h e s e m e n , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , h a v e h i g h regard f o r t h e i r c o m p l e m e n t a r y o r a d j u n c t i v e e x e r c i s e s . W h i l e m a n y of t h e exercises were t h e same or similar versions, s o m e would be distinctly u n i q u e to that master a n d clearly reflective of his favorite personal

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t e c h n i q u e s , o r a t least h i s o w n c h a r a c t e r a n d p e r s o n a l n a t u r e . S u p p l e m e n t a r y e x e r c i s e s are o f t e n v i e w e d a s o p t i o n a l o r n o n e s s e n t i a l . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a s h o r t s i g h t e d i f n o t i n c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e . For t h e last t e n y e a r s , I h a v e t r a v e l e d all o v e r t h e U . S . a n d C a n a d a t e a c h i n g X i n g Y i Q u a n f o r t h e N o r t h American T a n g S h o u T a o Association. In these efforts, working with study g r o u p s o f i n t e r n a l b o x e r s I h a v e c o m e t o rely w h o l e h e a r t e d l y o n o u r m u l t i layered system of s u p p l e m e n t a r y exercises to supplant t h e need of an ever present teacher which is almost never possible. On m a n y occasions, I have had to respond to observers, m o r e familiar with t h e generic martial expressions of X i n g Yi proper, w h o would question the relationship of these exercises as t h e y were unable to c o n n e c t t h e m specifically to t h e m o r e well-known X i n g Yi p o s t u r i n g . T h e p e r c e p t u a l p r o b l e m results f r o m t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f X i n g Y i d e v e l o p m e n t in general and t h e t e n d e n c y of h u m a n nature to a t t e m p t to relate seemingly familiar c o m p o n e n t s from o n e school of t h o u g h t to a n o t h e r a n d t h e r e b y s h o r t c h a n g e t h e m o r e s u b l i m e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e o t h e r s c h o o l . H.L. M e n c k e n clearly grasped t h e p r o b l e m w h e n he said, " T h e critic, to interpret his a r t i s t , e v e n u n d e r s t a n d h i s a r t i s t , m u s t b e a b l e t o get i n t o t h e m i n d o f h i s a r t i s t , h e m u s t feel a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e vast p r e s s u r e o f t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n . " U p o n t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n , Xing Yi Nei Gong o f f e r s t h e r e a d e r m a n y different perspectives from w h i c h to view t h e m o r e p r o f o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l aspects of X i n g Yi training for b o t h t h e martial artists a n d for t h o s e interested i n m e r e l y m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r o p t i m u m h e a l t h far i n t o t h e t w i l i g h t o f t h e i r y e a r s . T y p i c a l o f X i n g Y i m e t h o d s , W a n g J i W u ' s e x e r c i s e s are a r c h e t y p i c a l l y s i m p l e i n d e s i g n yet s u b t l y p r o f o u n d i n e f f e c t . T h i s i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l X i n g Y i . I f t h e fruit i s a n y i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e tree, t h e n M r . Z h a n g B a o Y a n g i s p r o o f p o s i t i v e o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f W a n g J i W u ' s m e t h o d s . I first m e t M r . Z h a n g B a o Y a n g several y e a r s a g o a t his h o m e i n B e i j i n g . W e w e r e w a i t i n g i n h i s r e c e i v i n g r o o m a t h i s h o m e w h e n h e arrived just b e f o r e 1 1 : 0 0 p m . I w a s i m m e d i a t e l y impressed with the casual and easy m a n n e r with w h i c h he m o v e d a b o u t t h e r o o m o f f e r i n g u s tea a n d f o o d . T w e n t y m i n u t e s e a r l i e r w e a l s o h a d t o c l i m b t h e t e n f l o o r s o f stairs t o his a p a r t m e n t a n d i t s e e m e d m o r e t a x i n g o n u s t h a n o n t h i s m a n i n his s e v e n t i e s . S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s arrival f r o m a l o n g w o r k day he received a couple from a n e i g h b o r i n g a p a r t m e n t . It seemed t h e w o m a n had t h r o w n her back out a n d , nearly doubled over in pain, c a m e to Mr. Z h a n g f o r e m e r g e n c y t r e a t m e n t . H e g r a c i o u s l y a n d e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n v i t e d h e r t o lie d o w n o n a m a k e s h i f t t a b l e a n d p r o c e e d e d t o g e n t l y w o r k o n h e r . His m e t h o d s w e r e s i m p l e a n d few a n d h e p e r f o r m e d t h e m e f f o r t l e s s l y . Within twenty m i n u t e s s h e w a s u p a n d s m i l i n g , t h a n k i n g h i m r e p e a t e d l y . H e s a w t h e m off, w a l k i n g t h e m d o w n t h e h a l l part w a y h o m e , t y p i c a l o f C h i n e s e e t i q u e t t e , t h e n r e t u r n e d t o d i s c u s s his Q i Gong. H e i m m e d i a t e l y t o o k e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y a n d m a d e every effort to see t h a t we clearly u n d e r s t o o d he was n o t m a k i n g a n y extraordinary claims about his Qi methods. He didn't approve of flim flam and abstruse m e t h o d s of inexplicable p h e n o m e n a . He regarded this kind of i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h t h e bizarre a s u n h e a l t h y a n d p o s s i b l y d i s h o n e s t . O n c e w e w e r e a b l e t o assure h i m w e w e r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h o s e t y p e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e , h e o p e n l y a n d g e n e r o u s l y s h a r e d all t h a t w e w e r e a b l e t o a d d r e s s i n t h e t i m e w e h a d . I n s u b s e q u e n t visits a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o v i e w h i s a b i l i t i e s b o t h t e a c h i n g a n d p e r f o r m i n g h i s X i n g Y i Nei G o n g , X i n g Y i Q u a n , a n d t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i c i n e skills, it was clear that he is a true representative of t h e highest expression of C h i n e s e xiv

physical culture. N o r i s h e t h e l o n e b a s t i o n o f W a n g J i W u ' s t e a c h i n g s , for s e v e r a l o f h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s i n his k u n g f u f a m i l y a r e e q u a l l y r e f i n e d i n t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n of t h e arts of X i n g Yi a n d traditional C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e as well as their o w n personal character. Xing Yi Nri Gong is n o t h i n g s h o r t of a n o t h e r m i l e s t o n e in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of internal b o x i n g in t h e English speaking world. It is in fact providing that very e l e m e n t , so conspicuously missing in m o s t X i n g Yi programs, that is a specific focus on health m a i n t e n a n c e a n d internal strength development through specific yet n o n - m a r t i a l exercises. S o m e o f t h e f o r m s are p e r f o r m e d w i t h objective simplicity that can be viewed as a further abstraction of t h e slightly m o r e s u b j e c t i v e m a r t i a l g e s t u r i n g t h a t lies a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e s y s t e m , w h i c h f o r m s t h e r o o t o f c e r t a i n m a r t i a l s t r a t a g e m s . O t h e r f o r m s a r e less i n v o l v e d i n active m o v e m e n t s a n d m o r e usefully regarded as static posturing in m i m i c r y of n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s , t h e r e b y c a p t u r i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e s s e n c e t h a t lies a t t h e heart of the natural power cultivated in the process. It is this multi-dimensional approach to exploring and developing the essence of our nature that I find Xing Yi a m o s t f a s c i n a t i n g art f o r m . This routine of W a n g j i W u ' s has been developed, handed down, and further developed, organized a n d expounded upon by generations of Xing Yi practitioners o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r w h o s e s o l e m o t i v a t i o n w a s a l i f e l o n g l o v e f o r t h e art o f X i n g Yi a n d w h o s e h o p e a n d purpose was t h e preservation a n d proliferation of this m a g n i f i c e n t a r t . A s a m e t h o d t h a t t a r g e t s ever h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t , e a c h exercise is built on a foundation developed by t h e previous exercise. Bearing this in m i n d , o n e will progress m o r e quickly a n d with m o r e c o m p l e t e results. This is n o t to dwell intellectually on these p o i n t s but to simply a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T o b e a b l e t o see t h e t h o u s a n d i n t h e o n e , a n d t h e o n e i n t h e t h o u s a n d , o n e first h a s t o m a n i f e s t t h e p r i n c i p l e . For t h e purpose of providing a deeper a n d broader view of t h e relationship b e t w e e n these exercises a n d t h e X i n g Yi system, several chapters have b e e n added to offer m o r e linkage between t h e supplemental training and the martial aspects of t h e art. M r . Miller's a n d M r . C a r t m e l l ' s discussion of the basic c o n c e p t s a n d structured analysis of t h e basic son h' posture of X i n g Yi Q u a n offers m a n y departure points from which to e x a m i n e t h e various aspects of the basic essentials entailed in the X i n g Yi foundation and m a n a g e s to do so in a direct " j u s t t h e f a c t s " m a n n e r . A r e a d i n g t h a t a n y a s p i r i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r will f i n d u s e f u l . T h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e m a n y rare p h o t o g r a p h s , a n d t h e material on t h e X i n g Yi spear is an added b o n u s for t h o s e practitioners w h o seek further personal research material. We owe a debt of thanks to Mr. Zhang Bao Yang, Mr. W a n g Jin Yu, Mr. He Y u Q i , M r . W a n g L i a n Y i , a n d all t h e i r b r e t h r e n w h o s h a r e d i n t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o all f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f X i n g Y i p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . F o r t u n a t e we are to have b e e n able to, t h r o u g h t h e m , reach deeply i n t o t h e past history o f o u r art a n d c o m e t o k n o w t h e i r t e a c h e r M r . W a n g j i W u . Vince Black Summer 1994 T u c s o n , Arizona

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Chapter 1

Wang Ji Wu
and the lineage of his

Xing Yi Quan

Xing Yi Quan Master W a n g Ji Wu (1891-1991)

Xing Yi

Nei

Gong

Wang Ji Wu and the lineage of his Xing Yi Quan


by Dan Miller
Wangji Wu 0 , w h o w a s a l s o k n o w n a s W a n g Z h o n g G a o ( i $ * |jj), w a s a n a t i v e of S h a n x i Province, Yu Ci C o u n t y , D o n g S h a n Village. He was b o r n in 1891. His g r a n d f a t h e r w a s a f a m o u s C h i n e s e d o c t o r a n d w a s c o n s i d e r e d incorruptible. Likewise, W a n g ' s father was charitable a n d enthusiastically acted for t h e g o o d o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n his y o u t h , W a n g j i W u studied i n t h e village s c h o o l a n d was a gifted s t u d e n t . He h a d a natural love of martial arts a n d studied what he c o u l d with t h e martial artists of his village. He was a student by d a y a n d t h e w a t c h m a n o f a g o u r d p a t c h a t n i g h t , w h i c h left p l e n t y o f t i m e for m a r t i a l arts practice while at work. During a lifetime of study, W a n g b e c a m e an expert of m a r t i a l arts ( i n c l u d i n g f / i ' ^ o n , ? - < ) a n d C h i n e s e M e d i c i n e ( i n c l u d i n g o s t e o p a t h y ) . B e c a u s e o f h i s d e e p u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h t h e m a r t i a l a n d m e d i c a l arts, h i s level o f a t t a i n m e n t i n b o t h w a s v e r y h i g h . H e led a s t a b l e life, p l a c i n g j u s t i c e a b o v e material gains, and took pleasure in helping others. Because of this, he was m u c h respected a n d a d m i r e d by h is f r i e n d s a n d f a m i l y .
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W a n g j i Wu's Xing Yi lineage At sixteen years of age, W a n g J i W u m o v e d t o t h e c i t y o f Tai Yuan in Shanxi Province to apprentice in business. Here, w h e n h e w a s e i g h t e e n years o f age, h e w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o W a n g Fu Yuan ( i f a ? t ) . <P s t u d e n t of the famed Xing Yi Quan master L i u Q i Lan ( f ' J - f t f ) .
a

X i n g Yi Q u a n ( # * * ) was created at the end of the Ming D y n a s t y by Ji L o n g F e n g * g, - a l s o k n o w n as Ji Ji Ke - if fft *T) ofShanxiProvince. Insucceeding g e n e r a t i o n s t h e art spread t h r o u g h o u t S h a n x i , Hebei, a n d Henan provinces and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o t h e rest o f t h e world. W a n g Ji Wu's Xing Yi Q u a n lineage is well k n o w n to

A young Wang Ji Wu

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W a n g Ji Wu (left - a g e 63) sits with t w o of his X i n g Yi Q u a n f r i e n d s , Ma Yu T a n g (center - age 82) a n d Zhang X i a n g Zhai (nicknamed the " I r o n L o h a n " - age 80). This picture w a s t a k e n in 1954. Wang Ji Wu lived t o b e 100 y e a r s old. M a Y u T a n g died a t 87, a n d Zhang Xiang Zhai lived to be 96. t h o s e w h o are f a m i l i a r w i i h t h e h i s t o r y o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . H e w a s a s e v e n t h g e n e r a t i o n i n h e r i t o r o f t h e style o f X i n g Y i Q u a n w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d w i t h J i J i K e ( a l s o k n o w n a s j i L o n g F e n g ) . J i J i K e passed his art t o C a o J i W u w h o p a s s e d i t t o D a i L o n g B a n g , w h o i n t u r n passed i t t o L i N e n g Ran ( a l s o k n o w n a s L i L o u N e n g ) . L i N e n g Ran t a u g h t Liu Q i L a n , w h o t a u g h t W a n g j i W u ' s t e a c h e r , W a n g F u Y u a n . Thus W a n g J i W u w a s o f t h e s e v e n t h g e n e r a t i o n o f J i J i Ke's X i n g Y i Q u a n (see d e t a i l e d l i n e a g e c h a r t o n t h e p r e v i o u s p a g e ) . D a i S t y l e X i n g Yi Q u a n $ $ )

The style of Xing ViQuau w n i c n W a n g j T fv'u t a u g h t a n a ' p r a c t i c e d " is k n o w n as t h e D a i style of X i n g Yi Q u a n ( o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d Liu He Xin YiQuan-^ - f i - ^ - f t #-) b e c a u s e i t d e s c e n d e d f r o m C a o J i W u ' s s t u d e n t , Dai L o n g B a n g . Dai L o n g B a n g w a s b o r n i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Q i n g d y n a s t y i n S h a n x i P r o v i n c e , ( J i C o u n t y . His f a m i l y h a d t w o s o n s . H e h a d a n o l d e r b r o t h e r n a m e d D a i L i n g B a n g (K ft -*P). T h e y b o t h h a d liked p r a c t i c i n g m a r t i a l arts s i n c e t h e y w e r e v o i m g . As small boys, t h e t w o b r o t h e r s practiced m i m i c i n g fighting m o v e m e n t s with sticks a n d o t h e r o b j e c t s they f o u n d a n d e n j o y e d practicing kicking, s t r e t c h i n g , l i f t i n g w e i g h t s , a n d t h r o w i n g s a n d b a g s . B y t h e t i m e Dai L o n g B a n g was i n h i s t e e n s his a r m s w e r e v e r y s t r o n g . O n e d a y i n t h e v i l l a g e a m i l l s t o n e fell a n d n o o n e c o u l d m o v e it. D a i a p p r o a c h e d t h e s t o n e , s q u a t t e d d o w n , p i c k e d i t -p and put it b a c k were it b e l o n g e d . S o o n Dai b e c a m e f a m o u s for his s t r e n g t h . T h e y c a l l e d h i m " t w o d o n k e y " Dai b e c a u s e h e w a s s o s t r o n g . O n e y e a r i n t h e s u m m e r i t r a i n e d c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r o v e r t e n days a n d t h e s t r e e t 4

Lineage o u t i n f r o n t o f t h e i r s h o p b e c a m e like a river. S o m e o n e w a s d e l i v e r i n g g o o d s i n a w a g o n a n d t h e w h e e l s o f t h e w a g o n g o t c a u g h t i n t h e m u d . F o u r o r five w o r k e r s couldn't m o v e t h e w a g o n out o f t h e m u d . Dai said, "Let m e try." W i t h o n e breath and a shove he pushed the wagon out of the m u d . T h e people watching started calling h i m " s t r o n g m a n " Dai. After Dai lifted t h e w a g o n , h e h e a r d a l a u g h i n g v o i c e b e h i n d h i m s a y i n g , " H a , y o u a r e really a s t r o n g m a n ! " H e t u r n e d a r o u n d a n d s a w a n o l d m a n s t a n d i n g t h e r e . D a i felt t h a t t h e m a n h a d a s p e c i a l l o o k a b o u t h i m . D a i s a i d , " I c a n t e l l b y y o u r a c c e n t y o u are f r o m Q i C o u n t y . H o w e v e r , 1 d o n ' t t h i n k 1 h a v e e v e r s e e n y o u b e f o r e . " Dai a s k e d h i m w h o h e w a s a n d t h e m a n said t h a t his n a m e w a s C a o J i W u . H e h a d b e e n t r a v e l i n g f o r y e a r s a n d w a s n o w o n his w a y h o m e . D a i i n v i t e d h i m in f o r a rest. As Dai a n d C a o were walking t h r o u g h t h e courtyard, t h e y passed by a tree. C a o a c t e d a s i f h e w a s t r i p p e d b y a t r e e r o o t a n d l o o k e d a s i f h e w a s g o i n g t o fall f o r w a r d . D a i g r a b b e d C a o a r o u n d t h e w a i s t i n a n a t t e m p t t o pull h i m u p b e f o r e h e fell t o t h e g r o u n d . N o m a t t e r h o w h a r d h e t r i e d , D a i c o u l d n o t pull h i m u p . It was as if C a o h a d roots in t h e g r o u n d . C a o finally s t o o d up, l a u g h e d a n d said, " H a , s t r o n g m a n , w h e r e i s y o u r s t r e n g t h n o w ? " Dai k n e w t h a t C a o w a s a m a n o f u n c o m m o n skill a n d b o w e d b e f o r e h i m t o ask t o b e c o m e h i s s t u d e n t . T h e n e x t d a y C a o said h e w a s l e a v i n g t o g o b a c k t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . D a i b e g g e d h i m t o s t a y . C a o a g r e e d t o s t a y f o r a few d a y s . D a i fed h i m well a n d d i d e v e r y t h i n g for h i m . C a o , e n j o y i n g t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a n d i n n o h u r r y t o g e t h o m e , s t a y e d w i t h D a i f o r t h r e e m o n t h s . E v e r y d a y Dai a s k e d i f C a o w o u l d t e a c h him a n d C a o refused. Dai a n d C a o slept i n t h e s a m e r o o m a n d o n e n i g h t Dai w o k e u p a n d d i s c o v e r e d C a o w a s g o n e . T h e n e x t few n i g h t s Dai p r e t e n d e d h e w a s a s l e e p a n d e a c h n i g h t he saw C a o sneaking out as s o o n as he t h o u g h t Dai h a d fallen asleep. Dai p r e t e n d e d t o fall a s l e e p a g a i n t h e n e x t n i g h t a n d a f t e r C a o h a d left, h e w e n t o u t t o see w h a t C a o w a s d o i n g . W h e n C a o r e a c h e d t h e wall a r o u n d t h e c o u r t y a r d i n f r o n t o f D a i ' s h o m e b e e a s i l y l e a p t o v e r it. T h e wall w a s h i g h s o Dai h a d t o c l i m b h i s w a y o v e r . C a o w e n t o u t i n t o a c l e a r i n g a n d b e g a n t o p r a c t i c e his m a r t i a l arts. His m o v e m e n t w a s fast, a c c u r a t e a n d v i c i o u s . D a i w a s s o i m p r e s s e d t h a t h e could not c o n t a i n himself as he cried out in a m a z e m e n t . C a o turned a r o u n d a n d s e e i n g Dai said, " l a m o l d n o w a n d c a n ' t m o v e s o w e l l , p l e a s e d o n o t l a u g h a t m e for d o i n g m a r t i a l arts t h i s w a y . T h e y w e n t b a c k t o h a v e t e a . C a o s a i d t h a t s i n c e Dai h a d s e e n h i m , h e w o u l d n ' t h i d e t h e t r u t h f r o m h i m a n y m o r e . H e said " 1 w a s a i n n e r d o o r s t u d e n t o f J i J I K e f o r t e n y e a r s . " C a o r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t h e s c h o l a r l y e x a m s h e h a d r e a c h e d t h e first level a n d i n t h e m a r t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s h e h a d p l a c e d s e c o n d . T h e E m p e r o r g a v e h i m t h e p o s i t i o n a s t h e c h i e f c o n s t a b l e o f t h e c o u n t y i n S h a n x i a n d t h e n later h e b e c a m e t h e g o v e r n o r . H e r e t a i n e d his p u b l i c p o s i t i o n f o r o v e r t e n y e a r s b u t b e c a m e t i r e d o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n . After r e s i g n i n g his p o s i t i o n , h e left a n d t r a v e l e d around the country to meet people. C a o f o u n d Dai to be very sincere a n d trustworthy. He h a d stayed at Dai's h o m e f o r t h r e e m o n t h s w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g h i m a s a d i s c i p l e i n o r d e r t o test h i s c h a r a c t e r . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , h e s a w t h a t D a i w a s h o n e s t a n d u p r i g h t . Dai a g a i n knelt and asked to be a c c e p t e d as a student a n d this t i m e (lao agreed. After a g r e e i n g t o a c c e p t Dai a s a s t u d e n t , C a o t o l d Dai a b o u t h i s o w n t e a c h e r . At t h e end of t h e M i n g D y n a s t y t h e r e was a m a n from Y o n g Ji C o u n t y , S h a n x i

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P r o v i n c e . He was a m a n of great ability n a m e d J i j i Ke. He was also k n o w n as J i L o n g F e n g . H e t o o k t h e i m p e r i a l e x a m s , p a s s e d t h e test w i t h h i g h m a r k s a n d b e c a m e an official in S h a a n x i . He was upright a n d h o n e s t a n d spoke t h e truth. Because of his honesty, he upset s o m e of his corrupt superiors and t h e y forced h i m o u t o f o f f i c e . After l e a v i n g o f f i c e h e t h e n t r a v e l e d a r o u n d C h i n a . On o n e occasion Ji was in XI An visiting a friend. It was getting dark and s t a r t e d t o rain s o h e r a n i n t o a J i n g W u t e m p l e . I t w a s a n o l d a n d d i l a p i d a t e d p l a c e . H e s a w a s t a t u e o f Y u e Fei (-- ^ ) i n t h e t e m p l e a n d r e a l i z e d i t w a s a t e m p l e d e d i c a t e d t o t h e m e m o r y o f Y u e Fei. J i l o o k e d c l o s e l y a t t h e s t a t u e a n d n o t i c e d t h a t i t w a s c r a c k e d . H e c o u l d see s o m e t h i n g i n s i d e t h e c r a c k a n d s o h e t o o k h i s sword a n d c h i p p e d a w a y a r o u n d t h e crack. Inside he f o u n d a manuscript called Yue Fei's Six Harmony Xin Yi Boxing Manual. He w a s v e r y h a p p y b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e k n e w a b o u t Y u e Fei's f a m i l y o f m a r t i a l a r t s b u t b e t w e e n t h e t i m e Y u e Fei w a s a l i v e a n d J i j i Ke's t i m e , t h e art h a d b e e n l o s t . H e f o l l o w e d t h e m a n u a l a n d p r a c t i c e d h a r d . He later w e n t b a c k to his h o m e in S h a n x i p r o v i n c e . He copied t h e b o o k o n t o n i c e p a p e r t o p r e s e r v e it. J i later m e t a n d a c c e p t e d C a o J i W u a s h i s d i s c i p l e . * Dai L o n g B a n g a s k e d C a o w h a t w a s s p e c i a l a b o u t X i n g Y i . C a o said t h a t i t w a s a l s o c a l l e d Liu He Xin Yi Quan (Six H a r m o n y X i n Yi B o x i n g ) . T h e r e are t w e l v e f o r m s a n d t w e l v e styles, t h r e e t u r n i n g s a n d t h r e e r e t u r n i n g s , m e t h o d s o f a t t a c k i n g a n d m e t h o d s o f d e f e n d i n g . All o f t h e s e m e t h o d s a r e t o g e t h e r i n o n e b o d y . T h e m o v e m e n t s are v e r y agile a n d a d r o i t a n d c a n c h a n g e v e r y q u i c k l y . E v e n i f y o u a r e w a l k i n g i n p i t c h b l a c k n i g h t a n d t h e r e i s a s l i g h t b r e e z e , y o u will react and turn with t h e breeze. Dai b e c a m e v e r y e x c i t e d a n d w a n t e d t o start l e a r n i n g i m m e d i a t e l y . C a o felt D a i ' s s h o u l d e r s a n d said, " A l t h o u g h y o u r s h o u l d e r s are like steel a n d y o u r dan tian i s h a r d , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n s i d e . " H e c o n t i n u e d , " Y o u h a v e t h e h a r d s h e l l o f a strong m a n , but no internal s u b s t a n c e . " Dai replied, "I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d w h a t y o u m e a n . " C a o said, " T h e m a r t i a l arts y o u h a v e p r a c t i c e d i n t h e past h a v e b e e n practiced incorrectly. Because y o u have lifted h e a v y weights, y o u r b o d y is very hard and tight. With this type of body, there is no way you can practice X i n g Yi." D a i L o n g B a n g g o t n e r v o u s a n d said, " D o e s t h i s m e a n t h a t I h a v e r u i n e d m y s e l f a n d c a n n o t e v e r p r a c t i c e X i n g Y i . " C a o said t h a t i t w a s n o t t o o l a t e a n d t a u g h t D a i e x e r c i s e s s u c h as t h e tiger s t e p , h o w to s q u a t like a m o n k e y , a n d San Ti Shi (trinity s t a n d i n g posture), in order to o p e n up his b o d y inside a n d cultivate h i s qi. After a few days, C a o felt t h a t D a i w a s p r a c t i c i n g t h e m o v e m e n t s c o r r e c t l y a n d said " I a m l e a v i n g y o u n o w . P r a c t i c e t h e s e m o v e m e n t s s e r i o u s l y f o r a y e a r a n d t h e n I will c o m e b a c k a n d s e e h o w y o u ' v e d o n e . 1 will t h e n j u d g e w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u are r e a d y t o l e a r n X i n g Y i . " A y e a r later, D a i w e n t o u t t o p r a c t i c e o n e d a y a n d saw a n old m a n o n the g r o u n d o n his h a n d s a n d k n e e s . H e w e n t out t o h e l p t h e o l d m a n g e t u p . H e c o u l d n ' t lift t h e m a n ' s b o d y , b u t c o u l d lift h i s a r m . T h e m a n t u r n e d a r o u n d a n d D a i s a w t h a t i t w a s C a o J i W u . C a o said, " I see y o u h a v e b e e n p r a c t i c i n g , y o u c a n n o w lift u p m y a r m . I t h i n k y o u a r e n o w r e a d y t o start learning Xing Yi." * The true origin of Ji Ji K<z's Xing Yi (Juan is unknown. This story about him finding Yue Hei's manual is the popular version of Xing Yi Quail's origin, however, it cannot be verified. Some versions of this story say he found Yue Fei's manual in a cave, others say it was given to him by LI stranger and the story above says he found it in a temple. Others say that Ji Ji Ke originaicd Xini; Yi himself based on the movements of the spear. The truth will never be known. 6

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Nei

(long

C a o t a u g h t Dai s o m e n e w e x e r c i s e s a n d t h e n left a g a i n t o a l l o w h i m t i m e t o p r a c t i c e o n his o w n . T h i s w e n t o n f o r e i g h t y e a r s . C a o s h o w e d u p a t D a i ' s h o m e , t a u g h t h i m s o m e new exercises a n d forms, stayed l o n g e n o u g h to ensure t h a t Dai w a s p e r f o r m i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s c o r r e c t l y a n d t h e n left f o r o n e y e a r . O n e d a y , a f t e r e i g h t years, C a o c a m e b a c k w i t h s o m e r o p e s m a d e o f c o w t e n d o n s a n d t i e d t h e m a r o u n d D a i ' s w a i s t . Dai laid o n t h e g r o u n d a n d C a o said, " I a m g o i n g t o g r a b t h e r o p e a n d lift y o u o f f t h e g r o u n d . T h e last t i m e y o u l i f t e d m e , i t i s n o w m y t u r n t o lift y o u . " C a o lifted a n d t h e r o p e b r o k e . C a o said, " T h i s r o p e b r o k e n o t b e c a u s e y o u d o n ' t h a v e gong f i t o r b e c a u s e I a m t o o w e a k . I t i s t h a t t h e r o p e i s t o o w e a k f o r b o t h o f u s . W e are n o w e v e n . " Dai j u m p e d u p a n d said, " H o w c o u l d I ever b e g i n t o c o m p a r e m y s e i f t o m y m a s t e r . " C a o s a i d , " F o r a g o o d s t u d e n t , I c a n tell t h e m ' o n e ' a n d t h e y c a n f i g u r e o u t ' t w o . ' Y o u a r e n o w a t t h e level w h e r e I tell y o u ' o n e ' a n d y o u c a n c o u n t t o t e n o n your o w n . Y o u are t h e i n h e r i t o r o f m y style." C a b t h e n gave Dai his sword. H e said, " Y o u c a n n e v e r b e c o m p l a c e n t . I f y o u p r a c t i c e o n e d a y y o u g a i n o n e d a y . I f y o u m i s s o n e day, t h e n y o u l o o s e t e n d a y s . R e m e m b e r , a l w a y s b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g in w h o m you t e a c h . " T h e n e x t m o r n i n g D a i w o k e u p a n d C a o w a s g o n e . H e w a i t e d for h i m t o r e t u r n for ten y e a r s a n d t h e n w e n t searching for h i m , but C a o was n e v e r f o u n d . Dai later found out that Cao went to Jung Nan m o u n t a i n , near Xian, to cultivate himself a n d h e d i e d t h e r e . D a i L o n g B a n g b e c a m e t h e i n h e r i t o r o f t h e style a n d p r a c t i c e d diligently. He c a m e up with new things from the old things. Xing Yi Q u a n entered a new phase of development with him, so he is considered to be t h e f o u n d e r o f t h i s style a n d i t i s n o w c a l l e d " D a i F a m i l y X i n g Y i Q u a n . " D a i L o n g B a n g was o n e o f t h e m o s t r e s p e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n m a r t i a l arts i n C h i n a , h e lived t o b e 9 0 years o l d . D a i ' s m o s t f a m o u s s t u d e n t s w e r e h i s s o n , Dai W e n j u n , h i s n e p h e w , D a i W e n X i o n g , a n d L i N e n g R a n . T h e Written Transmissions w h i c h a p p e a r i n C h a p t e r 2 o f t h i s b o o k w e r e h a n d e d d o w n f r o m Dai L o n g B a n g a n d h i s student Li N e n g Ran.

Li N e n g Kan

gfc)

T h e m a j o r i t y of t h e Northern style X i n g Yi Q u a n that is practiced around t h e w o r l d t o d a y c a n b e t r a c e d d i r e c t l y t o D a i L o n g B a n g ' s s t u d e n t , L i N e n g Rati ( a l s o k n o w n as Li Lou N e n g ) . Li Neng Ran was f r o m Shell C o u n t y in Hebei Province. W h e n h e was 3 7 h e w e n t t o S h a n x i , Q i C o u n t y a n d studied X i n g Y i f r o m Dai Long Bang a n d later with Dai's n e p h e w Dai W e n X i o n g ( ^ He studied for years a n d b e c a m e very g o o d at X i n g Yi a n d t h e n taught martial arts to bodyguards. Li was e m p l o y e d by t h e o w n e r of a bodyguard service in Tai G u , S h a n x i P r o v i n c e f o r a n u m b e r o f years a n d b e g a n t e a c h i n g X i n g Y i Q u a n i n Tai G u . His first X i n g Y i Q u a n d i s c i p l e w a s C h e Y i Z h a i . S i n c e Li N e n g Ran worked for a b o d y g u a r d service, he f r e q u e n t l y traveled a n d t a u g h t s t u d e n t s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f S h a n x i a n d 1 l e b e i . Later, h e m o v e d b a c k t o his h o m e in S h c n C o u n t y , Hebei Province and taught students there. T w o of his m o s t f a m o u s s t u d e n t s , Liu Q i Lan a n d G u o Y u n S h e n w e r e f r o m S h e n C o u n t y . LI N e n g Ran h a d several s t u d e n t s w h o b e c a m e very well k n o w n for their X i n g Yi Q u a n . A m o n g t h e m w e r e C h e Y i Z h a i , G u o Y u n S h e n , Liu Q i Lan, Bai X i Y u a n , S o n g S h i R o n g , S o n g S h i D e a n d h i s s o n , L i Tai He. Li's s t u d e n t s w h o d i d t h e m o s t t o p r o p a g a t e h i s art w e r e C h e Y i Z h a i , S o n g Shi R o n g , Liu Q i Lan a n d G u o Y u n S h e n . Liu Q i L a n a n d G u o Y u n S h e n t a u g h t L i N e n g R a n ' s X i n g Y i i n S h c n 8

Lineage C o u n t y , Hcbei Province. C h e Yi Z h a i a n d S o n g Shi R o n g t a u g h t i n Shanxi Province. L i N e n g Ran c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e called the " f a t h e r " of the Northern styles o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . L i i s k n o w n f o r r e f i n i n g a n d adding to what Dai Long Bang h a d taught h i m . LI is credited with developing m a n y of t h e t w o - p e r s o n forms, such as Wu Xing Sheng Ke <_S.fr & ) a n d Ai Shen l\io* ( 4 f e ^ ( f c ) , n o w p r a c t i c e d by X i n g Yi practitioners in n o r t h e r n C h i n a . S o m e say t h a t h e w o r k e d o u t t h e s e t w o - p e r s o n sets w i t h his top student C h e Yi Zhai. Li N e n g Ran is a l s o t h o u g h t to have changed some of the animal styles and added new ones. A d d i t i o n a l l y , it is t h o u g h t t h a t Li c a m e up with the principles of k e e p i n g t h e e l b o w s c l o s e t o t h e ribs a n d k e e p i n g t h e fists i n f r o n t o f t h e heart. His idea was that t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s h o u l d use t h e b o d y j p striking m o r e t h a n
s t C S m

C h e Yi Zhai (left) w i t h G u o Y u n S h e n in Tai Gu, Shanxi.

a n c

u s i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e a r m s a s i n t h e o l d s t y l e o f X i n g Yi. L i N e n g Ran c r e a t e d m a n y n e w ideas a n d f o r m s t o a d d t o t h e art h e l e a r n e d from his teacher. He was a great i n n o v a t o r a n d is responsible for c o m i n g up with m a n y of the fundamental principles of Xing Yi (Juan practice. C h e Yi Zhai UM|j-> C h e Y i Z h a i , a l s o k n o w n a s C h e Y o n g H o n g (^-Tk. ) , w a s t h e s e c o n d c h i l d in his family a n d people called h i m " C h e n u m b e r t w o . " He was b o r n in 1 8 3 3 in Tai G u C i t y , S h a n x i P r o v i n c e , T a o Y u a n B a o V i l l a g e . W h e n h e w a s y o u n g his f a m i l y w a s v e r y p o o r . F r o m t h e t i m e h e w a s a s m a l l b o y h e f o l l o w e d his f a t h e r to do m a n u a l labor. W h e n he was ten he was sent to a rich family's r a n c h to work as a s h e p h e r d . C h e w a s o f t e n b e a t e n a n d c u r s e d a t b y h i s e m p l o y e r . O n e t i m e h e lost a f e m a l e s h e e p a n d t h e f a m i l y b e a t h i m w i t h a stick, m a d e h i s f a t h e r p a y for t h e s h e e p a n d t h e n fired h i m . O n l y a f t e r h i s f a t h e r b e g g e d f o r h i s j o b w a s h e a c c e p t e d b a c k . 'Ai Shen Pao, or "close body pounding," is also commonly known as An Shen I'uo or "stahlebody pounding." Xing Yi practitioners from Shanxi Province say that the original name of this form was Ai Shen I'uo, however, since many Xing Yi men were illiterate, somewhere along the line the name was mistakenly changed. While most practitioners in Hebei Province now call this form An Shen Pao many of the practitioners in Shanxi Province still call it AI Shen Pao. Since this lorm was originally developed to practice close-in fighting strategics Ai Shen I'ao is the name that makes more sense. 9

Xing

Yi

Nei

Gong

Che Yi Zhai

Song Shi Rong

H o w e v e r , t h i s i n c i d e n t left a n i m p r e s s i o n o n h i m a b o u t b u l l i e s a n d h e v o w e d t o s t u d y m a r t i a l arts. Everyday C h e w o u l d carry a y o u n g calf in his arms w h i l e he exercised in order t o m a k e h i m s e l f s t r o n g e r . O n e d a y h e w a s w r e s t l i n g w i t h a c o w a n d t h r e w it. His e m p l o y e r saw h i m and t o o k a s w i t c h to beat h i m . C h e grabbed t h e switch a n d snapped it in half, t h r e w it on t h e ground a n d quit his job. He t h e n w e n t to a n o t h e r w e a l t h y f a m i l y i n T a i G u a n d g o t a j o b d r i v i n g a n o x c a r t . His e m p l o y e r ' s n a m e was Wu Bo Nian ^ u -*p>- A t t h a t t i m e Tai G u h a d t h e n i c k n a m e o f " g o l d " Tai Gu because there were a lot of rich people living there. T h e streets o f T a i G u were narrow a n d t h e r e was n o t e n o u g h r o o m for t w o carts t o pass e a c h o t h e r i n t h e a l l e y s . T h e r e w a s a rule t h a t i f t w o c a r t s m e t o n a street, t h e p e r s o n o f h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g g o t t o g o first. O n e d a y C h e w a s t a k i n g h i s e m p l o y e r t h r o u g h a n alley. T h e y were almost t o t h e e n d o f t h e alley w h e n t h e w e a l t h i e s t m a n i n t h e c o u n t y a p p r o a c h e d w i t h h i s c a r t . C h e s a i d , " C a n y o u just b a c k u p a few f e e t a n d let m e g o t h r o u g h . " C h e ' s e m p l o y e r w h a c k e d C h e w i t h a stick a n d then got out a n d apologized to t h e o t h e r m a n because C h e h a d n o t f o l l o w e d t h e p r o p e r e t i q u e t t e . C h e w a s s h o c k e d a t t h e u n f a i r n e s s o f i t all a n d w a n t e d to practice t h e martial arts with even stronger resolve. O n e d a y C h e w a s a t h o m e w i t h h i s b o s s . His b o s s ' n e p h e w c a m e o v e r a n d s a w t h a t C h e w a s v e r y s t r o n g . His n e p h e w ' s n a m e w a s W u H o n g P u M) and was a Shaolin student o f a m o n k n a m e W a n g C h a n g D o n g ( i & C h e was smart a n d saw t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to practice martial arts a n d asked Wu H o n g Pu if he would teach h i m . Wu accepted C h e as a student. C h e practiced with Wu H o n g Pu f o r five y e a r s . W u H o n g P u r e c o g n i z e d t h a t C h e Y i Z h a i h a d a lot o f p o t e n t i a l a n d t o o k h i m t o h i s t e a c h e r . C h e b e g a n p r a c t i c i n g w i t h W a n g C h a n g D o n g a n d h i s skill

10

Lineage i m p r o v e d greatly. O n e day his boss, Wu Bo Nian, told C h e Yi Zhai t h a t if he c o u l d b e c o m e v e r y skilled a t m a r t i a l arts, h e c o u l d b e his b o d y g u a r d a n d t a k e c a r e o f his house. Wu Bo Nian h a p p e n e d to have a friend n a m e d M c n g and t h e M e n g f a m i l y told h i m t h a t t h e y h a d a really g o o d martial artist w h o t a u g h t t h e e m p l o y e e s o f their bodyguard service. T h e y suggested t o W u that C h e could c o m e learn f r o m h i m . T h e t e a c h e r o f their b o d y g u a r d service h a p p e n e d t o b e Xing Yi Quan master Li Neng Ran. W h e n L i N e n g R a n saw h o w h a r d C h e p r a c t i c e d , h e a g r e e d t o t e a c h h i m . T h e Wu family brought Li to their house and hired h i m to teach C h e Yi Zhai. Li often h a d t o g o o u t t o w o r k a s a b o d y g u a r d a n d e s c o r t c o n v o y s , h o w e v e r , h e was b a c k i n Tai G u five o r six t i m e s a y e a r b e t w e e n t r i p s . W h e n e v e r h e w a s i n T a i G u , h e taught C h e . Because Li wasn't t h e r e a lot, C h e also w e n t back to his old S h a o l i n t e a c h e r to learn m o r e . W h e n Li heard a b o u t this, he was n o t angry. He was touched by Che's enthusiasm. Because C h e was so enthusiastic, Li took him to m e e t Dai L o n g B a n g ' s n e p h e w D a i W e n X i o n g i n S h a n x i P r o v i n c e , Q i c o u n t y . Dai h a d a l s o b e e n a b o d y g u a r d , b u t w a s n o w r e t i r e d . C h e w e n t t o s t u d y w i t h Dai every c h a n c e h e got. Dai W e n X i o n g was already q u i t e old b y t h e n a n d didn't a c c e p t n e w s t u d e n t s , b u t L i L o u N e n g , w h o w a s o n e o f h i s best s t u d e n t s , t a l k e d h i m i n t o accepting C h e . Dai's h o m e was 2 0 miles from w h e r e C h e lived a n d C h e walked there almost everyday to practice. Dai W e n X i o n g o f t e n s a i d , o f m y s y s t e m I h a v e t w o i n h e r i t o r s , L i N e n g Ran a n d C h e Y i Z h a i . H e t a u g h t e v e r y t h i n g t o C h e . H e t a u g h t C h e t h a t m a r t i a l arts were to protect yourself a n d others a n d o n e should always be very selective in a c c e p t i n g students. Before Dai W e n X i o n g died at t h e age of 9 6 , he gave C h e his m a n u a l o f X i n g Y i m a r t i a l arts. B e c a u s e C h e s t u d i e d w i t h L i a n d D a i , h e s t u d i e d t h e w h o l e b r e a d t h o f t h e X i n g Y i art a n d c a m e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p u r e e s s e n c e . H e b e c a m e a f a m o u s m a r t i a l artist, b u t h e n e v e r b u l l i e d p e o p l e . W h e n p e o p l e c a m e to challenge him, he did not hurt t h e m . He would entice t h e m into e m p t i n e s s a n d use their o w n force against t h e m . A r o u n d t h e turn of t h e c e n t u r y t h e C h i n e s e people were very weak. A corrupt g o v e r n m e n t , foreign invasion, o p i u m addiction, a n d years of bad harvest h a d b e a t e n t h e m d o w n . C h e felt like h e w a n t e d t o h e l p s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o u n t r y a n d the reputation of the Chinese people. In 1888 in the Japanese concession in Tianjin, a sword contest was held. T h e J a p a n e s e representative h a d already beaten several f a m o u s s w o r d s m e n f r o m Tianjin and Beijing. He was a very g o o d s w o r d s m a n , but was also overly arrogant. He loved to m a k e wild c l a i m s a b o u t how g o o d h e was i n front o f t h e C h i n e s e . C h e heard a b o u t t h e c h a l l e n g e a n d traveled to Tianjin. He got there in t h e m o r n i n g , went directly to t h e contest place and jumped up on the platform. S o m e people in the audience recognized him a n d word q u i c k l y spread t h a t t h e f a m o u s X i n g Yi m a s t e r C h e Yi Zhai was there. T h e crowd began clapping wildly. T h e Japanese swordsman noticed from t h e w a y C h e j u m p e d o n t h e stage t h a t h e w a s skilled a n d s o h e s t e p p e d u p p r o u d l y , t r y i n g t o h i d e h i s fear. T h e J a p a n e s e m a n s a i d , " Y o u m u s t n o t b e afraid of death if you have c o m e to challenge m e . " T h e t w o m e n s q u a r e d o f f w i t h s w o r d s a n d t h e J a p a n e s e m a n a t t a c k e d first. C h e a l l o w e d t h e J a p a n e s e m a r t i a l artist t o b a c k h i m t o t h e e d g e o f t h e p l a t f o r m and t h e n C h e suddenly whirled a r o u n d a n d was b e h i n d his o p p o n e n t . T h e J a p a n e s e m a n was n o w o n t h e edge o f t h e stage. C h e poked h i m w i t h h i s sword on t h e shoulder a n d his o p p o n e n t was teetering on t h e edge. Instead of p u s h i n g

11

Xing

Yi

Nei

Gong

Li Fu Zhen

Song Tie Lin

h i m o f f o r s t a b b i n g h i m , C h e just b a c k e d u p a n d said, " A - h a . " C h e t h e n s t a r t e d m a k i n g b l i n d i n g l y fast m o v e m e n t s w i t h h i s s w o r d a n d c u t h i s o p p o n e n t ' s w r i s t . T h e J a p a n e s e o p p o n e n t lost h i s s w o r d a n d a c k n o w l e d g e d d e f e a t . After t h a t f i g h t , C h e b e c a m e f a m o u s all o v e r C h i n a . The g o v e r n m e n t a w a r d e d h i m t h e h i g h e s t level o f m a r t i a l skill, r e c o g n i z i n g h i m for his a c h i e v e m e n t . In 1 9 0 0 , during t h e Boxer Rebellion, t h e " b o x e r s " started their revolt in Tai G u a n d a s k e d C h e t o t e a c h t h e m m a r t i a l arts. O n J u l y 3 1 , 1 9 0 0 t h e y a t t a c k e d a n A m e r i c a n c h u r c h . C h e w a s t o o l d t o go, h u t h e s e n t t w o o f h i s s t u d e n t s , M e n g X i n g D e ( j t -ft and W a n g Feng X i a n g (JL a n d t h e y w e r e t h e first t o g o i n . T h e y k i l l e d a g r o u p o f A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s a n d felt i t w a s a g r e a t h o n o r f o r C h i n a . Later, a f t e r t h e b o x e r s lost t h e w a r , t h e f a m o u s X i n g Y i i n s t r u c t o r L i C u n Y i ( + - & ) . h o h a d f o u g h t i n t h e r e b e l l i o n a n d k i l l e d m a n y f o r e i g n e r s , fled Beijing because t h e foreigners were after h i m . He w e n t to Tai Gu a n d C h e Yi Zhai h e l p e d h i d e h i m , C h e also sent his s t u d e n t Li Fu / h e n f|_ j g ) to stay w i t h l.i f o r p r o t e c t i o n . T h e f o r e i g n e r s h a d put a p r i c e o n Li's h e a d , s o m a n y c o r r u p t C h i n e s e m a r t i a l a r t i s t s w e r e a f t e r h i m . L i F u Z h e n w e n t a n d k i l l e d t h e m all. L i F u Z h e n w a s a s e r v a n t a t W u R o N i a n ' s h o m e a n d w a s C h e Y i Z h a i ' s first s t u d e n t .
w

During Li C u n Yi's stay in Tai Gu he also spent m o r e t h a n 20 days practicing X i n g Yi in Song Shi Rong's courtyard with Song's y o u n g student and n e p h e w S o n g T i e L i n . L a t e r S o n g T i e L i n (^stUH) said t h a t h e a n d Li c o m p a r e d five e l e m e n t s , t w e l v e a n i m a l s a n d p r a c t i c e d Mi Shen Pao t o g e t h e r . S o n g T i e L i n d i e d i n 1 9 7 S at t h e a g e o f 9 4 . I n 1 8 5 6 , X i n g Y i Q u a n c a m e t o Tai G u w i t h L i L o u N e n g . L i L o u N e n g ' s first X i n g Yi disciple was C h e Yi Zhai, t h e s e c o n d was He Y o n g Hong ( n i c k n a m e d

12

Lineage

Zhang Zhao Dong

Li Cun Yi

" d i v i n e l e g s " ) , n e x t w a s L i G u a n g X i a n g , S o n g Shi R o n g a n d h i s b r o t h e r S o n g Shi D e . T h e s e w e r e h i s five f a m o u s s t u d e n t s i n Tai G u w h o l a t e r b e c a m e k n o w n a s t h e " f i v e stars m e e t i n g i n Tai G u . " T h e s e five s t u d e n t s l a t e r g o t t o g e t h e r w i t h C h e Y i Zhai a n d c a l l e d t h e i r s t y l e t h e C h e f a m i l y X i n g Y i Q u a n . T h e last t i m e t h a t L i L o u N e n g w e n t t o Tai G u h e w a s 7 9 years o l d a n d c o u l d still p e r f o r m t h e Ai Shen Poo f o r m w i t h C h e Yi Z h a i . As t h e y w e r e p r a c t i c i n g , Li t i o t i c e d t h a t C h e h a d c h a n g e d s o m e t h i n g s . L i w a s s u r p r i s e d . C h e said, " F o r g i v e me for c h a n g i n g your f o r m . " Li told C h e t h a t he had c h a n g e d it for t h e better. Guo Yun Shen (J|5 ^ ))

G u o Y u n S h e n h a d s t u d i e d X i n g Y i Q u a n w i t h L i N e n g Ran i n S h e n C o u n t y , Hebei P r o v i n c e . G u o loved to fight w h e n he was y o u n g . W h e n h e first a p p r o a c h e d Li N e n g Ran w a n t i n g to learn X i n g Yi Q u a n , Li w o u l d n o t teach h i m because G u o was of such a violent nature. Li told G u o t h a t unless he could c h a n g e his c h a r a c t e r , h e w o u l d n e v e r t e a c h h i m m a r t i a l arts. G u o g o t a j o b a s a s e r v a n t n e a r Li's h o m e a n d w o u l d s e c r e t l y w a t c h L i a n d h i s s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e X i n g Yi. G u o p r a c t i c e d Hengifitan I s m a s h i n g fist) o n h i s o w n f o r t h r e e y e a r s . O n e d a y L i N e n g Ran saw G u o p r a c t i c i n g beng quart a n d n o t i c e d t h a t G u o w a s v e r y g o o d a t i t a l r e a d y . L i realized t h a t G u o w a s s i n c e r e a b o u t l e a r n i n g X i n g Y i Quan so he then agreed to teach h i m . After G u o h a d s t u d i e d w i t h Li for a few years he g o t a j o b as a b o u n t y h u n t e r . T h e l a w o f t h e d a y said t h a t a b o u n t y h u n t e r w a s a l l o w e d t o c a t c h c r i m i n a l s a n d b r i n g t h e m in, h o w e v e r , t h e c r i m i n a l s h a d t o b e b r o u g h t i n a l i v e . O n o n e o c c a s i o n , G u o was h u n t i n g a b a n d i t w h o was terrorizing travelers along a V.i

Xing

Yi

Nei

Gong

Geng Ji Shan

Peng Ying Xi

f r e q u e n t l y traveled road. G uo found t h e bandit he was pursuing while t h e b a n d i t was engaged in a fight w i t h a local escort service. G u o j o i n e d t h e battle a n d captured t h e bandit, however, after he had captured h i m , t h e bandit pulled out a c o n c e a l e d w e a p o n a n d t r i e d t o kill G u o . G u o h i t t h e m a n a n d killed h i m . Recognizing that he had d o n e wrong, G u o turned himself in to the authorities. T h e p e n a l t y for s u c h a c r i m e was death, h o w e v e r , t h e local magistrate's advisors b e g g e d h i m t o c o n s i d e r n o t e x e c u t i n g G u o b e c a u s e h e w a s a rare t a l e n t i n t h e m a r t i a l arts. I n s t e a d o f e x e c u t i o n , t h e m a g i s t r a t e s e n t e n c e d G u o t o t h r e e years in prison. W h i l e in prison G u o was m a n a c l e d , h o w e v e r , he c o n t i n u e d to practice his X i n g Y i Q u a n . W h e n h e c a m e o u t o f p r i s o n h i s skill w a s h i g h e r t h a n w h e n he had entered. W h i l e i n p r i s o n , G u o h a d d e v e l o p e d w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n a s ban b u bengquan - h a l f s t e p s m a s h i n g fist) a n d b e c a m e s o f a m o u s for t h e p o w e r h e d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h i s s p e c i a l p u n c h t h a t p e o p l e said t h a t his " h a l f s t e p s m a s h i n g fist c o u l d b e a t all u n d e r h e a v e n . " A f t e r b e i n g r e l e a s e d f r o m p r i s o n , G u o w e n t t o visit t h e e s c o r t s e r v i c e d o i n g b u s i n e s s i n t h e a r e a w h e r e t h e b a n d i t h e h a d k i l l e d h a d o p e r a t e d . H e tnid t h e m t h a t e v e r s i n c e h e h a d killed t h e b a n d i t , t h e r o a d w a s clear a n d their j o b h a d b e c o m e easy. He told t h e escort service t h a t t h e y o w e d h i m m o n e y b e c a u s e o f t h e w o r k h e had d o n e for t h e m . Because o f his martial arts skill, t h e y d i d n o t w a n t t o q u a r r e l w i t h h i m s o t h e y g a v e h i m s o m e m o n e y . However, G u o would periodically c o m e b a c k for m o r e m o n e y a n d t h e escort s e r v i c e g o t t i r e d o f it. I n s t e a d o f c o n f r o n t i n g G u o d i r e c t l y , t h e y s e n t a l e t t e r t o Guo's teacher Li Neng Ran. L i N e n g Ran c a l l e d G u o b a c k h o m e a n d t o l d h i m t h a t h e s h o u l d n ' t b o t h e r t h e

14

Lineage e s c o r t s e r v i c e a n y m o r e . Li a l s o said, " P l u s , your gong fu is n o t n e a r l y as g o o d as y o u t h i n k i t is. Y o u r skill d o e s n o t c o m e c l o s e t o t h a t o f y o u r o l d e r b r o t h e r C h e Y i Z h a i . " I n t e l l i n g G u o t h i s , L i w a n t e d t o t e a c h h i m t w o l e s s o n s . T h e first w a s that he should n o t be so arrogant because no matter h o w good s o m e o n e gets, there is always s o m e o n e better. T h e s e c o n d reason was to try a n d bring h i m b a c k : o c o m p l e t e h i s X i n g Y i t r a i n i n g . After G u o l e a r n e d t h e five fists o f X i n g Y i , h e did n o t w a n t t o s t u d y a n y t h i n g e l s e . H e w a s s o g o o d a t a p p l y i n g t h e five fists t h a t h e n e v e r lost a f i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , h e c o n c l u d e d t h a t h e d i d n o t n e e d t o l e a r n a n y t h i n g else. Li h a d e n c o u r a g e d G u o to study X i n g Yi Q u a n ' s s u b s e q u e n t f o r m s a n d t w o - p e r s o n s e t s a f t e r h e h a d l e a r n e d t h e five fists, b u t G u o t h o u g h t i t w a s a b o t h e r a n d left L i b e f o r e h i s X i n g Y i t r a i n i n g w a s c o m p l e t e . L ' p o n h e a r i n g t h a t his t e a c h e r t h o u g h t t h a t C h e Y i Z h a i ' s skill w a s b e t t e r t h a n his, G u o b e c a m e angry and went to Shanxi Province to find C h e Yi Zhai a n d c h a l l e n g e h i m . W h e n G u o arrived a t Che's h o m e , C h e was h a p p y t o see h i m a n d said "Little b r o t h e r , I a m g l a d y o u h a v e c o m e t o v i s i t ! Let's h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o e a t . " G u o said, " N o , I c a m e h e r e t o f i g h t . " C h e tried t o t a l k G u o o u t o f f i g h t i n g , but G u o p e r s i s t e d a n d t h u s C h e w a s left w i t h o u t a c h o i c e . G u o t r i e d t o u s e his f a m o u s beng quan o v e r a n d o v e r . C h e kept b a c k i n g a w a y f r o m G u n ' s strikes a n d t h e n q u i c k l y t u r n e d t o t h e side a s G u o s t r u c k a g a i n a n d e x e c u t e d p i quan - splitting fist). C h e held t h e strike, s t o p p i n g i n c h e s f r o m G u o ' s h e a d . Realizing : h a t C h e h a d g o t t h e b e s t o f h i m , G u o s t o p p e d a n d said, " I t i s just a s o u r t e a c h e r h a s said, y o u a r e b e t t e r t h e n I . " F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t G u o n e v e r b o t h e r e d t h e e s c o r t c o m p a n y a g a i n a n d h e w e n t b a c k t o L i N e n g R a n i n o r d e r t o c o m p l e t e his Xing Yi Quan training. Liu Qi Lan Liu Q i Lan w a s f r o m S h e n C o u n t y i n H e b e i P r o v i n c e , a v e r y f a m o u s a r e a f o r m a r t i a l arts. S h e n C o u n t y i s i n s o u t h - c e n t r a l H e b e i n e a r t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f S h i Jia Zhuang. There are m a n y frequently traveled roads that run through this c o u n t y a n d t h u s large n u m b e r s o f " m a r t i a l arts b a n d i t s " i n h a b i t e d t h e a r e a a n d robbed travelers. In addition to t h e bandits, there were also martial artists w h o ran p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . T h e s e m a r t i a l a r t i s t s w e r e h i r e d t o e s c o r t t r a v e l e r s a n d p r o t e c t t h e m a g a i n s t t h e b a n d i t s . N e e d l e s s t o say, t h e m a r t i a l a r t i s t s i n t h i s a r e a Of H e b e i w e r e h i g h l y s k i l l e d . Liu Qi L a n ' s X i n g Yi Q u a n t e a c h e r , Li N e n g R a n , his X i n g Y i b r o t h e r , G u o Y u n S h e n , a n d f o u r o f Liu Q i L a n ' s f a m o u s s t u d e n t s , I.i C u n Yi, Z h a n g Z h a o D o n g < * G e n g J i S h a n ( . H %) a n d W a n g F u Y u a n

all f r o m S h e n C o u n t y . A d d i t i o n a l ly, t h e f a m o u s s e c o n d g e n e r a t B a G u a Z h a n g (/\ ) instructor C h e n g T i n g Hua H i 4 . ) was also f r o m S h e n County a n d Sun Lu Tang j) s t u d i e d h i s X i n g Y i Q u a n w i t h G u o Y u n S h e n in this area of Hebei. G u o Y u n S h e n ' s other f a m o u s s t u d e n t W a n g X i a n g Zhai i * r - i ) , t h e o r i g i n a t o r of Yi Quan . ) a n d Da Cheng Quan iK,#0 w a s a l s o a native of S h e n C o u n t y . Z h a n g Z h a o D o n g m e t Liu Q i Lan w h e n h e w a s still a t e e n a g e r . Z h a n g a n d a g r o u p o f h i s m a r t i a l arts f r i e n d s h a d all h e a r d o f t h e f a m o u s X i n g Y i m a n Liu Q i Lan a n d w a n t e d t o m e e t h i m . T h e g r o u p g o t t o g e t h e r a n d w e n t t o visit Liu t o ask i f t h e y c o u l d s t u d y h i s a r t . I n a d d i t i o n t o Z h a n g Z h a o D o n g , L i C u n Yi, a n d G e n g j i Shan were also a m o n g the group. Most of these practitioners were in their t w e n t i e s . Z h a n g w a s t h e y o u n g e s t a n d t h u s h e w a s k n o w n a s " l i t t l e b r o t h e r . " Liu

s-iStK,) weie

16

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Nei

Gong

a g r e e d t o t e a c h t h e m a n d t h u s t h e y w o u l d all f r e q u e n t l y travel f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h o m e v i l l a g e s t o s t u d y w i t h Liu Q i L a n . Li Qi Lan had m a n y f a m o u s students, in addition to W a n g Fu Yuan, Zhang Z h a o D o n g , L i C u n Yi, G e n g J i S h a n , Z h o u M i n g T a i ( # V \ a n d Liu D e K u a n ( f i l f t j t ) , h e a l s o t a u g h t t h e well k n o w n R a G u a m e n C h e n g D i a n H u a a n d Liu F e n g C h u n (f'J 4 . ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , Liu h a d t h r e e s o n s t h a t s t u d i e d X i n g Yi, Liu D i a n C h e n $ t j - a l s o k n o w n a s Liu W e n H u a - f j X -). Liu R o n g T a n g (#'.#_!:> a n d Liu J i n T a n g (tH^t). Liu Q i L a n ' s s e c o n d s o n , Liu D i a n C h e n , w a s very g o o d at X i n g Yi Q u a n a n d Dragon Form Sword. He was similar to his father i n c h a r a c t e r a n d s t u d i e d w i t h his f a t h e r f o r m a n y y e a r s . H e w a s p o w e r f u l a n d his t e c h n i q u e w a s g o o d . Liu D i a n C h e n w r o t e a b o o k t i t l e d Xing Yi Quart's Secret Skills.

Zhang Xiang Zhai

;f-jt ^ ) - T h e I r o n L o h a n

O n e o f Liu D i a n C h e n ' s t o p s t u d e n t s , Z h a n g X i a n g Z h a i { a l s o k n o w n a s Z h a n g C h a n g Fa - lk-fk%fr), w a s v e r y f a m o u s in H e b e i f o r h i s f i g h t i n g a b i l i t y (see p h o t o g r a p h o n p a g e 4 ) . Z h a n g h a d b e g u n h i s m a r t i a l arts t r a i n i n g s t u d y i n g B a G u a Zhang in his teens with the famous Ba Gua instructor C h e n g Ting Hua in Beijing. Zhang had m o v e d to Beijing from bis h o m e in Zhu Shiu Ying, Hebei Province, w h e n he was y o u n g and got a j o b a p p r e n t i c i n g with a m a n w h o carved C h i n e s e characters. He lived at his boss' h o m e a n d would h a v e to wake up very early, g o t o p r a c t i c e B a G u a , a n d t h e n r e t u r n h o m e b e f o r e h i s b o s s k n e w h e w a s gone. After Z h a n g h a d b e e n w i t h C h e n g for t h r e e y e a r s h e r e t u r n e d h o m e t o a t t e n d a festival and ran i n t o an old friend. T h e t w o friends discovered t h a t t h e y had b o t h b e e n s t u d y i n g m a r t i a l arts, s o t h e y d e c i d e d t o h a v e a c o n t e s t . S i n c e Z h a n g ' s friend was a wrestler, t h e y decided to h a v e a wrestling m a t c h . W h e n t h e t w o friends fought, Zhang was beaten badly. Angry that his friend had won, Zhang said, " I will r e t u r n i n t e n years a n d w e will f i g h t a g a i n ! " Z h a n g t h e n w e n t t o s t u d y X i n g Y i Q u a n w i t h Liu Q i L a n ' s s o n , Liu D i a n C h e n . Z h a n g practiced X i n g Yi very hard a n d after three years of practice he m e t his old friend o n c e again. This time the t w o squared off to fight and Zhang i m m e d i a t e l y hit his o p p o n e n t i n t h e h e a d w i t h X i n g Yi's " s p l i t t i n g fist" a n d knocked him out. W h e n Z h a n g ' s friend c a m e t o h e said, " Y o u d i d n ' t use w r e s t l i n g , t h a t w a s X i n g Y i ! " Z h a n g r e p l i e d , "It d o e s n ' t m a t t e r w h a t I u s e a s l o n g as I w i n ! " Angered, t h e wrestler stood up a n d c a m e at Zhang. Zhang sidestepped t h e a t t a c k a n d t h e n d a r t e d in, p i c k e d u p t h e w r e s t l e r a n d s l a m m e d h i m o n t h e g r o u n d . After t h i s i n c i d e n t p e o p l e b e g a n t o c a l l h i m t h e " I r o n L o h a n . " Later, Z h a n g worked as a bodyguard a n d martial arts instructor a n d m a d e a reputation for h i m s e l f as a ferocious fighter. On o n e occasion the famous w a r l o r d g e n e r a l Z h a n g Z u o Lin (JM1= wanted to hire Zhang to teach martial arts t o h i s t r o o p s . H e i n v i t e d Z h a n g t o his h o m e a n d a s k e d h i m t o d e m o n s t r a t e hisgongfU. Z h a n g d e m o n s t r a t e d a s w o r d f o r m , h o w e v e r , w h e n h e w a s d o n e t h e o b s e r v e r s d i d n o t a p p e a r v e r y i m p r e s s e d . Z h a n g Z u o L i n's w i f e said, " I h a v e h e a r d t h a t w h e n p r a c t i c i n g t h e s w o r d , m a r t i a l arts m a s t e r s c a n h a v e w a t e r t h r o w n a t t h e m a n d will n o t get w e t b e c a u s e t h e s w o r d m o v e s s o fast. C a n y o u d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s ? " Z h a n g r e p l i e d , " T h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e . Y o u h a v e read t o o m a n y m a r t i a l arts f a i r y t a l e s . " S h e a p p e a r e d d i s a p p o i n t e d . Z h a n g said, " Y o u h a v e s e e n m y skill, i f

16

Lineage you do n o t t h i n k I am good, send me away." Z h a n g Zuo Lin b o u g h t Z h a n g a r o o m at a n e a r b y I n n for t h e night a n d asked him to return the n e x t day. T h e general then called t o g e t h e r s o m e of his troops w h o were k n o w n to be good fighters. He planned to have Z h a n g fight these m e n i n o r d e r t o really test Z h a n g ' s m a r t i a l a r t s a b i l i t y . T h e n e x t d a y Z h a n g r e t u r n e d . W h e n t h e troops saw w h o i t was t h e y were supposed t o fight, n o n e w a n t e d t o fight h i m . The g e n e r a l t h e n u n d e r s t o o d h o w g o o d a r e p u t a t i o n Z h a n g h a d a m o n g martial artists. Z h a n g X i a n g Zhai died during the Cultural Revolution at the age of 9 6 . W a n g j i W u ' s X i n g Y i Q u a n t e a c h e r W a n g F u Y u a n ( j _ jffi W a n g Fu Yuan ( 1 8 4 8 - 1 9 1 3 ) was n i c k n a m e d " I r o n A r m " W a n g a n d was k n o w n a s a g r e a t X i n g Y i Q u a n m a s t e r . W a n g w a s s e n i o r t o his c l a s s m a t e s L i C u n Yi, G e n g J i S h a n , Liu D e K u a n , a n d Z h a n g Z h a o D o n g ( a l s o k n o w n a s Z h a n g Z h a n Kui) u n d e r Liu Q i L a n . W a n g F u Y u a n w a s f r o m Liu Q i L a n ' s h o m e v i l l a g e i n S h e n C o u n t y , H e b e i P r o v i n c e , a n d s t u d i e d w i t h Liu Q i Lan f o r n e a r l y 2 5 y e a r s . H e s t u d i e d X i n g Y i w i t h Liu Q i Lan f r o m t h e t i m e h e w a s 1 3 u n t i l h e w a s 3 7 a n d h e never married, W h e n W a n g F u Y u a n w a s t h i r t e e n years o l d ( 1 8 6 1 ) , h e w a s s e n t t o w o r k a s a n a t t e n d a n t i n Liu Q i L a n ' s h o m e n e a r i n S h e n C o u n t y . Liu Q i Lan s a w t h a t t h e b o y was intelligent a n d h o n e s t and after a period of t i m e a c c e p t e d h i m as a formal s t u d e n t . W a n g F u Y u a n b e c a m e t h e first " i n n e r d o o r " s t u d e n t o f Liu Q i L a n . After s t u d y i n g w i t h Liu Q i Lan for m a n y y e a r s , W a n g F u Y u a n b e c a m e a n officer in t h e military a n d on o n e occasion was called u p o n to face a g a n g of b a n d i t s i n S h e n C o u n t y . D u r i n g t h e f i g h t , W a n g F u Y u a n killed t h e g a n g l e a d e r . F r o m t h a t t i m e f o r w a r d , t h e g a n g v o w e d t o get r e v e n g e a n d t h r e a t e n e d W a n g ' s life. I n o r d e r t o a v o i d h a v i n g t o c o n s t a n t l y l o o k o v e r his s h o u l d e r , W a n g left t o w n a n d w e n t t o live i n T a i G u , S h a n x i P r o v i n c e . W h e n h e a r r i v e d i n S h a n x i P r o v i n c e h e s t u d i e d f o r a s h o r t t i m e w i t h his X i n g Y i b o x i n g " u n c l e " C h e Y i Z h a i . C h e h a d b e e n a c l a s s m a t e o f Liu Q i L a n ' s u n d e r I.i N e n g R a n . W a n g F u Y u a n ' s p o w e r a n d skill w e r e v e r y g r e a t . H e w o n t h e praise o f m a n y o f t h e s e n i o r m a s t e r s o f t h e d a y . O n c e w h e n g u e s t s h a d c o m e t o visit, C h e Y i Z h a i o r d e r e d W a n g t o d e m o n s t r a t e . W a n g p e r f o r m e d t h e set Pan Gen* ($2 He s t a r t e d o f f very s l o w l y a n d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e p a c e u n t i l his q u e u e w a s standing straight out b e h i n d h i m because o f t h e speed o f his m o v e m e n t . O n e o f C l i e Y i Z h a i ' s t o p s t u d e n t s , L i F u Z h e n , w a s o n t h e side w a t c h i n g a n d e x c l a i m e d his a d m i r a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e t i m e h e lived i n Tai G u , W a n g F u Y u a n c o n t i n u e d t o t r a i n d a i l y . I l e h e a r d t h a t t h e S u f a m i l y o f N a n M i i n Y u C i w e r e l o o k i n g t o h i r e a m a r t i a l artist as the head of household security. W i t h C h e Yi Zhai's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , W a n g got t h e j o b . T h e S u f a m i l y w a s v e r y w e a l t h y , b e i n g t h e o w n e r s o f several p r o f i t a b l e p a w n b r o k e r a g e s . W h i l e W a n g F u Y u a n lived i n N a n M i , h e s t a y e d i n

'i'miCen is a Xing Yi Quan exercise similar to BaGua's circle walking practice, however, the circle is very small. It is a three-step turning exercise where every step changes direction while the hands arc held in a static position, t h e three step practice is trained M that t h e student can learn how to quickly evade an attack, open up the opponent, and then strike. The Earth Dragon ('.anon, which is presented iti the section of this book on XiiiH Yi's Written Transmissions, pertains to the Pan Gen exercise. 17

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the back of o n e of the pawn shops. O n o n e o c c a s i o n , W a n g w e n t t o Y u C i c i t y t o see h i s r e l a t i v e s . T h e d i s t a n c e f r o m N a n Mi to Yu Ci is a b o u t t e n // (just o v e r t h r e e m i l e s ) . W a n g set o u t at d u s k a n d w h e n h e arrived a t Y u C i C i t y t h e g a t e h a d a l r e a d y b e e n c l o s e d . T o g a i n e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e c i t y W a n g u s e d his " l i g h t n e s s s k i l l " a n d a s c e n d e d t h e w a l l . A f t e r h e h a d f i n i s h e d h i s b u s i n e s s , h e set o u t f o r h o m e . N e a r i n g h i s v i l l a g e , i t w a s a l r e a d y n e a r d a y b r e a k . W a n g c a m e u p o n a s m a l l river w h i c h w a s a b o u t t e n m e t e r s a c r o s s . H e was a l w a y s r e l u c t a n t t o d i s p l a y his skill i n f r o n t o f o t h e r s , b u t s i n c e i t w a s e a r l y m o r n i n g a n d n o o n e else w a s a r o u n d , h e d e c i d e d t o j u m p o v e r t h e river. H e b a c k e d a w a y f r o m t h e river a n d t h e n first s p r a n g f o r w a r d a b o u t t e n f e e t . W h e n h i s f o o t t o u c h e d t h e g r o u n d h e s t a m p e d d o w n w i t h h i s right f o o t b e h i n d his left, a n d s p r i n g i n g u p f r o m t h e waist, h e s a i l e d o v e r t h e river t o t h e o t h e r s i d e . U n k n o w n t o W a n g t h e r e w a s a m a n f r o m his v i l l a g e w h o h a d a r i s e n e a r l y a n d w a s s q u a t t i n g i n t h e grass r e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f . T h i s m a n s a w W a n g use his l i g h t n e s s skill a n d t o l d p e o p l e i n t h e v i l l a g e a b o u t it. Besides practicing himself, W a n g Fu Yuan b e g a n to accept students of his o w n while he was living in N a n Mi. Later he also t a u g h t students in Tai Yuan, that i s w h e r e W a n g j i W u m e t h i m . O v e r a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y years o f t e a c h i n g i n S h a n x i , W a n g F u Y u a n ' s s t u d e n t s s p r e a d o u t all o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e . M a n y o f W a n g ' s students b e c a m e f a m o u s in their own right. T h e f a m o u s "three Pengs," Feng Y i n g Xi (jj u g), P e n g T i n g J u a n $ & ft), a n d P e n g Xi T a i j j . JO, t o g e t h e r with Mu Xiu Yi % ) a n d W a n g j i W u (j. were the top representatives o f W a n g F u Y u a n . W a n g F u Y u a n was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e s p r e a d o f X i n g Y i i n S h a n x i P r o v i n c e . W a n g n e v e r left S h a n x i P r o v i n c e a n d , u n l i k e h i s X i n g Y i b r o t h e r s L i C u n Yi, Z h a n g Z h a o D o n g , G e n g j i S h a n , a n d Z h o u M i n g T a i , W a n g n e v e r b e c a m e f a m o u s . W a n g ' s first c o n c e r n w a s i n t r a i n i n g s u c c e s s o r s o f his art a n d in S h a n x i Province his style has passed d o w n to this day.

M u Xiu Y i ^ l ^ ^ )
M u X i u Y i w a s v e r y f a m o u s i n S h a n x i p r o v i n c e . T h e C h i n e s e sold a b r a n d o f cigarettes called " H H 5 J . " a n d p u t M u S h u Y i ' s p h o t o o n t h e c o v e r o f t h e cigarette p a c k a g e b e c a u s e h e w a s s o w e l l k n o w n . O r i g i n a l l y h e w a s a b u s i n e s s m a n a n d sold fabric, h o w e v e r , w h e n he was accepted as W a n g Fu Y u a n ' s formal student, he g a v e u p his b u s i n e s s a n d o n l y s t u d i e d X i n g Y i Q u a n .
/

I n a m o u n t a i n o u s a r e a o f S h a n x i P r o v i n c e , c a l l e d M i a n S h a n , t h e r e lived a Buddhist M o n k in a t e m p l e w h o s e n a m e was Da You He. He was known to have " I r o n H e a d " skill. H e w o u l d r i n g a large b e l l b y b a n g i n g i t w i t h h i s h e a d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s skill. W h e n h e h e a r d a b o u t M u S h u Y i h e w a n t e d t o c h a l l e n g e M u i n o r d e r t o t e s t his skill. A t t h a t t i m e M u w a s r u n n i n g a v i n e g a r f a c t o r y . T h e Buddhist w e n t to t h e factory to find M u , however, on this o c c a s i o n Mu was n o t t h e r e . T h e m o n k t o l d t h e o t h e r s a t t h e f a c t o r y t o tell M u t h a t h e w o u l d b e s t a y i n g at an Inn outside the south gate. W h e n Mu returned t h e y told h i m about the m o n k t h a t h a d visited. M u sent o n e o f t h e workers t o g o t o where t h e m o n k was staying and invite h i m back. W h e n t h e m o n k a r r i v e d , M u h a d a b i g d i n n e r w a i t i n g f o r h i m . H e said, " W e l c o m e , p l e a s e c o m e i n a n d e a t . " T h e m o n k said, " T h a n k y o u , b u t first I w o u l d like y o u r i n s t r u c t i o n . " W h i c h i s a p o l i t e w a y o f s a y i n g , " L e t ' s f i g h t . " M u said, "As y o u w i s h . W o u l d y o u like t o f i g h t w i t h b a r e h a n d s o r w e a p o n s ? " T h e m o n k said

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Lineage t h a t h e w i s h e d t o fight w i t h l o n g staffs. courtyard to fight. Mu agreed a n d they w e n t into t h e

T h e t w o f i g h t e r s s q u a r e d o f f a n d a s s o o n a s t h e staffs h i t t h e m o n k t r i e d t o p o k e M u i n t h e s t o m a c h . M u s t e p p e d b a c k w i t h his l e f t f o o t a n d b r o u g h t his s t a f f around to whack the monk on the hand. The monk sawMu's intended move and w i t h d r e w . M u c h a n g e d a n d h i t t h e m o n k o n t h e h e a d w i t h t h e v e r y t i p o f his staff, r e m o v i n g a l a r g e c h u n k o f s k i n f r o m t h e m o n k ' s f o r e h e a d . E v e n t h o u g h t h e m o n k h a d a v e r y h a r d h e a d , h e realized t h a t i f M i l ' s strike h a d o f h i t h i m o n t h e t o p o f t h e h e a d i t w o u l d h a v e killed h i m . M u h a d c o n t r o l l e d h i s s t a f f s o w e l l t h a t i t o n l y r e m o v e d s o m e s k i n . T h e m o n k c o u l d feel M u ' s p o w e r a n d r e c o g n i z e d t h a t h i s level o f skill w a s s u p e r i o r . M u ' s p e o p l e w r a p p e d u p t h e m o n k ' s h e a d a n d t h e y w e n t t o c a t . T h e m o n k said, " A s l o n g a s M a s t e r M u i s a l i v e I will n e v e r a d m i t t h a t 1 k n o w gong fuV W a n g Ji Wu's study of Xing Yi Quan At t h e t i m e W a n g j i Wu met W a n g Fu Yuan he was W a n g ' s y o u n g e s t student. W a n g j i W u s t u d i e d i n t e n s e l y d a y a n d n i g h t f o r o v e r t e n years, t r a i n i n g s o h a r d that " h i s dripping sweat bore a h o l e through the r o c k s . " Eventually W a n g m a s t e r e d t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f t h e X i n g Y i Q u a n art, r e c e i v e d t h e i n n e r t e a c h i n g s of his master and developed i m m e n s e martial power. After a p e r i o d o f t i m e t e a c h i n g i n T a i y u a n , W a n g F u Y u a n r e t u r n e d t o Y u C i a n d W a n g j i W u c o n t i n u e d s t u d y i n g w i t h h i s s e n i o r c l a s s m a t e s . After a y e a r o r t w o , W a n g j i W u r e t u r n e d t o h i s h o m e t o w n t o visit r e l a t i v e s . W h i l e i n Y u C i , W a n g visited h i s t e a c h e r a n d a s k e d W a n g F u Y u a n t o c h e c k h i s f o r m . W a n g F u Y u a n t o l d h i m t h a t n o t o n l y h a d h e n o t g r a s p e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e style, b u t

W a n g Ji Wu (sitting) with a group of students on 2 November, 1974. Zhang B a o Yang is standing directly to Wang's right, Wang J i n Yu is directly to Wang's left a n d He Shuu Qi is to the far right of the photo. 19

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e v e n his f o r m w a s w r o n g . T o r e m e d y t h e s i t u a t i o n , W a n g j i W u q u i t h i s j o b a n d followed W a n g Fu Yuan day and n i g h t practicing X i n g Yi Q u a n . By the t i m e he w a s 2 3 o r 2 4 , W a n g J i W u w a s fast a p p r o a c h i n g m a s t e r y o f t h e b o x i n g art. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , at this t i m e W a n g Fu Yuan was p o i s o n e d to d e a t h by a w r o n g prescription o f m e d i c i n e . W a n g j i W u was h e a r t b r o k e n . H e a n d his classmates took care of W a n g Fu Yuan's funeral arrangements and took his remains back to his p l a c e o f b i r t h i n S h e n C o u n t y , H e b e i P r o v i n c e . After W a n g Fu Yuan died, W a n g j i Wu kept his master's t e a c h i n g in m i n d a n d p r a c t i c e d h a r d e r t h a n e v e r . H e c o n t i n u e d his s t u d y o f X i n g Y i Q u a n w i t h t h e " T h r e e F a m o u s P e n g ' s " o f S h a n x i . T h e s e t h r e e f a m o u s X i n g Y i b o x e r s w h e r e all n a m e d Peng, however, t h e y were n o t from the same i m m e d i a t e family. W a n g s t u d i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h P e n g Y o n g X i , w h o w a s his o l d e r X i n g Y i b o x i n g " b r o t h e r " under W a n g Fu Yuan. W a n g Fu Yuan had three famous students, W a n g j i Wu, P e n g Y i n g X i , a n d M u X i u Yi. W a n g j i Wu's Bodyguard Service After t h e fall o f t h e Q i n g e m p i r e , d u r i n g t h e early d a y s o f t h e R e p u b l i c , t h e area o f S h a n x i w h e r e W a n g lived w a s c o n t r o l l e d b y a w a r l o r d . W a n g w a s o p p o s e d t o h i s r u l e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y left t h e P r o v i n c e . W a n g a n d t w o o f h i s m a r t i a l arts brothers, Peng Ying Xi a n d Z h o u Bing Z h e n m o v e d t o Shi J i a Z h u a n g i n H e b e i P r o v i n c e a n d set u p a n e s c o r t a n d b o d y g u a r d s e r v i c e . T h e y c a l l e d t h e b o d y g u a r d s e r v i c e Ren Yi (PT h e s e r v i c e q u i c k l y m a d e a n a m e f o r itself a n d W a n g j i W u b e c a m e k n o w n a s t h e "Ren Y i g e n t l e m a n . " T o g e t h e r w i t h his t e a c h e r ' s X i n g Yi Q u a n c l a s s m a t e Li C u n Yi, w h o a l s o r a n t h e f a m o u s Yi Hie (J^ fc) b o d y g u a r d s e r v i c e i n B a o D i n g , t h e i r X i n g Y i Q u a n skills b e c a m e v e r y w e l l known.

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Wang Ji Wu with students a n d grandstudents on 20 September, 1975. Zhang B a o Yang is sitting second from right, Wang J i n Yu is to Wang J i Wu's left, a n d H e S h o u Q i i s t o W a n g J i n Yu's left.

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Wang Ji Wu with a group of students and grandstudents in B e i j i n g on 20 S e p t e m b e r 1982. Later, d u r i n g t h e " w a r l o r d " p e r i o d i n C h i n a , W a n g w a s " i n v i t e d " t o c o m e a n d w o r k f o r t h e local w a r l o r d a r m y , b u t a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e d e c l i n e d . Since the " i n v i t a t i o n " had o v e r t o n e s of " y o u work for us or we p u t y o u out of b u s i n e s s , " h e h a d n o c h o i c e b u t t o l e a v e t h e b o d y g u a r d b u s i n e s s i n Shi J i a Zhuang. From Shi Jia Z h u a n g W a n g traveled to Tianjin where he went into commercial business. T h e Martial Artist In 1 9 2 2 W a n g j i Wu was visiting Taiyuan a n d w e n t to observe a platform b o x i n g m a t c h . Liu Q i L a n ' s s e c o n d s o n Liu D i a n C h e n ( w h o w a s a c l a s s m a t e o f W a n g F u Y u a n u n d e r Liu Q i L a n ) , a n d m a n y o t h e r o f t h e c i d e r s i n t h e m a r t i a l arts c o m m u n i t y were i n a t t e n d a n c e . O n e o f W a n g j i W u ' s X i n g Y i Q u a n " c o u s i n s " his t e a c h e r ' s X i n g Y i b r o t h e r ' s s t u d e n t ) w a s f i g h t i n g a C h e n S t y l e Tai J i Q u a n master n a m e d Zhu Yuo Jun Zhu was u n d e f e a t e d , h a v i n g beaten sixteen people in platform m a t c h e s . During t h e fight, W a n g started c o a c h i n g his f r i e n d f r o m t h e s i d e l i n e s . T h e C h e n m a s t e r d i d n o t like W a n g c o a c h i n g h i s o p p o n e n t a n d so he shouted, "If you k n o w so m u c h , w h y d o n ' t you c o m e up here and try." Wang jumped up on the platform and immediately knocked Zhu on t h e g r o u n d . Zhu j u m p e d up a n d tried to stab W a n g in t h e eyes with his fingers. W a n g reached out, blocked the jab and grabbed Zhu by the throat, lifting h i m off the ground. Zhu couldn't m o v e and W a n g c o n t i n u e d holding h i m until he was a b o u t t o pass o u t . T h e p o l i c e c a m e u p t o t h e p l a t f o r m y e l l i n g , " L e t h i m g o , y o u a r e t r y i n g t o kill h i m . " W a n g r e l e a s e d h i s g r i p a n d k n o c k e d Z h u t o t h e g r o u n d . H e t u r n e d t o t h e p o l i c e a n d said, " E v e r y t h i n g i s all r i g h t , w e are just h a v i n g a f r i e n d l y m a t c h . N o o n e will g e t h u r t . " T h e n e x t d a y Z h u c a m e t o W a n g ' s r o o m w i t h gifts. T h e t w o d i s c u s s e d m a r t i a l

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W a n g Ji Wu's students a n d g r a n d s t u d e n t s on 17 J u n e 1984. arts a n d b e c a m e g o o d f r i e n d s . T w o years later t h e y m e t a g a i n i n Shi J i a Z h u a n g . Z h u h a d b e c o m e o n e o f t h e c h i e f m a r t i a l arts i n s t r u c t o r s f o r t h e G u o M i n D a n g It - Kuo M i n T a n g ) a r m y . W a n g was carrying s o m e luggage a n d Zhu told t w o soldiers t o carry t h e bags for h i m . W a n g j i W u ' s l o n g t i m e student Z h a n g Bao Y a n g (jfc $ - $ ) , w h o b e g a n s t u d y i n g w i t h W a n g i n 1 9 5 3 , said t h a t h e m e t Z h u Y o u J u n w h e n Z h u c a m e t o v i s i t h i s t e a c h e r i n B e i j i n g i n 1 9 5 4 . H e said t h a t Z h u w a s t h e o n e w h o t o l d h i m t h e s t o r y a b o u t W a n g d e f e a t i n g h i m . Z h a n g said t h a t h i s t e a c h e r d i d n ' t like t o tell s u c h s t o r i e s . I n 1 9 3 3 W a n g j i W u settled i n Beijing where h e was active i n public service, followed Daoist practices a n d studied C h a n B u d d h i s m (Zen). Through an introduction from Peng Ting J u a n , W a n g began studying Daoist m e t h o d s of h e a l t h cultivation u n d e r t h e Daoist master Huo C h e n g G u a n g (:f & ) - During the 1930's, W a n g joined the Hong W a n Zi Association a n d spent m u c h of his t i m e r e s e a r c h i n g h i s m a r t i a l arts, D a o i s t arts, a n d m e d i c i n e . H e w a s s u c c e s s f u l in r e a c h i n g n e w levels of practice a n d it is during this period of t i m e t h a t he created t h e X i n g Yi Q u a n Sixteen Health Exercises w h i c h are presented in this book. T h e Patriot W a n g j i W u ' s s t u d e n t s say t h a t h e w a s n o b l e - m i n d e d , m a g n a n i m o u s , a n d a b o v e p e t t y t h i n g s . W h e n h e first arrived i n B e i j i n g h e w o r k e d f o r a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s p e n t h i s t i m e t r e a t i n g p e o p l e w h o h a d b e e n i n j u r e d duri n g t h e J a p a n e s e W a r . After t h e fall o f T i a n j i n a n d B e i j i n g , W a n g p u t all h i s e f f o r t i n t o h e l p i n g t h o s e i n v o l v e d in t h e J a p a n e s e resistance get out of Beijing in order to a v o i d c a p t u r e . O n e t i m e , a l o c a l m i l i t i a l e a d e r Z h a n g Q i n g Y u ($k$t.-fr)i beaten by the Japanese and he and his m e n were in grave danger. Although W a n g j i W u d i d n o t k n o w Z h a n g Q i n g Y u p e r s o n a l l y , h e r e s p o n d e d t o t h e call
w a s

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Lineage f o r h e l p a n d a t g r e a t p e r s o n a l risk h e l p e d Z h a n g e s c a p e f r o m d a n g e r . T h e r e are m a n y e x a m p l e s o f W a n g j i W u ' s selfless s e r v i c e t o h i s c o u n t r y m e n . O n e t i m e s o m e of t h e C h i n e s e U n d e r g r o u n d Resistance fighters were captured in Tianjin a n d were b e i n g held for r a n s o m b y t h e J a p a n e s e . W a n g J i W u organized t h e collection of t h e r a n s o m a n d secured t h e prisoners' release. He was k n o w n widely for his sense of duty and generosity. The Doctor W h i l e in Beijing, W a n g b e c a m e quite well k n o w n as a doctor, especially skilled i n t h e a r e a s o f b o n e s e t t i n g a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t o f e x t e r n a l i n j u r i e s . M a n y p a t i e n t s w h o h a d b e e n p l a g u e d f o r years b y v a r i o u s a i l m e n t s w e r e c u r e d b y W a n g Ji W u . His r e p u t a t i o n s p r e a d a n d W a n g c o n t i n u e d h i s g o o d w o r k w i t h characteristic enthusiasm. In a d d i t i o n to f i g h t i n g skills a n d nei gong {1*5 if]), W a n g a l s o s t u d i e d C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e , b o n e s e t t i n g , a n d t r a u m a t o l o g y . H e later b e c a m e o n e o f t h e f o u r m o s t f a m o u s doctors in Beijing. W h e n e v e r he taught martial arts he always included the medical training and Daoist meditation. W a n g j i W u ' s daughter, son, soni n - l a w , a n d s i s t e r - i n - l a w all b e c a m e s k i l l e d d o c t o r s u n d e r h i s t u t e l a g e . In his later years, besides t e a c h i n g his children a n d grandchildren, W a n g Ji W u t a u g h t m a n y s t u d e n t s C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e . His " i n n e r d o o r " d i s c i p l e s i n c l u d e , W a n g Jin Liang, Z h a n g Bao Yang, He Yi Chi, Li L o n g M e n g , Pan Ji Yuan a n d W e i Y u a n Hui W a n g j i W u w a s r e c o g n i z e d f o r h i s o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t i e s a s a d o c t o r . W a n g Feng C h u n ( o n e of the four t o p doctors in Beijing) and C h e n Shu C h i n g (an e x p e r t i n o s t e o p a t h y ) g a v e W a n g j i W u t h e h i g h e s t p r a i s e . W a n g ' s m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g w a s a f a m i l y i n h e r i t a n c e . His g r a n d f a t h e r , W a n g X i n g Kai, w a s a f a m o u s d o c t o r of internal a n d e x t e r n a l m e d i c i n e as well as o s t e o p a t h y . Wang's g r a n d f a t h e r w a s u n c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o f i t a n d o f t e n t r e a t e d his p a t i e n t s w i t h o u t fee. B e c a u s e W a n g j i W u w a s a m a r t i a l artist, h e s p e c i a l i z e d i n b o n e s e t t i n g . W a n g j i W u w a s a l w a y s v e r y fair i n his t r e a t m e n t o f p a t i e n t s , o f t e n f o r e g o i n g t h e fee i f t h e p a t i e n t w a s u n a b l e t o p a y . O n e o f t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e a m o n g t h e p r e c i o u s f o r m u l a s f o r h e a l t h w h i c h W a n g o f f e r e d w a s a set o f S i x t e e n H e a l t h building exercises. These exercises had been passed d o w n within the X i n g Yi s c h o o l f o r a h u n d r e d y e a r s a n d W a n g put t h e m t o g e t h e r i n a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . After practicing these exercises s i n c e h e w a s a y o u n g m a n . a t t h e age o f 1 0 0 W a n g Ji Wu m a i n t a i n e d a sharp m i n d , q u i c k reactions, a n d perfect eyesight (he could read a n e w s p a p e r w i t h o u t g l a s s e s ) . W a n g o f t e n t a u g h t t h e s e e x e r c i s e s t o h i s patients in order to speed t h e healing process. W a n g j i Wu died on September 13, 1991 in Beijing at the age of 1 0 0 . Wang Ji Wu's Xing Yi Quan W a n g Ji W u ' s X i n g Yi Q u a n training p r o g r a m is a very c o m p l e t e system for b o t h h e a l t h a n d s e l f - d e f e n s e . T h e s y s t e m i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s k i n d s o f qigong a n d m e d i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , n u m e r o u s s o l o f o r m s , t w o - p e r s o n f o r m s , w e a p o n s sets, a n d power training. Additionally, W a n g encouraged his top students to study and practice Chinese Medicine and Bone Setting. W h e n W a n g J i W u t a u g h t X i n g Y i Q u a n t h e first t h i n g h e w o u l d t e a c h h i s s t u d e n t s w a s a set o f s i x t e e n h e a l t h b u i l d i n g a n d b o d y s t r e n g t h e n i n g e x e r c i s e s he had developed based on various d e v e l o p m e n t a l X i n g Yi exercises he had l e a r n e d f r o m h i s t e a c h e r . T h e s e e x e r c i s e s s e r v e d a s a c o n d i t i o n i n g set t o h e l p t h e

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b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t ' s b o d y a n d m i n d g e t r e a d y for t h e p r a c t i c e o f X i n g Y i a n d t h e n l a t e r s e r v e d a s a w a r m - u p a n d c o o l d o w n for X i n g Y i f o r m s a n d t w o - p e r s o n practice. T h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s w a s a vital part o f W a n g ' s X i n g Y i t r a i n i n g m e t h o d f o r n u m e r o u s r e a s o n s . N o t o n l y d o e s t h e set c o n d i t i o n t h e b o d y b y h e l p i n g t o o p e n up t h e joints, stretch t h e muscles, a n d strengthen t h e t e n d o n s , but it also helps t h e student learn h o w t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e m i n d , b o d y a n d b r e a t h . T h e ability t o totally c o o r d i n a t e t h e m i n d a n d body is o n e of the m a i n goals of X i n g Yi Q u a n p r a c t i c e . T h e " p o w e r " o f X i n g Y i t e c h n i q u e relies o n t h i s a b i l i t y . W a n g j i W u ' s m e t h o d of leaching these basic exercises to beginning students helped t h e m to l e a r n h o w t o i n t e g r a t e t h e m i n d a n d b o d y early i n t h e t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s . C o n t i n u a l practice of these exercises by intermediate and advanced students as a w a r m - u p and c o o l - d o w n facilitated t h e proper mental a n d physical preparation a n d c o n c l u s i o n f o r e a c h p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n a n d t h u s h i s s t u d e n t s w e r e a b l e t o get m o r e out o f e a c h p r a c t i c e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e o f t h e s e e x e r c i s e s h e l p e d t h e students m a i n t a i n o p t i m u m health and thus they were able to avoid injury a n d disease, e n a b l i n g t h e m t o train harder everyday. T h e sixteen health exercises a r e p r e s e n t e d In C h a p t e r s 4 a n d 5 of t h i s b o o k . After s t u d e n t s h a d b e g u n t o d e v e l o p s o m e m i n d / b o d y c o n n e c t i o n , f l e x i b i l i t y , coordination (internal and external) and balance during the execution of the s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s , W a n g t h e n t a u g h t h i s s t u d e n t s t h e San TiSliHs~Ht standing practice. The length of time each student practiced standing everyday or p r a c t i c e d s t a n d i n g b e f o r e t h e y s t a r t e d t h e five e l e m e n t f o r m s d e p e n d e d o n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g h i g h level skill. T h o s e w h o h a d a s t r o n g b o d y , p a t i e n c e , a n d w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t o r e a c h a h i g h skill level p r a c t i c e d s t a n d i n g lor a l o n g t i m e . T h e b o d y c o n n e c t i o n , w h o l e b o d y p o w e r , (//development, a n d m i n d / b o d y h a r m o n y t h a t a r c forged d u r i n g l o n g s t a n d i n g s e s s i o n s a r e vital i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f X i n g Y i i n t e r n a l p o w e r . T h o s e w h o w e r e w e a k o r w h o lost interest i n standing w o u l d n o t b e required t o s t a n d for t o o long. W a n g t a u g h t t w o s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e s t o h i s s t u d e n t s . T h e first p o s t u r e h e c a l l e d " s i n g l e h a n d " San T i a n d t h e s e c o n d p o s t u r e b e c a l l e d " d o u b l e h a n d " 5 . . / i 77. T h e s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e as taught by W a n g j i Wu is presented in C h a p t e r .T of this b o o k . A f t e r l e a r n i n g t h e San T i Slii s t a n d i n g m e t h o d , W a n g ' s s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d X i n g Y i ' s five e l e m e n t s . W a n g ' s five e l e m e n t s i n c l u d e d Pi Quan C^-^. - S p l i t t i n g Fist I, Zuan Quail { - D r i l l i n g l i s t ) , Beng Quan ( $ # - - S m a s h i n g Fist), Pao Quan - F o u n d i n g Fist I a n d t w o v a r i a t i o n s of Hcng Quan - C r o s s i n g Fist), Shun tin Heng Quan ^jV ^ ^ j L - S m o o t h S t e p C r o s s i n g Fist) a n d Ao Hu Heng Quan ( & ) ^ J S ~ T w i s t i n g S t e p C r o s s i n g Fist). N e x t s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d t w o d i f f e r e n t t w o - p e r s o n f o r m s , Wu Hua Pao - Five F l o w e r P o u n d i n g ) a n d Wu Xing ShengKeQuani& j f Five E l e m e n t C r e a t i v e a n d D e s t r u c t i v e Fist). T h e s e f o r m s are d e r i v e d t r o m t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e five e l e m e n t s . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s t u d y o f t h e t w o - p e r s o n five e l e m e n t sets, s t u d e n t s a l s o s t u d i e d t w o d i f f e r e n t five e l e m e n t l i n k i n g l o r n t s . O n e is c a l l e d He Yi (- U n i t i n g i n t o O n e ) a n d t h e o t h e r c a l l e d jin Tuilian Huart Quan ( i d ig_ i^. C o n t i n u o u s l y Finked A d v a n c i n g and Retreating Fist). Next t h e students were t a u g h t a n o t h e r b a s i c s o l o f o r m c a l l e d ji Xing Si Ra{% ft pj - C h i c k e n Form Four G r a s p i n g ) . T h i s f o r m w a s a n i m p o r t a n t f o u n d a t i o n a l f o r m w h i c h later f o r m s w o u l d build u p o n . A f t e r l e a r n i n g t h i s f o r m t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d t h e n p r a c t i c e a n o t h e r t w o - p e r s o n set c a l l e d Wu Shou (A - Five H a n d s ) .

Lineage After b u i l d i n g a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n w i t h t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d f o r m s , W a n g ' s s t u d e n t s w o u l d t h e n l e a r n X i n g Yi's t w e l v e a n i m a l f o r m s (Shi Er Xing Quan W a n g ' s t w e l v e a n i m a l sets i n c l u d e d t h e s t a n d a r d t w e l v e a n i m a l f o r m s ( D r a g o n , T i g e r , M o n k e y , H o r s e , S n a k e , C h i c k e n , W a t e r Lizard, S p a r r o w , S w a l l o w , T a i Bird, Eagle, a n d B e a r ) plus t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l a n i m a l sets: l u m p i n g Dragon, Four Direction M o n k e y , C o m b i n e d Eagle-Bear, a n d Bear S h o u l d e r s . After s t u d y o f t h e t w e l v e a n i m a l s t y l e s , s t u d e n t s w e r e t a u g h t a n o t h e r t w o - p e r s o n f o r m c a l l e d W u XingPaoChui ( i f t - Five E l e m e n t C a n n o n Fist). T h i s f o r m w a s f o l l o w e d by t h e c o m b i n e d s o l o f o r m s Chu Dong Ru Dong ($: Jft - L e a v i n g a n d E n t e r i n g t h e C a v e ) , Shi Er Hong i'.liui ( - f - ^ & S i - T w e l v e Red H a m m e r s ) , Za Shi Chid ( H A M - M i x e d F o r m B e a t i n g ) , Jin Gang Ha Shi ( m A & - B u d d h a ' s W a r r i o r E i g h t F o r m s ) , Long Xing Ba Shi ( f t , j A. A, D r a g o n S t y l e Light F o r m s ) , Shi Er Lian Quan (-f- i ^ - T w e l v e L i n k e d Fists), a n d o t h e r t w o p e r s o n f o r m s as f o l l o w s : Zhou Too Hium (^ - N i n e L i n k e d S e t ) , a n d An Shen I'ao ( # j | J f c - S t a b l e B o d y P o u n d i n g ) . After s t u d y i n g t h e s o l o a n d t w o - p e r s o n b a r e h a n d f o r m s , s t u d e n t s w e r e t h e n t a u g h t w e a p o n s sets. W a n g ' s s y s t e m i n c l u d e d t w o X i n g Y i s a b e r f o r m s ( C o n t i n u o u s I . i n k i n g S a b e r a n d M e a s u r e d Path S a b e r ) , f o u r X i n g Y i s w o r d f o r m s ( C o n t i n u o u s l y L i n k e d S w o r d , A d v a n c i n g S t e p S w o r d , R e t r e a t i n g S t e p S w o r d , a n d Four G a t e D r a g o n F o r m S w o r d ) , t h r e e X i n g Y i staff f o r m s ( t w o sets o f C o n t i n u o u s l y L i n k e d Staff a n d a T h r e e S e c t i o n Staff f o r m ) , X i n g Y i spear, X i n g Y i n e e d l e s , X i n g Y i d o u b l e - h e a d e d spear, a n d X i n g Y i large s p e a r . T h e large s p e a r w o r k w a s p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p p o w e r i n t h e five e l e m e n t s ( t h i s set i s s h o w n i n C h a p t e r 6 o f t h i s b o o k ) . Each o f t h e five c l e m e n t f o r m s i s p r a c t i c e d w i t h t h e large s p e a r .

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Wangji Wu's Xing Yi Quan Students


translated by Tim Cartmell A Martial Artist and Martial Theorist: Wang Jin Yu
by Z h a n g Bao Y a n g a n d He Yu Qi

W a n g J i n Yu ( 1 9 2 2 - ) was b o r n in Hebei Province. He graduated from Beijing University in the 1 9 4 0 ' s where he originally studied Economics. He has researched history and p u b l i s h e d several b o o k s . F r o m 1 9 8 0 t o 1 9 8 9 h e was an assistant professor of a n c i e n t C h i n e s e at the C h u n g W e n Television University. W a n g Jin Yu began studying Xing Yi Quan with Yuan Wei Bin ( & - f # : ^ , ) , a X i n g Yi student o f Z h o u M i n g Tai ( w h o w a s W a n g F u Y u a n ' s c l a s s m a t e u n d e r Liu Q i L a n ) w h i l e i n J u n i o r High S c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s W a n g J i n Y u b e c a m e a student of W a n g j i W u . Unfortunately, d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , W a n g J i n Y u lost h i s left a r m a n d he was no l o n g e r able to practice X i n g Yi Quan. W a n g j i Wu encouraged W a n g Jin Yu to c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e art b y s t u d y i n g its t h e o r y . I n Wang J i n Yu t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s , W a n g J i n Yu, w i t h t h e h e l p o f his c l a s s m a t e s Z h a n g B a o Y a n g , H e Y u Q i a n d Pan Zhi Y u a n p u t t o g e t h e r t h e first d r a f t of Liu He Xin Yi Quan: The Written Transmissions. At t h e s a m e t i m e , t o g e t h e r w i t h Z h a n g B a o Y a n g , he a n d his s o n , W a n g H u a n S h e n g , p u b l i s h e d Xin Yi Sixteen Exercises for Health w i t h a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f b o t h C h i n e s e a n d W e s t e r n m e d i c i n e . He a l s o w r o t e A Treatise on San Ti Shi a n d Xin Yi Power Training. W a n g a l s o s t u d i e d Qi Cong w i t h his c l a s s m a t e Hu Y a o Z h e n . In addition to t h e above m e n t i o n e d martial arts books, W a n g J i n Yu has also w r i t t e n a n u m b e r of o t h e r b o o k s i n c l u d i n g An Examination of Ancient Literature, A History of Printing, Chinese Painting Master Li Ku Chan, Can Tu Tong ji, a n d revised t h e Home Encyclopedia of Child Rearing. W a n g w a s a s t a n d i n g m e m b e r o f t h e first a n d s e c o n d X i n g Y i Q u a n R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e s , is a m e m b e r of the Beijing City Qi G o n g Research Association, and i s a n i n s t r u c t o r a t t h e B e i j i n g J i X i a n M a r t i a l Arts A c a d e m y . I n 1 9 9 1 h e retired I r o m t h e Beijing X i n g YI Q u a n Research C o m m i t t e e a n d n o w serves as an advisor. He c o n t i n u e s his research of X i n g Yi Q u a n .

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A Famous Practitioner of Xin Yi Liu He Quan: Zhang Bao Yang by W a n g Huan Sheng

Z h a n g Bao Y a n g ( 1 9 2 2 - ) was b o r n i n Hebei P r o v i n c e i n t h e c i t y o f X i n g j i . After g r a d u a t i o n from high s c h o o l , Z h a n g m o v e d to Beijing to begin working. During the 1950*5, he began his study o f X i n g Y i Q u a n u n d e r W a n g j i W u . H e followed W a n g day a n d night a n d learned t h e i n n e r t e a c h i n g s o f t h e a r t . P r a c t i c i n g m a r t i a l arts morning and night, Zhang Bao Yang followed t h e advice of his teacher a n d studied with a humble attitude and o p e n mind. Zhang also went to study with t h e f a m o u s Xin C h e n g martial arts m a s t e r Z h a n g C h u a n g Fa I also k n o w n a s Z h a n g X i a n g Z h a i , see p h o t o o n page 4 ) . Z h a n g C h u a n g Fa was a X i n g Yi Q u a n s t u d e n t o f Liu Q i L a n ' s s o n Liu W e n H u a ( a l s o k n o w n a s Liu D i a n C h e n } a n d a B a G u a Z h a n g
a n t r a n a n t f

student o f C h e n g Ting Hua. Z h a n g Bao Yang's 7 u R y boxing uncle was Du Ji San, w h o was a student of Bu Xue Kuan, a student of C h e Yi Zhai. Zhang JL SJ? k B a o Y a n g ' s t e a c h e r s w e r e all i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i s spirit a n d e a g e r n e s s t o learn a n d w e r e m o r e t h a n h a p p y t o t e a c h h i m . W h e n the Beijing X i n g Yi Q u a n Research Association was established in 1 9 8 3 , Z h a n g Bao Y a n g was a p p o i n t e d director. Zhang's e n t h u s i a s m and sacrifice in p r o m o t i n g t h e m a r t i a l a r t s h a s w o n h i m t h e praise a n d a d m i r a t i o n o f h i s p e e r s . His n o t o r i e t y h a s a t t r a c t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m m a r t i a l a r t i s t s all o v e r t h e c o u n t y . He was given an advisory position in t h e Ji N a n X i n g Yi Q u a n Research A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e F u k i e n S a n M i n C i t y Y o u t h M a r t i a l Arts T e a m , t h e B e i j i n g S u n S t y l e Tai J i Q u a n A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d i s a c o a c h o f t h e B e i j i n g J i X i a n M a r t i a l Arts A c a d e m y . As X i n g Yi Q u a n is an i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l art, Z h a n g a l s o s t u d i e d Qi Gong with H u Y a o Z h e n i n o r d e r t o d e e p e n his k n o w l e d g e o f i n t e r n a l p o w e r . Zhang Bao Yang is a m a n of m a n y talents. Besides studying o s t e o p a t h y with W a n g j i W u , Z h a n g a l s o s t u d i e d a c u p u n c t u r e w i t h J i a C h u I.ian. I n a d d i t i o n t o his a c h i e v e m e n t s i n m a r t i a l arts, QiGong, a n d m e d i c i n e , Z h a n g t a k e s p l e a s u r e i n treating patients, In order to further research X i n g Yi Q u a n , Z h a n g a n d his classmate W a n g J i n Yu h a v e c o l l a b o r a t e d on o r g a n i z i n g a n d edi t i n g the Xing Yi Written Transmissions a n d h a v e c o a u t h o r c d t h e m a n u s c r i p t The New Written Transmissions of Xin Yi Liu He. I n a d d i t i o n , Z h a n g a n d his j u n i o r c l a s s m a t e , W a n g H u a n S h e n g , h a v e w r i t t e n a h o o k on W a n g j i W u ' s X i n Yi S i x t e e n Exercises for Health. In 1 9 9 1 , Z h a n g resigned as head of t h e X i n g Yi Research Association, but c o n t i n u e s his i n v o l v e m e n t i n a n a d v i s o r y role. H e i s a l s o a m c m h e r o f t h e B e i j i n g C i t y Q i Gang R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n . I n 1 9 8 6 h e b e g a n v o l u n t e e r i n g h i s l i m e a s a m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r at a l o c a l h o s p i t a l . 27

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Zhang Bao Yang has taught m a n y students. Because of his open teaching, his s t u d e n t s i m p r o v e r a p i d l y a n d several o f his s t u d e n t s h a v e b e c o m e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r o w n r i g h t . S o m e o f his s t u d e n t s h a v e b e g u n t e a c h i n g h i s a r t o v e r s e a s . O n e of his students, Du Fu Kun, has been teaching in Czechoslovakia.

A Practitioner of Xin Yi Liu He Quan: He Yu Qi


by Zhang Wu Ben He Yu Qi ( 1 9 3 0 -) was b o r n in Hebei Province in Ding Xing County. After m i d d l e s c h o o l h e w e n t t o w o r k i n b u s i n e s s a n d later i n i n d u s t r y . H e w o r k e d a s a n e n g i n e e r a n d b e c a u s e o f his skill w a s v e r y c r e a t i v e i n t h e field, e v e n t u a l l y r e t i r i n g f r o m the Beijing Scientific Instruments firm. He Yu Qi and my father, Zhang Bao Yang, were both formal students of W a n g j i W u . He Yu Qi became a Xing Yi Quan student of W a n g j i Wu in 1 9 5 2 a n d in the same year also began studying Qi Gon^with Hu Yao Zhen. Because He Yu Qi and my father were neighbors, t h e y often practiced together. At my f a t h e r ' s r e q u e s t , I b e c a m e a student of He Yu Qi. Besides being proficient in osteopathy, He Yu Qi studied a c u p u n c t u r e under Jia C h u Lian. He is p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e m a r t i a l arts, m e d i c i n e , a n d q i gong a n d i s a m e m b e r o f t h e B e i j i n g X i n g Y i Q u a n Research Association a n d t h e Beijing Qi G o n g Research Association. Before retirement, he often treated friends a n d family m e m b e r s a n d n o w works together with my father.

He Y u

Qi

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A Practitioner of Xin Yi Liu He Quan: Wang Huan Sheng


by Zhang Wu Ben W a n g Hun S h e n g ( 1 9 5 4 - ) is t h e son of W a n g J i n Yu. He was b o r n in Beijing a n d at seven years of age he was i n t r o d u c e d by his father to W a n g Ji Wu a n d b e c a m e Master W a n g ' s student, studying b o t h martial arts a n d m e d i c i n e . After g r a d u a t i o n f r o m m i d d l e s c h o o l lie w o r k e d f o r a t i m e i n i n d u s t r y . B e c a u s e o f h i s expertise in osteopathy (he learned the essence o f W a n g j i W u ' s skill), b e b e g a n w o r k i n g i n a hospital. W a n g Huan S h e n g was very popular with the patients a n d in order to further his medical knowledge, he entered the Beijing Medical College, graduating in 1 9 8 4 . W a n g c o m b i n e d his knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine with that of m o d e r i i n i e d i c i n e w i t h e x c e l l c n t r e s u l t s . Besides his m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e , h e p r a c t i c e s t h e m a r t i a l arts everyday. He possesses c o n s i d e r a b l e internal power.

"^^^^J^y
Wang Huan Sheng
, *.

I n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s , u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e of Z h a n g jfc. < 5 p Bao Y a n g , H e S h o u Q i a n d h i s f a t h e r , W a n g J i n Yu, W a n g H u a n S h e n g c o m p l e t e d a m a n u s c r i p t of W a n g Ji W u ' s Xin Yi Sixteen Health Exercises. He c o m b i n e d his k n o w l e d g e ot traditional a n d m o d e r n m e d i c i n e , m a r t i a l a r t s , a n d qigong r e s u l t i n g in a n e w p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h w a s well received b y t h e p o p u l a c e a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o their h e a l t h . I n 1 9 8 6 , W a n g m o v e d to I l o n g K o n g a n d o f t e n travels b a c k and forth to Beijing. W a n g H u a n S h e n g has built a f i n e r e p u t a t i o n .

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In his own words, at the age of 100, Wangji Wu describes his principles of living a healthy life:
t h e h e a r t i s c a l m , q u i e t a s still w a t e r My o w n history is from t h e end of the Qing Dynasty, t h r o u g h the period of t h e R e p u b l i c t o t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c , a l r e a d y a h u n d r e d y e a r s . M y life h a s s e e n its s h a r e o f u p s a n d d o w n s , t i m e s o f p o v e r t y a n d h a r d s h i p , h o n o r a n d d i s h o n o r , t h e c h a n g e s o f t h e s e a s o n s , all o f w h i c h h a v e left a d e e p i m p r e s s i o n o n m e . After t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c , m y life b e c a m e s t a b l e , b u t w i t h t h e Cultural Revolution, disaster o n c e again overran t h e c o u n t r y a n d I was forced o u t o f b u s i n e s s . All o f t h e s e e v e n t s s e r v e d a s a m e a n s o f c u l t i v a t i n g m y spirit, a n d afforded m e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o practice t h e " g o n g f u " o f living i n t h e world. O n e m u s t always m a i n t a i n a calm heart even w h e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e seven e m o t i o n s ; j o y , a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , w o r r y , s a d n e s s , fear, a n d s u r p r i s e . T h e h e a r t m u s t r e m a i n a s c a l m a s still w a t e r , n e v e r a l l o w i n g a n y p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s t o stir u p a r i p p l e o f d i s t u r b a n c e . M y t h o u g h t s a r e p u r e , i n spirit I s e e k t o f o r g e t m y s e l f a n d t r a n s c e n d t h e c o m m o n affairs o f i h e w o r l d , k e e p i n g m y life s i m p l e a n d m y desires few. W i t h a clear heart, 1 do n o t c o n t e n d w i t h others or m a k e d e m a n d s u p o n t h e w o r l d , b u t r a t h e r s e e k t o c o n t r i b u t e w h a t I c a n f o r ( b e b e n e f i t o f all, aiding those in need and protecting those in danger. W i t h o u t desire o n e i s s t r o n g , w i t h o u t d e s i r e o n e i s q u i e t , w i t h o u t desire o n e m a y return to that w h i c h is natural, w i t h o u t desire o n e returns to t h e original 30

Lineage s t a t e . W i t h a h e a r t like still w a t e r , f r o m t h e e x t r e m e s t i l l n e s s will s p r i n g a c t i o n , f r o m t h e v o i d c o m e s t h a t w h i c h i s a l i v e , yin a n d yang a r e i n h a r m o n y a n d t h e q i f l o w s u n i m p e d e d . W i t h a h e a r t like still w a t e r t h e q i i s s u f f i c i e n t a n d t h e spirit full. W h e n t h e q i i s s u f f i c i e n t a n d t h e spirit full, t h e o r g a n s f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y , t h e b l o o d i s n o u r i s h e d , t h e m e r i d i a n s , n e r v e s , d i g e s t i o n a n d c i r c u l a t i o n a r e all h e a l t h y and t h e m e t a b o l i s m stimulated. W h e n t h e factors w h i c h prevent aging a r e all s t r o n g , o n e m a y p r e v e n t i l l n e s s a n d live a l o n g a n d h e a l t h y l i f e . H u m a n s are w h o l i s t i c b e i n g s w h i c h a r e p o s s e s s e d o f a c e r t a i n v i t a l i t y . T h e spirit a n d f l e s h a r e i n s e p a r a b l e a n d f o r m a c o m p l i c a t e d e n t i t y . T h e h u m a n vitality supports, influences and is responsive to t h e person as a whole, while t h e spirit i s t h e l e a d e r a n d c o n t r o l l e r , t h e " c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f " o f t h e b e i n g a s a w h o l e . U n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t c a n b e said t h a t t h e s p i r i t " p u l l s a t o n e h a i r a n d t h e w h o l e b o d y f o l l o w s " o r a t t h e s l i g h t e s t s t i r r i n g o f t h e spirit t h e w h o l e b e i n g r e s p o n d s , a n d e a c h m o v e m e n t o f t h e spirit h a s a real e f f e c t o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e r e f o r e , I p u t s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n t h e spirit a s t h e l e a d e r , e v e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g m y r e s o l v e t o c u l t i v a t e t h e spirit, m a i n t a i n c a l m n e s s o f t h e h e a r t a n d b e c o m e as pure as light w i t h o u t a speck of dust. T h i s is akin to t h e m e a n i n g of a Song Dynasty poet w h o wrote " t o understand the highest virtue," applied to the present time. B e t t e r y e t , t h i s c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e spirit a n d h e a r t will improve the physical constitution of the people, protect their health, and c o n t r i b u t e to a l o n g a n d h e a l t h y life. Live a n e n t h u s i a s t i c life, serve t h e p u b l i c g o o d . 1 h a v e t r a v e l e d t h e l o n g r o a d o f life, e x p e r i e n c i n g h a r d s h i p , d i f f i c u l t y a n d I k n o w the s e n t i m e n t of m a n is often as thin as paper. I h a v e seen corruption and t h o s e w h o s e o n l y c o n c e r n is realizing their o w n desires. Because of this, 1 h a v e s t r i v e d e v e n h a r d e r t o live a p r a c t i c a l life, w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e e v e n m o r e f o r t h e g o o d of the people. After t h e f o u n d i n g of t h e Republic, I spent my t i m e w o r k i n g in t h e streets as a d o c t o r , treating a n y o n e w h o c a m e to me for h e l p w i t h w h o l e h e a r t e d e n t h u s i a s m . W h e n o n e f i n d s h a p p i n e s s i n s e r v i n g o t h e r s , o n e will b e full o f t h e spirit o f life, s e e i n g t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e w i t h a c a l m h e a r t . T h u s , o n e m a y r e a c h t h e s t a t e w h e r e t h e spirit i s p r e s e r v e d w i t h i n , t h e b o d y i s h e a l t h y a n d t h e spirit full, t h e i n t e l l e c t w i s e , d e c i s i o n s m a d e a d r o i t l y a n d r e a c t i o n s m a d e spontaneously. Consequently, the lifeenergywillbestrengthened and increased while promoting the health and longevity of the body.

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Wang Ji Wu with his student He Yu Qi

Chapter 2

Liu He Xin Yi Quan (Xing Yi Quan) Written Transmissions

Wang Ji Wu with his student Zhang B a o Yang

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compiled by Wang Jin Yu and Zhang Bao Yang assisted by He Yu Qi and Pan Zhi Yuan reviewed by Wangji Wu translated by Tim Cartmell

Liu He Xin Yi Quan (Xing Yi Quan) Written Transmissions

Introduction
by Wang Jin Yu

T h e X i n g Yi Q u a n , Liu He Xin Yi Quan Written Transmissions h a v e n e v e r b e e n published. T h e s e writings h a v e been passed d o w n a n d copied by practitioners a n d t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m a r t i a l arts, a n d u s e d f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s . T h r o u g h its l o n g p e r i o d o f b e i n g h a n d c o p i e d n o t o n l y h a v e several d i s c r e p a n c i e s in t h e characters developed but also s o m e of t h e m e a n i n g s of t h e original text have been altered. Therefore, it is impossible to avoid different interpretations a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s of t h e text. It is n o t clear w h a t t h e original outline of t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s w e r e really l i k e . "A given culture is influenced by the state of politics and e c o n o m i c s of the society of w h i c h it is a part." T h e X i n g Yi Q u a n transmissions were written during C h i n a ' s feudal period. It is obvious that a n c i e n t feudal political rule was c o r r u p t , t h i s c e r t a i n l y h a d its i n f l u e n c e . T o d a y , u n d e r s o c i a l i s t rule, i n o r d e r t o " p r o m o t e physical education a n d increase the health of the people," we should a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s a y i n g , " i n regards t o a n c i e n t c u l t u r e , w e s h o u l d n o t reject it out of h a n d , a n d should also not accept it blindly, but should judge and a d o p t w h a t i s u s e f u l . " Also, " e l i m i n a t e t h e d r e g s o f f e u d a l i s m a n d a b s o r b t h a t w h i c h is the essence of d e m o c r a c y . " We must separate the corrupt practices of f e u d a l i s m f r o m t h o s e e x c e l l e n t t h i n g s useful t o t h e p e o p l e ' s c u l t u r e a n d d e m o c r a c y and the revolutionary cause. 1) In order to get as close as possible to t h e m e a n i n g s of t h e original text, t h e c o m m o n l y s e e n t e r m s h a v e b e e n c o m p a r e d a n d c h o s e n f r o m several h a n d copied versions of t h e original text. At this point in time this version c o n t a i n s what is believed to be the most accurate rendition. 2 ) M a r t i a l arts are a f o r m o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d c o n f o r m t o e s t a b l i s h e d rules o f p h y s i o l o g y . H o w e v e r , a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f b e i n g s t r i p p e d a w a y u n d e r a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e d r u l e , t h e art i s rife w i t h t h e d r e g s o f f e u d a l i s t i c

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s o c i e t y . B e c a u s e in a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y , "all c u l t u r e , l i t e r a t u r e a n d art all b e l o n g to a c e r t a i n c l a s s , a n d all f o l l o w a c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y . " T h e r e f o r e , in regards t o t h e " d r e g s o f f e u d a l i s m , " w e h a v e a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d t h e e x t e n t o f their influence in order to delete t h e m . 3) T h i s v o l u m e is a result of c o n t i n u o u s h a n d copied versions passed d o w n . Therefore, t h e order of t h e c o n t e n t s a n d t h e length of t h e sections have been very d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p i n t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r w i t h o u t o m i s s i o n s . T h e r e are m o r e t h a n a few p l a c e s w h e r e p a r t s o f t h e c o n t e x t a r e m i s s i n g , o r t h e c o n t e n t i s c o n f u s e d a n d thus it is very difficult to say w h i c h was t h e correct order of p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e material. Because of this, in preparing this copy, we h a v e temporarily o m i t t e d some of the sections, we have taken the information and included it in other sections, for e x a m p l e t h e sections o n " b o d y m e t h o d " a n d "step m e t h o d " are not placed in their original order. This does not necessarily m e a n t h a t information included in o n e section is not also included in o t h e r sections, if i n f o r m a t i o n was relative to t h e section at h a n d , it m a y have also b e e n included therein. W h e n i n f o r m a t i o n is again presented in a different c o n t e x t , with different i n f o r m a t i o n , it should be viewed differently t h a n before in relation to the n e w c o n t e x t in w h i c h it appears. A l t h o u g h s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n repeats, t h e reason is to give as c o m p l e t e an explanation as possible of the concept in question. Of course, although the body can be divided i n t o s e c t i o n s for i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes, it is in reality a singular e n t i t y . Bear in m i n d that a l t h o u g h t h e t e x t talks a b o u t t h e b o d y in different a n d s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s f o r c l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s a r e all r e l a t e d a n d m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . For e x a m p l e , t h e r e are s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s f o r i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l t r a i n i n g , b u t i n r e a l i t y t h e t w o are n o t s e p a r a t e a n d unrelated. T h e text has a passage w h i c h reads: "If o n e w a n t s to o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t level o f skill, o n e m u s t s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian, i f o n e w i s h e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian, o n e m u s t first p r a c t i c e t e c h n i q u e . " T h i s is a g o o d example of the mutual relationship between internal and external training. 4) In organizing this text wc have attempted to eliminate the superfluous and p r e s e n t t h e t e x t w i t h o u t o m i t t i n g its e s s e n c e , i t m u s t b e v i e w e d a s a n i m p e r f e c t a t t e m p t a s o u r l i t e r a r y s t a n d a r d s a n d level o f m a r t i a l e x p e r i e n c e a r e l i m i t e d . W e have perhaps chosen wrong characters, etc. There may be other mistakes and we I n v i t e all o f o u r c o m r a d e s w h o h a v e a l o v e a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a r t i a l arts t o o f f e r their constructive criticism that we m a y improve together, in order to produce material that c o n f o r m s to the science of exercise physiology. 5) Finally, this c o p y has u n d e r g o n e m a n y revisions, a n d this outline is t h e result. I h o p e t o m a k e r e v i s i o n s o f its i n a d e q u a c i e s a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . Wang Jin Yu Beijing, C h i n a New Year's Day 1 9 8 2 Editor's Note: W a n g Jin Yu and Zhang Bao Yang made <i final revision to this text in September, 1 9 9 3 .

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Dai Long Bang's Foreword


T h e vital p o i n t s o f X i n Y i Q u a n i n c l u d e : Y i n Y a n g , Five E l e m e n t s , s t i l l n e s s a n d m o t i o n , rising a n d falling, a d v a n c i n g a n d r e t r e a t i n g , s u b s t a n t i a l a n d i n s u b s t a n t i a l , h a r d a n d s o f t . Its p r o f u n d i t y relies o n t h e six h a r m o n i e s :

1 ) t h e h a n d s h a r m o n i z e w i t h t h e feet, 2) the shoulders h a r m o n i z e with the hips, 3) the elbows h a r m o n i z e with the knees, 4) the heart harmonizes with the intent, 5) t h e i n t e n t h a r m o n i z e s w i t h t h e qi, fi) the qi harmonizes with t h e power.

I f o n e i m p r o v e s d a y b y d a y , g a i n s c o m p l e i e k n o w l e d g e , i s b r a v e i n all c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o b t a i n s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s , a n d u n i t e s w i t h its e s s e n c e , o n e will b e a b l e t o c o m e a n d g o n a t u r a l l y , m a y b e w e a k o r s t r o n g , will b e a b l e t o a d v a n c e o r r e t r e a t , c a n b e soft o r h a r d . Dai l o n g B a n g , 1 7 5 0 A.D.

When When the

the Six

internal

and

external are

are

united, this

this is

is the

the Six

Six

Directions.

Harmonies

mastered,

Ferocities.

Essential Knowledge For the Practice of Martial Arts


1 ) S o l o a n d P a r t n e r P r a c t i c e : For t h o s e p r a c t i c i n g m a r t i a l arts, e i g h t y p e r c e n t of the time is spent in solo practice, twenty percent of the time is spent with others. Therefore, it is said, " T h e t i m e s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e b o d y is long, t h e t i m e defeating o p p o n e n t s is short." 2) D a i l y P r a c t i c e : O n e m u s t practice every day, barring illness, without break. 3) Humility: O n e m u s t not s h o w off or bully others

4) Quality versus Q u a n t i t y ; In practice, quality is m o r e important than q u a n t i t y . T o d e f e a t a s i n g l e o p p o n e n t t h i s i s t h e c o r r e c t m e t h o d , t o defeat m a n y o p p o n e n t s , t h i s i s still t h e c o r r e c t m e t h o d . I n c o m p a r i s o n , I b e o n e w h o p r a c t i c e s t o o great a variety will b e c o m e p a n i c k e d a n d distraught, If o n e d o e s n o t train t h e b o d y w i t h a r e a l i s t i c f o u n d a t i o n , i n c o m b a t t h e r e will h e n o m a t u r e t e c h n i q u e t o fall b a c k o n , o n e will h a v e n e i t h e r a well t r a i n e d b o d y n o r a s o l i d t e c h n i q u e .

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5) P e r s e v e r a n c e : T h e r e are t h o s e w h o talk about principles for a great l e n g t h of t i m e , t h e y say m a r t i a l arts a r e full o f s e c r e t s . W h e n y o u ask t h e m t h e y d o n ' t answer, or t h e y answer i n c o m p l e t e l y . How can this be! T h e r e are t h o s e w h o are easily s a t i s f i e d , o r i n v i t e d i s a s t e r b y u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g t h e art, o r like t o b u l l y o t h e r s . T h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o h a v e n o p e r s e v e r a n c e , w h o s t u d y a little a n d t h i n k t h e y k n o w i t all, t h e y are q u i t e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d r a r e l y p r a c t i c e , t h e y t h i n k t h e y are a g r e a t s u c c e s s , u n t i l t h e y h a v e t o u s e t h e art a n d f i n d t h e m s e l v e s u s e l e s s . T h i s i s n o t t h e fault o f t h e t e a c h e r b u t r a t h e r t h e s t u d e n t w h o h a s g o n e about learning in t h e wrong way. If these types teach students t h e students are lost a n d t h e art d e g e n e r a t e s g e n e r a t i o n b y g e n e r a t i o n . W h e r e are t h e s e c r e t s ! 6) I m p o r t a n t points for practice: a ) B e f o r e p r a c t i c e : T h e s t o m a c h s h o u l d b e n e i t h e r t o o full o r t o o e m p t y , t h e m i n d s h o u l d n o t b e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o t h e r affairs, d o n o t p r a c t i c e w h e n a n g r y . W h e n h u n g r y o n e h a s n o e n e r g y , t o o full a n d t h e s t o m a c h will b e i n j u r e d . E x t r a n e o u s t h o u g h t s h a r m t h e b r a i n . A n g e r h a r m s t h e spirit. b) During practice: Do n o t fool a r o u n d . Do not spit. Do n o t be disrespectful. I f o n e i s n o t s e r i o u s i n p r a c t i c e t h e spirit i s d i s p e r s e d , s p i t t i n g i n f l a m e s t h e t h r o a t , disrespect weakens the practice. c ) After p r a c t i c e : D o n o t eat o r d r i n k , d o n o t r e l i e v e y o u r s e l f , d o n o t lay d o w n . F o o d a n d d r i n k will n o t d i g e s t w e l l , e l i m i n a t i o n c a u s e s q i t o s c a t t e r , l a y i n g d o w n c a u s e s t h e q i t o rise c a u s i n g d i s c o m f o r t . 7 ) T h e T h r e e H a r m s : T h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e m a r t i a l arts m u s t a v o i d t h e t h r e e h a r m s . I f o n e i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t h r e e h a r m s , p r a c t i c e will i n j u r e t h e b o d y . W h a t is m e a n t by t h e three h a r m s ? T h e three h a r m s are: 1) Inappropriate use of strength, 2) Forcing the breath, 3) Sticking out the chest and pulling up t h e belly. I f o n e uses s t r e n g t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e q i will n o t f l o w s m o o t h l y t h r o u g h t h e l i m b s a n d f r a m e , t h e m e r i d i a n s will b e o b s t r u c t e d , t h e e n t i r e b o d y will b e r e s t r i c t e d , t h e b a n d s a n d feet will n o t b e agile, t h e b o d y will b e b o g g e d d o w n b y s t a g n a n t qi, w h e r e v e r t h e q i s t a g n a t e s i l l n e s s will r e s u l t . I f o n e f o r c e s t h e b r e a t h , o n e will b e c o m e stiff a n d e a s y t o b r e a k , w i t h t h e c h e s l full o f air t h e l u n g s will b e s q u e e z e d a n d will suffer h a r m . I f o n e s t i c k s o u t t h e c h e s t a n d s u c k s i n t h e b e l l y , t h e q i will m o v e t h e w r o n g d i r e c t i o n a n d will rise, i t will n o t r e t u r n t o t h e dan tian. 8) S e e k i n g I n s t r u c t i o n : In order to study martial arts, o n e must be diligent in t w o a r e a s . First, o n e m u s t b e w i l l i n g t o travel g r e a t d i s t a n c e s i n o r d e r t o s t u d y wild those of higher ability a n d sincerely request instruction. O n e must also be d i l i g e n t i n s p e e c h , h u m b l i n g t h e self a n d a s k i n g f o r g u i d a n c e .

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9 ) F o r c e a n d S e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n : I n p r a c t i c i n g t h e m a r t i a l arts t h e r e a r e t w o t h i n g s w h i c h m u s t b e a v o i d e d , t h e first i s r e l i a n c e u p o n f o r c e , t h e s e c o n d i s selfsatisfaction. 10) Start P r a c t i c e S l o w l y : Begin practice by m o v i n g softly, gently a n d slowly in order to s o o t h e a n d o p e n t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue a n d b o n e s , this guides t h e qi a n d p o w e r a n d l e a d s i t c o r r e c t l y . After a p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e , i t i s g o o d t o u s e m o r e force a n d speed in order to increase t h e i n t e r n a l power for practical a p p l i c a t i o n . 1 1 ) S e q u e n c e o f P r a c t i c e : A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r a c t i c e s t a n d i n Son T i Shi ( t r i n i t y standing posture), afterwards practice forms. 1 2 ) S t a g e s o f T r a i n i n g : After b e g i n n i n g f o r m a l p r a c t i c e , o n e m u s t f o l l o w t h e rules o f t r a i n i n g , i f s o , i n t h r e e y e a r s t h e b a s i c t r a i n i n g will b e c o m p l e t e . I n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e s o f t r a i n i n g , p r a c t i c e s i n g l e f o r m s r e p e a t e d l y , use t h e f o r m t o e x p r e s s t h e i n t e n t . A f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e o n e will b e a b l e t o c h a n g e s p o n t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . After six y e a r s o n e will c o m p l e t e t h i s level o f t r a i n i n g . I n a d v a n c e d s t a g e s o f t r a i n i n g , b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l gong fu will be c o m p l e t e d , y o u r b o d y w i l l b e c o m e as h a r d as s t e e l , y o u r gong fu will b e o f a h i g h l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e o f t r a i n i n g f o l l o w s t h e s e three steps: Method 1. Obvious Energy 2. Hidden Energy 3. C h a n g e Energy Principle C h a n g e Essence to Qi C h a n g e Q i t o Spirit C h a n g e Spirit t o V o i d Gong Fu

Changes Bones Changes Tendons Changes Marrow

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San Ti Shi

(jLfll

^v,-

T r i n i t

Y Posture)

T h e t h r e e " b o d i e s " (Son 7 1 o r t r i n i t y ) i n m a r t i a l arts r e f e r t o t h e h e a d , h a n d s , a n d f e e t . San Ti is f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s as f o l l o w s :

W a i s t {dan Hips Shoulders

tian)

Spine (heart) Knees Elbows

H e a d (Ni Wan P o i n t ) Feet Hands

T h e root, middle, a n d terminus is also k n o w n in X i n g Yi Q u a n as the "three j o i n t s . " All p r a c t i c e s t a r t s w i t h S f l M T i s t a n d i n g . After w a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o r m s , o n e m u s t f o l l o w t h e c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e o f t r a i n i n g a n d m u s t n o t o m i t s t e p s . All s u b s e q u e n t m o v e m e n t is f o u n d e d in San Ti Shi. T h i s p o s t u r e is t h e g a t e of t h e W a y , i t i s t h e r o o t a n d c e n t r a l n u c l e u s o f t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n .

Wang Ji Wu Stands in S a n Ti S h i

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The Five Element Fists

1) Pi Quan (Splitting Fist)


R i s i n g F o r m T h e t w o fists h u g a n d m o v e o u t f r o m t h e t e n t e r o f t h e b o d y I n f r o n t o f t h e m o u t h , t h e f r o n t h a n d resists u p w a r d a t t h e level o f t h e h e a r t , t h e rear h a n d f o l l o w s c l o s e l y b e h i n d , t h e t w o e l b o w s h u g i n c l o s e t o t h e ribs a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a r t , t h e q i f o l l o w s t h e b o d y a n d s i n k s t o t h e dan tian. L o w e r i n g F o r m - T h e h a n d s a n d f e e t c o m e d o w n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e rear f o o t following, t h e four fingers are separated a n d t h e "tiger's m o u t h " is round, t h e f r o n t h a n d i s a t t h e level o f t h e h e a r t , t h e rear h a n d i s be" neat h t h e ribs, t h e f r o n t h a n d , ( f r o n t | f o o t a n d n o s e are o n a s t r a i g h t l i n e .

2) Zuan Quan (Drilling Fist)

gj^;^.

R i s i n g F o r m - T h e d r i l l i n g fist resists u p w a r d a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a r t , t h e rear h a n d i s h i d d e n b e n e a t h t h e ribs, t h e t w o e l b o w s h u g t h e ribs, t h e f o o t rises, t h e eyes follow t h e h a n d , a d v a n c e a step a n d lower t h e foot in c o n t i n u o u s steps. L o w e r i n g F o r m - W h e n c h a n g i n g t h e fists, t h e e l b o w s a r e h i d d e n b e n e a t h , w h e n t h e h a n d s a n d feet l o w e r t o g e t h e r t h e q i will f l o w s m o o t h l y . T h e e y e o f t h e f r o n t fist faces u p w a r d , t h e rear fist i s h i d d e n u n d e r t h e h e a r t , t h e f r o n t h a n d , f o o t a n d n o s e are o n a s t r a i g h t l i n e .

3) Beng Quan (Smashing Fist)


M o v i n g A w a y F o r m - W h e n t h e fist m o v e s o u t t h e t h r e e p o i n t s m u s t b e o n a l i n e ( h a n d , f o o t a n d n o s e ) , t h e e y e o f t h e fist p o i n t s u p w a r d a t t h e level o f t h e h e a r t , t h e rear h a n d i s a yang fist a n d i s h i d d e n b e n e a t h t h e ribs, t h e f r o n t f o o t p o i n t s s t r a i g h t a h e a d a n d t h e rear f o o t i s t o e d - o u t ( t h e c h a r a c t e r " e i g h t " ( A . ) step). T u r n i n g t h e B o d y F o r m - T u r n t h e b o d y a n d raise t h e fist s o i t m o v e s o u t f r o m t h e h e i g h t o f t h e e y e b r o w , t h e b o d y s t a n d s u p s t r a i g h t a n d t h e f o o t i s lifted, t h e h a n d a n d f o o t are l o w e r e d t o g e t h e r i n t o a s c i s s o r s t e p , t h e f r o n t f o o t i s t u r n e d o u t o b l i q u e l y a n d I h e rear f o o t p o i n t s s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e q i f o l l o w s t h e b o d y m o t i o n a n d e n t e r s t h e dan t i a n .

4) I'ao Quan (Pounding Fist)


R i s i n g F o r m - T h e t w o e l b o w s c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e f o o t a s i t r i s e s , t h e fists are t i g h t a n d raise t h e h a n d s , t h e f r o n t h a n d i s o b l i q u e a n d t h e rear h a n d i s s t r a i g h t , t h e fists are a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e n a v e l , t h e b o d y faces s t r a i g h t .

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L o w e r i n g L-orm - T h e h a n d s a n d feet a r e l o w e r e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t h r e e p o i n t s o n a l i n e , t h e b o d y i s a n g l e d , t h e feet m o v e s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e e y e o f t h e fist f a c e s u p w a r d a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a r t , t h e f r o n t h a n d drills u p w a r d a n d p r e s s e s a g a i n s t t h e e y e b r o w , t h e e y e o f i t ' s fist f a c e s d o w n w a r d , t h i s i s t h e p r o p e r form.

5)

Heng Quan

(Crossing Fist)

yffi i?^*.

R i s i n g F o r m - T h e f r o n t h a n d is a yartg fist a n d t h e rear h a n d is a yin fist. T h e rear h a n d m o v e s o u t f r o m u n d e r t h e ribs, w h e n c h a n g i n g t h e h a n d s a n d m o v i n g t h e h a n d o u t , t h e f o o t rises, l o w e r t h e b o d y a n d t w i s t a n d t h e q i will f l o w smoothly. C h a n g i n g F o r m - T h e c h a n g i n g f o r m o f Heng Qiwjj u s e s t h e " c h a r a c t e r t e n " ( - f - ) s t e p , t h e b o d y m o v e s o b l i q u e l y t h e n t h e s t e p i s c o r r e c t , t h e rear fist t u r n s o v e r t o b e c o m e a yang fist a n d t h e t h r e e p o i n t s a r e i n a l i n e , t h e n o s e a n d f o o t follow closely. Pi Quart is like an a x e a n d b e l o n g s to m e t a l , Beng Quan is like an a r r o w a n d b e l o n g s to w o o d , Zuan Quan is like l i g h t n i n g a n d b e l o n g s to w a t e r , I'ao Quan is like a c a n n o n a n d b e l o n g s t o fire, HengQuan m o v e s u p a n d d o w n like a s p r i n g and belongs to earth.

The Five Elements (Wu Xing)


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The Mutual Creation and Destruction of the Five Elements


Creation M e t a l c r e a t e s w a t e r so Pi Quan m a y c h a n g e to Zuan Quart, w a t e r c r e a t e s w o o d so Zuan Quan m a y c h a n g e to Beng Quan, w o o d c r e a t e s fire, so Beng Quan m a y c h a n g e to Pao Quan, fire c r e a t e s e a r t h , so Pao Quan m a y c h a n g e to Heng Quan. Destruction M e t a l o v e r c o m e s w o o d so Pi Quan b r e a k s Beng Quan, w o o d o v e r c o m e s e a r t h s o Beng Quan b r e a k s Heng Quan, e a r t h o v e r c o m e s w a t e r s o Heng Quan b r e a k s Zuan Quan, fire o v e r c o m e s m e t a l so Pao Quan b r e a k s Pi Quan.

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The Twelve Forms


D r a g o n , T i g e r , M o n k e y , H o r s e , A l l i g a t o r , C h i c k e n , Eagle, B e a r , Tai B i r d , S n a k e , C h i c k e n Hawk, Swallow T h e D r a g o n i s a b l e t o f o l d u p its b o n e s , t h e T i g e r i s b r a v e e n o u g h t o p o u n c e u p o n its p r e y , t h e M o n k e y i s a b l e t o r o a m freely o v e r m o u n t a i n s , t h e H o r s e i s a b l e t o kick w i t h its h o o v e s , t h e A l l i g a t o r i s a b l e t o m o v e o n t h e s u r f a c e o f w a t e r w i t h agility, t h e C h i c k e n i s fearless a s i t p e c k s , t h e E a g l e i s e x p e r t a t g r a s p i n g , t h e B e a r has g r e a t s t r e n g t h a t r a i s i n g u p v e r t i c a l l y , t h e Tai Bird i s a b l e t o h o l d its tail straight u p , t h e S n a k e i s a b l e t o s l i t h e r t h r o u g h t h e grass, t h e C h i c k e n H a w k i s able to w e a v e t h r o u g h t h e forest, t h e Swallow has t h e agility to brush t h e surface of the water.

Twisting Root - The Earth Dragon Canon


The w o r d s of t h e Earth Dragon Canon are u s e f u l in a t t a c k i n g on t h e g r o u n d . P r a c t i c e w i t h t h e w h o l e b o d y , o n e will b e c o m e s t r o n g a n d a l e r t . T h a t w h i c h i s extended m a y b e c o m e curved, that which is stationary m a y m o v e . Curved, it is like a c r o u c h i n g tiger, it a s c e n d s like a s o a r i n g d r a g o n . It m o v e s a n d s t o p s w i t h o u t l e a v i n g a t r a c e , its e x t e n d i n g a n d s t r a i g h t e n i n g a r e h i d d e n . W h e n t h e b o d y c o m e s e r e c t i t i s like i r o n , its m e t h o d i s c o n c e a l e d like t h e d r a g o n . O v e r t u r n i n g v i o l e n t l y like a tiger o r p a n t h e r , t u r n i n g r a p i d l y like a n e a g l e . G o i n g d o w n i s s e p a r a t e d i n t o f r o n t , b a c k , left a n d r i g h t , t h e g a t e s m a y c h a n g e , t h e r e i s n o set m e t h o d . W h e n a t t a c k i n g t o t h e f r o n t u s e t h e h a n d s , i t i s t h e s a m e f o r t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d g a t e s . W h e n a t t a c k i n g t o t h e r e a r u s e t h e feet, t h e k n e e s f o l l o w in attack. If t h e d i s t a n c e is great t h e n pursue, if t h e distance is small, go out a n d c o n n e c t . W h e n t h e h i p s are o n t h e g r o u n d , lay o n t h e side a n d c u r l t h e b o d y . F a l l i n g b a c k w a r d is like s i t t i n g , it is like l e a n i n g b a c k a g a i n s t a t a i l . H i g h a n d l o w f o l l o w t h e i n t e n t , a s d o far a n d n e a r a n d level o r u p r i g h t .

E d i t o r ' s N o t e : T h e F^arth D r a g o n C a n o n (Di Long ling jfc ) a p p l i e s to t h e e x e r c i s e k n o w n in X i n g Yi Q u a n as Pan Gen 4ft - T w i s t i n g R o o t ) . Pan Gen is a X i n g Yi Q u a n exercise similar to Ba Gua's circle walking practice, however, the circle is very small. II is a t h r e e step t u r n i n g exercise w h e r e every step c h a n g e s direction while t h e h a n d s are held in a static position. T h e three step practice is trained so that the student can learn h o w to quickly evade an attack, open up the o p p o n e n t , a n d t h e n strike. T h e t e r m " g a t e s " u s e d i n t h e t e x t a b o v e refers t o t h e changing directions.

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Three Fists, Three Clubs


"When the three the three fists and the three dubs are mastered, they become poisons."

T h r e e Fists Zuan Quan - D r i l l i n g Fist), Guo Quan - W r a p p i n g Fist), Jian Quan - Treading Fist). Zuan Quan is like l i g h t n i n g , Guo Quan is like a tiger t r e a d i n g , jian Quan is like a g a l l o p i n g h o r s e , p e r f o r m e d c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h o n e breath. Three Clubs Peng C l u b , Pao C l u b ( j & t f l - P o u n d i n g C l u b ) , Fan Bei C l u b ( & 1 f O v e r t u r n i n g B a c k C l u b ) . Peng C l u b i s v i o l e n t , Pao C l u b m o v e s like t h e w i n d , Fan Bei C l u b i s fast a s a n a r r o w , t h e t r u t h i s f o u n d w i t h i n . Fists a n d C l u b s T h e t h r e e fists a n d t h r e e c l u b s are n o t c o m m o n l y f o u n d , t h e c o r r e c t m e t h o d is to keep a c o m p l e t e and tight defense, if o n e practices until o n e c o m e s to t h e s p i r i t o f t h e t h i n g , t h e n o n e w i l l b e c o m e a first r a t e m a r t i a l artist.

Xing Yi Sword
Advance Six Step Sword Raising the h a n d , point to heaven a n d row t h e earth, brush t h e b o d y a n d p i e r c e t h e h e a r t s w o r d , split t o t h e r e a r o n e s t r o k e , f r o m h e r e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n s , lift t h e wrist s w o r d , d o w n t o t h e e a r t h t u m b l i n g b o d y s w o r d , l a n d i n g d r a g o n s h a p e s w o r d , s w i n g left s w o r d , a d v a n c e o n e s t e p split o n e s t r o k e , t u r n t h e b o d y a n d c h o p o n e stroke, central lifting sword, t h e black dragon tests t h e o c e a n s w o r d , s w i n g left s w o r d , turn t h e b o d y a d v a n c e o n e s t e p c h o p o n e s t r o k e , o b l i q u e l y b r u s h l e f t s t a n c e s w o r d , s c o o p t h e wrist e m b r a c e t h e m o o n s w o r d , t u r n right eight trigrams sword, brush t h e b o d y pierce t h e heart sword, halt step i n t e r c e p t t h e wrist s w o r d , lift t h e wrist s w o r d , d o w n t o t h e e a r t h t u m b l i n g b r u s h sword. Retreat Six Step Sword Raising t h e h a n d , point to h e a v e n and row t h e earth, brush t h e b o d y a n d p i e r c e t h e h e a r t s w o r d , split t o t h e rear o n e s t r o k e , lift t h e wrist s w o r d , d o w n t o t h e earth t u m b l i n g brush sword, landing dragon shape sword, a d v a n c e step c h i c k e n h a w k o v e r t u r n s its b o d y s w o r d , s t e p b a c k a n d r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n s , brushing sword, step back c h o p d o w n sword, c h o p d o w n destroy the form sword, t u r n t h e b o d y a n d c h o p t h e h e a d s w o r d , t h e u s u r p e r lifts t h e t r i p o d s w o r d .

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Important Points of Body, Form, and Martial Practice


T h e r e are a c o l l e c t i o n o f t e r m s o r p h r a s e s w h i c h a r e o f t e n s e e n i n m a r t i a l arts t r a n s m i s s i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e t h e " E i g h t Vital P o i n t s , " o r t h e " F o u r t e e n P o i n t Striking M e t h o d , " a n d so o n . T h e s e t e r m s were used t o s u m m a r i z e t h e knowledge gained through practice by those w h o c a m e before. Because these terms were n o t created by a single m a n in a single t i m e , s o m e repetition occurs. B e l o w w e p r e s e n t a list o f t h e c o m m o n l y s e e n t e r m s w i t h e x a m p l e s . T h i s s h o u l d h e l p t h o s e w h o are t r a i n i n g i n X i n g Y i Q u a n , e n a b l i n g t h e m t o u t i l i z e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r p r e d e c e s s o r s . T h i s will s p e e d i m p r o v e m e n t . O f c o u r s e , for t h e c r e a t o r s o f t h e t e r m s a n d p h r a s e s ' u s e d i n t h e w r i t t e n t r a n s m i s s i o n s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n t h e y referred t o first h a n d e x p e r i e n c e , f o r u s t h e knowledge is second h a n d . Because of this, besides trying to understand t h e m e a n i n g of t h e written words, o n e m u s t use even m o r e effort in trying to understand the teachings in actual training, adding to one's o w n knowledge a n d e x p e r i e n c e . This i s b e c a u s e true k n o w l e d g e i s o n l y t r a i n e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . I f o n e l e a v e s p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , all t h a t i s left i s e m p t y t a l k .

Techniques come out like a pouncing dragon. Lift the hand like an eagle grasping, the form maintains the characteristics of chicken leg, dragon body, bear shoulders, tiger holding head. Quick as an old chicken, it moves through forms like a locust, its rising forms are like shouldering a yoke (it is also written, "move like a crawling bug, rise like lifting a yoke").

The Eight Vital Points


W a n t i n g t o o b t a i n t h e u l t i m a t e t e c h n i q u e , o n e m u s t start w i t h self t r a i n i n g . T h e m e t h o d o f t r a i n i n g c o n t a i n s b o t h c o l l e c t i n g t o g e t h e r a n d m o v i n g . For t h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e m a r t i a l arts, t h e F i g h t Vital P o i n t s are o f first i m p o r t a n c e . T h e E i g h t Vital P o i n t s are t h e m o t h e r o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . I n t e r n a l l y , p r a c t i c e t h e qi, e x t e r n a l l y p r a c t i c e t h e f o r m s a n d m o v e m e n t s . I t d o e s n o t m a t t e r i f its t h e Five E l e m e n t s , t h e T w e l v e A n i m a l s , t h e c h a n g e s o f s u b s t a n t i a l a n d i n s u b s t a n t i a l , rise, drill, fall, o r o v e r t u r n , all o f t h e s e f o l l o w t h e E i g h t V i t a l P o i n t s . T h e E i g h t V i t a l P o i n t s are as f o l l o w s : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) the the the the the the the the i n s i d e s m u s l b e lifted, three hearts must unite, three intents must follow one another, Five E l e m e n t s m u s t f l o w s m o o t h l y , four terminus must m o v e together, heart must he at ease, Ihree points must be on a line, eyes m u s t focus on a single point. 45

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E d i t o r ' s N o t e : T h e " i n s i d e s m u s t b e l i f t e d " refers t o t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e a n u s , pressing of the tongue on the roof of the m o u t h , and the lifting of the crown of t h e h e a d . W h e n t h e " i n s i d e s a r e l i f t e d " a n " i n s u b s t a n t i a l e n e r g y rises t o t h e t o p . " T h e " t h r e e h e a r t s " are t h e B a i H u i ("S~ G V-20, " o n e hundred convergences") p o i n t a t t h e c r o w n o f t h e h e a d , t h e Lao Gong PCS, " p a l a c e o f l a b o r " ) p o i n t s i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e p a l m s , a n d t h e Yong Quan jfc. - K - l , t h e " g u s h i n g s p r i n g " ) p o i n t s i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e soles o f t h e feet. I n " u n i t i n g t h e three h e a r t s " t h e practitioner has an image of these three points being drawn in toward the center of the body. T h e " t h r e e i n t e n t s " a r e t h e Qi ( j j ^ - v i t a l f o r c e ) , Li (7^7 - s t r e n g t h ) , a n d t h e Yi - intention). T h e "Five E l e m e n t s " are earth, m e t a l , water, w o o d , a n d fire. H e r e t h e Boxing Canon i s r e f e r r i n g t o five i n t e r n a l a n d five e x t e r n a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e b o d y . T h e i n t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s a r e : t h e h e a r t , liver, s p l e e n , l u n g s , a n d k i d n e y s . T h e e x t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s a r e t h e t o n g u e , e y e s , m o u t h , n o s e , a n d e a r s . T h e " f o u r t e r m i n u s " are a s f o l l o w s : T h e t o n g u e i s t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e f l e s h , t h e t e e t h a r e t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e b o n e s , t h e f i n g e r s a n d t o e s are t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue, t h e p o r e s o f t h e w h o l e b o d y a r e t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e b l o o d vessels. T h e " t h r e e p o i n t s " are t h e n o s e , f r o n t h a n d , a n d f r o n t f o o t .

Twelve Important Points


1) t h e legs p r a c t i c e s t e p s as s t a b l e as a m o u n t a i n , 2 ) t h e k n e e s erect a n d c u r v e , a n d s t r a i g h t e n like a pillar, 3) t h e c r o t c h a n d hips inside a n d out scrape together, 4) t h e chest a n d b a c k have a b a l a n c e of hard a n d soft 5 ) t h e f r o n t side o f t h e f o r e h e a d k n o c k s t h e e n e m y , 6 ) t h e t h r e e g a t e s erect t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d a d h e r e t o t h e b a c k , 7) t h e two gates obliquely a n d vertically use t h e elbows, 8) pierce t h e b o n e s and break t h e o p p o n e n t , 9 ) stroke d o w n o n t h e b o n e s t o break t h e o p p o n e n t downward, 10) brush inward to take the o p p o n e n t ' s inside, 11) obstruct t h e outside to take the o p p o n e n t ' s outside, 12) provoke and attack from above, below, inside and outside.

Seven Key Points


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) sink t h e waist, relax t h e shoulders, depress the chest, press, lift, m o v i n g across or s m o o t h l y must be clearly understood, rising, d r i l l i n g , a n d o v e r t u r n i n g m u s t b e c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d .

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T o " s i n k t h e w a i s t , " t h e c o c c y x m u s t b e r e l a x e d a n d s l i g h t l y lifted, t h e yang q i w i l l a s c e n d t o w a r d h e a v e n , t h i s r e g u l a t e s t h e D u m e r i d i a n (if-JI^.). W h e n " r e l a x i n g t h e s h o u l d e r s , " t h e y feel a s i f t h e y a r e b e i n g p u l l e d b a c k . T o " d e p r e s s t h e c h e s t " i s t o o p e n t h e c h e s t s o t h e b r e a t h f l o w s s m o o t h l y a n d t h e yin q i d e s c e n d s . T h i s r e g u l a t e s t h e Ren m e r i d i a n (4 f t f t . ) . " P r e s s i n g " m e a n s t h e t o n g u e p r e s s e s t h e r o o f o f t h e m o u t h a n d t h e h a n d s press o u t w a r d . " L i f t i n g " m e a n s t h e a n u s i s lifted i n w a r d . " M o v i n g a c r o s s " i s t o rise a n d " m o v i n g s m o o t h l y " i s t o l o w e r . T o rise i s t o drill, t o l o w e r i s t o o v e r t u r n . R i s i n g i s d r i l l i n g a n d l o w e r i n g i s o v e r t u r n i n g . R i s i n g i s o b l i q u e a n d l o w e r i n g i s s m o o t h . Press u p w a r d w i t h t h e h e a d a n d t h e n drill, r e t r a c t t h e h e a d a n d o v e r t u r n , raise t h e h a n d s t h e n drill, l o w e r t h e h a n d s t h e n o v e r t u r n . Lift t h e f o o t t h e n drill, l o w e r t h e f o o t t h e n o v e r t u r n . Raise t h e w a i s t t h e n drill, l o w e r t h e w a i s t t h e n o v e r t u r n . W h e n raising o b l i q u e l y t h e oblique is not seen, w h e n lowering s m o o t h l y , t h e s m o o t h is n o t seen. Rising is g o i n g out, l o w e r i n g is striking. Rising is also s t r i k i n g , l o w e r i n g i s a l s o s t r i k i n g . Rise a n d fall a s r o l l i n g w a v e s , t h i s i s h o w t o r i s e a n d l o w e r . N o m a t t e r w h a t , w h e n rising, d r i l l i n g , f a l l i n g o r o v e r t u r n i n g , t h e e l b o w s never leave t h e ribs, t h e h a n d s n e v e r leave t h e heart. This is t h e vital p o i n t of Xing Yi Quan. Those w h o understand have the essence of Xing Yi Quan. The students should consider this carefully.

Defining Terms
" P r e s s i n g t h e s h o u l d e r s " i s like p r a c t i c i n g t h e steps, u r g e t h e rear a s i f e r e c t i n g t h e w a i s t , r o u n d t h e c r o t c h t o s u p p o r t t h e h i p s , lift t h e c h e s t a s i f b a c k - b e n d i n g . T h e " s h o u l d e r s " refers t o t h e p o w e r o f t h e " s h o u l d e r w e l l p o i n t , " s i n k d o w n t o t h e Yang Quan ( K - l ) . " U r g i n g t h e r e a r " refers t o s q u e e z i n g t h e b u t t o c k s t o g e t h e r a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . T h e c r o t c h feels a s i f i t i s p r e s s i n g a c r o s s b o t h i n w a r d l y a n d o u t w a r d l y w i t h m a x i m u m e f f o r t . " L i f t i n g t h e c h e s t " refers t o l i f t i n g t h e c h e s t a s if resisting a force f r o m t h e front. Relax t h e shoulders as if you are putting forth strength. B o t h sides o f t h e b a c k b o n e press f o r c e f u l l y t o g e t h e r , t h e e n e r g y originates from beneath the navel, from the internal organs revolving outward t o t h e h e a d a n d t h e n r e t u r n s . W h e n u s i n g t h e p o w e r o f t h e s h o u l d e r well p o i n t , s o f t e n t h e i n t e n t a n d r e l a x , t h e r e will b e n o o b s t r u c t i o n . Horizontal a n d vertical energies m u s t be clearly differentiated. Horizontal energy is aided by t h e vertical, vertical energy is used horizontally. Vertical energy is from t h e shoulders to t h e b o t t o m s of the feet. T h e horizontal energy is in t h e t w o arms. From t h e c r o t c h to t h e b o t t o m s of t h e feet, f r o m t h e knees t o t h e rear, t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h l e g w o r k . T h e p o w e r o f t h e dan tian rises u p t h e h a c k a n d c o n t i n u e s a r o u n d t o l h e c h e s t , i t f l o w s t o t h e s t o m a c h , i t tilts t h e o r g a n s , i t s o l i d i f i e s t h e ribs, i l r u s h e s u p t o t h e top o f t h e b r a i n . " U n i t i n g " refers t o u n i t i n g t h e e n t i r e b o d y a s o n e . " F . r e c t i n g " refers t o t h e vertical, h o r i z o n t a l , o b l i q u e , a n d reeling. T o s t a m p d o w n i s like s t a m p i n g o n a p o i s o n o u s b u g . W h e n p o u n c i n g i t i s like a tiger p o u n c i n g o n its p r e y . " W r a p p i n g " I s like w r a p p i n g s o m e t h i n g u p s o n o part i s e x p o s e d . " C o m f o r t a b l e " refers t o a l l o w i n g t h e p o w e r t o b e c o m f o r t a b l e and o p e n . To sever m e a n s to s h a k e s o m e t h i n g until il breaks. " T o s t a m p " means that the foot has to stamp down with finality without 47

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further m o t i o n . W h e n p o u n c i n g o n e must use t h e p o w e r o f the w h o l e b o d y a n d t h e t w o a r m s . W h e n w r a p p i n g t h e t w o a r m s l e a v e n o t r a c e o f a n y t h i n g still u n c o v e r e d . " C o m f o r t a b l e " m e a n s t h e b o t h t h e i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e use p o w e r . W h e n t h e f o o t s t o m p s i t s h o u l d s o u n d like t h u n d e r . " T o s e v e r " m e a n s t h a t w h e n t h e t w o h a n d s go out a n d enter t h e y should use shaking power.

Xing Yi Quan Practice


W h e n b e g i n n i n g practice, o n e should practice softly, slowly a n d gently. This will relax a n d o p e n t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue a n d b o n e s , i t will g u i d e a n d d i r e c t t h e qi a n d power. C o n t i n u i n g with practice, o n e should use hard power a n d speed, t h i s will d e v e l o p i n t e r n a l p o w e r for p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e level o f r e f i n e m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e a b o v e t w o m e t h o d s o f t r a i n i n g . First o n e uses c r u d e p o w e r , t h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b e g i n n i n g s t u d y . Later t h e p o w e r i s r e f i n e d , t h i s i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h o s e w i t h l o n g t i m e i n t r a i n i n g . T h i s m e t h o d uses fast m o t i o n p r a c t i c e d i n intervals. X i n g Y i Q u a n h a s m a n y s i n g l e f o r m s , t h e s e a r e t o b e p r a c t i c e d r e g u l a r l y . After a l o n g p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e o n e will b r e a k t h r o u g h w i t h o u t l i m i t . W h e n p r a c t i c i n g X i n g Y i Q u a n t h e t i m e will pass, ten years will n o t d e v e l o p t h e u l t i m a t e skill. O n t h e s u r f a c e i t will a p p e a r t h a t t h e l a t e r p r a c t i c e i s n o t a s f r u i t f u l a s t h e e a r l i e r practice. Practicing a l o n g t i m e is n o t as p r o d u c t i v e as p r a c t i c i n g a little. W i t h m a t u r i t y , t h e c h a n g e will c o m e , t h e i n t e r n a l p o w e r will b e full, t h e e x t e r n a l p o w e r will pull b a c k i n . W i t h o u t m a n y y e a r s o f p r a c t i c e o n e w i l l n e v e r r e a c h t h i s level.

Kight Character Secret


C h o p (Pi Quan), Intercept (Zuan Quan), Wrap (HengQuan), Stride (BengQuan), U p l i f t (Jian Quan), Resist (Pao Quan), W a v e ( A l l i g a t o r F o r m ) , L e a d ( S n a k e F o r m ) .

Sixteen Point Practice Method (also known as Tramping/Drilling Method)


1) Inch: I n c h refers t o t h e s t e p . 2) Tramp: Tramp means to go outward. 3 ) D r i l l : Drill i s t o a d v a n c e . 4) Receive: Receive is (o bind, t h e upper and lower bodies are b o u n d as o n e . 5 ) C o m e : T h i s i s t o s c i s s o r , t h e legs m o v e w i t h a s c i s s o r s t e p . 6 ) U n i t e : T h i s refers t o t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l six h a r m o n i e s . 7 ) Q u i c k : T h i s m e a n s t o b e ( v i c i o u s ) like p o i s o n . 8) Square: This m e a n s to be straight. If looked at from the front the posture a p p e a r s s l a n t e d , i f seen f r o m t h e side i t a p p e a r s s t r a i g h t . 9 ) P a s s i n g : T h e rear h a n d r u b s t h e f i n g e r s m o v i n g o u t w a r d . 1 0 ) L o w e r leg: T h e p l a c e t h a t i n i t i a t e s t h e m o t i o n o f t h e f o u r e x t r e m i t i e s . T h e g u n h i t s its m a r k . M o v i n g , t h e i n t e n t n e v e r b r e a k s .

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11) Rise a n d Fall: T o r i s e i s t o g o o u t . T o l o w e r i s t o s t r i k e . T o r i s e i s t o s t r i k e , t o l o w e r i s a l s o t o strike, r i s e a n d l o w e r a s t h e o v e r t u r n i n g o f w a v e s , t h i s i s rise a n d fall. 12) A d v a n c e a n d R e t r e a t : A d v a n c e w i t h l o w steps, r e t r e a t w i t h h i g h s t e p s . I f o n e does n o t u n d e r s t a n d a d v a n c i n g a n d retreating, practice is a waste of t i m e . 13) Yin Yang: W h a t is Yin Yang? L o o k at yin, it c o n t a i n s yang. L o o k at yang, it c o n t a i n s yin. I n b o x i n g , yin a n d yang m u t u a l l y u n i t e . T h e y m u s t b e t o g e t h e r . 14) F i v e E l e m e n t s : T h e i n t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s m u s t m o v e , t h e e x t e r n a l five elements must follow. 15) M o v e m e n t a n d S t i l l n e s s : S t i l l n e s s i s t h e o r i g i n a l b o d y , m o v e m e n t i s t h e u s e . W i t h s t i l l n e s s its u s e i s n o t r e v e a l e d , w i t h m o v e m e n t t h e r e i s left n o t t r a c e . W h e n m o v e m e n t a n d s t i l l n e s s are a b o u t t o issue b u t h a v e n o t y e t i s s u e d , t h i s i s m o v e m e n t a n d stillness. 16) S u b s t a n t i a l a n d i n s u b s t a n t i a l : T h e s u b s t a n t i a l i s t h e e s s e n c e , t h e i n s u b s t a n t i a l i s t h e spirit. W h e n t h e r e i s b o t h e s s e n c e a n d spirit, t h e n t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l a n d insubstantial.

The Four Terminus


T h e t o n g u e i s t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e f l e s h , t h e t e e t h are t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e b o n e s , t h e f i n g e r s a n d t o e s a r e t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue, t h e p o r e s o f t h e w h o l e b o d y are t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e b l o o d v e s s e l s .

The Internal and External Five Elements


T h e i n t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s a r e : t h e h e a r t , liver, s p l e e n , l u n g s , a n d k i d n e y s . T h e e x t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s are t h e t o n g u e , e y e s , m o u t h , n o s e , a n d e a r s . T h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s are c o n n e c t e d a s f o l l o w s : h e a r t c o n n e c t s w i t h t h e t o n g u e , liver w i t h t h e e y e s , s p l e e n w i t h t h e m o u t h , l u n g s w i t h t h e n o s e , a n d k i d n e y s w i t h t h e e a r s . I n t h e b o x i n g , t h e i n t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s m u s t m o v e , t h e e x t e r n a l five e l e m e n t s m u s t f o l l o w .

The Fourteen Points Striking Method


T h e h e a d i s t h e first fist, t h e s h o u l d e r s ( r i g h t a n d left) a r e fists, t h e h i p s ( r i g h t a n d l e f t ) a r e fists, t h e e l b o w s (right a n d left) a r e fists, t h e h a n d s ( r i g h t a n d l e f t ) are fists, t h e feet ( r i g h t a n d left) a r c fists, t h e w h o l e b o d y i s a fist, all t o g e t h e r t h e r e are f o u r t e e n fists.

The Three Knowings


Clearly k n o w t h e h a n d s , clearly k n o w t h e eyes, clearly k n o w t h e teacher.

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Body, Stepping, a n d H a n d M e t h o d s Body Method


I n t h e s t u d y o f m a r t i a l arts t h e b o d y m e t h o d i s t h e k e y a n d t h e w a y t o p r o f o u n d skill. W h a t i s t h e b o d y m e t h o d ? V e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l , h i g h a n d l o w , a d v a n c i n g a n d r e t r e a t i n g , o v e r t u r n i n g a n d a n g l i n g . V e r t i c a l refers t o a d v a n c i n g from any direction. H o r i z o n t a l refers t o w r a p p i n g u p p o w e r , o p e n i n g a n d closing w i t h o u t o b s t r u c t i o n . High m e a n s t h e b o d y is lifted, it also m e a n s to increase o n e ' s reach. Low m e a n s to b e n d down, t h e form looks as if o n e is ready t o c a t c h a n d seize s o m e t h i n g . W h e n a p p r o p r i a t e t o retreat, t h e n retreat, g u i d e t h e qi and return w i t h d r a w i n g a n d waiting for an o p p o r t u n i t y . Turn t h e b o d y a n d g u a r d t h e rear, t h e rear i s a l s o t h e f r o n t . P a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e left a n d r i g h t sides, t h e n t h e sides w i l l b e s a f e . I t i s a s i f c l o s e d o f f a n d y e t n o t c l o s e d off. T e s t the strengths a n d weaknesses of the opponent, m o v e following your own plan, n o w v e r t i c a l l y , n o w s l o w d o w n t h e qi. C h a n g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e , o n e m u s t n o t t r y o n e t e c h n i q u e f o r all s i t u a t i o n s . S u d d e n l y h i g h t h e n s u d d e n l y low, able t o c h a n g e a t a n y t i m e , o n e m u s t n o t s t u b b o r n l y insist o n o n l y o n e method. S o m e t i m e s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o retreat, t h e n w h i l e r e t r e a t i n g e n t i c e his a d v a n c e . A d v a n c i n g i n s u r e s r e t r e a t . A s u c c e s s f u l r e t r e a t relies o n t h e a b i l i t y t o r e - a d v a n c e . W h e n t u r n i n g t h e b o d y t o g u a r d t h e rear, t h e rear s h o u l d n o t feel a s i f i t i s b e h i n d . W h e n g u a r d i n g t o t h e left a n d r i g h t , t h e side s h o u l d n o t feel a s i f t h e y a r e t h e s i d e s . I n all t h i n g s , t h e e y e s a r e t h e k e y p o i n t , t h e y s e n d i n f o r m a t i o n to t h e heart, t h e i m p o r t a n c e is grasped a n d t h e w h o l e b o d y reacts. I f t h e b o d y a d v a n c e s , e v e n i f t h e l i m b s are n o t g u i d e d t h e y will m o v e . I f t h e b o d y m o v e s b a c k , t h e e n t i r e f r a m e will r e t r e a t a s i f o n its o w n . T h e b o d y m e t h o d m a y be seen but n o t explained. T h e practitioners of martial arts should pay h e e d . C l o s e u p t h e b o d y a n d rise, l e n g t h e n t h e b o d y a n d l o w e r . Rise like t h e w i n d , l o w e r like a n a r r o w . B e i n g s t r u c k , i t i s t o o l a t e t o b l a m e b e i n g t o o s l o w . Rise like a n a r r o w , l o w e r like t h e w i n d , f o l l o w t h e w i n d a n d c h a s e t h e m o o n w i t h o u t relaxing. I n regards t o b o d y m e t h o d , o n e m u s t n o t l e a n f o r w a r d o r b a c k w a r d , o n e m u s t n o t tilt ( o t h e right o r t w i s t t o t h e left. M o v e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d l o w e r s t r a i g h t forward. W h e n far, s t e p c l o s e , a d v a n c e k n e e t o k n e e , s t a n d u p a n d u s e v e r t i c a l p o w e r . W h e n t h e h e a r t stirs t h e w h o l e b o d y m o v e s , t h e five e l e m e n t s are all f o c u s e d into one, be brave and succeed. W i t h t h e t w o words " r i s e " a n d " f a l l " t h e b o d y is level. T h e word that " c o v e r s t h e w o r l d " ( m o s t i m p o r t a n t ) i s a c e n t e r e d b o d y . T h e b o d y i s like a d r a w n b o w , t h e fist i s like a n a n o w .

Before the dragon arises there is first thunder, the wind blows the great tree and the branches sway. The best method is to move first, the proper technique is the hands and feet arriving together.

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T h e i n t e r n a l i s l i f t e d , t h e e x t e r n a l f o l l o w s , rising i s h o r i z o n t a l , l o w e r i n g i s s m o o t h , s t r i k e f r o m afar, t h e q i u r g e s t h e m o t i o n , t h e fist i s like a c a n n o n , like a d r a g o n f o l d i n g its b o d y , w h e n e n c o u n t e r i n g a n e n e m y i t i s like fire b u r n i n g h i s b o d y , rise a n d fall w i t h t h e b o d y l e v e l , e n t e r s t r a i g h t i n t o t h e c e n t e r . A b l e t o a d v a n c e a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e , o n e will n o t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t s u r v i v a l , a b l e t o b e a h e a d o n e b r e a t h , o n e w i l l n o t fall b e h i n d . W h e n rising horizontally t h e horizontal is n o t seen, w h e n lowering s m o o t h l y t h e s m o o t h n e s s i s n o t s e e n , w h e n l o w l o o k h i g h , w h e n h i g h l o o k l o w . Rise a n d lower m o v e with t h e heart, saving o n e at t h e p o i n t of d e a t h , dealing death at t h e point of victory. T h e s h o u l d e r s p u s h t h e e l b o w s , t h e e l b o w s p u s h t h e h a n d s , t h e waist p u s h e s the hips, t h e hips push t h e knees, t h e knees push t h e feet.

Step Method
W h e n m o v i n g t h e b o d y , t h e s t e p i s o f first i m p o r t a n c e . T h e s t e p i s t h e r o o t o f t h e b o d y , i t i s t h e c e n t r a l a x i s o f m o t i o n . S i n c e t h e w h o l e b o d y i s used i n a n e n c o u n t e r w i t h a n e n e m y , t h e p e r s o n w h o w i s h e s t o b e u n b e a t a b l e m u s t rely o n footwork. W h e n advancing, retreating, turning or angling, t h e c h a n g e s are in the handwork, but it is the footwork that allows the h a n d s to adapt and c h a n g e to the advantageous position. Advancing, retreating, turning or angling, w i t h o u t t h e s t e p s h o w c a n o n e h a v e a c h a n c e ? L o w e r i n g , rising, e x t e n d i n g o r contracting, without footwork how can one execute profound changes? The s a y i n g i s t h a t t h e e y e s are k e y a n d t h e h e a r t d e c i d e s t h e r e a c t i o n , i n all c h a n g e s a n d t u r n s o f t h e b o d y , i n r e a c t i o n t o all t y p e s o f a f f r o n t , i t m u s t b e t h a t f o o t w o r k is t h e leader. In addition, t h e steps m u s t not be forced. M o v e m e n t must spring from an e m p t y heart, as if d a n c i n g w i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s effort, t h e b o d y desires to m o v e a n d t h e s t e p s t u r n t o all s i d e s . T h e h a n d s a r e a b o u t t o m o v e , t h e s t e p s a l s o urge t h e m i n m o t i o n . W i t h o u t t i m i n g i t s o i t i s s o , w i t h o u t m a k i n g i t g o i t g o e s , t h i s i s w h a t i s referred t o a s t h e u p p e r w i s h e s t o m o v e a n d t h e l o w e r f o l l o w s . T h e s t e p s are d i v i d e d i n t o f o r w a r d a n d b a c k , a l s o f i x e d s t e p s , a l s o n o n - f i x e d steps are a l s o f o o t w o r k , like a d v a n c i n g f o r w a r d , f o l l o w i n g b a c k w a r d , f o r w a r d and backward proceed f r o m a fixed step. If y o u take a forward step as if to t h e : e a r , a n d a rear s t e p a s i f t o t h e f r o n t , t h e n a f o r w a r d s t e p c o u l d b e a n a d v a n c e : o t h e rear, f o r w a r d a n d b a c k w a r d s t e p s n a t u r a l l y d o n o t f o l l o w a n y set p a t t e r n t h e r e i s n o set d i r e c t i o n s o f o r w a r d a n d r e a r are r e l a t i v e t e r m s ) . For t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t h e m a r t i a l arts, t h o s e w h o d o n o t p u t b o d y a n d f o o t w o r k first m i m p o r t a n c e will n o t b e s u c c e s s f u l i n d e f e a t i n g e n e m i e s . T h i s m u s t n o t b e t a k e n lightly. C o m e w i t h a s c i s s o r s t e p , t h e legs m o v e i n a s c i s s o r m o t i o n . M o v e t h e s t e p s by inches. C o m e this way. Go this way. Advance with low steps, retreat with h i g h s t e p s , i f o n e d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d a d v a n c i n g a n d r e t r e a t i n g t h e y are w a s t i n g their t i m e studying martial arts. It is i m p o r t a n t to h a v e t h e correct s e q u e n c e of m o v e m e n t , d o d g i n g , o r l e a p i n g a b o u t t h e feet f o l l o w . U s i n g t h e f e e t t o strike t h e i n t e n t t o s t o m p n e v e r m i s s e s , t h e f e e l i n g c o m p l e t e l y relics o n t h e s n a p p i n g o f t h e rear f o o t . K e e p f e e l i n g i n t h e rear f o o t , a n d a d v a n c e a t t a c k i n g w i t h a s t o m p i n g strike t h a t s h o w s n o m e r c y . I f t h e h a n d s a r e raised w i t h o u t t h e feet r i s i n g i t i s also a w a s t e o f t i m e , i f t h e feet a r e raised b u t t h e h a n d s a r e n o t raised i t i s a g a i n

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a w a s t e o f t i m e . I f s e p a r a t e d b y a s p a c e o f t e n f e e t , t h e s t e p s m u s t b e fast, t w o heads turning, t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t is t h e inch step. T h e w h o l e b o d y is capable o f s t r i k i n g . W i t h f o o t w o r k t h e e n t i r e b o d y will b e (as h a r d t o strike) a s air. S t e p s t r a i g h t i n b e t w e e n t h e o p p o n e n t ' s legs, drill i n t h r o u g h h i s c r o t c h . T h e legs h a v e t h e a b i l i t y to travel at a g r e a t s p e e d . T h e f r o n t leg r e l i e s o n t h e b a c k leg, t h e rear leg s t e p s d o w n n e x t t o t h e a n k l e , t h e r e a r leg relies o n t h e f r o n t leg, t h e a n k l e i s raised i n s e q u e n c e . I n regards t o s t e p m e t h o d s t h e r e are i n c h s t e p s , fast s t e p s , a n d s t o m p i n g steps, n o n e must be omitted. I n regards t o l e g w o r k , t h e r e i s l i f t i n g a n d d r i l l i n g , lowering a n d overturning, n o t drilling n o r overturning. T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t is t h e i n c h step. T h e f e e t are s e v e n t y p e r c e n t a n d t h e h a n d s a r c t h i r t y p e r c e n t . T h e leg s t e p s i n t o t h e o p p o n e n t ' s c e n t e r a n d s t e a l s h i s p o s i t i o n . E v e n t h e m o s t e x p e r t f i g h t e r will f i n d i t h a r d t o d e f e n d .

Hand Method
T h e h a n d s are able to push aside a n d turn. I f t h e h a n d s a r e r a i s e d b u t t h e f e e t are n o t raised, i t i s a w a s t e o f t i m e . I f t h e feet are lifted b u t t h e h a n d s a r e n o t , i t i s a g a i n a w a s t e o f t i m e . N e v e r m o v e t h e h a n d s f o r n o r e a s o n . D o d g i n g t o t h e left a n d r i g h t , p r o t e c t i n g b o t h sides. Raise t h e h a n d s like a steel file, l o w e r t h e h a n d s like a h o o k . T h e e y e s m u s t h a v e a poisonous look, the hands must be wicked. T h e e l b o w s d o n o t l e a v e t h e ribs, t h e h a n d s d o n o t l e a v e t h e h e a r t . T h e h a n d s enter and exit openings a n d the b o d y follows close b e h i n d . Wait until the o p p o n e n t ' s i n t e n t lags, t h e n a t t a c k . T h e s h o u l d e r s p u s h t h e e l b o w s , t h e e l b o w s push the hands.

Raise the hands like a steel file, lower the hands like a hook. The eyes must have a poisonous look, the hands must be wicked.

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I n t e r n a l T r a i n i n g (Nei Gong)
T h e people of t h e world do not k n o w what t h e internal power of X i n g Yi Q u a n is. They t r y t o g u e s s f r o m l o o k i n g a t t h e f o r m , o r s u p p o s e t h a t w e u s e m u c h e f f o r t from t h e heart, or suppose it is s o m e m o v e m e n t in t h e belly, these types of t h i n g s h a v e n o e f f e c t , t h i s i s t a k i n g t h e false f o r t h e t r u e . I n t h e m a r t i a l w a y , it's f o r m i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f its m o v e m e n t s , its f o r m l e s s n e s s i s its p o w e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f o r m s u s e s t h e p o w e r f r o m w i t h i n . I f o n e h a s n o p o w e r , t h e n t h e f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e i s u s e l e s s . T h e r e f o r e , p o w e r (yi //) is t h e r o o t of t h e s t r u c t u r e . If y o u w a n t s u f f i c i e n t p o w e r , t h e qi m u s t be full, t h e r e f o r e , qi is t h e r o o t of s t r e n g t h . T h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e m a r t i a l arts m u s t p u t t h e E i g h t V i t a l P o i n t s first. T h e E i g h t Vital P o i n t s are t h e m o t h e r o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . I n t e r n a l l y , t r a i n t h e qi, e x t e r n a l l y p r a c t i c e t h e art o f t h e m o v e m e n t s . N o m a t t e r i f y o u ' r e p r a c t i c i n g t h e five elementsor the twelve forms, or c h a n g i n g b e t w e e n substantial and insubstantial, o r u s i n g rise, drill, fall, a n d o v e r t u r n , o n e m u s t n e v e r l e a v e t h e E i g h t V i t a l P o i n t s . I f o n e w i s h e s t o p r a c t i c e t o a r e f i n e d level, o n e m u s t s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian. I f o n e w i s h e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian, first p r a c t i c e t e c h n i q u e . D e v e l o p i n g b o t h t h e dan tian a n d t e c h n i q u e t o g e t h e r i s t h e key t o o b t a i n i n g r e s u l t s . W h a t is t h e dan tian? It is t h e r o o t of t h e o r i g i n a l yang qi, it is t h e p l a c e w h e r e qi a n d s t r e n g t h reside. If t h e dan tian is l a c k i n g , t h e qi will n o t be s u f f i c i e n t . W i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t qi, p o w e r will b e i n a d e q u a t e . T h e five e l e m e n t s a n d t h e t w e l v e f o r m s will b e e m p t y . I n t h i s s t a t e , i n d e f e n s e o n e will b e a s a c i t y s u r r o u n d e d b y a d r y m o a t , i n a t t a c k , o n e w i l l b e like a s t r o n g s o l d i e r w i t h a w e a k h o r s e . O n e m u s t p r a c t i c e d i l i g e n t l y e v e r y d a y . S i t t i n g i n m e d i t a t i o n t r y i n g t o b e c o m e i m m o r t a l will n o t c u l t i v a t e t h e dan tian. W h e n using internal power, the power must follow the correct route. If o n e d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o p e r r o u t e s o f p o w e r a n d f o r c e s p o w e r o u t , t h e r e will b e h a r m . T h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y i s t h e Ren m e r i d i a n , t h e b a c k o f t h e b o d y i s t h e Du m e r i d i a n , t h e qi f o l l o w s f l o w i n g t h r o u g h . T h e Ren a n d Du o r i g i n a t e at t h e Cheng Jiang ( C V - 2 4 - s a u c e r e c e p t a c l e ) p o i n t , it m o v e s s t r a i g h t d o w n in f r o n t of t h e Yin p o i n t . T h e D u m e r i d i a n s t a r t s a t t h e c o c c y x p o i n t , i t r u n s s t r a i g h t u p t h e b a c k , it passes t h r o u g h t h e Yu Zhen ( B L - 9 j a d e p i l l o w ) p o i n t , t h e Ni Wan ( G V 2 0 - m u d b a l l p a l a c e ) p o i n t , g o e s d o w n past t h e YinTangpoint ( t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e e y e b r o w s ) , a n d s t o p s a t t h e Zhong ( c e n t r a l ) p o i n t . T h e t w o ling p o i n t s issue e n e r g y cyclically. T h e s h o u l d e r s h a v e t h e s h o u l d e r well points, at t h e c e n t e r of t h e s h o u l d e r . T h e C M p o i n t refers t o t h e Q u Chi ( L I - 1 1 - p o o l a t t h e b e n d ) p o i n t a t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e l b o w . T h e s e are t h e p l a c e s o f t h e b o d y w h i c h issue p o w e r . T h r o u g h t h e m y r i a d o f c h a n g e s , all a r e r o o t e d i n t h e s e , i f t h e d e p t h o f t h i s i s g r a s p e d , o n e will s i g h i n a m a z e m e n t . Qi" a s c e n d s f r o m t h e Gui Wei ( G V - 1 - t u r t l e t a i l ) , c u l t i v a t e t h e spirit in t h e dan tian. T h e c o c c y x i s t h e e x t r e m e p o i n t . U s e f o r c e t o t u r n i t u p w a r d , t h e t r u e q i will n a t u r a l l y a s c e n d . T h e q i d e s c e n d s t o t h e o c e a n , first f o c u s t h e h e a v e n l y h e a r t . T h e c e n t e r o f t h e b e l l y i s t h e sea o f qi. T h e c e n t e r o f t h e f o r e h e a d i s t h e h e a v e n l y h e a r t . Its f o r m s h i n e s o u t s i d e . A n i n c h o r t w o b e l o w t h e n a v e l i s t h e dan tian p o i n t . O n e s h o u l d d i l i g e n t l y p r a c t i c e c o n s e r v i n g t h e o r i g i n a l spirit h e r e . O n e must be clear about t h e meridians, t h e n look at t h e forms. T h e forms are p a t t e r n s all b e g i n n e r s m u s t s t u d y . I f o n e d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e m , t h e r e i s n o

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use t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e m e r i d i a n s . T h e h e a d i s c e n t e r e d t h e n rises, t h e s h o u l d e r s level t h e n are f r e e . I f t h e c h e s t s t i c k s o u t t h e r e will b e o b s t r u c t i o n . C e n t e r t h e h e a d a n d p r e s s u p t h e c r o w n , t h e c o u n t e n a n c e will b e s t r o n g a n d t h e spirit full. T h e s h o u l d e r s a r e a l i v e a n d t h e back straight a n d level. W i t h t h e c h e s t o u t , t h e b o d y wants t o withdraw i n w a r d . T h i s i s t h e t r u e c r u x . T h e feet a r e s o l i d a n d s t a b l e , t h e c r o t c h i s s o l i d a n d h e l d in, t h e ribs are o p e n a n d e x t e n d e d , w h e n t h e feet m o v e t h e k n e e s u s e p o w e r , t h e f r o n t yin c o n t r a c t s , t h e ribs o p e n , t h e t r u e q i i s r e g u l a t e d a n d e v e n , t h e e n e r g y r e l a x e s a n d t i g h t e n s . W h e n i s s u i n g q i t h e ears h e a r n o s o u n d . T h e e n e r g y m u s t first b e r e l a x e d a n d t h e n t i g h t e n , m o v e i t s l o w l y . First i n h a l e t h e n e x h a l e , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t . First lift, t h e n l o w e r , o n c e a s c e n d i n g o n c e d e s c e n d i n g . T h e dan tian is i n s i d e , it is t h e p l a c e t h e qi r e t u r n s t o . I n h a l e inward, e x h a l e outward, never m a k e a s o u n d . W h i l e lifting i n h a l e , k e e p t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e real q i i s a s c e n d i n g t o t h e c r o w n o f t h e h e a d . W h e n l o w e r i n g , t h e real q i d e s c e n d s . W h i l e l o w e r i n g , feel a s i f t h e q i o f t h e w h o l e b o d y is i n f i n i t e s i m a l l y s m a l l , it falls i n t o t h e dan tian. A h i b e r n a t i n g d r a g o n or a s l e e p i n g tiger, l a t e n t a n d c o n c e a l e d . C o n t r a c t t h e a n u s a t t h e l o w e r e n d , raise t o t h e Y u Lou ( j a d e t o w e r ) , t h e n past t h e p u b i c b o n e . A l l o w t h e q i t o f l o w w i t h o u t obstruction. Do not stop it at any o n e point, the qi m o v e s from the throat to the l u n g s a n d h e a r t . E v e n t h o u g h thec/i g a t h e r s i n t h e dan tian, k e e p t h e t h o u g h t t h a t it is in a l o w p l a c e . Rising, it h a s its r o u t e of a s c e n s i o n . T h e ribs a r e lifted t o g e t h e r . G o i n g d o w n t h e r e i s a r o u t e o f d e s c e n d i n g . T h e q i rises a l o n g t h e ribs, o p e n t h e s u t u r e s o f t h e b o n e a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , lift t h e m u p w a r d , o n e will n a t u r a l l y o b t a i n t h e k e y . D e s c e n d i n g m u s t start f r o m t h e m o u t h , t h e n i t e n t e r s t h e f r o n t heart, this is t h e true route. Breathe smoothly and evenly, o n c e inhaling o n c e exhaling, breathe through t h e n o s e . T h e n t h e q i will s o o n b e c o m e s t a b l e . P r o c e e d t o i n h a l e o n e b r e a t h . A s y o u i n h a l e i m a g i n e t h a t t h e real qi is m o v i n g o u t f r o m t h e Yong Quan ( K - l g u s h i n g s p r i n g ) p o i n t , a s c e n d s a l o n g t h e ribs, m o v e s t o t h e f r o n t o f t h e c h e s t , t h e n i t m o v e s t o t h e b a c k o f t h e ears, p r o c e e d i n g i t a s c e n d s t o t h e N i Wan p o i n t . W h e n t h e q i d e s c e n d s i m a g i n e t h a t i t m o v e s f r o m t h e N i Wan p o i n t t o t h e Yin Tang p o i n t , f r o m t h e Yin Tang p o i n t t o t h e n o s e , f r o m t h e n o s e t o t h e t h r o a t , f r o m the throat following the spine and penetrates the front heart, from the front h e a r t it s i n k s to t h e dan tian. T h e eyes look at the nose, t h e nose is lined up with the navel. Moving from p o i n t t o p o i n t o n e s h o u l d k e e p still, pull o p e n t h e t w e n t y - s i x l i n k e d l o c k s , a p o i n t o f l i g h t will h a n g a t t h e e y e b r o w s . Squeeze t h e a n u s tightly up a n d inward, the c o c c y x is raised folding up t h e b o n e s , t h e f e e l i n g r e t u r n s to t h e dan tian. G o i n g f o r w a r d it is a l s o t h e Que Qiao route, at twelve it descends to the pool, lock up the m o n k e y of t h e heart, control t h e h o r s e o f t h e i n t e n t , b u i l d t h e f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e sea o f t h e dan tian, o n e will feel j o y w i t h o u t l i m i t . R e t u r n t o t h e s o u r c e a n d p u r s u e t h e self k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o r i g i n a l h e a r t , a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e o n e will h a v e a b o d y a s h a r d a s steel, t h e h u n d r e d i l l n e s s e s will d i s a p p e a r a n d o n e will b e c o m e as a c h i l d .

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Combat
T h e key i s t h e e y e s , t h e y s e n d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e h e a r t . T h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i s grasped a n d t h e w h o l e b o d y reacts. First s t a b i l i z e t h e h e a r t , t h e f a c e s m i l e s , t h e e y e b r o w s l o o k h a p p y a n d t h e lips d o n o t m o v e . T h e h e a r t i s t h e G e n e r a l , t h e e y e s are t h e v a n g u a r d , t h e legs are t h e w a r h o r s e s , t h e h a n d s are t h e spears a n d s w o r d s , t h e h e a r t , liver, s p l e e n , l u n g s , a n d k i d n e y s are t h e b a r r a c k s a n d s e n t i n e l s . T h e b o d y i s like a m i l i t a r y e n c a m p m e n t , t h e p o r e s o f t h e b o d y a r e like a t h o u s a n d s o l d i e r s a n d t e n t h o u s a n d h o r s e s . T h e b o d y w i t h d r a w s like a n e x p l o d i n g c a n n o n . T h e s o u n d o f " H a " i s like i s s u i n g o r d e r s . S t r i k i n g w i t h t h e h a n d i s like l i g h t i n g a fuse, k n o c k i n g m e n d o w n w i t h o u t a smile. T h e b o d y is like a d r a w n b o w , t h e fist is like a p o i s o n a r r o w , w i t h o u t a t h o u g h t it c a n n o t be stopped. T h e b e s t m e t h o d i s t o m o v e first, w h e n t h e h a n d s a n d f e e t arrive t o g e t h e r , t h a t i s t h e t r u e m e t h o d . T h e i n t e r n a l i s l i f t e d , t h e e x t e r n a l f o l l o w s , rising h o r i z o n t a l l y , l o w e r i n g i s s m o o t h , s t r i k e f r o m a d i s t a n c e , t h e q i u r g e s ( t h e m o v e m e n t ) , t h e fist i s like a c a n n o n , like a d r a g o n f o l d i n g its b o d y , w h e n y o u m e e t a n e n e m y i t i s like fire b u r n i n g h i s b o d y . I f y o u a r e a b l e t o a d v a n c e o n t h e m o m e n t , y o u will n o t b e o n t h e d e f e n s i v e , be a breath a h e a d a n d n o t a breath b e h i n d . W h e n m a r t i a l a r t i s t s f i g h t , c o v e r t h e five e l e m e n t s , t h e t h r e e r i s i n g s a r e n o t s e e n , t h e t h r e e a d v a n c e s are n o t s e e n , i t i s all r i g h t i f t h e y a r e s e e n , i t i s a l s o all right i f t h e y a r e n o t s e e n , m o v e i n t o t h e c e n t e r , t h e n i t i s h a r d e s t t o c h a n g e . W h e n fighting with others, it is i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h e " T h r e e Firsts:" t h e e y e s are first, t h e h a n d s are first, a n d t h e feet are first. W h e n f i g h t i n g w i t h t h e b r a v e d o n o t t h i n k , h e w h o t h i n k s will f i n d i t h a r d to take i n c h steps. E v e r y p a r t o f t h e b o d y m a y strike, w h e n t h e feet k i c k , t h e w h o l e b o d y i s e m p t y . W h e n far a w a y f r o m t h e o p p o n e n t d o n o t kick, t h e kick will n o t r e a c h . W h e n there is space do n o t strike, w h e n there is space do n o t attack. First strike t h e o p p o n e n t ' s d e f e n s e s t h e n strike h i m . T h e w h o l e b o d y i s a b l e t o d e f e n d . W h e n striking, y o u r o w n b o d y s h o u l d b e a b l e t o a d a p t t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t a n y t i m e . W h e n p u t t i n g t h e h a n d s o u t d o n o t m i s s , d o d g i n g r i g h t a n d left, d e f e n d b o t h sides. W h e n m e e t i n g a n o p p o n e n t , i f y o u h o p e t o b e victorious, t h e four t e r m i n u s m u s t arrive t o g e t h e r . I f t h e h a n d s raise a n d t h e f e e t d o n o t i t i s a w a s t e o f t i m e . I f t h e feet rise a n d t h e h a n d s d o n o t , i t i s a l s o a w a s t e o f t i m e . If you run i n t o m a n y o p p o n e n t s , swing three times a n d spin twice. I f t h e o p p o n e n t ' s p o s t u r e i s g o o d , d o n o t a t t a c k . I f t h e o p p o n e n t i s far a w a y , d o n o t a t t a c k . K n o w t h e n e a r a n d k n o w t h e far, k n o w w h e n p o w e r i s e a r l y a n d w h e n it is mature, k n o w the wide and k n o w the narrow. T h e upper and lower f o l l o w o n e a n o t h e r , i f t h e h e a r t stirs b u t t h e b o d y d o e s n o t m o v e i t i s a w a s t e o f time, if the b o d y m o v e s but t h e heart does not it is also a waste of t i m e . S t r i k i n g p e o p l e is like t a k i n g a walk, l o o k at p e o p l e as if t h e y are s t r a w , a t t a c k like t h e w i n d , rise a n d fall a s a d r i l l i n g a r r o w . W a i t f o r a m o m e n t o f lapse t h e n a t t a c k , w h e n t h e o p p o n e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n lags, m o v e o n h i m .

r>r>

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Chapter 3

Xing Yi Quan Standing Practice

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Xing Yi Quan Standing Practice


Introduction
by Tim Cartmell

Non-action is the real action. One hundred acts are not as good as one moment of silence. One hundred movements are not as good as one moment of standing still. Big movement is not as good as small movement. Small movement is not as good as no movement. - W a n g X i a n g Zhai Author's Note: Following is an explanation of the benefits of stance keeping M y ideas, i m a g e s , c o n c e p t s

and important points of practice. The information is my interpretation of stance keeping based on my b a c k g r o u n d and experiences. a n d translations represent o n l y o n e of m a n y possible theories a n d interpretations.

M o v e m e n t in Stillness T h e i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l arts h a v e a s a b a s i c t e n a n t t h e p r i n c i p l e s k n o w n a s "stillness in m o v e m e n t a n d m o v e m e n t in stillness." T h i s c o n c e p t is related to t h e p o p u l a r yin/yang c o n c e p t o f d u a l i t y . T h e b a s i s o f all m o v e m e n t l i e s i n stillness, w h i c h is the natural state before m o t i o n begins. If o n e c a n n o t distinguish between absolute stillness a n d m o t i o n , there c a n never be true c o o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e p a r t ( s ) o f t h e b o d y will a l w a y s b e m o v i n g e i t h e r t o o little or t o o m u c h , thereby decreasing t h e efficiency of m o t i o n . Beginning m o t i o n from true stillness allows o n e to c o n t r o l t h e m o t i o n to a very fine degree. O n e is strongest w h e n t h e m i n d a n d body are unified a n d work in a c o o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n . This is o n l y possible w h e n t h e r e is c a l m . O b v i o u s l y , it is m u c h easier to practice and cultivate mind/body unity in stillness t h a n it is during t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of c o m p l i c a t e d m o v e m e n t s . From this stillness is born efficient m o v e m e n t . T h e reason this is so is because with stillness a n d c a l m n e s s c o m e t h e m o s t vital e l e m e n t t o m a r t i a l e f f i c i e n c y ( a n d m o t i o n e f f i c i e n c y i n g e n e r a l ) , a n d that is "true b a l a n c e . " W i t h o u t true b a l a n c e t h e r e c a n never be c o m p l e t e release of unnecessary tension a n d true relaxation. A b o d y even slightly out of balance d e m a n d s c o n t i n u o u s adjustment and an extra e x p e n d i t u r e of energy just to keep from falling d o w n . T h i s causes u n d u e

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t e n s i o n a n d stress a n d e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t s o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e . M o v e m e n t begun from this u n b a l a n c e d state can never be c o m p l e t e l y efficient. Stillness in m o t i o n a n d m o t i o n in stillness m e a n w h e n there is m o v e m e n t there is total, efficient, coordinated m o v e m e n t ; w h e n m o t i o n stops, it stops completely a n d returns to absolute stillness. Training of this type eventually allows the practitioner to mobilize 100 percent of his or her power and to focus it where it i s n e e d e d . A s w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a n y o t h e r skill, o n e s h o u l d n a t u r a l l y p r o c e e d f r o m t h e easy t o t h e d i f f i c u l t . I d e a l l y , t h e t r a i n i n g w o u l d b e d e v o i d o f a n y superfluous m o v e m e n t a n d every action a n d m i n u t e spent would bring o n e c l o s e r t o o n e ' s g o a l s . T h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t t y p e o f t r a i n i n g w h i c h will e n a b l e t h e practitioner to d e v e l o p a strong f o u n d a t i o n , a n d m a n y of t h e vital attributes necessary for martial efficiency, is s t a n d i n g still.

Stance Keeping

T h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e internal martial arts (and m a n y external martial arts as w e l l ) i s t h e p r a c t i c e o f " s t a n c e k e e p i n g " o r /Man ihxtang. I n t h e X i n g Y i Q u a n system, stance keeping is t h e very core of training and develops m a n y of the qualities essential to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of martial ability. Over years of living, people acquire bad habits of b o d y use a n d lose t h e original mind/body u n i t y a n d suppleness a n d s p o n t a n e i t y that was their natural state. If o n e begins to train complicated patterns of m o v e m e n t before correcting bad habits, these inefficient h a b i t s o f m o t i o n are c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o t h e n e w l y a c q u i r e d m o v e m e n t skills a n d are f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d . I r v i n g t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n e f f i c i e n t p o s t u r e o r m o t i o n c a n be c o m p a r e d to drivinga car with t h e e m e r g e n c y brake on. If you are driving your car with t h e e m e r g e n c y brake o n , t h e way to increase p e r f o r m a n c e is not to put a b i g g e r e n g i n e i n t h e car, i t i s t o r e l e a s e t h e b r a k e . O n l y w h e n t h e car i s r u n n i n g a s e f f i c i e n t l y a s i t s h o u l d i n t h e first p l a c e d o e s i t m a k e s e n s e t o " s o u p u p " t h e e n g i n e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s m u c h m o r e e f f i c i e n t t o first i n h i b i t a n d release b a d h a b i t s a n d then, building on this f o u n d a t i o n , train to increase power a n d ability. Stance keeping does b o t h at once. It inhibits and eliminates poor habits of body use while increasing h a l a n c e , strength a n d sensitivity. T h e root of efficient m o v e m e n t is stillness. Therefore, a logical place to begin t r a i n i n g i s s i m p l y s t a n d i n g still. S t a n d i n g still, o n e m a y r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s t o b e dealt w i t h t o t h e b a r e m i n i m u m . T h e m i n d m a y n a t u r a l l y q u i e t a n d f o c u s itself o n t h e f e e l i n g o f c o r r e c t p o s t u r e a n d t r u e b a l a n c e . T h e first g o a l of standing is to return to t h e state of " n o t - d o i n g " a n y t h i n g , thereby inhibiting previously acquired bad habits and allowing t h e neuromuscular system to register t h e f e e l i n g o f n a t u r a l b a l a n c e u n t i l i t o n c e a g a i n b e c o m e s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t s t a t e . A n y m o v e m e n t i n i t i a t e d f r o m t h i s s t a t e o f t r u e b a l a n c e will n a t u r a l l y h a v e power. Every t e a c h e r will tell y o u t h a t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t r a i n i n g i s t o b u i l d a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n , b u t m a n y a r e n o t e x a c t l y c l e a r w h a t a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n is. T h e d e f i n i t i o n I offer is that a good f o u n d a t i o n is mind/body unity w i t h an a b s e n c e o f p o o r habits o f b o d y use w h i c h allows o n e t o fully utilize i n h e r e n t strengths.

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Internal Power

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A l t h o u g h m a n y t e a c h e r s o f i n t e r n a l arts like t o talk a b o u t i n t e r n a l p o w e r a n d qi ( , ) as s o m e t h i n g fantastic and mysterious (especially in t h e west), this is a l m o s t invariably a result of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( o n t h e part of t h e t e a c h e r ) or o u t r i g h t deceit (because it is g o o d for b u s i n e s s ) . W e , as physical beings, are s u b j e c t t o t h e laws o f p h y s i c s ; m a s s , e n e r g y , a n d g r a v i t y . O u r b o d i e s are c o n s t r u c t e d a c e r t a i n w a y , o u r m i n d s p r o d u c e real e n e r g y a n d w e a r e all u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g r a v i t y , all t h e t i m e . T h e i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l a r t s ( a c t u a l l y , a n y o f t h e h i g h e r level m a r t i a l arts) s e e k t o w o r k w i t h o u r n a t u r a l s t r e n g t h s , t o u t i l i z e our internal (mental) energies most efficiently and to produce the most effective m o v e m e n t relative t o our e n v i r o n m e n t (gravity a n d o u t s i d e forces). T h e result i s i n t e r n a l p o w e r . " I n t e r n a l " refers t o w o r k i n g w i t h o u r i n h e r e n t a n d i n b o r n strengths under the guidance of t h e m i n d . O n c e again, mental direction is t h e k e y , o n e ' s a c t i o n s a n d r e a c t i o n s are i n h a r m o n y w i t h n a t u r a l laws a n d i n b o r n strengths, rather t h a n r a n d o m , inappropriate external reactions to stimuli. I h a v e h e a r d t e a c h e r s o f t h e i n t e r n a l arts talk a b o u t u s i n g q i i n s t e a d o f m u s c l e f o r c e , a n d t h a t n o s t r e n g t h n e e d b e u s e d a s o n e ' s p o w e r c o m e s f r o m a m a s s e d qi. This sounds very p r o f o u n d a n d wonderful, but a m o m e n t s reflection m a k e s o b v i o u s t h e fact t h a t w i t h o u t u s i n g m u s c l e f o r c e a n d s t r e n g t h w e w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o get u p o f f t h e f l o o r . T h e p o i n t i s t h i s , t h e e x t e r n a l l y o b s e r v a b l e r e s u l t o f m o v e m e n t i s a l w a y s a result o f m u s c l e m o v e m e n t i n t h e b o d y , t h e k e y t o i n t e r n a l p o w e r i s how t h e b o d y i s m o v e d . M a n y mistaken ideas about internal power c a m e a b o u t because with m i n d / body unity, correct relaxation and mental direction, a tremendous a m o u n t of p o w e r i s r e l e a s e d i n a n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y e f f o r t l e s s m a n n e r . T h a i is, t h e p e r s o n i s s u i n g t h e i n t e r n a l p o w e r feels a s i f h e o r s h e i s u s i n g h a r d l y a n y s t r e n g t h a t all. T h e results o f t e n a p p e a r a l m o s t m a g i c a l . T h e k e y lies i n a l l o w i n g ( n o t f o r c i n g ) t h e b o d y t o u s e its i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h s i n a c o o r d i n a t e d m a n n e r . I t i s m o r e a process of n o t - d o i n g t h a n of using effort, a n d such p o w e r must be directed by t h e mind. In s u m m a r y , internal power is only mysterious w h e n misunderstood. It is the result o f r e l a x i n g c o m p l e t e l y s o t h e b o d y ' s n a t u r a l , i n t r i n s i c s t r e n g t h s c a n b e fully brought i n t o play (such things as m e c h a n i c a l advantage, t h e natural elasticity of the tissues, b o d y mass, t h e stretch reflex, etc.) T h e w h o l e process is under mental direction. The mind doesn't "control" as much as "inhibit" incorrect processes or t e n s i o n so t h e b o d y can f u n c t i o n naturally. Finally, at h i g h e r l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g , t h e vast r e s e r v o i r o f s u b c o n s c i o u s p o w e r m a y b e brought under conscious control. It should be noted that the same mental and p h y s i c a l state t h a t p r o d u c e s i n t e r n a l p o w e r i s a l s o c o n d u c i v e t o g o o d h e a l t h , a s o n e s e e k s t o release stress a n d relax t h e b o d y a n d m i n d w h i l e a l l o w i n g t h e b o d y to function optimally.

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Whole Body Power

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O n e of t h e special characteristics of t h e internal arts is t h e i r training a n d use o f s o - c a l l e d " w h o l e b o d y p o w e r . " T h i s refers t o c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e b o d y i n o r d e r to produce a m a x i m u m a m o u n t of power, m u c h m o r e power t h a n could be g e n e r a t e d w i t h a s e c t i o n o f t h e b o d y ( a n a r m o r leg) a l o n e . T h i s t y p e o f p o w e r i s m a n i f e s t i n alt m o v e m e n t , a l t h o u g h i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . W h o l e b o d y p o w e r i s based on relaxation a n d b a l a n c e w h i c h allows t h e b o d y to be used in a c o o r d i n a t e d , natural way. T h e s t a n d i n g practice is essential for releasing b a d habits a n d d e v e l o p i n g t h e essentials necessary for this type o f power. T h r o u g h s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e w e l e a r n t o r e l a x a n d let o u r w e i g h t s i n k t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h i n a n o n c o n t e n t i o u s a l i g n m e n t w i t h gravity. W e also learn h o w t o b e c o m e "still" a n d let t h e b o d y ' s n a t u r a l p o w e r w o r k f o r us. True relaxation a n d letting t h e b o d y weight sink in a l i g n m e n t with gravity is essential to producing w h o l e b o d y power. Any superfluous tension or m o t i o n keeps t h e b o d y t i s s u e a t t h e p l a c e o f t e n s i o n f r o m c o n t r a c t i n g a n d e x p a n d i n g a s i! should naturally a n d w i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s effort (which a m o u n t s to a blockage w h i c h p r e v e n t s o n e f r o m u s i n g t h e p o w e r o f t h e w h o l e b o d y ) . All t h e tissue o f the b o d y , as well as t h e f r a m e of t h e b o d y , h a v e t h e ability to c o n t r a c t a n d expand, a natural elasticity and "springiness." W h e n the whole body is relaxed and aligned with gravity (true b a l a n c e ) this springiness of t h e b o d y is capable of p r o d u c i n g t r e m e n d o u s p o w e r w i t h very little e f f o r t . All t h a t is r e q u i r e d is to let t h e b o d y m o v e a n d react a s i t w a s m e a n t t o . A n y f o r c i n g o r t e n s i o n o n l y serves to r e d u c e p o w e r . H e r e is a s i m p l e i l l u s t r a t i o n . A f a l l i n g r a i n d r o p i s n ' t " d o i n g " a n y t h i n g , b u t i t still h i t s t h e g r o u n d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e . T h e r a i n d r o p i s o n l y t o t a l l y g i v i n g i n t o g r a v i t y a n d t h e r e f o r e i t strikes t h e g r o u n d w i t h a s m u c h f o r c e as it is capable of w i t h o u t effort or t e n s i o n . No a m o u n t of extra m o t i o n of t h e water m o l e c u l e s w i t h i n t h e r a i n d r o p i t s e l f will c a u s e i t t o h i t t h e g r o u n d a n y h a r d e r . T o t h e r a i n d r o p itself, e v e n a s i t falls u n d e r t h e pull o f g r a v i t y , i t i s still i stillness in m o t i o n ) . Therefore, t h e t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t points in d e v e l o p i n g whole b o d y p o w e r arc relaxation a n d a l i g n m e n t w i t h gravity. T h e above is an e x a m p l e of using the b o d y mass in accordance with t h e principles of relaxation and a l i g n m e n t with gravity. W h a t seems to be relaxed and passive actually produces t h e m o s t power as t h e r e is c o n f o r m i t y to natural principles. Again, it is t h e n o n - d o i n g a n d n o n - e f f o r t t h a t p r o d u c e t h e m o s t efficient results. I n X i n g Y i . a f t e r b a s i c s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e w e p r o c e e d t o s i m p l e m o v e m e n t s (five e l e m e n t fists) w h i c h d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o issue w h o l e b o d y p o w e r i n a n e f f i c i e n t , easy m a n n e r w h i c h uses n o b r u t e f o r c e w h a t s o e v e r . F i n a l l y , a n a d d e d a d v a n t a g e is that this type of power begins f r o m stillness, is issued c o m p l e t e l y a n d t h e n r e t u r n s t o s t i l l n e s s ( r e a d y t o b e i s s u e d a g a i n i m m e d i a t e l y ) . T h e r e i s n o t i m e lost i n " w i n d i n g u p " o r " c o c k i n g " a b l o w a n d n o o v e r c o m m i t m e n t w h i c h c a u s e s loss of balance or vulnerability. W h o l e body power can be applied to any type of strike, k i c k , l o c k , t h r o w a n d e v e n t o g r o u n d f i g h t i n g .

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Standing Meditation

Finally, stance keeping is a form of standing m e d i t a t i o n . T h e benefits to m a r t i a l arts a n d h e a l t h i n g e n e r a l are n u m e r o u s . W e are s e e k i n g a m i n d / b o d y unity, a kind of wholeness of being. Conflict in the m i n d precludes mind/body unity. As simple as it sounds, while standing o n e is taught to "just stand." There i s n o right o r w r o n g , o n l y a n i m a g e o f f o c u s t o w h i c h t h e b o d y n a t u r a l l y c o n f o r m s . T h e i m a g e itself serves as a focal point of m e n t a l activity w h i c h serves to calm the mind. There is o n l y an attendant "feeling" and acknowledgment thereof. There is none of the nonsense about "not thinking anything" or " e m p t y i n g t h e m i n d . " T h e m i n d i s f o c u s e d . T r y i n g t o " s t o p t h o u g h t s " will o n l y p r o d u c e c o n f l i c t a n d stress. W h i l e s t a n d i n g , o n e o n l y o b s e r v e s o n e s e l f i m p a r t i a l l y w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o h o w i t feels, t h e r e i s n o c o n f l i c t , t h e m i n d a n d b o d y a r e u n i f i e d a n d t h e brain waves settle d o w n ( n o t stop) i n t o a c a l m state. It is in this state of c a l m a n d stillness that perception is clear, reaction is s p o n t a n e o u s l y efficient a n d o n e literally " r e s t s " a n d " e x e r c i s e s " a t t h e s a m e t i m e . This type o f standing p r a c t i c e y i e l d s all t h e b e n e f i t s o f m e d i t a t i o n w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e r e i n f o r c i n g mind/body unity and cultivating the body's natural power.

Standing

Practice

Basic Concepts
by Tim Cartmell

Relaxation T h e C h i n e s e w o r d song i s u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n E n g l i s h a s " r e l a x . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s i n c o m p l e t e a n d o f t e n leads t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c o r r e c t p o s t u r e a n d m o v e m e n t . T h e c o n c e p t o f song requires f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . If you tense up the muscles in your a r m as m u c h as possible, you h a v e created t h e s t a t e t h e C h i n e s e call ying o r " h a r d . " I f y o u let y o u r a r m h a n d l i m p a n d i g n o r e i t c o m p l e t e l y t h e C h i n e s e say i t i s man ( s o f t i n t h e s e n s e o f s l a c k ) . I f y o u l e a v e t h e m u s c l e s i n y o u r a r m r e l a x e d , b u t put y o u r m i n d i n y o u r a r m b y u s i n g a n i m a g e , s u c h a s y o u r a r m b e i n g p u m p e d full o f air, o r t h a t y o u r a r m i s a h o s e w i t h water rushing out of your fingertips (without actually tensing t h e muscles) so t h a t y o u r a r m is n o w s u p p l e , s p r i n g y , a n d alive, t h i s is t h e s t a t e of song. It is a b a l a n c e d state w h i c h is neither slack n o r t e n s e . Song is a s t a t e of r e l a x a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e Yi or m i n d ( i n t e n t i o n ) . A l t h o u g h t h e b o d y i s r e l a x e d , i t i s " c h a r g e d " w i t h t h e real p o w e r o f t h e m i n d . This mind/body unity is o n e ' s original and strongest state. This c o n c e p t of relaxation applies t o t h e m i n d a s well ( a l t h o u g h w h e n applied t o t h e m i n d t h e C h i n e s e u s u a l l y refer t o t h e desired s t a t e a s jing m e a n i n g q u i e t o r a c a l m awareness). T h e m i n d is relaxed in t h e sense that there should be no conflict between what o n e is doing and what one thinks o n e " s h o u l d " be doing. During p r a c t i c e , w e s e e k t o let g o o f a n y c o n f l i c t s a n d p a y a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t w e are f e e l i n g a t t h e t i m e . R e m e m b e r , t h e r e i s n o right o r w r o n g i n p r a c t i c e , o n l y a n i m a g e o r f e e l i n g t h a t o u r b o d y c o n f o r m s t o , a s m u c h a s i t i s a b l e , w i t h o u t stress o r f o r c e . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t just a s t r u e p h y s i c a l r e l a x a t i o n i s t h e s t a t e free o f e x c e s s t e n s i o n y e t n o t s l a c k , t r u e m e n t a l r e l a x a t i o n ijing) i s t h e s t a t e free o f a n y c o n f l i c t yet not " d u l l " in t h e sense of daydreaming or " e m p t y i n g " t h e m i n d until o n e b e c o m e s s o m e k i n d o f i n e r t z o m b i e . A s m i n d a n d b o d y are i n reality o n e e n t i t y to begin with, t h e state of o n e has a p r o f o u n d influence on t h e state of t h e o t h e r . I n fact, w h e n o n e i s song o n e i s a l s o jing a n d v i c e - v e r s a . W h e n o n e i s lost, s o i s the other. T h e o t h e r m a j o r benefit or true relaxation is that o n c e it b e c o m e s t h e natural state there will be "stillness in m o v e m e n t a n d m o v e m e n t in stillness." T h i s m e a n s t h a t i n s t i l l n e s s o n e i s n o t s l a c k a n d dull b u t r a t h e r c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h a t stillness is an active energy ( m o v e m e n t in stillness). While moving one m a i n t a i n s t h e feeling of c a l m a n d relaxation so o n l y t h e proper a m o u n t of energy a n d p o w e r are u s e d I n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e w a y ( s t i l l n e s s i n m o v e m e n t ) . M o v e m e n t b o r n of stillness a n d relaxation is m o s t efficient a n d allows t h e use of internal power. F i n a l l y , i t c o u l d b e s a i d t h a t song o r true r e l a x a t i o n i s t h e k e y c o n c e p t i n X i n g Y i ' s b a s i c s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e . T r u e r e l a x a t i o n a l l o w s t r u e b a l a n c e , i t i s t h e s t a t e free o f b a d h a b i t s o f b o d y u s e , m a k i n g full u s e o f all o n e ' s i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h s w h i l e i n t h e state o f m i n d / b o d y u n i t y .

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Sinking This c o n c e p t is actually inseparable from the c o n c e p t of relaxation. " T o sink" m e a n s t o relax t h e b o d y and allow t h e tissues o f t h e b o d y t o return t o their i n t e n d e d p l a c e . All m a t t e r n a t u r a l l y m o v e s ( s i n k s ) t o t h e l o w e s t p o s s i b l e p o i n t u n d e r g r a v i t y ' s i n f l u e n c e . T h e v a r i o u s t i s s u e s o f o u r b o d y are n o e x c e p t i o n . " H o l d i n g u p " parts o f our b o d y o n l y serves t o waste energy, reduce m e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y a n d c u t p o w e r . The o n l y w a y w e c a n f u l l y u t i l i z e o u r n a t u r a l , i n b o r n s t r e n g t h s ( t h e e l a s t i c i t y o f t h e t i s s u e s , r e f l e x r e a c t i o n , m a s s , e t c . ) i s i f w e are relaxed a n d " s u n k " m e a n i n g aligned with gravity. M a n y of the images taught in practice have relaxation and sinking as their primary purpose. W e all e n j o y e d e f f o r t l e s s p o i s e a n d n a t u r a l m i n d / b o d y c o o r d i n a t i o n a s s m a l l children. Over t h e years we a c c u m u l a t e bad habits of b o d y use a n d a l i g n m e n t ; w e b e g a n t o s e p a r a t e o u r m i n d s a n d b o d i e s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f b o t h . T h e first step in training is to inhibit a n d release these habits in order to effect a return to the mind/body unity, relaxation, poise and natural power we o n c e possessed. M u c h o f t h e early t r a i n i n g i n X i n g Y i Q u a n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e , is designed to reinstate true relaxation as t h e natural state. O n e stands c o m f o r t a b l y relaxed w h i l e directing the m i n d with specific images w h i c h serve to inhibit a n d e l i m i n a t e bad habits until o n e ' s original state of true relaxation a n d mind/body unity o n c e again b e c o m e s t h e natural c o n d i t i o n . W i t h true r e l a x a t i o n a n d s i n k i n g , o n e will feel b o t h " h e a v y " ( r o o t e d s t a b l y t o t h e g r o u n d ) a n d " l i g h t " ( w i t h agile e a s e o f m o v e m e n t ) a t t h e s a m e t i m e . I n t h i s s t a t e , o n e i s balanced a n d powerful white m o t i o n seems a l m o s t w i t h o u t effort.

Alignment and Structure T h e p o s t u r e s a n d m o v e m e n t s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n are all d e s i g n e d t o r e a l i g n t h e b o d y into positions of natural power. This involves lining up the frame so there i s " s p a c e " i n t h e j o i n t s a n d t h e soft tissue ( m u s c l e s a n d f a s c i a ) a r e g e n t l y s t r e t c h e d . T h e result i s a n o v e r a l l e l a s t i c i t y o r " s p r i n g i n e s s " i n t h e e n t i r e b o d y w h i c h is the source of whole body power and unitary motion. W h e n this type o f b o d y s t a t e i s d i r e c t e d b y t h e m i n d , o n e c a n m a k e hill u s e o f o n e ' s " i n t e r n a l p o w e r . " T h i s internal, w h o l e b o d y power m e a n s to use t h e natural strengths of the b o d y issuing energy in a " p u l s e " w h i c h is developed t h r o u g h o u t , a n d s u p p o r t e d b y , t h e w h o l e b o d y . T h i s t y p e o f p o w e r feels a l m o s t e f f o r t l e s s a s i t i s effected b y "fulfilling t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s " (setting u p t h e c o n d i t i o n s ) for internal, w h o l e b o d y p o w e r a n d t h e n l e t t i n g t h e b o d y issue t h e p o w e r " b y i t s e l f . " O n c e again, n o t h i n g can be forced but rather t h e a l i g n m e n t s a n d m o v e m e n t s are m e n t a l l y directed. Forcing a n d t e n s i n g o n l y serve t o detract from t h e power generated. T h e b a s i c s t a n c e k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n are t h e p r i m a r y t o o l f o r training correct b o d y a l i g n m e n t s in positions of power (positions useful in martial encounter). T h e h u m a n body is capable of withstanding and generating a t r e m e n d o u s a m o u n t o f f o r c e . T h i s a b i l i t y g o e s far b e y o n d w h a t w e n o r m a l l y

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think of as ordinary muscle strength (although it comes from t h e muscles, bones a n d c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e ) . T h e key t o u t i l i z i n g t h i s n a t u r a l " i n t e r n a l " p o w e r i s t o p u t t h e b o d y i n t o t h e c o r r e c t a l i g n m e n t a n d t h e n let t h e b o d y f u n c t i o n o n its o w n . I n fact, w e u s e t h i s t y p e o f p o w e r all t h e t i m e i n a t h l e t i c s a s w e l l a s d a i l y life. T h e goal of t r a i n i n g is to develop a n d refine this ability a n d bring it u n d e r conscious control.

Use the Mind a n d Not Brute Strength

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A s s t a t e d a b o v e , w e are l o o k i n g f o r a s t a t e o f r e l a x e d a w a r e n e s s i n w h i c h t h e w h o l e b o d y is supple, elastic, a n d alive. T h e o n l y way to achieve this state is to u s e t h e m e n t a l t o d i r e c t t h e p h y s i c a l . N o t u s i n g f o r c e refers t o w h a t t h e C h i n e s e c a l l /HO Li, w h i c h c a n b e t r a n s l a t e d a s " b r u t e f o r c e " (it l i t e r a l l y m e a n s " c l u m s y p o w e r " ) . Brute force is strength inappropriate to the situation, generated by t o o tense or t o o slack muscles w i t h o u t mind/body unity. T h e way to avoid using b r u t e f o r c e i s t o d i r e c t all m o v e m e n t s w i t h m e n t a l i m a g e s w h i c h a l l o w o n e t o m a i n t a i n t h e desired states of relaxation a n d mind/body u n i t y a n d fully utilize the body's inherent strength until such m o v e m e n t b e c o m e s t h e natural state. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , u s i n g t h e m i n d a n d n o t f o r c e d o e s n o t m e a n w e are l i m p a n d w e a k . S t r e n g t h i s u s e d (if n o s t r e n g t h w e r e u s e d w e w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o m o v e a t all) a n d f o r c e i s a p p l i e d , b u t i t i s g e n e r a t e d b y a r e l a x e d a n d b a l a n c e d b o d y , a n d t h e strength used is e x a c t l y appropriate to t h e situation at h a n d . T h e primary difference b e t w e e n t h e expert a n d t h e n o v i c e is that t h e expert applies strength and force appropriately while the novice applies strength inappropriately. T h e inappropriate application of force is t h e very definition of " c l u m s y . " Use of " c l u m s y f o r c e " i s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e first o f t h e " t h r e e h a r m s " i n t h e X i n g Y i Q u a n written transmissions, "inappropriate use of s t r e n g t h . " It is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that c o m b a t t e c h n i q u e s arc useless until t h e y are a c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x a n d e v e n r e f l e x i v e t e c h n i q u e s n e v e r r e a c h t h e i r full potential for p o w e r a n d effectiveness until t h e y are applied f r o m a state of relaxation, mind/body unity a n d true balance.

Keeling C o m f o r t a b l e a n d Pleasant R e l e a s i n g t e n s i o n a n d stress a n d r e l a x a t i o n lead t o a n o v e r a l l f e e l i n g o f comfort. T h e postures, m o v e m e n t s , a n d images of Xing Yi Q u a n produce a calm and pleasant state that is b o t h conducive to health and increases martial power. A l t h o u g h s t a n d i n g i s s u r p r i s i n g l y t a x i n g e x e r c i s e ( m u s c l e s will a c h e ! ) , i t i s a l w a y s practiced c o m p l e t e l y without mental coercion in the relaxed state. M a n y of the i m a g e s will c a u s e f e e l i n g s o f w a r m t h , s u d d e n r e l e a s e o f t e n s i o n i n v a r i o u s parts of t h e b o d y a n d a peaceful state of m i n d . E x e r c i s e w h i c h p u t s u n d u e stress o n t h e b o d y will u l t i m a t e l y b e g i n t o t e a r t h e b o d y d o w n . Sports a n d physical training w h i c h repeatedly overstress t h e s a m e p a r t s o f t h e b o d y m a k e u s s u c c e p t i b l e t o i n j u r y . All e x e r c i s e i s a f o r m o f stress which the body adapts to over time, this is the way the physical condition is 65

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improved a n d strengthened by exercise. But there is a world of difference between appropriate exercise w h i c h develops the w h o l e person and mindless repetition of m o v e m e n t s without mind/body unity which m a y prove more detrimental than beneficial.

Cultivation of Life Force A l t h o u g h t h e postures a n d m o v e m e n t s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n m a y vary from o n e style t o a n o t h e r , t h e y all c o n f o r m t o n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e l a w s o f p h y s i c s , b o d y m e c h a n i c s , m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e n e r g y f l o w , e t c . ) a n d feel g o o d . T h e m i n d a n d body are never forced a n d s h o u l d never strain. Health is built up a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f m a r t i a l p o w e r . T h e X i n g Y i Q u a n m a s t e r s o f t e n said t h a t t h e e x e r c i s e m u s t be wet sheng, or p r o t e c t i v e of life (in c o m m o n s p e e c h wei sheng m e a n s " s a n i t a r y " ) . T h e b r o a d e r m e a n i n g o f t h i s c o n c e p t i s t h a t all p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d c u l t i v a t e t h e life f o r c e a n d b u i l d h e a l t h . T h e X i n g Y i masters viewed extreme forms of training and conditioning w h i c h increased m a r t i a l skill o r p o w e r a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o n e ' s g e n e r a l h e a l t h , o r w h i c h d a m a g e d t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e b o d y tissue a s f o o l i s h a n d u l t i m a t e l y c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . Training w h i c h involves forced breathing, c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e body by striking it with hard o b j e c t s , and o v e r t r a i n i n g o n e part of t h e b o d y to be used as a " w e a p o n " o f t e n results i n loss o f h e a l t h a n d f u n c t i o n w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y d e t r a c t f r o m , r a t h e r than add to martial efficacy. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e m e t h o d s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n e m p h a s i z e t h a t all t r a i n i n g f o r m a r t i a l p o w e r a n d a b i l i t y m u s t a t t h e s a m e t i m e c u l t i v a t e t h e life f o r c e a n d b u i l d health. T h e rationale is simple; people made weak from sickness or unbalanced training do not have the strength or energy to fight. This point is so obvious that it seems a l m o s t ridiculous to point it out, yet m a n y people engage in training that, while building limited strength in o n e area, detracts from their overall h e a l t h a n d u l t i m a t e l y r o b s t h e m o f t h e i r v i t a l i t y a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o fight a t all. T h e p o s t u r e s a n d m o v e m e n t s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n all p r o m o t e h e a l t h a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o d y as t h e basis of martial power. A n o t h e r benefit to health is that stance keeping is a form of standing meditation. The m i n d is calmed and focused a n d unified with t h e body. This suppresses s y m p a t h e t i c nervous activity ( w h i c h is active during excited, nervous "fight or f l i g h t " activity) a n d elicits t h e s t a t e t h e C h i n e s e c a l l n i jing ( e n t e r i n g s t i l l n e s s ) a n d i s k n o w i n t h e W e s t a s t h e " r e l a x a t i o n r e s p o n s e . " T h e b o d y is exercised as t h e m i n d rests. O n e m a y never h a v e c a u s e t o u s e h i s o r h e r m a r t i a l skills " f o r r e a l " i n a n e n t i r e l i f e t i m e , b u t e a c h p e r s o n m u s t live w i t h t h e i r s t a t e o f h e a l t h e v e r y s i n g l e d a y . I t o n l y m a k e s s e n s e to practice a system w h i c h e n h a n c e s b o t h health and martial ability. T h e p r a c t i c e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n serves t o i n c r e a s e b o t h a t t h e s a m e t i m e . A l t h o u g h n o t y p e o f t r a i n i n g i s a p a n a c e a f o r all ills o r will t u r n u s i n t o s u p e r m e n or s u p e r w o m e n , if t h e m e t h o d of t r a i n i n g we c h o o s e to d e v o t e a part o f o u r lives t o i s n o t d e s i g n e d t o c u l t i v a t e o u r life f o r c e , b u i l d o u r h e a l t h , a n d g i v e us t h e v i t a l i t y f o r all o u r p u r s u i t s , m a r t i a l or o t h e r w i s e , it is m o s t p r o b a b l y a w a s t e of our time.

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Mind/Body Unity

3^

Our m i n d s a n d bodies are originally o n e . Although t h e y appear separate on the surface, t h e y b e l o n g to t h e same c o n t i n u u m of energy w h i c h makes up the whole of our being. T h e almost unbelievable strength of babies is a product of t h i s o r i g i n a l u n i t y o f m i n d a n d b o d y . All o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d c o n c e p t s ( r e l a x a t i o n , s i n k i n g , c o r r e c t b o d y a l i g n m e n t , e t c . ) are t o o l s w e u s e t o a i d u s i n o u r r e t u r n t o t h i s s t a t e . I t c o u l d e v e n b e said t h a t m i n d / b o d y u n i t y i s t h e p r i m a r y goal of basic training as it is t h e f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t p o w e r a n d skill is b u i l t . W i t h m i n d / b o d y u n i t y t h e b o d y i s c a p a b l e o f f u n c t i o n i n g free o f b a d h a b i t s a n d will h a v e full use o f n a t u r a l , i n b o r n s t r e n g t h : W i t h a r e t u r n t o t h i s s t a t e c o m e s true balance. O n e is balanced internally ( m i n d and body in balance with t h e e n e r g y s y s t e m s o p e n ) a n d e x t e r n a l l y (in r e l a t i o n t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , m e a n i n g gravity a n d pressures c o m i n g from outside t h e b o d y ) . W i t h this f o u n d a t i o n , a n y t y p e o f p h y s i c a l skill i s l e a r n e d free o f r e s t r i c t i v e b a d h a b i t s w h i c h detract from power and efficiency. Strength is built up where it is naturally required. In addition, a n y type of training u n d e r t a k e n in t h e state of mind/body u n i t y i s n a t u r a l l y wet sheng ( p r o t e c t i v e o f l i f e ) , b u i l d i n g t h e b o d y a n d c u l t i v a t i n g t h e life f o r c e a s s p e c i f i c skills are l e a r n e d . Although t h e i m m e d i a t e goals of training are good health in general a n d m a r t i a l arts skill i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f t r a i n i n g s h o u l d b e a c o m p l e t e a n d p e r m a n e n t return to t h e natural, unified m i n d / b o d y state of being. T h e n o n e will b e " p r a c t i c i n g " 2 4 h o u r s a d a y a n d life will b e e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f self a n d a m o r e c o m p l e t e f o c u s o f t h e u n i f i e d life f o r c e . A n d t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t a n d f o u n d a t i o n o f s u c h t r a i n i n g i n t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n i s stance keeping.

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Postures and Images


by Tim Cartmell Images
O u r g o a l s i n p r a c t i c i n g s t a n c e k e e p i n g are m i n d / b o d y u n i t y a n d a r e t u r n t o a natural balanced posture. In addition, we w a n t to train t h e muscles a n d n e u r o m u s c u l a r s y s t e m i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r , t h a t is, p o s i t i o n s w h i c h will later b e useful i n m a r t i a l e n c o u n t e r s a n d w h i c h a l l o w full u s e o f o u r i n b o r n s t r e n g t h s . S i n c e w e m u s t n e v e r f o r c e a n y t h i n g b u t r a t h e r release a n d let t h e b o d y r e t u r n t o its s t r o n g e s t state, h o l d i n g a w k w a r d p o s t u r e s c o e r c e d b y t h e will w i t h f o r c e will o n l y s u c c e e d i n t e a r i n g d o w n t h e b o d y , r e i n f o r c i n g b a d h a b i t s a n d c a u s i n g stress. T h e b a s i c San T i s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n i s e r e c t a n d n a t u r a l , w i t h t h e arms held in gentle curves. Rather than holding a posture by force or having t o c o n s t a n t l y m o n i t o r f o r c o u n t l e s s d e t a i l s , t h i s s t a n d i n g m e t h o d uses m e n t a l l y d i r e c t e d i m a g e s w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y l i n e u p t h e b o d y , r e l e a s e stress a n d b r i n g a b o u t mind/body unity in a state of d y n a m i c relaxation. For e x a m p l e , t h e instructor could give elaborate instructions detailing every angle, arc, a n d curve t h e b o d y s h o u l d a s s u m e w h i l e h o l d i n g a p o s t u r e , h o w e v e r , t h e stress o f t r y i n g t o r e m e m b e r s o m a n y d e t a i l s will b e e n o u g h t o n e g a t e all t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r a c t i c e . O n e t h i n g that makes X i n g Yi's San Ti s t a n d i n g practice so valuable is t h a t it h a s t h e m o s t i n g e n i o u s a n d c o m p l e t e sei o f m e n t a l i m a g e s o f a n y m a r t i a l s y s t e m . All o f t h e i m a g e s h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d a n d p r o g r e s s i v e l y c a t e g o r i z e d t o i m m e d i a t e l y b r i n g a b o u t t h e desired s t a t e s o f m i n d / b o d y u n i t y , t r u e b a l a n c e , stress release a n d c o n d i t i o n t h e n e u r o m u s c u l a r s y s t e m t o fully u t i l i z e o n e ' s i n b o r n power in t h e m o s t efficient m a n n e r . T h e images are simple and effective a n d t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r will b e a b l e t o u n i t e m i n d a n d b o d y a n d c o o r d i n a t e m o v e m e n t from the start. (The traditional images used in X i n g Yi Q u a n practice are o u t l i n e d s t a r t i n g o n p a g e 7 3 i n t h e s e c t i o n t i t l e d " I m a g e s f r o m t h e X i n g Y i Classics.")

Postures
In this section I will discuss some important points for all postures and movements

T h e Head: T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e h e a d i s t h e key t o t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e w h o l e b o d y . T h e h e a d i s a t o n e e n d o f o u r a n a t o m y ( t h e t o p ) w i t h t h e feet a t t h e o t h e r . I n o r d e r to relieve tension, elongate t h e body, a n d create t h e proper t o n e in t h e b o d y tissue, w e m u s t g e n t l y l e n g t h e n o r " s t r e t c h " t h e b o d y f r o m o n e e n d t o t h e o t h e r . C o r r e c t t o n e i n t h e b o d y tissue m e a n s c o r r e c t p o s t u r e w i t h a n o v e r a l l e l a s t i c i t y or " s p r i n g i n e s s " w h i c h creates proper space for our internal o r g a n s a n d systems w h i l e s e t t i n g u p t h e c o n d i t i o n s for t h e use o f i n t e r n a l p o w e r a n d t h e full utilization of our inherent strengths. If you want to stretch s o m e t h i n g , there m u s t b e a n a n t a g o n i s t i c pull a t b o t h e n d s . G r a v i t y t a k e s c a r e o f p u l l i n g o u r feet

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downwards, what we must do is allow our head to be "pulled" upwards (meaning a w a y from our feet, n o t necessarily straight u p ) . So t h e position of o u r h e a d is m o s t i m p o r t a n t in d e t e r m i n i n g t h e state of our w h o l e body. W h e n standing, t h e h e a d i s g e n t l y lifted u p w a r d s ( w i t h t h e m i n d , n o t f o r c e ) a l l o w i n g t h e e n t i r e b o d y t o r e l e a s e e x c e s s t e n s i o n a n d a l i g n itself p r o p e r l y w i t h g r a v i t y . T h e Feet: T h e b o d y w e i g h t i s e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n b o t h feet. Let t h e w e i g h t s e t t l e o n t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e o f t h e s o l e s o f t h e feet (try t o a v o i d p u t t i n g t h e w e i g h t t o o far f o r w a r d t o w a r d t h e b a l l s o f t h e feet o r t o o far b a c k t o w a r d t h e h e e l s , a l s o b e c a r e f u l n o t t o roll t h e f e e t i n w a r d o r o u t w a r d ) . M a k e s u r e t h e feet are r e l a x e d a n d take a m o m e n t to " f e e l " t h e ground. (This is t h e " d o u b l e w e i g h t e d " variation of t h e SanTi p o s t u r e . I f y o u s t a n d w i t h a 7 0 / 3 0 w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e i g h t o n t h e feet i s t h e s a m e , t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y i s s h i f t e d t o w a r d s t h e rear.) T h e Knees: T h e k n e e s are s l i g h t l y b e n t a n d f a c e t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n a s t h e t o e s . T h e k n e e s m u s t n e v e r c o l l a p s e i n w a r d o r b o w o u t w a r d . I n g e n e r a l , w e will s t a n d u p n a t u r a l l y , w i t h a v e r y s l i g h t b e n d a t t h e k n e e s . Later, i f y o u c h o o s e t o s q u a t m o r e d e e p l y , r e m e m b e r t h e k n e e s s h o u l d n e v e r pass t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e w h i c h p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e tips of t h e toes. I he W a i s t a n d Hips: T h e h i p s a r e h e l d l e v e l . R e l a x t h e t o r s o a n d t r y t o feel a s i f i t i s " f u l l " o n all sides ( t h i s m e a n s d o n o t a r c h t h e b a c k o r c o l l a p s e t h e c h e s t ) . T h e kua ( j u n c t u r e a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e waist w h e r e t h e t h i g h j o i n s t h e t o r s o ) i s s l i g h t l y i n s e r t e d i n w a r d . Let t h e b u t t o c k s r e l a x a n d s i n k a s i f y o u a r e " f e e l i n g d o w n w a r d " w i t h y o u r rear. T h e w a i s t a n d h i p s f o r m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e b o d y a n d j o i n t h e u p p e r w i t h t h e l o w e r . T h i s area i s key t o w h o l e b o d y p o w e r a n d e f f i c i e n t m o v e m e n t . W h e n s t a n d i n g c o r r e c t l y , t h e w h o l e p e l v i c area a n d w a i s t s h o u l d feel c o m f o r t a b l e a n d f r e e ( a l m o s t as if it is " f l o a t i n g " ) . The S p i n e : T h e spine is relaxed a n d allowed to elongate. T h i s m e a n s there is no effort of t h e muscles to h o l d t h e spine or torso in a n y forced position. W i t h t h e lifting o f t h e h e a d a n d s i n k i n g o f t h e b o d y , t h e s p i n e will b e e l o n g a t e d i n t o its n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n a n d t h e stress b e t w e e n t h e v e r t e b r a i s r e l e a s e d . W h i l e s o m e m e t h o d s advocate "straightening" the spine by pulling the c o c c y x down and under, in order to reduce t h e curve in t h e lower back, this position is tense, tiring, a n d unnatural. T h e s p i n e is n o t supposed to be perfectly straight, it has natural curves f o r a r e a s o n . W e d o n ' t w a n t t o u s e f o r c e t o pull t h e s p i n e s t r a i g h t , r a t h e r , w e release t e n s i o n i n t h e b a c k a n d t o r s o a n d a l l o w t h e s p i n e t o e l o n g a t e n a t u r a l l y . This allows the spine to h a v e a natural "springiness" w h i c h renders it capable of generating tremendous power. The Stomach: T h e m u s c l e s o f t h e s t o m a c h a n d w a i s t are c o m p l e t e l y r e l a x e d . W i t h t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e h e a d a n d e l o n g a t i o n o f t h e s p i n e t h e a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s will b e g e n t l y

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stretched a n d held in t h e proper state of t o n u s . Although t h e s t o m a c h muscles are c o m p l e t e l y r e l a x e d , b e c a u s e w e a r e s t a n d i n g i n d y n a m i c , c o r r e c t p o s t u r e , t h e m u s c l e s will n o t sag o r c a u s e a " p o t b e l l y " e f f e c t a s t h e p o s t u r e serves t o g e n t l y stretch t h e a b d o m i n a l wall. Your s t o m a c h a n d waist muscles are exercised even as y o u stand still. The Chest: T h e chest is relaxed, widened and very slightly depressed inward. O n e should n e i t h e r pull b a c k t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d stick o u t t h e c h e s t n o r s l u m p t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d let t h e c h e s t c o l l a p s e . The c h e s t s h o u l d feel o p e n , w i d e , a n d r e l a x e d i n a natural position. The Shoulders: T h e shoulders are level a n d relaxed. They a r e n e i t h e r p u l l e d b a c k n o r h u n c h e d f o r w a r d . O n e s h o u l d feel a s i f t h e s h o u l d e r s are p o i s e d a n d b a l a n c e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e t o r s o . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t n o t t o lift t h e s h o u l d e r s a t a n y t i m e during the practice. The Arms and Hands: T h e a r m s a n d hands are c o m p l e t e l y relaxed a n d always held in gentle curves. T h e e l b o w s are n e i t h e r b e n t t o o m u c h n o r rigidly s t r a i g h t e n e d ( t h e C h i n e s e s a y t h e a r m s "appear straight but are not straight"). T h e palms are curved a n d m a d e " d e e p . " T h e b a c k s o f t h e h a n d s are s p r e a d a n d t h e e n t i r e h a n d i s o p e n a n d full, a l l o w i n g t h e m i n d a n d energy t o flow f r o m t h e fingers u n i m p e d e d . T h e fingers a r e g e n t l y s p r e a d a n d r o u n d e d , n e i t h e r t e n s e n o r s l a c k . The a r m s a n d h a n d s s h o u l d feel r e l a x e d , s o m e w h a t h e a v y , full, s e n s i t i v e a n d g e n t l e . W h e n h o l d i n g t h e arms up, t h e weight s h o u l d settle a l o n g t h e b o t t o m (ulna side) o f t h e arm with the elbows " h a n g i n g . " The Neck: The n e c k i s s t r a i g h t ( b u t n o t t e n s e ) w i t h a g e n t l e lift a t t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k . The Chin: T h e c h i n is very slightly tucked down and in. The T e e t h : T h e t e e t h a r e c l o s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t f o r c e ( n o s l a c k jaws o r g r i n d i n g t e e t h ) . T h e Eyes: T h e e y e s are level a n d l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d . O n e m a y l o o k s l i g h t l y u p w a r d a s i f s e e i n g far i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e (as i f v i e w i n g a v a s t l a n d s c a p e f r o m t h e t o p o f a t a l l m o u n t a i n ) . S o m e t i m e s t h e eyes will b e g e n t l y c l o s e d . T h e Ears: T h e ears " l i s t e n i n s i d e " t o t h e " s o u n d s " o f t h e b o d y . T h e Face: R e l a x t h e facial m u s c l e s , r e l a x a l s o t h e m u s c l e s a r o u n d t h e sides o f t h e h e a d a70 n d t h e scalp. M a k e sure y o u are not wrinkling t h e f o r e h e a d (frowning) b y

Standing relaxing the space between t h e eyebrows. The Tongue: It helps to smile a little.

Practice

T h e t o n g u e is relaxed a n d slightly curved, t o u c h i n g t h e roof of t h e m o u t h . The Breath: Relax and breathe in and out through the nose. As you stand and relax, you m a y find you are b r e a t h i n g slower a n d m o r e deeply. T h i s is g o o d . Y o u can consciously relax your chest and a b d o m e n to facilitate deep breathing but o n l y " w a t c h " yourself b r e a t h e , d o n ' t try t o force o r c o n t r o l t h e b r e a t h . W h e n y o u c o r r e c t t h e p o s t u r e a n d r e l a x , y o u r b o d y will n a t u r a l l y b r e a t h e i n t h e m o s t beneficial m a n n e r . O u r bodies k n e w h o w to b r e a t h e best long before we were e v e r a w a r e t h a t w e w e r e b r e a t h i n g a t all a n d will d o s o a g a i n i f w e let t h e m . T h e a b o v e p o i n t s g e n e r a l l y a p p l y t o all p o s t u r e s a n d m o v e m e n t s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . T h e y serve as a k i n d of o b j e c t i v e view of t h e observable m e c h a n i c s of posture a n d a l i g n m e n t . T h e s e p o i n t s c a n be used as a " c h e c k l i s t " for a l i g n m e n t o r a s a c o m p a r a t i v e r e f e r e n c e w h e n a n a l y z i n g o n e ' s o w n p o s t u r e o b j e c t i v e l y (as in a film or p h o t o g r a p h ) or w h e n c h e c k i n g t h e posture of a n o t h e r .

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Possible Sensations
I t w o u l d b e very d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o p a y a t t e n t i o n t o all o f t h e previously m e n t i o n e d details in practice (even while s t a n d i n g still). Besides, t h e f a c t t h a t d i v i d i n g t h e b o d y u p i n t o s o m a n y parts w o u l d d e t r a c t f r o m t h e o v e r a l l "feeling" of b a l a n c e a n d mind/body unity we are trying to achieve. W h a t is needed is a m e t h o d that inhibits previously acquired bad habits while aligning t h e b o d y a n d b r i n g i n g a b o u t m i n d / b o d y u n i t y " a l l a t o n c e " w i t h o u t stress o r t e n s i o n . T h e images f r o m t h e X i n g Yi classics w h i c h appear in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n provide such a m e t h o d a n d tie t h e practice t o g e t h e r i n t o a unified w h o l e . Each of t h e postures a n d m o v e m e n t s in X i n g Yi Q u a n are designed to cultivate a n d t r a i n t h e m i n d / b o d y u n i t y a n d p o w e r for v a r i o u s t y p e s o f lings o r e n e r g i e s basic to martial t e c h n i q u e . T h e types of energies trained in theiVin Ti posture of X i n g Y i i n c l u d e m a n y o f t h e b a s i c p o w e r s u s e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e art a n d t h u s t h i s p o s t u r e f o r m s a f o u n d a t i o n for f u r t h e r s t u d y . A n a l y s i s o f t h e e n e r g i e s c u l t i v a t e d i n t h e Son T i p o s t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a n a n t a g o n i s t i c e n e r g y , o n e of which can be considered offensive, while at the same t i m e there is also a defensive energy, so t h e posture s i m u l t a n e o u s l y trains power for attack a n d defense in the same plane. Possible Sensations: D u r i n g p r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e early stages, y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p h e n o m e n a . T h e s e are p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s a n d t h e r e i s n o n e e d t o w o r r y . J u s t r e l a x a n d persist w i t h p r a c t i c e a n d i n t i m e y o u will c o m e t o feel v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e a s y o u s t a n d . D e s p i t e t h e fact y o u a r e n ' t m o v i n g , s t a n c e k e e p i n g i s real e x e r c i s e . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e m i l d t o f o r c e f u l s h a k i n g i n y o u r l i m b s . This i s d u e t o a r e l e a s e o f n e r v o u s t e n s i o n o r f a t i g u e a n d will pass a f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e . Y o u m a y feel h e a t , c o l d , t i n g l i n g , o r n u m b n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y I n y o u r b a n d s . T h e s e s e n s a t i o n s a r e a l s o t h e result o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m r e a d j u s t i n g a n d b a l a n c i n g itself a n d will s o o n p a s s . You may also experience soreness and a c h i n g in the muscles. The shoulders a r c p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o n e t o a c h e . T h i s i s n a t u r a l ( j u s t like s o r e n e s s f r o m a n y o t h e r f o r m o f e x e r c i s e ) a n d will p a s s a s y o u b e c o m e s t r o n g e r . I f y o u r m u s c l e s b e g i n t o a c h e a s y o u s t a n d , try t o r e l a x a n d u s e t h e i m a g e s t o " t a k e t h e pressure o f f . " I t m a y also b e h e l p f u l t o lower t h e a r m s a n d g e n t l y s h a k e out t h e l i m b s a n d t h e n r e t u r n t o t h e p o s t u r e . I f t h e a c h i n g i s i n t e n s e o r y o u feel v e r y f a t i g u e d , s t o p p r a c t i c e f o r t h e d a y a n d rest ( t h e s e i s n o r u s h , p o w e r a n d skill are c u l t i v a t e d , t h e y c a n n o t h e f o r c e d ) . E v e n t u a l l y , w h e n y o u s t a n d y o u will feel v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e a n d c a l m , a s i f y o u are f l o a t i n g i n w a r m w a t e r .

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Images from the Xing Yi Classics


by Tim Cartmell

T h e classical literature of X i n g Yi b o x i n g offers a w e a l t h of i m a g e s a n d p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h are d e s i g n e d t o a i d t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r i n a l i g n i n g h i s or her body with the proper balance and focus of intent. T h e instructions range from alignments in relation to anatomical landmarks to colorful images. Below I have i n c l u d e d t h e translations of s o m e of t h e m o r e relevent passages with brief explanations.

The Six Harmonies: (Liu He 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) the the the the the the h a n d s h a r m o n i z e w i t h t h e feet, shoulders h a r m o n i z e with t h e hips, elbows h a r m o n i z e with the knees, heart harmonizes with the intent, i n t e n t h a r m o n i z e s w i t h t h e qi, qi harmonizes with t h e power.

T h e first t h r e e a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " T h r e e E x t e r n a l C o o r d i n a t i o n s " w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e a r e referred t o a s t h e " T h r e e I n t e r n a l C o o r d i n a t i o n s . " T h e m o v e m e n t s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n a r e a s n a t u r a l a s w a l k i n g . W e all m a i n t a i n t h e T h r e e External C o o r d i n a t i o n s during t h e m o t i o n s o f n o r m a l walking a n d this degree of naturalness should be maintained during the practice of martial forms. This t y p e o f n a t u r a l m o t i o n i s w h a t o u r b o d i e s a r e " d e s i g n e d " for, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y building a martial system a r o u n d m o v e m e n t s w h i c h m a k e use of and work in h a r m o n y w i t h o u r i n n a t e s t r e n g t h s will b e i n h e r e n t l y m o r e p o w e r f u l t h a n f o r c i n g o u r b o d i e s t o p e r f o r m " u n n a t u r a l " m o v e m e n t s (like f i t t i n g a s q u a r e peg in a r o u n d h o l e . ) T h e Three I n t e r n a l C o o r d i n a t i o n s are d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s t a t e i n w h i c h t h e r e ;s no separation b e t w e e n desire, will a n d a c t i o n . T h e trained individual is faster than t h e untrained individual because he or she has reflexive patterns of m o v e m e n t trained into t h e n c u r o - m u s c u l a r system. T h e trained fighter has a desire t o s t r i k e a n d t h e i n t e n t i m m e d i a t e l y m o b i l i z e s t h e p r e - t r a i n e d r e s p o n s e , t h e n e r v e s fire i n t h e c o n d i t i o n e d p a t t e r n a n d t h e b o d y m o v e s . T h e u n t r a i n e d person has t h e desire t o strike a n d t h e n must t h i n k a b o u t t h e details o f t h e motion and make conscious decisions as the unfamiliar m o t i o n is made. In order lo m o v e as quickly and efficiently as possible the interval of t i m e between the desire t o m o v e ( h e a r t ) , t h e a c t u a l s p e c i f i c m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n s t o m o v e ( i n t e n t ) , t h e " e u r o - m u s c u l a r r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i m p u l s e o f t h e i n t e n t (qi) a n d t h e a c t u a l m o t i o n Tself ( p o w e r ) m u s t b e a s s h o r t a s p o s s i b l e .

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The Eight Words (Ba Zi - /\


T h e eight words provide the practitioner with images used in aligning the b o d y and using strength naturally. Each of the eight words has three important p o i n t s . T h e e i g h t w o r d s a r e a s f o l l o w s : Press, C l o s e , R o u n d , S e n s i t i v e , H o l d , S i n k , Curve, a n d Extend. Each word has three places of application on the b o d y as follows: T h e T h r e e P r e s s i n g s ( S a n D i n g - J L T i l ) : T h e h e a d presses u p w a r d , t h e p a l m s press o u t w a r d a n d t h e t o n g u e presses a g a i n s t t h e r o o f o f t h e m o u t h . T h e T h r e e C l o s i n g s ( S a n K o u - = _ } o ) : T h e s h o u l d e r s feel a s i f t h e y will c l o s e t o g e t h e r , t h e b a c k o f t h e h a n d s a n d feet feel a s i f t h e y a r e c l o s i n g t o g e t h e r a n d the teeth close together. T h e T h r e e R o u n d i n g s ( S a n Y u a n - j r . [51): T h e b a c k i s r o u n d , t h e c h e s t i s r o u n d , a n d t h e Tiger's M o u t h (space b e t w e e n t h e t h u m b a n d i n d e x finger) is round. T h e T h r e e S e n s i t i v i t i e s ( S a n M i n - _.;&): sensitive, a n d t h e h a n d s are sensitive. T h e h e a r t i s s e n s i t i v e , t h e e y e s are

T h e T h r e e H o l d i n g s ( S a n B a o - . # L ) : H o l d t h e dan tian, h o l d t h e q i o f t h e h e a r t , h o l d t h e ribs. T h e Three Sinkings (San C h u i elbows sink. T h e T h r e e C u r v e s (San Qu - ~a n d t h e wrists are c u r v e d . . -3b): T h e q i s i n k s , t h e s h o u l d e r s s i n k a n d t h e

T h e a r m s a r e c u r v e d , t h e k n e e s are c u r v e d ,

T h e T h r e e E x t e n s i o n s (San T i n g - r - , T h e neck i s extended (lengthened), t h e s p i n e i s e x t e n e d a n d t h e k n e e s are e x t e n d e d . (Note: F o r d e t a i l s p l e a s e refer t o t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s for p o s t u r e s a t t h e beginning of this section.)

The Five Bows (Wu Gong -

):

T h e t w o a r m s , t w o legs, a n d s p i n e are i m a g i n e d t o b e b o w s . T h e a r m s a n d legs a r e s l i g h t l y c u r v e d (like a d r a w n b o w ) w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f e x t e n d i n g (as i f t o r e l e a s e a n a r r o w ) . A k i n e s t h e t i c s e n s e o f t h i s i m a g e fills t h e b o d y w i t h a k i n d o f " e l a s t i c " p o w e r w h i c h i s n e i t h e r rigid n o r slack. T h e s p i n e i s e x t e n d e d a n d t h e h e a d p r e s s e s upward but there is a slight feeling of a drawn curve because t h e shoulders a n d a r m s are e x t e n d e d f o r w a r d .

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The Four Levels (Si Ping - t j


T h e t o p o f t h e h e a d , t h e t w o e y e s , t h e s h o u l d e r s , a n d t h e h i p s a r e all h e l d " l e v e l , " m e a n i n g parallel to t h e g r o u n d . T h e s e a l i g n m e n t s are r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d feel, a n d a l o n g w i t h t h e p r e s s i n g u p o f t h e h e a d g o a l o n g w a y towards aligning the whole body.

Sticking out the chest, pulling in the stomach, forcing the breath, and using brute force will harm the body.
T h e s e are s o m e o f t h e m o s t c o m m o n m i s t a k e s o f b e g i n n e r s . T o a v o i d t h e s e mistakes the chest is held normally without pushing it out or letting it collapse inward. T h e s t o m a c h must be relaxed so that t h e b r e a t h i n g is n o t restricted a n d t h e w a i s t i s r e l a x e d a n d a b l e t o m o v e f r e e l y . F o r c i n g t h e b r e a t h refers t o h o l d i n g t h e air i n d u r i n g p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n . F i n a l l y , b r u t e f o r c e refers t o t h e e x t r a t e n s i o n caused by a b o d y out of alignment or using o n e part of the b o d y without the support of the whole.

Three Points on a Line (San Jian Yao Zhao - j = _ ^ flS):


T h e t i p o f t h e n o s e , t h e t i p o f t h e f r o n t h a n d a n d t h e t i p o f t h e f r o n t f o o t are all o n t h e s a m e v e r t i c l e p l a n e . T h i s p a s s a g e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e T h r e e E x t e r n a l C o o r d i n a t i o n s of t h e Six H a r m o n i e s . W h e n this a l i g n m e n t is correct, o n e automatically has the Three External Coordinations.

The Fists do not Leave the Heart, the Arms (Elbows) do not Leave the Ribs:
O n c e again, this passage is related to t h e T h r e e External C o o r d i n a t i o n s . T h e h a n d s d o n o t m o v e v e r y far f r o m t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e b o d y b e f o r e t h e b o d y b e g i n s t o t u r n . T h e e l b o w s d o n o t lift u p a w a y f r o m t h e ribs ( s i n k t h e e l b o w s ) n o r a r e t h e a r m s e x t e n d e d t o o far t o t h e f r o n t . F i n a l l y , t h e p o s i t i o n a n d s h a p e o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e b o d y are c o m p a r e d t o a n i m a l s . T h e s e i m a g e s are r e l a t e d t o t h e e i g h t w o r d s a n d say t h e s a m e t h i n g i n a s t r o n g l y i m a g i n i t i v e w a y . T h e a n i m a l / b o d y c o n n e c t i o n s are a s f o l l o w s :

Chicken Leg (Ji Tui - g ft) Dragon Body (Long Shen - H, fy) Eagle Claw (Ying Zhao - Bear Shoulers (Xiong Bang - til ? $ ) Tiger's Head Embrace (Hu Bao Tou 75

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Practicing San Ti Shi


Wang Ji Wu's Method
by Dan Miller and Tim Cartmell

The

Boxing Canon

states:

" T h e t h r e e b o d i e s [San Ti) i n m a r t i a l arts refer t o t h e h e a d , h a n d s , a n d feet. San Ti is f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : Root W a i s t [dan Hips Shoulders tian) Mid-section Spine (heart) Knees Elbows Terminus H e a d (Ni Wan P o i n t ) Feet Hands

All X i n g Yi Q u a n p r a c t i c e starts w i t h San Ti s t a n d i n g . After w a l k i n g t h r o u g h the forms, o n e must follow the correct sequence of training and must n o t omit Steps. All s u b s e q u e n t m o v e m e n t is f o u n d e d in San Ti Shi. T h i s p o s t u r e is t h e g a t e o f t h e W a y , i t i s t h e r o o t a n d c e n t r a l n u c l e u s o f t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . " Almost every system of Xing Yi Q u a n in Northern C h i n a has the practice of s t a n d i n g s i l e n t l y in San Ti Shi at its f o u n d a t i o n . W h i l e o n e will f i n d s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e e x a c t b o d y p o s i t i o n s a n d a l i g n m e n t s f r o m o n e style t o t h e n e x t , all s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e a d h e r e s t o c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s . I n S e p t e m b e r o f 199.1 a n d April o f 1 9 9 4 , w e d i s c u s s e d W a n g j i W u ' s S a n T i s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e w i t h t w o o f h i s t o p students, Z h a n g Bao Yang a n d W a n g J i n Yu. In t h i s section we will discuss t h e general principles as well as t h e specific details of t h e s t a n d i n g practice in this system of Xing Yi Quan. W a n g j i W u t a u g h t h i s s t u d e n t s t w o v e r s i o n s o f t h e San T i p o s t u r e , o n e h e c a l l e d " s i n g l e h a n d " San T i a n d t h e o t h e r " d o u b l e h a n d " San T i (see p h o t o s t h e n e x t p a g e ) . I n t h e S h a n x i s t y l e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n , t h e " s i n g l e h a n d " San T i p o s t u r e is typically assumed as a beginning transition into the form m o v e m e n t s and the " d o u b l e h a n d " San T i p o s t u r e i s a s s u m e d w h e n e n d i n g t h e f o r m s . In our d i s c u s s i o n s , Z h a n g B a o Y a n g a n d W a n g j i n Y u said t h a t i n p r a c t i c i n g t h e San T i s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e , t h e s t u d e n t " t r a i n s t o k e e p his o r h e r c e n t e r . " B y k n o w i n g h o w t o a l w a y s " k e e p h i s c e n t e r " t h e s t u d e n t will a l w a y s b e s t a b l e a n d h a v e g o o d balance while b e i n g very agile at t h e same t i m e . In addition to developing an a w a r e n e s s o f o n e ' s c e n t e r , s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e legs, a n d d e v e l o p i n g a s t r o n g r o o t , t h e a l i g n m e n t s of this posture also develop internal energy and integrate t h e whole body.

7B

Standing

Practice

"Single Hand" San Ti Shi

"Double Hand" San Ti Shi

Z h a n g a n d W a n g said t h a t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s t o r e m e m b e r w h e n p r a c t i c i n g San Ti s t a n d i n g are o u t l i n e d in t h e Boxing Canon in t h e " S i x H a r m o n i e s " a n d " E i g h t V i t a l P o i n t s . " T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s are a s f o l l o w s : I iglit Vital P o i n t s ; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) the the the the the the the the i n s i d e s m u s t b e lifted, three hearts must unite, three intents must follow o n e another, Five E l e m e n t s m u s t f l o w s m o o t h l y , four terminus must move together, heart m u s t b e a t e a s e , three points must be on a line, eyes must focus on a single p o i n t . -A-

Six Harmonies: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) the the the the the the

h a n d s h a r m o n i z e with t h e feet, shoulders h a r m o n i z e with the hips, elbows h a r m o n i z e with t h e knees, heart harmonizes with the intent, i n t e n t h a r m o n i z e s w i t h t h e qi, qi harmonizes with the power.

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Wangji Wu's San Ti Standing Postures


Posture One: "Single Hand" San Ti Shi
B e g i n n i n g P o s t u r e : T h e Son T i s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e b e g i n s w i t h t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r standing in a relaxed natural posture as s h o w n in p h o t o g r a p h #1 on the n e x t page. Stand up naturally, the heels together, the toes pointing outward at a 60 degree angle ( 6 0 degree angle between t h e m ) . T h e w h o l e b o d y is relaxed a n d c o m f o r t a b l e , d o n o t stand stiffly. T h e eyes l o o k straight a h e a d , close t h e m o u t h , the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h , breathe naturally, imagine the breath m o v e s i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian, c o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi. T h e t w o a r m s are r e l a x e d , h a n d s a t t h e s i d e s . T h e h e a r t i s a s q u i e t a s still w a t e r . T h e c r o w n of t h e head g e n t l y presses upward. N o w y o u are prepared for m o v e m e n t . T r a n s i t i o n P o s t u r e : F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a n c e t h e w e i g h t s h i f t s t o t h e r i g h t leg, t h e k n e e s b e n d s l i g h t l y , a n d t h e left leg raises u p o f f t h e g r o u n d s l i g h t l y i n t o a " c h i c k e n " stance. The hands move up to a position in front of the heart with the r i g h t h a n d r e s t i n g o n t o p o f t h e left h a n d , t h e f i n g e r s o f b o t h h a n d s p o i n t i n g s t r a i g h t a h e a d (see p h o t o g r a p h # 2 ) . T h e b o d y r e m a i n s r e l a x e d . E n s u r e t h a t t h e s h o u l d e r s r e m a i n r e l a x e d a n d t h e e l b o w s are d r o p p e d d o w n w h e n t h e h a n d s a r e brought up. T h e " S i n g l e H a n d " S a n Ti Posture: From the transitional posture of photograph # 2 , t h e right leg stays i n p l a c e w h i l e t h e left leg s t e p s o u t a n d t h e w e i g h t s e t t l e s a t 5 0 / 5 0 . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e left h a n d p u s h e s f o r w a r d a n d e x t e n d s o u t i n f r o n t o f t h e h e a r t w h i l e t h e r i g h t h a n d p u l l s b a c k , t h e r o o t o f t h e t h u m b rests a g a i n s t t h e n a v e l (see p h o t o g r a p h # 3 ) . T h e h i p s t u r n 4 5 d e g r e e s w i t h t h e f r o n t h i p b e i n g forward. A detailed description of this posture is given below. T h e Head: T h e h e a d is gently lifted upwards a n d tilted slightly forward. T h e forward tilt i s f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e e y e s l o o k i n g a t t h e h u kou ( I . I - 4 ) o r " t i g e r ' s m o u t h " ( a p o i n t near w h e r e the t h u m b and index finger m e e t ) o f t h e forward h a n d . W h i l e t h e h e a d i n g e n e r a l i s g e n t l y l i f t e d u p w a r d , t h e bai hid p o i n t a t t h e c r o w n o f t h e h e a d h a s a feeling of being g e n t l y sucked i n w a r d . W h i l e m a n y s t a n d i n g m e t h o d s call f o r o n e t o lift u p a t t h i s p o i n t , W a n g j i W u ' s m e t h o d c a l l s f o r t h e h e a d t o b e g e n t l y lifted up, t h e n e c k gently stretched in back while t h e c h i n is gently tucked in a n d t h e bai hui p o i n t t o h a v e a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g s u c k e d i n w a r d . T h e Feet: T h e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y i s e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n b o t h legs ( 5 0 / 5 0 w e i g h t e d ) . W h i l e m a n y m e t h o d s o f San T i s t a n d i n g call f o r t h e w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n t o b e 7 0 / 3 0 o r 6 0 / 4 0 ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e H e b e i styles o f X i n g Y i ) , t h e 5 0 / 5 0 w e i g h t distribution is typical of the Xing Yi in Shanxi Province. Zhang Bao Yang explains that they e m p h a s i z e t h e 50/50 weighted stance in their system because o n e c a n b e m o r e agile i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s ( f o r w a r d a n d b a c k w a r d ) . H e s t a t e s t h a t the 70/30 or 60/40 stance is more "active forward" while in the 50/50 stance the 78

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practitioner is ready to m o v e in either direction. T h e i r m e t h o d of X i n g Yi utilizes q u i c k , s h o r t , s t r o n g s t e p s w h i c h are b e s t l a u n c h e d f r o m t h e 5 0 / 5 0 s t a n c e . H e a l s o says t h a t s t a n d i n g w i t h this weight distribution develops a strong central equilibrium a n d a d e e p root. It is easier to d e v e l o p an awareness of y o u r c e n t e r from this posture. T h e t o e s h a v e a f e e l i n g o f g r a s p i n g t h e g r o u n d . T h e h e e l s feel a s i f t h e y w a n t to m o v e outward (away from y o u r center) a n d t h e toes feel as if t h e y w a n t to m o v e i n w a r d ( t o w a r d s y o u r c e n t e r ) . T h e yong quan ( K - l ) o r " b u b b l i n g w e l l " p o i n t s in t h e hearts of b o t h feet h a v e t h e feeling of b e i n g pulled upward. T h e f o r w a r d f o o t p o i n t s f o r w a r d w h i l e t h e rear f o o t a n g l e s o u t w a r d a t 4 5 d e g r e e s . T h e b a c k leg h a s a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g r e a d y t o m o v e a s i f w a n t i n g t o s p r i n g t h e b o d y forward. The Knees: T h e knees are slightly b e n t a n d face t h e same direction as t h e toes. T h e knees must never collapse inward or b o w outward. In general, stand up naturally, with a v e r y slight b e n d a t t h e k n e e s . T h e f o r w a r d k n e e i s p o s i t i o n e d s u c h t h a t t h e forward shin is approximately perpendicular to the ground. T h e Waist a n d Hips: T h e b o d y is divided into three sections; from t h e top of t h e head to t h e hips is o n e section, from the hips to the knees is the second section and from the knees t o t h e feet i s t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n . T h e w a i s t i s t h e a r e a t h a t j o i n s t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r b o d y . T h e w a i s t m u s t b e r e l a x e d w i t h t h e q i a n d b r e a t h s u n k i n t o t h e dan tian so that a m o v e m e n t from the center moves the whole body in a coordinated f a s h i o n . T h i s i s a key t o w h o l e b o d y p o w e r . T h e Chest: T h e chest must never be stuck out and is held slightly depressed. As t h e s h o u l d e r s are p u l l e d f o r w a r d t h e c h e s t will h a v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f " e m p t y i n g " i n t o t h e dan tian. T h i s f a c i l i t a t e s t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d h i p s . The Shoulders: T h e s h o u l d e r s are level a n d r e l a x e d . T h e y a r e n e v e r p u l l e d b a c k n o r h u n c h e d f o r w a r d . O n e s h o u l d feel a s i f t h e s h o u l d e r s a r e p o i s e d a n d b a l a n c e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e t o r s o . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t n o t t o lift t h e s h o u l d e r s a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e " s i x h a r m o n i e s " t h e s h o u l d e r s are a l i g n e d w i t h t h e h i p s . H o w e v e r , a s o n e will n o t i c e f r o m t h e p h o t o s o f Z h a n g B a o Y a n g o n t h e next page, this a l i g n m e n t is n o t exactly vertical. Because of the 50/50 weighted s t a n c e , t h e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y falls i n - b e t w e e n t h e l e g s . T h e s h o u l d e r s are k e p t forward of t h e hips, a n d t h e spine is straight. This a l i g n m e n t facilitates a direct line from the back heel to the hips, along the spine, to the shoulders and t h e n up through the top of the head. Photograph #4 on t h e next page clearly illustrates this a l i g n m e n t . If you were to draw a line f r o m Z h a n g Bao Yang's head t o h i s b a c k h e e l , y o u w o u l d n o t i c e t h a t t h e s p i n e will b e p a r a l l e l t o t h i s l i n e a n d t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e h i p s a n d s h o u l d e r s are a l s o p a r a l l e l t o t h i s l i n e . T h i s a l i g n m e n t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S h a n x i style X i n g Y i .

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Photo #4
The Arms a n d Hands:

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In accordance with the requirements of the "three curves," the arms and h a n d s are a n d a l w a y s h e l d i n g e n t l e c u r v e s . T h e y a r e r e l a x e d , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s i n t e n t i o n all t h e w a y o u t t o t h e f i n g e r t i p s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e h a n d s are r e l a x e d , b u t t h e y are n o t s l a c k . T h e e l b o w s are n e i t h e r b e n t t o o m u c h n o r rigidly s t r a i g h t e n e d ( t h e C h i n e s e say t h e a r m s " a p p e a r s t r a i g h t b u t a r e n o t s t r a i g h t , a p p e a r b e n t b u t a r e n o t b e n t " ) . T h e wrists are r e l a x e d a n d h e l d i n a l i n e w i t h t h e f o r e a r m s , c u r v e d s l i g h t l y o u t w a r d a n d u p w a r d . T h e p a l m s are c u r v e d a n d m a d e " d e e p " o r " h o l l o w " a t t h e laogong ( I ' C - 8 ) p o i n t i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a l m . T h e b a c k s o f t h e h a n d s a r e s p r e a d a n d t h e f i n g e r s a r e s p r e a d a p a r t like a n e a g l e ' s t a l o n . T h e f i n g e r s are g e n t l y s p r e a d a n d r o u n d e d , n e i t h e r t e n s e n o r s l a c k . T h e t h r e e o u t s i d e f i n g e r s o f e a c h h a n d are c u r v e d s l i g h t l y a s i f o n e i s p r e p a r i n g to grasp s o m e t h i n g . This builds "digging p o w e r . " The " t i g e r ' s m o u t h " i s rounded as the t h u m b is stretched away from the index finger. Beginning students should o n l y curve t h e fingers slightly, m o r e advanced students can c u r v e t h e f i n g e r s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e (as s h o w n i n p h o t o g r a p h # 3 o n p a g e 79). I f a b e g i n n e r bends t h e fingers as m u c h as W a n g Ji Wu has his b e n t in t h e p h o t o g r a p h , t h e f i n g e r s will t e n d t o b e l i m p a s t h e b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t h a s n o t y e t developed the proper intention or power in the h a n d s . T h e beginner should b e n d t h e fingers as Z h a n g Bao Y a n g d e m o n s t r a t e s in the t w o p h o t o s a b o v e . T h e e l b o w s m u s t a l w a y s h a n g a n d feel a s i f t h e y are " s i n k i n g . " T h e w e i g h t o f the shoulders presses t h e e l b o w s . In turn, t h e heaviness of t h e e l b o w s is m e n t a l l y transferred to t h e h a n d s . T h e f o r w a r d p a l m m a i n t a i n s t h e f e e l i n g o f p u s h i n g f o r w a r d w h i l e t h e rear p a l m feels a s i f i t i s p u s h i n g d o w n w a r d a n d t h e rear e l b o w i s p u l l i n g b a c k w a r d . A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e t w o p a l m h e a r t s h a v e t h e f e e l i n g a s i f t h e y are b e i n g s u c k e d inward. 81

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The Neck: T h e n e c k i s s t r a i g h t ( b u t n o t t e n s e ) w i t h a g e n t l e lift a t t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k . The Chin: T h e c h i n is very slightly tucked d o w n a n d in. The Teeth: T h e t e e t h are c l o s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t f o r c e . Closings." T h e Eyes: This is one of the "Three

T h e e y e s are level a n d l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d a t t h e " t i g e r ' s m o u t h . " T h i s a l l o w s y o u to focus on w h a t you are doing and puts your head in t h e correct position. The Tongue: T h e t o n g u e is relaxed and slightly curved, t o u c h i n g t h e roof of t h e m o u t h . The Breath: Relax a n d b r e a t h e in a n d o u t t h r o u g h t h e n o s e . As y o u stand and relax, y o u m a y f i n d y o u a r e b r e a t h i n g s l o w e r a n d m o r e d e e p l y . T r y t o feel y o u r b r e a t h s i n k i n g i n t o y o u r l o w e r a b d o m e n , i n t o t h e dan tian a r e a . B r e a t h i n g s h o u l d b e s l o w , s m o o t h , c o n t i n u o u s , e v e n a n d d e e p . B r e a t h i n g i n t o t h e dan tian will h e l p you relax your chest.

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Posture Two: "Double Hand" San Ti Shi


As stated previously, In t h e S h a n x i style of X i n g Yi Q u a n t h e " d o u b l e h a n d " sun ti p o s t u r e is t y p i c a l l y a s s u m e d d u r i n g t h e e n d i n g s e q u e n c e of a f o r m w h i l e t h e " s i n g l e h a n d " son t i i s p r e f o r m e d a s p a r t o f t h e o p e n i n g s e q u e n c e o f a f o r m . T h i s i s n o t o n l y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f W a n g j u W u ' s X i n g Y i , o t h e r styles f r o m S h a n x i P r o v i n c e , s u c h a s t h e S o n g S h i R o n g style, a l s o e n d t h e i r f o r m s e q u e n c e s w i t h t h i s posture. W h e n practicing these postures in isolation from the forms, in o t h e r words, a s p a r t o f " s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e " b y itself, t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r c a n t r a n s i t i o n s t r a i g h t from the "single h a n d " standing posture to the "double h a n d " standing posture a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e series o f p h o t o g r a p h s s t a r t i n g b e l o w a n d c o n t i n u i n g o n t o t h e n e x t page. F r o m t h e " s i n g l e h a n d " son t i t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l s h i f t t h e w e i g h t f o r w a r d a n d a l l o w b o t h h a n d s l o s e p a r a t e o u t t o t h e sides a s s h o w n i n p h o t o # 2 b e l o w . F r o m t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e h a n d s m o v e u p w a r d a n d t h e w e i g h t b e g i n s t o shift b a c k t o t h e rear leg. T h e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r will d r a w t h e h a n d s b a c k i n a l o n g t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e b o d y a n d d r a w t h e f r o n t f o o t i n w a r d a s all o f t h e b o d y w e i g h t i s s h i f t e d t o t h e b a c k leg a s s h o w n i n p h o t o # 3 b e l o w . F r o m t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e f r o n t leg s t e p s o u t a s i n t h e " s i n g l e h a n d p o s t u r e " w h i l e b o t h h a n d s press d o w n w a r d a s s h o w n i n p h o t o s 4 a n d 5 o n t h e n e x t p a g e . N o t i c e t h a t b o t h p a l m s are f a c i n g d o w n w a r d a n d t h e k n i f e e d g e (small f i n g e r side) o f t h e f o r w a r d h a n d i s f a c i n g f o r w a r d . T h e rear h a n d is p l a c e d in f r o n t of t h e dan tian as in t h e " s i n g l e h a n d " p o s t u r e . All o t h e r b o d y a l i g n m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s r e m a i n a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e last s e c t i o n . When examining photographs arm. T h e arm should be held in a up to t h e middle of t h e back. In combination of "ward-off" energy 4 and 5 notice t h e roundness of the forward g e n t l e c u r v e f r n m t h e s m a l l f i n g e r all t h e w a y this posture t h e practitioner is developing a a n d pressing d o w n energy in t h e forward a r m .

E x a m i n i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h o f W a n g j i W u o n p a g e 7 7 , y o u will n o t i c e t h a t he is n o t pressing d o w n w a r d with t h e forward h a n d , but is allowing t h e forward h a n d fingers to p o i n t d o w n w a r d . This is a more a d v a n c e d posture. Pressing

Photo #1

P h o t o #2

P h o t o #3

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d o w n with the palm as Z h a n g Bao Yang is doing in the p h o t o s on the opposite page helps to e x t e n d the i n t e n t i o n to the palm and fingers. If the b e g i n n i n g student holds his h a n d as W a n g j i Wu does in the p h o t o g r a p h on page 77, the f i n g e r s will t e n d t o b e l i m p a s t h e b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t h a s n o t y e t d e v e l o p e d t h e proper intention or power in the hands. T h e beginner should hold the h a n d as Zhang Bao Yang demonstrates in the two p h o t o s on the previous page. T o c o n c l u d e t h e s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r will c l o s e a s s h o w n i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s o n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p r e v i o u s p a g e . First b o t h h a n d s s e p a r a t e o u t t o t h e sides a s s h o w n i n p h o t o # 6 . N e x t t h e h a n d s raise u p a b o v e t h e h e a d a s s h o w n in p h o t o #7, a n d t h e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r c o m e s to a resting p o s i t i o n as s h o w n i n p h o t o # 8 . T h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s h o u l d s t a n d i n this relaxed p o s i t i o n for several m i n u t e s , b r e a t h i n g n a t u r a l l y a n d r e l a x i n g t h e e n t i r e b o d y .

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Chapter 4

Xing Yi Health and Body Strengthening Exercises: An Introduction

Wang Ji Wu with the Xing Yi "Needles"

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Xing Yi Health Exercises


An Introduction by Wang Lian Yi*
Translated by Tim Cartmell The Five Elements, Yin and Yang, inside and outside, intent, qi, power, hard and soft, form and spirit, technique, internal power, false and real, the original yang qi, all united into one. W a n g Fu Yuan T h e w a y o f h e a l t h i n v o l v e s e x e r c i s e , n u t r i t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e , all o f w h i c h e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o e n j o y b o t h a h e a l t h y b o d y a n d spirit. I n a d d i t i o n , w e m u s t a l s o a d d r e s s t h e issues o f p r e v e n t i n g a n d c u r i n g d i s e a s e a n d t h e m e t h o d of e x t e n d i n g life. T h e r e are t w o m a j o r i n f l u e n c e s o n t h e l e n g t h o f l i f e . O n e i s t h e h a r m f u l e f f e c t s of disease a n d injury, t h e o t h e r is t h e natural process of aging. If we wish to be h e a l t h y , we m u s t apply t h e principle of "active use to prevent d e c a y . " T h i s involves physical training, internal cultivation and t h e practice of the X i n g Yi Q u a n h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e a b o v e m e t h o d will e n a b l e o n e t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r life e n e r g y , p r e v e n t i l l n e s s , d e l a y t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s a n d e x t e n d l i f e . W a n g j i Wu is a f a m o u s c o n t e m p o r a r y master of X i n g Yi Q u a n , a n d is already o v e r o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s o l d . H e h a s b e n e f i t e d g r e a t l y f r o m his p r a c t i c e s o f c u l t i v a t i n g t h e p r e - b i r t h q i a n d X i n g Y i arts. T h e m a s t e r b e l i e v e s i n t e a c h i n g b y e x a m p l e , a n d h a s t a u g h t t h e c o m p l e t e h e a l t h art t o t h e p u b l i c . M a s t e r W a n g h a s d r a w n o n h i s vast k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l arts, C h i n e s e M e d i c i n e , s e c r e t t e a c h i n g s , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d o n e h u n d r e d years o f t r a i n i n g t o p u t together a system of health exercises. This m e t h o d is the essence of Master W a n g ' s k n o w l e d g e . T h e m o v e m e n t s are e a s y t o l e a r n , a n d are s u i t a b l e f o r y o u n g a n d old alike. People of b o t h sexes, t h e h e a l t h y a n d t h o s e with physical p r o b l e m s o r i l l n e s s m a y all p r a c t i c e w i t h g r e a t b e n e f i t . T h e X i n g Y i h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s a r e t h e very m e t h o d Master W a n g h i m s e l f practices on a daily basis. T h i s b o o k includes extensive explanations a n d illustration to present the exercises so they m a y be easily l e a r n e d . M a n y o f t h e c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d h e r e h a v e b e e n w i t h h e l d f r o m t h e general public as precious secrets. In addition to t h o r o u g h l y explaining these concepts, Master W a n g has i n c l u d e d m a n y o f his o w n d i s c o v e r i e s g l e a n e d f r o m a l i f e t i m e o f d e d i c a t e d practice. T h e practicality of the exercises in this b o o k have been proven over time a n d t h i s m e t h o d i s truly a t r e a s u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e . Life i s m o v e m e n t . A c t u a l l y , t h e o l d e s t m e d i c a l t r e a t i s e in t h e w o r l d , t h e Yellow Emperor's Book of Internal Medicine s t a t e s , " w i t h m o v e m e n t t h e r e i s n o d e c a y . " W h y i s t h i s s o ? T h e b a s i c p r o c e s s e s o f life are i n m e t a b o l i c a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d b r e a k d o w n . Assimilation involves processing nutrients taken in from outside the body and * Wang Lian Yi, W a n g j i Wu's son, wrote this material in 1991 while W a n g j i Wu was still alive. This materia! was published in Wang Lian Yi's book Shen Gong in 1 9 9 2 88

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m a k i n g t h e m i n t o s u b s t a n c e s t h e b o d y c a n use. T h e s e s u b s t a n c e s b e c o m e part o f t h e b o d y a n d are s t o r e d a s e n e r g y . M e t a b o l i c b r e a k d o w n i n v o l v e s t a k i n g organic matter inside t h e b o d y a n d breaking it d o w n , t h e r e b y releasing energy. T h e processes of assimilation and breakdown involves taking organic matter inside the b o d y a n d breaking it d o w n , t h e r e b y releasing energy. T h e processes o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d b r e a k d o w n are m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e a n d o c c u r w i t h o u t e n d . W h e n t h e building process of assimilation is greater t h a n t h e tearing d o w n of t h e b o d y t h r o u g h m e t a b o l i c b r e a k d o w n , t h e n t h e b o d y i n c r e a s e s its s t r e n g t h . W h e n b r e a k d o w n is p r e d o m i n a t e t h e opposite holds true, t h e b o d y b e c o m e s weaker. Although physical exercise causes metabolic breakdown to produce energy, it stimulates increased assimilation a n d adaptation to t h e effort of exercise, w h i c h in turn s t r e n g t h e n s t h e body. T h i s is t h e m e a n i n g of "life is m o v e m e n t , " t h e v a r i o u s life s u p p o r t s y s t e m s o f t h e b o d y are s t i m u l a t e d t h r o u g h e x e r c i s e .

Health and Training


T h e m u s c l e s o f t h e h u m a n b o d y are m a d e u p o f b u n d l e s o f m u s c l e f i b e r w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f c o n t r a c t i o n . W i t h i n t h e m u s c l e s are m a n y n e r v e s , b l o o d v e s s e l s a n d g l a n d s . A s p e o p l e grow o l d e r , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r m u s c l e s s l o w l y d e t e r i o r a t e s . W i t h regular e x e r c i s e o n e m a y i n c r e a s e t h e size, e l a s t i c i t y a n d s t r e n g t h o f muscles, improve circulation, stimulate the metabolism, and improve one's speed, e n d u r a n c e , agility, a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n . W i t h a d v a n c e d age, o n e very o f t e n experiences calcification of the joints, and weakening of the muscles and c o n n e c t i v e tissue. W i t h regular exercise, t h e t e n a c i t y of t h e joints may be increased allowing t h e joints m o r e elastic strength a n d f r e e d o m of m o v e m e n t , thereby preventing arthritis and stiffening of the joints. T h e e l d e r l y a l s o o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e a loss o f e l a s t i c i t y i n t h e w a l l s o f t h e b l o o d vessels, s o m e t i m e s causing a loss of efficiency in t h e p u m p i n g a c t i o n of t h e heart. Regular physical exercise can help prevent this d r o p in efficiency by keeping t h e heart muscle strong, increasing t h e n u m b e r of capillaries a n d t h e stroke v o l u m e o f t h e h e a r t . T h e s e b e n e f i t s o f e x e r c i s e result i n a s t r o n g h e a r t w h i c h i n t u r n i s responsible for efficient c i r c u l a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e entire b o d y with a lower r e s t i n g p u l s e rate. T h e h e a r t will i n c r e a s e i n w e i g h t a n d w i l l h a v e m o r e e n d u r a n c e w h i c h will e n a b l e t h e individual t o h a n d l e m o r e stress a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . All o f t h e a b o v e b e n e f i t s a d d u p t o p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t m a n y o f t h e p r o b l e m s of old age, such as arteriosclerosis, high b l o o d pressure a n d m a n y of t h e o t h e r p r o b l e m s t h a t plague t h o s e of a d v a n c e d years. A s far a s r e s p i r a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , c o n s i s t e n t e x e r c i s e p r o m o t e s d e e p a n d full b r e a t h i n g . T h e s l o w e r a n d d e e p e r t h e b r e a t h , t h e f e w e r b r e a t h s t a k e n per m i n u t e . T h i s t y p e o f b r e a t h i n g a l l o w s t h e r e s p i r a t o r y s y s t e m t i m e t o rest. W h e n t h e r e s p i r a t o r y c a p a b i l i t y i s g o o d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s full o f v i t a l i t y a n d t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s is s l o w e d . R e g u l a r e x e r c i s e a l s o aids d i g e s t i o n , s t i m u l a t i n g peristalsis a n d s e c r e t i o n o f d i g e s t i v e fluids, l-'ood i s b r o k e n d o w n a n d a s s i m i l a t e d m o r e q u i c k l y . I n a d d i t i o n , exercise increases t h e depth of respiration w h i c h in turn causes a greater degree of m o t i o n in the diaphragm. This diaphragmatic m o t i o n helps to massage the i n t e r n a l o r g a n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s t o m a c h a n d i n t e s t i n e s w h i c h a l s o aids i n digestion. Because of these reactions, exercise can help cure s t o m a c h and

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intestinal problems, prolapsis and constipation. During exercise the circulation of the whole body is increased w h i c h stimulates m e t a b o l i s m a n d can s t r e n g t h e n t h e liver a n d spleen. During exercise, t h e muscles a n d j o i n t s relax a n d c o n t r a c t in r h y t h m . This type of r h y t h m i c m o t i o n p r o v i d e s a v e r y b e n e f i c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n t o t h e b r a i n . The f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n o f t h e b r a i n s e r v e s t o c o n d i t i o n t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m , i m p r o v e its r e a c t i o n t i m e , r e f l e x speed, preventing fatigue a n d strengthening resistance. Exercise is also capable of improving the functions of the kidneys, increasing the kidney's ability to eliminate the waste products of metabolism and absorption o f w a t e r a n d n e c e s s a r y s u b s t a n c e s . T h e skin a l s o b e n e f i t s f r o m e x e r c i s e a s circulation is increased, m e t a b o l i c processes are stimulated, t h e sensitivity of t h e skin improves a n d t h e a m o u n t o f resistance t o t h e external e n v i r o n m e n t i n c r e a s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e b e n e f i t s , e x e r c i s e a l s o i m p r o v e s t h e level o f functioning of the various glands and stimulates the production of new blood in the bone marrow. T h e r e f o r e , i f o n e w i s h e s t o e n j o y g o o d h e a l t h a n d a l o n g life, fit i n b o t h b o d y a n d spirit, t h e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a regular p r o g r a m o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . T h e value of such exercise has been substantiated by doctors, physiologists, t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e b o d y , m a r t i a l a r t i s t s a n d h i s t o r y itself. A f a m o u s French physician in t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n c e said, "Exercise can take t h e p l a c e o f m e d i c i n e , b u t all t h e m e d i c i n e i n t h e w o r l d c a n n o t t a k e t h e p l a c e o f exercise." T h e contemporary hundred year old master of X i n g Yi Quan, W a n g j i Wu says, " X i n g Y i Q u a n , t h e h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s o f X i n g Y i Q u a n , a n d t h e p r e - b i r t h m e t h o d of cultivation have been t h e treasures that h a v e given me a lifetime of b e n e f i t s i n g o o d h e a l t h . 1 h a v e p r a c t i c e d t h e m for n e a r l y o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s , a n d t h e t i m e has passed as q u i c k l y as a day. I h a v e n e v e r taken a break from t r a i n i n g a n d m y d i l i g e n c e h a s p a i d o f f i n a h e a l t h y b o d y a n d spirit, a c l e a r a n d q u i c k m i n d a n d w i s d o m . M y life i s p r o o f o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m e t h o d , s u p e r i o r t o a n y m e d i c i n e o r d r u g , a s t h e " m e d i c i n e " i n v o l v e d i n t h i s m e t h o d o f self c u l t i v a t i o n is f o u n d within oneself a n d s t r e n g t h e n s o n e from t h e very root of o n e ' s b e i n g . " A t o n e h u n d r e d years o f age M a s t e r W a n g ' s s t a t e o f h e a l t h i s a s f o l l o w s : T h e f u n c t i o n s o f h i s h e a r t a n d l u n g s a r e n o r m a l , his b l o o d p r e s s u r e i s n o r m a l , h i s digestion is excellent, his m i n d is perfectly clear, his eyesight is good, his heart is at peace a n d he always m a i n t a i n s an o p t i m i s t i c attitude. T h e above facts are a m p l e p r o o f that t h e practice of X i n g Yi Q u a n , t h e h e a l t h exercises a n d t h e preb i r t h m e t h o d o f c u l t i v a t i o n are a n e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m f o r p r o m o t i n g h e a l t h a n d l o n g life. T h i s system m a y serve as a base for t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of a long, p r o s p e r o u s a n d h e a l t h y life. T h e practice of internal martial arts provides t r e m e n d o u s benefits to t h e n e r v o u s system, glands, internal organs, skeletal system, m e r i d i a n s a n d j o i n t s w h i l e g e n e r a l l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g , b a l a n c i n g a n d t o n i n g o n e ' s e n t i r e p h y s i c a l self. T h e e f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e i n t h e a r e a o f r e c o v e r y f r o m i l l n e s s are o f t e n m o r e p r o n o u n c e d t h a n t h e i n g e s t i o n o f d r u g s . R e g u l a r e x e r c i s e i s t h e best m e t h o d o f strengthening one's physical make-up, improving the body's functions, s t i m u l a t i n g m e t a b o l i s m , i n s u r i n g a l o n g h e a l t h y life a n d a c t i v e l y p r e v e n t i n g h a r m f r o m a f f e c t i n g o n e ' s m i n d a n d spirit. I t i s a great p i t y t h a t s o m a n y p e o p l e still are u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m a n y b e n e f i t s o f e x e r c i s e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y are c o n t e n t to r e m a i n as t h e y arc. This is a great d e t r i m e n t to society as a w h o l e .

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The Dangers of Insufficient Exercise


B e c a u s e t h e l i f e s t y l e o f a g r e a t m a n y p e o p l e n e g l e c t s r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e , ill h e a l t h is often t h e direct or indirect result. Although t h e idea of insufficient exercise as a " d i s e a s e " is a n e w c o n c e p t in t h e m e d i c a l field, it is h o w e v e r a very real a n d serious p r o b l e m . Physical p r o b l e m s caused either directly or indirectly from lack of exercise usually develop slowly over a long period of t i m e a n d go u n n o t i c e d . W h e n t h e p r o b l e m starts t o c a u s e o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s i t i s o f t e n t o o l a t e lo effect a cure. Prevention is t h e m o s t effective m e t h o d of dealing with these t y p e s o f i l l n e s s . Regular e x e r c i s e will s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o d y a n d m a k e i t h e a l t h y , p r e v e n t i n g disease f r o m t h e inside. W h y d o e s i n s u f f i c i e n t e x e r c i s e lead t o p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s ? T h e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s a n d o r g a n s i n t h e b o d y all h a v e a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f reserve e n e r g y o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e a m o u n t typically n e e d e d for n o r m a l f u n c t i o n i n g . This reserve can b e c o m p a r e d t o t h e b a c k u p p o w e r r e s e r v e d f o r e m e r g e n c y use i n m a c h i n e s . For e x a m p l e , a person m a y survive with o n l y o n e kidney, a n d a small portion of t h e liver i s e n o u g h t o p e r f o r m t h e l i v e r ' s e n t i r e f u n c t i o n . T h e h e a r t t o o h a s a g r e a t d e a l o f reserve c a p a c i t y . For e x a m p l e , a y o u n g p e r s o n c a n g o t h r o u g h d a i l y life u s i n g o n l y fifty p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e i r h e a r t . T h e p r o b l e m s start w h e n t h e person does n o t get e n o u g h exercise, or t h e exercise t h e y do get is insufficient t o m a i n t a i n their reserves o f energy. T h e e n e r g y t h e b o d y n o r m a l l y h o l d s i n r e s e r v e i s s l o w l y r e d u c e d b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f u s e . A s far a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n c e r n e d , h e o r s h e feels n o r m a l a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n are also normal. T h e d a n g e r o f h a v i n g n o extra reserves o f energy for bodily f u n c t i o n s only b e c o m e s apparent w h e n t h e individual exerts effort b e y o n d the m i n i m u m . For e x a m p l e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a y c l i m b s t a i r s o r run a f e w s t e p s t o c a t c h a bus, suddenly n o t i c i n g shortness of b r e a t h or a racing heart. Ability to a d j u s t t o e x t r e m e s i n t e m p e r a t u r e a n d r e s i s t a n c e t o all t y p e s o f d i s e a s e i s l o w e r e d . F i n a l l y , w h e n t h e b o d y ' s e n e r g y reserves a r e e n t i r e l y g o n e , m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s will o f t e n u n c o v e r p r o b l e m s t h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e v e n t e d a n d o f t e n t r e a t m e n t a t t h i s stage i s t o o l a t e . M o d e r n m e d i c i n e n o longer l o o k s a t t h e a b s e n c e o f o b v i o u s disease a s t h e definition of health. O t h e r factors, such as the state and functional capabilities of the organs a n d physical e n d u r a n c e are taken into account w h e n deciding on t h e state of an individual's h e a l t h . Because c h a n g e occurs so rapidly in b o t h nature a n d society in our m o d e r n world, people of today have to cope with threats to their health that were n o n e x i s t e n t i n t h e past. For i n s t a n c e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a b o r s a v i n g d e v i c e s , automobiles, television, industrialization, and increased competition in the w o r k p l a c e h a v e all c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e stress o f life w h i l e r e d u c i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y for exercise. P a r t i c u l a r l y h a r m f u l a r e t h e d i s a s t r o u s results o f insufficient exercise, and this problem deserves special a t t e n t i o n .

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Physical Labor is Not a Substitute for Systematic Physical Exercise


Here I w o u l d like t o r e m i n d t h o s e w h o still h a v e n o t m a d e r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e a p a r t o f t h e i r lives, f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , t h a t t h e w h o l e issue o f m a i n t a i n i n g physical fitness goes b e y o n d t h e individual's personal health a n d also influences o n e ' s f a m i l y a n d society as a w h o l e . E v e r y o n e s h o u l d try to participate in an exercise p r o g r a m t o e n h a n c e their quality o f h e a l t h a n d life. T h e r e a r e a l s o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o feel t h a t b e c a u s e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n involves s o m e sort of physical labor t h e y do n o t n e e d to e n g a g e in a s y s t e m a t i c physical fitness program. T h i s is an erroneous a s s u m p t i o n . W h i l e it is true t h a t physical labor provides some beneficial exercise, t h e problem is that the exercise i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o c e r t a i n m u s c l e s o r f u n c t i o n s , w h i l e t h e rest o f t h e b o d y r e c e i v e s little o r n o b e n e f i t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t o d a y ' s era o f s p e c i a l i z e d labor. T h e result of specialization is t h e repeated p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e s a m e m o t i o n over an e x t e n d e d period of time, often resulting in overwork and injury to the overused part of the body. A good e x a m p l e is w o m e n involved in weaving t e x t i l e s . A s t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o s t a n d all d a y i n a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n , t h e y o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e p a i n i n t h e legs a n d w a i s t , v a r i c o s e v e i n s a n d p r o l a p s e s . T h o s e e n g a g e d in heavy physical labor, such as t h e loading a n d u n l o a d i n g of cargo also h a v e p r o b l e m s w i t h p a i n i n t h e legs a n d w a i s t a n d a r t h r i t i s . M i n e r s o f t e n h a v e p r o b l e m s with their j o i n t s a n d lungs. It c a n be seen from t h e above e x a m p l e s that t h e r e are g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r e s u l t s o f l a b o r a n d a p r o g r a m o f s y s t e m a t i c e x e r c i s e . S y s t e m a t i c e x e r c i s e p r o v i d e s m o t i o n f o r all o f t h e j o i n t s a n d muscles and stimulates t h e nervous system in a beneficial way, p r o m o l i n g a pleasant calmness while reducing fatigue. Therefore, individuals should c h o o s e a program of regular exercise a c c o r d i n g to their physical c o n d i t i o n a n d needs a n d b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g a h e a l t h y b o d y a n d spirit. W h e n r e v i e w i n g t h e m e t h o d s o f b e n e f i c i a l e x e r c i s e , qigonghas t a k e n its p l a c e a l o n g s i d e m a r t i a l arts a n d s p o r t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s a n d m u s t n o t b e o v e r l o o k e d . Q i gong h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f g r e a t n u m b e r s o f p e o p l e a n d h a s h a d a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e o n t h e lives o f m a n y . I n t h e a r e a s o f i m p r o v i n g t h e p e o p l e ' s p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , p r o t e c t i n g h e a l t h , c u r i n g i l l n e s s a n d e x t e n d i n g life, t h e r e s u l t s o f q i gong p r a c t i c e h a v e b e e n e s p e c i a l l y p r o n o u n c e d . T h e h i s t o r y of qi gong is v e r y l o n g a n d its s o u r c e s v a r i e d . B u d d h i s t s , D a o i s t s , C o n f u c i a n i s t s , C h i n e s e m e d i c a l practitioners, martial artists, a n d t h e arts o f X i n g Y i Q u a n , Tai J i Q u a n , B a G u a Z h a n g a n d S h a o f i n Q u a n all h a v e t h e i r o w n theories, m e t h o d s of practice a n d special characteristics. Each of these m e t h o d s c o n t a i n d e e p a n d s e e m i n g l y mysterious practices at h i g h e r levels of training. In C h i n a during the end of the decade of the 19S0's a n d the beginning of the 1 9 6 0 ' s , t h e p r a c t i c e o f qigong f o r h e a l t h , c u r i n g d i s e a s e a n d p r o l o n g i n g life h a d a l r e a d y g a i n e d a c c e p t a n c e . After t w o d e c a d e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , q i gong h a s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y a n d its p r a c t i c e h a s b e c o m e widespread, m o s t n o t a b l y in t h e areas of treating c h r o n i c illness, i n c r e a s i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o d i s e a s e , raising t h e level o f h e a l t h a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e body. By now people enthusiastically welcome the opportunity to practice qi gong. A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e t y p e s o f qigong ami m e t h o d s o f t r a i n i n g h a v e " g r o w n

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as b a m b o o after t h e spring rain," with ever increasing popularity. M a s t e r W a n g j i W u h a s p r o l o n g e d his y e a r s past h i s o n e h u n d r e d t h b i r t h d a y a n d h a s b e n e f i t e d g r e a t l y f r o m t h e p r a c t i c e o f p r e - b i r t h qigong and t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . B a s e d o n h i s life l o n g e x p e r i e n c e , m a s t e r y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d m e t h o d of Xing Yi Quan and personal insights and breakthroughs, Master W a n g has taken into consideration the requirements of the prevention and curing of d i s e a s e , h e a l t h a n d life e x t e n s i o n a n d h a s d e v e l o p e d a m e t h o d o f s i m p l e e x e r c i s e s u i t a b l e for t h o s e o f a n y a g e o r s e x , a s well a s t h e w e a k a n d i n f i r m . M a s t e r W a n g o f f e r s h i s s y s t e m o f p h y s i c a l c u l t i v a t i o n t o all p e o p l e i n t h e h o p e s t h a t i t will i m p r o v e t h e h e a l t h a n d q u a l i t y o f life o f t h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e . Master W a n g j i Wu c o m b i n e d the elements of Buddhist pre-birth m e t h o d s of cultivation with the Xing Yi Q u a n system of internal cultivation and his o w n precious experience to form a unique system of exercises which, although deep in principle, are easy to practice. T h e m e t h o d utilizes n a t u r a l , a b d o m i n a l r e s p i r a t i o n to s t r e n g t h e n t h e p r e - b i r t h o r i g i n a l yang qi. T h e result is a m e t h o d w h i c h o p e n s t h e p a t h w a y s o f b l o o d a n d e n e r g y , i n c r e a s e s i n t e r n a l p o w e r , rids o n e o f disease a n d i m p r o v e s t h e h e a l t h . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m a i n t a i n a c h e e r f u l a n d o p t i m i s t i c state o f m i n d , r e l e a s i n g a n y c o n c e p t s t h a t are n o t c o n d u c i v e t o g o o d h e a l t h , a s w e l l a s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e " s e v e n e m o t i o n s a n d six d e s i r e s . " O n e s h o u l d k e e p a q u i e t a n d h a p p y h e a r t , a l l o w i n g t h e b o d y t o r e m a i n i n its n o r m a l s t a t e . T h i s will a l l o w o n e t o h a v e a h e a r t a s c a l m a s still w a t e r , c o m f o r t a b l e , a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d s o t h a t t h e h e a r t a n d spirit u n i t e a s o n e . T h e b r e a t h s h o u l d b e n a t u r a l a n d s m o o t h w i t h t h e t o n g u e p r e s s i n g a g a i n s t t h e r o o f o f t h e m o u t h , t h e lips g e n t l y c l o s e d , t h e e y e s l o o k i n g " i n w a r d " a n d t h e ears l i s t e n i n g t o t h e self, t h e h e a r t a n d b r e a t h a r e c o o r d i n a t e d a n d t h e i n t e n t is on t h e dan tian. From t h e e x t r e m e of stillness, m o t i o n is b o r n . W h e n t h e heart is quiet a n d t h e b o d y r e l a x e d , o n e will c o m e t o a state o f " e m p t i n e s s " i n w h i c h t h e self i s f o r g o t t e n . I n t h i s s t a t e , t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yang q i will fill t h e b o d y a n d c i r c u l a t e f r e e l y o f its o w n a c c o r d . I n t h i s s t a t e o f q u i e t r e l a x a t i o n , o n e s h o u l d practice t h e X i n g Yi exercises for h e a l t h . T h e m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d s m o o t h l y a n d r h y t h m i c a l l y w h i l e a d h e r i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e n o n e will naturally receive the b e n e f i t s of a l o n g a n d h e a l t h y life.

Xing

Yi Nei

Gong

f t

i ^

Xing Yi Quan boxers in Shanxi Province, May 3 1 , 1 9 6 0


W a n g J i W u w a s not t h e only e x a m p l e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n ' s t r e m e n d o u s h e a l t h benefits. Pictured above a r e a group of X i n g Yi Q u a n practitioners in S h a n x i P r o v i n c e i n 1 9 6 0 . S o n g T i e L i n ( f i r s t row, s e c o n d f r o m l e f t ) , a s t u d e n t a n d n e p h e w o f S o n g S h i R o n g , lived t o b e 9 4 y e a r s old. B u X u e K u a n ( f i r s t row t h i r d from l e f t ) , a s t u d e n t o f C h e Y i Z h a i , lived t o b e 9 6 y e a r s old. L i G u i C h a n g ( l a s t row, f a r r i g h t I i s c u r r e n t l y 8 2 y e a r s uld a n d l i v e s i n T a i y u a n , S h a n x i P r o v i n c e . L i still p r a c t i c e s X i n g Yi Quan every day.

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Wangji Wu's son, Wang Lian Yi, writes about his father's health maintenance and body strengthening program Translated by Tim Cartmell
I n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f life, b o t h m o v e m e n t a n d s t i l l n e s s a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . Master W a n g j i W u ' s understanding of X i n g Yi Q u a n is very profound, especially i n t h e a r e a o f i n t e r n a l c u l t i v a t i o n . His e x p e r i e n c e i s u n i q u e . I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n ' s i n t e r n a l e x e r c i s e s , M a s t e r W a n g h a s r e a c h e d t h e level w h e r e t h e skill h a s b e c o m e o n e w i t h h i s v e r y self, a n d h i s i n t e r n a l p o w e r i s t r e m e n d o u s . H e has c o m e to t h e state in w h i c h " b o x i n g is n o t - b o x i n g . " Of his a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n X i n g Y i Q u a n , t h e m o s t n o t e w o r t h y i s t h e set o f s i x t e e n h e a l t h e x e r c i s e s w h i c h h e c o m p i l e d f r o m his p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e e x e r c i s e s a r e t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e b e s t o f t h e M a s t e r ' s k n o w l e d g e . I f t h e e x e r c i s e s are p r a c t i c e d d i l i g e n t l y , o n e m a y e l i m i n a t e illness, i m p r o v e t h e h e a l t h a n d e x t e n d o n e ' s life. Master W a n g encouraged t h e public to study these exercises, as his wish was to c o n t r i b u t e to t h e h e a l t h a n d w e l f a r e o f all. S u c h i s t h e h o p e o f t h e m a s t e r , a n d t h e p e o p l e ' s benefit has b e e n great. R e g a r d i n g t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n , i t i s n o t o n l y t h e p r a c t i c e o f f o r m b u t a l s o possesses a very a d v a n c e d t h e o r y of c o m b a t . T h e fighting t e c h n i q u e s are highly r e f i n e d a n d f l o w t h r o u g h c h a n g e s w i t h o u t e n d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e art i n c l u d e s a p r o f o u n d m e t h o d of internal cultivation w h i c h is relatively u n k n o w n . In t h e past, this system of internal exercise was t a u g h t o n l y to a d v a n c e d students of t h e s t y l e , a n d o n l y a f t e r t h e y h a d r e a c h e d a v e r y h i g h level i n t h e a r t . T h e art o f X i n g Yi Quan includes methods of both internal and external cultivation, and m o v e m e n t a n d s t i l l n e s s a r e s e e n a s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . I t c a n b e said o f t h e art t h a t t h e so-called " e x t e r n a l " m o v e m e n t s are based on t h e f o u n d a t i o n of internal c u l t i v a t i o n . W i t h t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l i n c o o r d i n a t i o n t h e f o r m a n d spirit m a y u n i t e , w i t h t h e f o r m a s t h e " b o d y " a n d t h e spirit a s t h e " u s e . " I n t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n t h e s o c a l l e d e x t e r n a l p r a c t i c e s h o u l d h a v e a s its g o a l t h e strengthening of the internal, with the accumulation of internal power as the goal. Therefore, Master W a n g places equal importance on b o t h internal and e x t e r n a l p r a c t i c e a n d w h e n c u l t i v a t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r t h e p r i s t i n e yangqiand t h e dan tian n o u r i s h e s t h e w h o l e b o d y . T h e q i will b e full a n d t h e m e r i d i a n s c l e a r , t h e b l o o d a n d q i s u f f i c i e n t , t h e b o d y h e a l t h y a n d t h e spirit full, r e s u l t i n g i n a l o n g a n d h a p p y life. M a s t e r W a n g f o l l o w e d t h e Dao, w o r s h i p e d t h e g o d s a n d sat i n m e d i t a t i o n . H e p r a c t i c e d t h e m e t h o d o f c u l t i v a t i n g t h e life f o r c e , w h i c h p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i c e o f b o x i n g , o r i n t e r n a l e x e r c i s e (qigong) i n t h r e e s t a g e s , n a m e l y c h a n g i n g e s s e n c e t o qi, c h a n g i n g q i t o spirit a n d c h a n g i n g spirit t o t h e v o i d . T h r o u g h t h i s process t h e s t r e n g t h a c q u i r e d after birth is replaced by t h e original, pre-birth s t r e n g t h a n d t h e g o a l o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e life f o r c e i s r e a l i z e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a healthy b o d y a n d long life. Master W a n g put even m o r e effort i n t o cultivating t h e original nature. T h i s is achieved t h r o u g h w o r s h i p i n g t h e gods a n d m e d i t a t i n g at a very h i g h level. It i s a t t h i s s t a g e t h e spirit i s c h a n g e d t o t h e v o i d . T h e T h r e e T r e a s u r e s a c q u i r e d a f t e r o n e i s b o r n a r e t h e e s s e n c e , q i a n d t h e spirit. T h e T h r e e T r e a s u r e s o f o n e ' s p r e -

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b i r t h o r i g i n a l n a t u r e are o r i g i n a l qi ( p o s t - b i r t h qi is e q u i v a l e n t to air), spirit, a n d o n e ' s n a t u r e . S i n c e t h e c h a n g i n g o f t h e spirit i n t o v o i d i s s o i m p o r t a n t , M a s t e r W a n g p l a c e d s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n this gong fu. W i t h t h e c h a n g i n g o f spirit t o v o i d t h e o r i g i n a l , p r e - b i r t h q i fills t h e b o d y , c a u s i n g o n e ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e t o rise t o a h i g h e r s t a t e , t h e m i n d b e c o m e s p u r e a n d w i s d o m i s t h e result. I f o n e w i s h e s t o see further ahead, o n e must c l i m b to a higher place. So it is with t h e cultivation o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a t u r e ; o n e m u s t c u l t i v a t e t h e self c o n t i n u o u s l y o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n i n g t o o n e ' s o r i g i n a l self. T h e c u l t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s c a n b e c o m p a r e d t o t h e r e f i n i n g o f steel a h u n d r e d t i m e s o v e r w h i c h i n t h e e n d i s c a p a b l e o f r e p e l l i n g evil f o r a t h o u s a n d m i l e s . Master W a n g m a d e use of Xing Yi b o x i n g a n d t h e m e t h o d of cultivating t h e original essence to open up his internal energy systems, allowing the pre-birth, o r i g i n a l yang qi to flow- u n i m p e d e d . This o r i g i n a l , p r e - b i r t h yang qi a c c u m u l a t e s i n a n d fills t h e ittin tian, s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e r o o t o f o n e ' s life, p r e v e n t i n g d i s e a s e , p r e s e r v i n g h e a l t h a n d e x t e n d i n g life. O n e o f t e n h e a r s t h e s a y i n g : " I t i s p r e f e r a b l e to supplement one's health with food than with medicine, but strengthening o n e ' s h e a l t h b y s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e spirit i s b e s t o f a l l . " T h e p r i n c i p l e h e r e i s t h e essence of Master Wang's method. O n e s h o u l d b e c o m e a d e p t a t c u l t i v a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l , p r e - b i r t h yang qi, t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g i n v a s i o n b y a n y h a r m f u l a g e n t s . T h i s o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yang q i i s c u l t i v a t e d t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i c e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n a n d qigong ( t h e p r e - b i r t h m e t h o d o f c u l t i v a t i o n ) . T h e q i t h e n b e c o m e s full a n d i s s t o r e d i n t h e dan tian. T h e X i n g Y i Q u a n c l a s s i c s s t a t e : " C u l t i v a t i o n ofthe</<iHiiYristhc t r e a s u r e o f l o n g life, t e n t h o u s a n d c a t t i e s o f g o l d c a n n e v e r r e a l l y b e p o s s e s s e d b y m a n . " O f c o u r s e , i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e dan tian, o n e m u s t h a v e t h e c o r r e c t m e t h o d , p r a c t i c e d i l i g e n t l y w i t h o u t a b r e a k , " a s if t e n years p a s s e s as a s i n g l e d a y . " T h i s is t h e formula for success. Practice a n d cultivation c a n n o t be separated. O n e m u s t p r a c t i c e s i n c e r e l y a n d c u l t i v a t e o n e s e l f w i t h a f o c u s e d h e a r t , o n l y t h e n will t h e t r e a s u r e o f life b e p r e s e r v e d . E x t e r n a l p r a c t i c e a n d i n t e r n a l c u l t i v a t i o n a r e o f equal importance, even to the extent that oftentimes the internal cultivation is t h e key t o success. O n e m u s t n e v e r forget internal c u l t i v a t i o n a n d o n l y focus o n the external practice. It should be pointed out that external practice a n d internal cultivation are a c t u a l l y t w o sides o f t h e s a m e c o i n . T h e y are d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r a n d a r e mutually supportive of t h e other's growth. T h e m e a n i n g of being adept at c u l t i v a t i o n i s self e v i d e n t , i t refers l o v a l u i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o w h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , p u t t i n g all o n e ' s h e a r t i n t o t h i s c u l t i v a t i o n i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t h e self. First, o n e m u s t realize t h a t i n t e r n a l c u l t i v a t i o n i s a t r e a s u r e o f life. A l t h o u g h t h i s f o r m s t h e v e r y f i b e r o f o n e ' s b e i n g , still i n o r d e r t o b e m a d e m a n i f e s t onem u s t a c c u m u l a t e o v e r t i m e . T h i s c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e self c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d i n a s h o r t t i m e , b u t r a t h e r r e q u i r e s a l i f e t i m e o f a t t e n t i v e e f f o r t . I f o n e forgets o n e s e l f and indulges in that which is harmful, o n c e the damage is done, no a m o u n t of m o n e y will b e a b l e t o r e p a i r it, m o r e o v e r , t h e r e will b e h a r m t o o n e ' s h e a l t h a n d l o n g e v i t y , great c a u t i o n i s a d v i s e d . W h e n c u l t i v a t i n g t h e self, b e s i d e s c r e a t i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t necessary, o n e m u s t always seek t o protect t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yangqi, i n s u r i n g its c o n t i n u e d d e v e l o p m e n t , l i v i n g a life of few desires, d e v e l o p i n g a very deep a n d powerful internal e n e r g y to t h e u t m o s t degree. At t h e s a m e t i m e , o n e m u s t also guard against t h e invasion by a n y

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harmful influences from the outside. I f o n e r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y free o f t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e s e n s e s , h a r m f u l o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s will n o t b e a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e self. A c c o r d i n g t o B u d d h i s t t h o u g h t , t h e " s i x s e n s e s " w h i c h m u s t r e m a i n f r e e o f d e s i r e are t h e e y e s , ears, n o s e , t o n g u e , body, and mind. O n e m u s t guard against allowing pernicious influences e n t e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e s e n s e o r g a n s b y a l w a y s m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h level o f p u r e t h o u g h t . H a r m f u l e f f e c t s are i n v a r i a b l y b r o u g h t a b o u t first t h r o u g h t h e i n t e l l e c t c r e a t i n g a t h o u g h t w h i c h later b e c o m e s t h e f o c u s o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n , f i n a l l y resulting in t h e t h o u g h t b e c o m i n g actualized in reality. This is the s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s w h i c h h a r m s t h e o r i g i n a l , p r e - b i r t h yang qi. A s t h i s h a r m h a s very s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s , o n e m u s t n e v e r treat t h i s t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n l i g h t l y , a s t o d o s o i s to invite disaster. O n e should avoid o v e r i n d u l g e n c e or impulsiveness w i t h regard to t h e seven e m o t i o n s : j o y , a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , w o r r y , s a d n e s s , fear o r s u r p r i s e . T h e r e a s o n i s an excess of a n y of these e m o t i o n s influences t h e tranquility of the heart, causes adverse reactions in t h e internal organs, i m p e d e s circulation, p r o m o t e s illness a n d i s h a r m f u l t o t h e o r i g i n a l , p r e - b i r t h qi. T h e e s s e n c e , qi, a n d spirit are t h e v e r y r o o t s o f life. A n e x c e s s o f s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i s h a r m f u l t o t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h qi. S e x u a l e x c e s s a l s o c a u s e s a d e p l e t i o n o f t h e e s s e n c e a n d qi, w h i c h i n t u r n i s h a r m f u l t o t h e dan tian. O n e m u s t g u a r d a g a i n s t t h i s e x c e s s a t all c o s t s , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t d i s e a s e a n d p r o l o n g life. O n e m u s t guard against t h e h a r m f u l i n f l u e n c e s of the four seasons: coldness, dampness, humidity, excessive heat, and dryness. T h e harmful effects of the w e a t h e r can lead to infection by disease w h i c h is e x t r e m e l y h a r m f u l to t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h qi. O n e should m a k e efforts to direct one's t h o u g h t s toward o p e n i n g n e w c h a n n e l s o f useful e n e r g y w h i l e r e s t r i c t i n g t h e w a s t e o f m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s . O n e s h o u l d a l w a y s s t r i v e t o w a r d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h q i a n d its c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h e g o a l i s t o e l i m i n a t e all areas w h i c h are h a r m f u l t o o r a d r a i n on one's energy resources. This is the m e t h o d of beneficial cultivation. T h e r e s h o u l d b e o r d e r i n e v e r y d a y life a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s o n f o o d a n d d r i n k . O n l y w h e n o n e ' s life i s o r d e r l y a n d s t a b l e i s o n e a b l e t o p e r s e v e r e i n c o n s i s t e n t training. O n e s h o u l d guard against disorder in o n e ' s schedule. Books, newspapers a n d m a g a z i n e s s h o u l d b e read o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s . B e f o r e a r i s i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d b e f o r e s l e e p i n g a t n i g h t t h e r e i s a set o f e x e r c i s e s t h a t will p r o m o t e h e a l t h . O n e s h o u l d t a k e a " d r y b a t h . " T h e m e t h o d is to r u b t h e dan tian, p e r i n e u m , yong quan p o i n t s ( o n t h e s o l e s of t h e f e e t ) , a n d t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k * . U p o n a r i s i n g o n e s h o u l d r o t a t e t h e waist, lift t h e legs a n d t h e n exercise or practice the elements of X i n g Yi Quan. Following this m e t h o d will increase o n e ' s internal strength. Food and drink should be simple and plain. T h e protein intake must be adequate but t h e bulk of f o o d should be low calorie/high nutrition. O n e should e a t f o o d s like f i s h , v e g e t a b l e s a n d l e n t i l s . Pay a t t e n t i o n t o c l e a n l i n e s s i n c h o o s i n g a n d preparing f o o d . Stay away f r o m foods t h a t are sweet, oily or t o o strong. N e v e r o v e r e a t . I n w i n t e r , i t i s g o o d t o e a t s o m e m u t t o n , eggs s o a k e d i n S h a o x i n g w i n e o r s w e e t rice w i n e a n d g i n s e n g c h i c k e n s o u p . O n e s h o u l d e a t m a n y , s m a l l meals a day. Food should be chewed thoroughly and swallowed slowly. * See Xing Yi Exercises Performed Tying un a Bed on page 183 97

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F o l l o w i n g t h e a b o v e a d v i c e will a i d i n d i g e s t i o n a n d a s s i m i l a t i o n . A g a i n , o n e must never overeat or overdrink. O n e must n o t s m o k e . K e e p t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c l e a n , fee o f p o l l u t a n t s a n d a s q u i e t a s p o s s i b l e . T h e r o o m s o f t h e h o u s e s h o u l d b e c l e a n , airy, s u n n y , w a r m b u t n o t t o o h o t . I t i s g o o d t o g r o w p l e n t y o f p l a n t s i n t h e h o u s e a n d k e e p fresh air f l o w i n g . C l o t h e s should be kept clean, c h a n g e d o f t e n a n d dried in t h e sun. S o m e examples of individuals w h o m h a v e practiced this system of health e x e r c i s e a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e a r e listed b e l o w : W a n g Xiu is an assistant professor at t h e Beijing Normal University. He is e i g h t y years o l d . M r . W a n g s t u d i e d t h e X i n g Y i s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e set o f h e a l t h b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h M a s t e r W a n g J i W u , p r a c t i c i n g d a i l y , all y e a r r o u n d without interruption. At eighty W a n g Xiu enjoys good health, with n o n e of the h e a l t h p r o b l e m s c o m m o n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o l d age, s u c h a s h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e , h e a r t d i s e a s e o r p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . His e y e s i g h t , h e a r i n g , m e n t a l f a c u l t i e s a n d m e m o r y a r e all n o r m a l . M r . W a n g ' s d i g e s t i o n i s e x c e l l e n t , h i s a p p e t i t e g o o d a n d h e i s e n e r g e t i c a n d full o f spirit. M a C h u n Y u n i s a n e i g h t y five y e a r o l d r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l . M r . M a h a s p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o c u l t i v a t i n g h i s h e a l t h b y l e a d i n g a n o r d e r l y life, m a i n t a i n i n g a positive attitude a n d r e m a i n i n g active. He practices t h e pre-birth m e t h o d of c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h p r o n o u n c e d results. H e i s i n e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h , h i s e y e s i g h t a n d h e a r i n g are v e r y g o o d , h e i s full o f spirit, a n d h e reads a n d w r i t e s e v e r y d a y . M r . M a m e d i t a t e s t w i c e a d a y , q u i e t i n g his m i n d a n d c u l t i v a t i n g h i s o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h qi. After e a c h s e s s i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n h e feels c o m f o r t a b l e a n d full o f e n e r g y . I f M r . M a feels u n c o m f o r t a b l e , o r a n y p a r t o f h i s b o d y i s i n p a i n , h e uses h i s t i m e in m e d i t a t i o n to circulate his original pre-birth qi to t h e area and experiences i m m e d i a t e relief. H e feels t h e b e n e f i t s o f m e d i t a t i o n t o b e v e r y p r o n o u n c e d a n d i s e v e n m o r e r e s o l u t e i n h i s d a i l y p r a c t i c e . M a C h u n Y u n feels t h a t h i s p r a c t i c e o f c u l t i v a t i n g t h e h e a l t h t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n i s r e a l l y a t r e a s u r e o f life. Liu De Tai is a n i n e t y y e a r o l d r e t i r e d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l . After r e t i r e m e n t M r . Liu k e p t a c t i v e w i t h d a i l y w a l k s . U t e r , i t w a s h i s g o o d f o r t u n e t o l e a r n t h e X i n g Y i s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s f o r h e a l t h f r o m M a s t e r W a n g j i W u . M r . Liu p r a c t i c e d t h e exercises diligently, b u t f o u n d t h e m s o m e w h a t difficult at times. He p e r s i s t e d a n d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g b e g a n t o feel m u c h s t r o n g e r . Mr. Liu n o w w a l k s w i t h a s t r o n g s t e p a n d i s full o f v i g o r . M r . Liu p r a c t i c e s t h e X i n g Y i e x e r c i s e s for a half h o u r every m o r n i n g , followed by a walk. In t h e e v e n i n g he practices t h e e x e r c i s e s a g a i n . I n d a i l y life h e p a y s a t t e n t i o n t o p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e w e a t h e r , e a t i n g c o r r e c t l y a n d t a k i n g c a r e o f a n y m i n o r i l l n e s s e s t h a t m a y arise. I f h e e v e r feels u n d e r t h e w e a t h e r , h e n o t i c e s a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g his e x e r c i s e s h e will s w e a t l i g h t l y a n d t h e d i s c o m f o r t d i s a p p e a r s . H e rarely n e e d s t o t a k e m e d i c i n e . M r . Liu b e l i e v e s I n m a i n t a i n i n g a p o s i t i v e a n d h a p p y o u t l o o k o n life, a n d i s c a r e f u l n o t t o let h i s e m o t i o n s h a v e t o o g r e a t a n i n f l u e n c e o n h i m . H e r e c o m m e n d s t h e X i n g Y i e x e r c i s e s a s t h e y are e a s y t o s t u d y , c a n b e p r a c t i c e d a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a c e a n d w h e n m a t c h e d with b r e a t h i n g are especially beneficial to t h e elderly. O t h e r a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s s y s t e m are t h a t i t r e q u i r e s n o p r e p a r a t i o n a n d v e r y little s p a c e t o p r a c t i c e , w h i l e t h e b e n e f i t s a r e o u t s t a n d i n g . For Liu L>e T a i , t h e X i n g Y i e x e r c i s e s h a v e b e c o m e a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e part o f l i f e .

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A Brief Introduction to the Xing Yi Sixteen Health Exercises


by Wang Huan Sheng edited and revised by Zhang Bao Yang, Wang Jin Yu, and He Yu Qi translated by Tim Cartmell
T h e Sixteen Health Exercises (hereafter referred to as t h e Sixteen Exercises) w e r e o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d t h e X i n Y i Liu H e S i x t e e n M o v e m e n t s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l T r a i n i n g ( X i n Y i Liu H e i s a l s o c a l l e d X i n Y i Q u a n , Liu H e Q u a n a n d i s p r e s e n t l y called X i n g Yi Q u a n a n d is so n a m e d for t h e r e m a i n d e r of this article). T h e y were developed out of a long period of training in the Xing Yi Q u a n m e t h o d . Below is a brief description of their origins, special points, effects, a n d m e t h o d of performance.

Origins
X i n g Y i Q u a n i s o n e o f t h e t h r e e o r t h o d o x i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l arts ( t o g e t h e r w i t h T a l j i Q u a n a n d B a G u a Z h a n g ) . X i n g Y i Q u a n s p e c i a l i z e s i n "gang" o r h a r d p o w e r . T h e Xing Yi Quan Canon of Boxing ( h e r e a f t e r referred to as t h e Boxing Canon) in r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e q u e n c e o f t r a i n i n g s t a t e s : " T h o s e w h o b e g i n t o s t u d y m u s t first s t a n d in t h e San Ti Shi p o s t u r e , a n d a f t e r w a r d s p r a c t i c e m o v i n g f o r m s . " San Ti Shi i s t h e s t a n c e k e e p i n g e x e r c i s e o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . T h e m o v i n g f o r m s refers t o t h e Five E l e m e n t s . T h e s e a r e t h e b a s i c m o v e m e n t s o f t h e a r t . N o m a t t e r i f o n e p r a c t i c e s t h e San T i p o s t u r e o r t h e f o r m s , all m u s t c o n f o r m t o t h e p r o p e r f o r m a n d m e t h o d o f p o w e r u n i q u e l o X i n g Y i Q u a n , t h e s e i n c l u d e : c h i c k e n leg, d r a g o n b o d y , b e a r s h o u l d e r s , t i g e r h o l d i n g h e a d , a n d t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l six h a r m o n i e s . T h e San T i p o s t u r e a n d t h e five e l e m e n t s are t w o sides o f t h e s a m e c o i n . San T i i s t h e still v e r s i o n o f t h e five e l e m e n t s , t h e five e l e m e n t f o r m s a r c t h e d y n a m i c v e r s i o n o f t h e San T i p o s t u r e . T o g e t h e r t h e y f o r m t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e art of X i n g Yi Q u a n . W h e t h e r s t a n d i n g in San Ti Shi or p r a c t i c i n g t h e five e l e m e n t s , o n e m u s t a l w a y s c o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d qi, b e r e l a x e d a n d n a t u r a l , a n d never use brute force. From t h e p o i n t of view of t h e various parts of t h e b o d y a n d o r g a n s , i f o n e d o e s n o t c o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit o n e will h a v e a h i g h level o f nervous tension. Because of this, if o n e d o c s not take time to perform t h e necessary p r e l i m i n a r y m o v e m e n t s w h i c h calm t h e b o d y a n d prepare it for t r a i n i n g , i t will b e e a s y i o suffer h a r m . I n a d d i t i o n , i n a n c i e n t t i m e s , m a n y p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t h e m a r t i a l arts t r a i n e d n o t o n l y f o r h e a l t h , b u t a l s o i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a h i g h l e v e l o f r e f i n e d m a r t i a l skill. T h e y o f t e n e x p e n d e d a g r e a t a m o u n t o f t i m e i n i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . For t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g , p r o p e r p r e p a r a t o r y exercises were even m o r e i m p o r t a n t . T h e Boxing Canon, i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e correct m e t h o d a n d s e q u e n c e of training states: " B e g i n by m o v i n g softly, gently

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a n d slowly in order to s o o t h e a n d o p e n t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue a n d bones, this g u i d e s t h e qi a n d p o w e r a n d leads it c o r r e c t l y . After a p e r i o d of p r a c t i c e , it is g o o d to use m o r e force and speed in order to increase t h e internal p o w e r for practical application." It is apparent f r o m this passage t h a t t h e Boxers of previous generations were familiar with the correct sequence of training. The above m e n t i o n e d s e q u e n c e of training is in c o m p l e t e a c c o r d a n c e with t h e rules of physical education. Therefore, in t h e long run correct training is founded on c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o f b a s i c p r e p a r a t o r y m o v e m e n t s . Still, m a n y i n s t r u c t o r s would neglect the preparatory m o v e m e n t s . To remedy this situation, Master W a n g j i Wu built on the foundation of the teachings of his teacher, W a n g Fu Y u a n , a n d c o m p i l e d t h e b a s i c e x e r c i s e s i n t o a set m e t h o d . T h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s c a n b e p r a c t i c e d a l o n e a s a s y s t e m o f h e a l t h b u i l d i n g , o r t h e y c a n be used as a preparatory warm up and post exercise c o o l down. In addition, these exercises c a n be used for o s t e o p a t h i c rehabilitation. Several decades of practice have proven their efficacy in the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d areas.

Special Points
1 ) T h e s e m o v e m e n t s are based o n t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s for X i n g Y i p o w e r training. Everyone knows that X i n g Yi requires o n e to " h o l d the chest and stretch the back," " s i n k t h e shoulders and drop the elbows," and not to "stickout t h e c h e s t a n d lift t h e s t o m a c h . " I n p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s t h e s e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a p p l y t h r o u g h o u t . I n t h e first e x e r c i s e s " C i r c l i n g t h e A r m s i n Front of the C h e s t , " the second exercise " T h e Jade Dragon Weaves Around the Body," and the third exercise " O p e n i n g and Closing Soothes the Meridians" w h i l e standing in a horse stance, it is apparent that t h e chest is held a n d t h e b a c k i s s t r e t c h e d , e t c . B u t e v e n i n t h e f i f t e e n t h e x e r c i s e "Yin O p e n s a n d Yang C l o s e s , " w h i c h i s a b r e a t h i n g e x e r c i s e , t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e s still a p p l y . 2) T h e s e exercises not o n l y address t h e external form, t h e y also pay a t t e n t i o n to the development of internal power. T h e two types of training should unite as one. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t o n e s h o u l d first o p e n t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue a n d relax t h e body, s o m e of t h e m o v e m e n t s are to be d o n e with the greatest range of m o t i o n possible. T h e purpose is to o p e n a n d s o o t h e t h e j o i n t s b y m o v i n g t h e m t h r o u g h t h e i r full r a n g e o f m o t i o n . A l t h o u g h m o s t o f t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e five e l e m e n t s a n d t w e l v e f o r m s d o n o t r e q u i r e m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h a full r a n g e o f m o t i o n , still t h e e x t r a f l e x i b i l i t y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s will a d d t o t h e b o d y ' s p o w e r . T h e r e f o r e , X i n g Y i Q u a n p l a c e s great i m p o r t a n c e o n t h e s e m o v e m e n t s . J u s t a s t h e b o x i n g f o r m s o f X i n g Y i are p r a c t i c e d i n s i n g l e m o v e m e n t f o r m s , s o t o o are t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e Sixteen Exercises. W h y should m o v e m e n t s b e p e r f o r m e d s i n g l y a n d r e p e t i t i v e l y ? T h e Boxing Canon s t a t e s " X i n g Y i Q u a n h a s m a n y s i n g l e f o r m s , t h e y s h o u l d b e o f t e n p r a c t i c e d t h i s w a y . After a l o n g p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g o n e will b r e a k t h r o u g h a n d t h e r e will b e n o l i m i t t o t h e d e p t h o f s k i l l . " It also states: " I n defeating others, quality (of t e c h n i q u e ) is preferable to t h e a m o u n t . In defeating a single o p p o n e n t this is t h e m e t h o d , in defeating m a n y o p p o n e n t ' s t h i s i s still t h e m e t h o d . " T h e p r i n c i p l e o f " a few t h i n g s h i g h l y r e f i n e d " was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o m a r t i a l t r a i n i n g . T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s t h e s a m e a s t h e

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X i n g Yi Q u a n adage to "practice t h e plain w i t h o u t e m b e l l i s h m e n t , practicing simple m o v e m e n t s until t h e y are h i g h l y r e f i n e d . " In addition to simple physical m o v e m e n t s , Xing Yi Quan places importance o n i n t e r n a l t r a i n i n g . T h e Boxing Canon s t a t e s : " I n t h e m a r t i a l w a y , t h a t w i t h a f o r m i s t h e e x t e r n a l p o s t u r e , t h a t w i t h o u t a f o r m i s t h e at/power. T h a t w h i c h m a k e s t h e p o s t u r e m o v e i s t h e </i7power." I t i s a l s o s t a t e d : " I f o n e w i s h e s t o p r a c t i c e t o t h e h i g h e s t level o f skill, o n e m u s t s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian, i f o n e w i s h e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian, o n e m u s t first p r a c t i c e t e c h n i q u e . " W h y m u s t o n e s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian? T h e Boxing Cannon c o n t i n u e s : " W i t h o u t s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e dan tian, t h e qi will n o t be full, if t h e qi is n o t full, t h e s t r e n g t h will b e i n s u f f i c i e n t a n d t h e five fists a n d t w e l v e f o r m s will b e e m p t y m o v e m e n t s . " S o , i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e dan tian w h y m u s t w e first p r a c t i c e t e c h n i q u e ? M o s t p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t i f t h e b o d y suffers n o h a r m i t will n a t u r a l l y live t o a n o l d a g e , t h e Boxing Cation says, " b u t i n t h e e n d o n e - w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o u s e t h e p o w e r o f t h e dan tian u n l e s s o n e p r a c t i c e s t e c h n i q u e . " O n e m u s t p r a c t i c e b o t h t h e internal a n d t h e external in order to have t h e " i n t e r n a l a n d external u n i t e a s o n e , b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e u n i t y o f t h e six h a r m o n i c s . " T h e S i x t e e n Exercises also puts great e m p h a s i s o n t h e u n i t y o f t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l a n d t h e u n i t y o f m o v e m e n t a n d s t i l l n e s s . O n e m u s t seek s t i l l n e s s i n m o v e m e n t . S t i l l n e s s d w e l l s i n its u n i t y w i t h m o t i o n a n d t h e " u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e internal and external." From the point of view of health, these exercises stimulate a n d regulate t h e various physiological systems of t h e b o d y . This c o n f o r m s w i t h t h e r u l e o f life, w h i c h i s " m o v e m e n t . " F r o m h e r e t h e r e i s a b a l a n c e o f yin a n d yang, t h e m e r i d i a n s will b e o p e n a n d t h e q i will b e c u l t i v a t e d . I f o n e wishes to acquire these benefits, t h e n there m u s t be a b a l a n c e of stillness a n d m o v e m e n t a n d n o t an excess in either direction. T h i s is t h e special point of X i n g Yi Q u a n a n d also t h e Sixteen Exercises. 3 ) T h i s s e c t i o n will d i s c u s s t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s a n d t h e i r b a s i s i n " p r a c t i c a l u s e . " Everyone is familiar with X i n g Yi Q u a n ' s practical use, often referring to "vertical a n d h o r i z o n t a l , a d v a n c i n g a n d r e t r e a t i n g , r i s i n g a n d f a l l i n g , a n d rise, drill, fall, a n d o v e r t u r n . " All o f t h e s e are i n t e r r e l a t e d . I n p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e s e are u n i t e d i n t o o n e b o d y . H e r e w e will n o t g o i n t o d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n . H o w e v e r , w e n e e d t o b e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e b a s i c spirit o f t h e s e t h i n g s a s t h e y are i n c l u d e d i n all m o v e m e n t o f t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s . For e x a m p l e , i n e x e r c i s e six " E m p t y t h e F o o t a n d Lift a S i n g l e H a n d , " t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e s i n g l e h a n d m o v e m e n t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e " l i f t i n g " a n d " d r i l l i n g " c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e b o x i n g skill. I n e x e r c i s e nine "Raising the Back Seven T i m e s , " the two palms hanging includes the energy of "tiger p o u n c i n g " a n d "falling a n d o v e r t u r n i n g . " Exercise twelve " M o v i n g t h e Hips t o t h e Left a n d R i g h t , " includes t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e " b r u s h t h e water f o r m " of t h e Swallow Form. It also includes "rising, falling, a d v a n c i n g a n d retreating." 4 ) T h i s s e c t i o n will d i s c u s s t h e " s y s t e m " o f t h e m o v e m e n t s i n t h e S i x t e e n Exercises in relation to exercising the w h o l e body. Although the Sixteen E x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p o s e d o f s i n g l e m o v e m e n t s , t h e y a r e all i n t e r r e l a t e d . F r o m t h e p o i n t of view of the w h o l e body, the exercises work from the top of the body downward. T h e exercises begin with the arms and head, working d o w n the b o d y t o t h e l o w e r e x t r e m i t i e s . T h e first f o u r e x e r c i s e s w o r k p r i m a r i l y t h e u p p e r b o d y , t h e fifth t h r o u g h s e v e n t h e x e r c i s e s w o r k t h e t r u n k a n d waist, a n d f r o m e x e r c i s e

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e i g h t o n , t h e l o w e r b o d y i s e x e r c i s e d . T h e e n t i r e b o d y i s e x e r c i s e d i n t h i s set a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s are s i m p l e t o f o l l o w . All t h e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s o f t h e b o d y a r e e x e r c i s e d , m a k i n g t h i s set a c o m p l e t e t r a i n i n g f o r t h e w h o l e b o d y . 5 ) T h e e x e r c i s e s o f t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s set are b o t h a d a p t a b l e a n d f l e x i b l e . A s previously stated, t h e Sixteen Exercises can be practiced singly, as h e a l t h b u i l d i n g exercise, t h e y can also be p e r f o r m e d as a w a r m up for strenuous activity a n d as a regulating c o o l d o w n after activity. T h e y c a n also be used to build t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r m a r t i a l p o w e r . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e s e e x e r c i s e s are e x t r e m e l y adaptable a n d versatile. T h e y c a n be successfully performed by t h o s e of different age g r o u p s , b o t h s e x e s , t h o s e w i t h d i f f e r e n t g o a l s i n m i n d a n d a l s o b y t h o s e o f varying physical condition. T h e elderly and infirm can practice the m o v e m e n t s according to their a b i l i t i e s . For e x a m p l e , t a k e t h e h o r s e r i d i n g p o s t u r e i n t h e first e x e r c i s e , o n e m a y squat higher or lower d e p e n d i n g on physical ability. T h e elderly a n d infirm m a y b e n d their knees o n l y slightly while t h e y o u n g a n d strong o r t h o s e practicing for t h e m a r t i a l a r t s c a n s q u a t a s l o w a s p o s s i b l e . A s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , i n e x e r c i s e five " T h e T w o Hands Hold Up the Heavens," during the forward bending m o v e m e n t t h o s e w i t h h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e o r b e g i n n e r s c a n b e n d o v e r s l i g h t l y . Also, t h e n u m b e r of repetitions can be limited. In addition, it is not necessary to perform all s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s i n o n e e x e r c i s e p e r i o d . O n e m a y c h o o s e s e v e r a l a n d p r a c t i c e only those. W h e n performing t h e Sixteen Exercises, t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s include n o t using brute strength a n d b e i n g natural a n d relaxed. T h i s is especially suited to t h e e l d e r l y a n d i n f i r m . D o e s t h i s m e a n t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f p r a c t i c e are n o t a s g o o d for t h e strong? Q u i t e t h e opposite, bet's look at t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s for h e a l t h a n d s t r e n g t h . W e all k n o w t h a t " l i f e i s m o t i o n , " t h i s i s a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e . I f a p e r s o n e x e r c i s e s o n a regular basis h e o r s h e will h a v e a s t r o n g life f o r c e , h e a l t h y c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d will b e full o f spirit. T h e b o x i n g m a s t e r s o f o l d r e c o g n i z e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e . In the Boxing Canon it is s t a t e d : " I f o n e w i s h e s to s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o d y , a n y t y p e o f m a r t i a l t r a i n i n g will s u f f i c e . " T h e r e a s o n i s n o m a t t e r t h e s t y l e o f b o x i n g c h o s e n , t h e y are all b a s e d o n m o v e m e n t . M o v e m e n t i s a n i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t y o f life. D a i l y e x e r c i s e e q u a l s a h e a l t h y b o d y . B e s i d e s t h i s , f r e q u e n t e x e r c i s e a l s o n a t u r a l l y results i n a n i n c r e a s e i n p o w e r a n d a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e elasticity of t h e body. O n e m a y also i m p r o v e t h e quality of t h e exercise, t h e range of m o t i o n of t h e b o d y a n d t h e n u m b e r of repetitions p e r f o r m e d Especially since o n e is required to exercise without using brute force (not using force does not m e a n t h e b o d y h a s n o c o n s t r u c t ive stress d u r i n g e x e r c i s e s , b u t r a t h e r t h e a m o u n t o f stress i s u n d e r c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l a n d i s a l w a y s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s physical c o n d i t i o n ) . This type of exercise improves t h e physical condition a n d i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h o s e o f all l e v e l s o f f i t n e s s .

6)

T h e Sixteen Exercises do not require any type of e q u i p m e n t .

All t h a t i s

n e c e s s a r y i s a s m a l l , level s p a c e . T h e e x e r c i s e s a r e s i l e n t a n d will n o t d i s t u r b t h o s e a r o u n d . O n e m a y p r a c t i c e i n d o o r s , o u t d o o r s , o r i n a s m a l l s p a c e like a b a l c o n y . This s y s t e m i s c o n v e n i e n t , e c o n o m i c a n d v e r y e f f e c t i v e .

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Benefits of Practice
T h e Sixteen Exercises h a v e evolved t h r o u g h over n i n e t y years of practical e x p e r i e n c e a n d h a v e b e e n regularly practiced by m a n y students. T h e results have b e e n t h e weak b e c o m i n g strong a n d m a n y diseases have b e e n cured. T h e s e exercises have p r o v e n beneficial in treating various c h r o n i c diseases, i n c l u d i n g : h i g h b l o o d pressure, hepatitis, tuberculosis, a n d n e u r a s t h e n i a . T h e exercises h a v e also proved helpful in curing injuries i n v o l v i n g soft tissue a n d p r o b l e m s involving t h e mobility of the joints, such as i n f l a m m a t i o n and back problems. T h e s e exercises are an excellent m e t h o d of building t h e health a n d strengthening t h e b o d y after injury or illness.

Method of Practice
I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e m e t h o d o f p r a c t i c i n g t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s , let's first d i s c u s s t h e o l d rules passed d o w n f r o m o u r p r e d e c e s s o r s . N e x t w e will g o o v e r t h e a c t u a l m e t h o d of training in detail. During exercise, o n e should follow the basic principles for salubrious exercise. 1 ) P e r s e v e r a n c e : T h e s e e x e r c i s e s will i n c r e a s e t h e h e a l t h a n d c h a n g e o n e ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t results do n o t c o m e o v e r n i g h t . After a few days of practice o n e c a n n o t h o p e to see great c h a n g e s . W h a t is called for, rather, is c o n s i s t e n t exercise over a l o n g period of t i m e . F r o m t h e p o i n t of view of p h y s i o l o g y , it takes t i m e for c h a n g e s to o c c u r in t h e various systems a n d o r g a n s of t h e b o d y , especially in regards to t h e central nervous system a n d t h e ability of t h e brain to adapt to t h e stress o f e x e r c i s e . I n a d d i t i o n , i n l e a r n i n g a n y skill, i t t a k e s a p e r i o d o f t i m e d u r i n g which t h e ne w m o v e m e n t patterns must be repeated before the body assimilates t h e m o t i o n . A period of repetitive practice is required for t h e central n e r v o u s system to have a concrete m e m o r y of the sequence of m o v e m e n t . Therefore, p r a c t i c e s h o u l d b e c o n s i s t e n t a n d r e g u l a r . E v e n i f t h e m o v e m e n t skills a r e a c q u i r e d , i f o n e n e g l e c t s t h e e x e r c i s e s f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e skills will b e l o s t . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a p p l y t o all m o v e m e n t skills a n d t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s a r e n o t the exception. I f o n e w i s h e s t o see results, t h e e x e r c i s e s m u s t b e p r a c t i c e d c o n s i s t e n t l y a n d continuously. T h e Boxing Canon s t a t e s : " I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f m a r t i a l a r t s , o n e s h o u l d b e h u m b l e , i f o n e s t o p s a f t e r a little t r a i n i n g o r p r a c t i c e s o n a n d o f f , o n e will n e v e r r e a c h a h i g h level o f s k i l l . " I t a l s o s t a t e s : " I f o n e h a s n o p e r s e v e r a n c e , s t u d i e s a little a n d t h i n k s t h e y u n d e r s t a n d m u c h , feels s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r level o f skill, s t u d i e s s p o r a d i c a l l y , o r t h i n k s t h e y a r e a n e x p e r t , o n e will f i n d i n a p p l i c a t i o n t h e y a r e useless, t h i s i s n o t t h e f a u l t o f t h e t e a c h e r b u t o f t h e s t u d e n t . " T h e s e passages are an a c c u r a t e description of t h e result of sporadic t r a i n i n g . 2) T h e p r o p e r s e q u e n c e of t r a i n i n g : W h e n studying anything, one proceeds from t h e simple to t h e c o m p l e x a n d from t h e easy to t h e difficult. Martial t r a i n i n g i s n o e x c e p t i o n . O n e s h o u l d e s p e c i a l l y t a k e h e e d i n regards t o t h e a m o u n t of exercise taken. T h e ability of t h e body to endure increasingly greater 103

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l e v e l s o f stress i n e x e r c i s e i n c r e a s e s g r a d u a l l y . D u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s , o n e m u s t g r a d u a l l y b u i l d u p o n o n e ' s c u r r e n t level o f f i t n e s s b y increasing the a m o u n t of exercise the body can a c c o m m o d a t e . Exercising within o n e ' s level o f f i t n e s s w h i l e g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y will s t e a d i l y i m p r o v e t h e physical c o n d i t i o n . T h i s builds t h e f o u n d a t i o n for c o m p l i c a t e d a n d d i f f i c u l t e x e r c i s e . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l laws of exercise and established m e t h o d s of scientific training. To exercise in o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s will n o t o n l y b e i n e f f e c t u a l b u t a l s o m a y b e harmful. 3) C o m p l e t e d e v e l o p m e n t : T h e Chinese medical point of view of the body as a "wholistic e n t i t y " is scientific in nature. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t , or lack thereof, of a n y p a r t o f t h e b o d y h a s a n e f f e c t o n all o t h e r p a r t s . U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n o n e a r e a will i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f all o t h e r p a r t s . T h e r e f o r e , e x e r c i s e should be c o m p o s e d of various m o v e m e n t s . T h i s is c o n d u c i v e to t h e overall d e v e l o p m e n t of the w h o l e body. W i t h even d e v e l o p m e n t of the whole body c o m e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a h i g h level o f skill a n d f i t n e s s . T h e S i x t e e n E x e r c i s e s p a y s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s p o i n t . For e x a m p l e , e x e r c i s e t w e l v e " M o v i n g t h e H i p s t o t h e Left a n d R i g h t , " i n w h i c h y o u s q u a t o n o n e leg t o t h e left a n d r i g h t a n d e x e r c i s e t h i r t e e n a n d f o u r t e e n are all i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h e r a n g e o f m o t i o n o f v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s all h a v e a m u t u a l e f f e c t o n t h e o t h e r . 4 ) A s a w a r m u p o r c o o l d o w n : W h e n p r a c t i c i n g m a r t i a l arts, b e f o r e s t a n d i n g i n t h e San T i P o s t u r e a n d w a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o r m s o n e s h o u l d first w a r m u p . After t r a i n i n g o n e s h o u l d c o o l d o w n a n d r e g u l a t e t h e b o d y . After e x e r c i s e i t i s advisable to perform various cool d o w n m o v e m e n t s w h i c h regulate or "work o u t " any tension that m a y have accumulated during training. These m o v e m e n t s should relax t h e w h o l e body. C o o l down exercises also prevent a n y adverse reactions from suddenly stopping intense exercise.

Important Points For Practice


1) T h e f o r m a n d spirit m u s t be r e l a x e d : T h e Emperor's Classic o f Internal Medicine s t a t e s : " W h e n t h e e m o t i o n s a r e e m p t y a n d w e a k , t h e n t h e q i f l o w s , w h e n t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n , d i s e a s e will n o t c o m e . " T h e t e r m " w e a k e m o t i o n s " refers t o h a v i n g a r e l a x e d a n d n a t u r a l spirit. O n e m u s t m a i n t a i n a r e l a x e d c o m p o s u r e . W e a r e all f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e g r e a t i n f l u e n c e t h e e m o t i o n s h a v e o n the health, we do n o t need to go into it here. Having a relaxed body m e a n s to a v o i d u s i n g b r u t e s t r e n g t h . T h e b o d y a n d spirit are b o t h n a t u r a l a n d r e l a x e d . The t w o m a y t h e n u n i t e a s o n e . T h i s will l e a d t o a n i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r n a l p o w e r , a s w e l l as health. This state is the beginning of the healing process. Relaxed does not m e a n slack. It m e a n s to r e m a i n natural in t h e midst of e x e r t i o n , never straining. T h i s r e l a x e d s t a t e will release b o t h a c c u m u l a t e d m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e . A f t e r a p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g , o n e will h a v e a r a d i a n t spirit a n d p o w e r f u l m o v e m e n t s . 2) T h e b r e a t h i n g m a t c h e s t h e m o v e m e n t s n a t u r a l l y : The principle is to inhale w h e n d o i n g s t r e t c h i n g a n d o p e n i n g m o v e m e n t s . Like e x e r c i s e n i n e " R a i s e t h e Back Seven l i m e s , " or exercise fifteen " Y i n O p e n s a n d Yang Closes," w h e n 104

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raising u p o r o p e n i n g t h e h a n d outward o n e s h o u l d inhale deeply. W h e n p e r f o r m i n g c l o s i n g m o v e m e n t s , t h e n e x h a l e . Like e x e r c i s e five " T h e T w o H a n d s U p h o l d t h e H e a v e n s , " o r e x e r c i s e t e n " T h e T w o Fists S t r i k e t h e B a c k , " o r e x e r c i s e T h i r t e e n " T h e W h i t e C r a n e R o t a t e s its K n e e s , " w h e n b e n d i n g f o r w a r d , r e t u r n i n g t h e h a n d s o r squatting d o w n , o n e exhales. W h e n there are m o v e s w h i c h involve b o t h s t r e t c h i n g a n d c o n t r a c t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e rule i s t o b r e a t h e n a t u r a l l y a n d never force or hold the breath. 3 ) M a i n t a i n g o o d l i v i n g h a b i t s : Exercise aids i n p r o m o t i n g h e a l t h . But i f o n e h a s p o o r l i v i n g h a b i t s i n g e n e r a l , o n e will still b e u n a b l e t o r e a l i z e t h e g o a l o f g o o d h e a l t h . E v e r y o n e k n o w s t h i s t o b e t r u e . For t h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e t h e S i x t e e n Exercises, w h e t h e r for t h e p r e v e n t i o n of disease or to cure an existing a i l m e n t , w i t h o u t a r e g u l a t e d l i f e s t y l e , a s e n s i b l e diet a n d a n a p p r o p r i a t e a m o u n t o f e x e r c i s e , o n e will b e u n a b l e t o i m p r o v e h e a l t h . A s e n s i b l e l i f e s t y l e a n d p r o p e r e x e r c i s e h o w e v e r , will a l l o w o n e t h e b e n e f i t s t h e i r h e a r t d e s i r e s . 4) Other points: a ) P r a c t i c i n g i n a n a r e a w i t h fresh a n d c i r c u l a t i n g air i s i d e a l . avoid drafts, especially w h e n perspiring. O n e should

b) Before practice it is advisable to e m p t y t h e bladder a n d bowels. During exercise, t h e internal organs receive a high degree of stimulation. G o i n g to the rest r o o m b e f o r e p r a c t i c e o n e m a y a v o i d a n y d i s c o m f o r t d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e o r g a n s will n o t b e o b s t r u c t e d . X i n g Y i Q u a n p l a c e s great i m p o r t a n c e o n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . T h e Boxing Canon s t a t e s : " T h e five o r g a n s m u s t f u n c t i o n s m o o t h l y . " T h e five o r g a n s are t h e h e a r t , liver, s p l e e n , l u n g s , a n d k i d n e y s . c ) B e f o r e p r a c t i c e o n e s h o u l d n o t b e t o o h u n g r y n o r t o o full. I f o n e i s t o o h u n g r y , t h e r e will b e a l a c k o f e n e r g y , i f o n e i s t o o full t h e s t o m a c h m a y b e injured. d) Always m a i n t a i n a c a l m heart, never talk or joke during training, in order to prevent scattering t h e spirit. e ) After p r a c t i c e , d o n o t i m m e d i a t e l y e a t o r d r i n k , n o r lie d o w n , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d d i s t u r b i n g t h e d i g e s t i o n a n d f l o w o f qi.

During Practice is a Teacher's Guidance Necessary?


Finally, let's discuss w h e t h e r or n o t it is necessary to h a v e a teacher, a n d if t h e student c a n accurately learn t h e Sixteen Exercises a l o n e . T h e answer to these questions c a n n o t be generalized. We must analyze the questions according to t h e a p p l i c a b l e p r i n c i p l e s . T h e Boxing Canon h a s t h i s t o s a y : " F o r t h o s e p r a c t i c i n g t h e m a r t i a l arts, e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e i s s p e n t t r a i n i n g a l o n e , t w e n t y p e r c e n t w i t h a n o t h e r . I t t a k e s a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e self a n d a s h o r t a m o u n t of t i m e to defeat an o p p o n e n t . " It is also stated: " W h e n considering 105

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s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e b o d y , i t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t w h i c h s t y l e o f m a r t i a l arts i s c h o s e n , all w i l l s e r v e t h i s p u r p o s e . " H e r e t h e p r i n c i p l e i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d , t h e first g o a l o f m a r t i a l arts i s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o d y a n d a n y m e t h o d o f m a r t i a l arts t r a i n i n g i s acceptable. T h e r e a s o n i s t h a t all m a r t i a l a r t s i n v o l v e " m o v e m e n t / ' a n d m o v e m e n t is t h e root of life. M o v e m e n t is an essential quality of life. T h e o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n is w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e m o v e m e n t s c o n f o r m t o correct posture a n d are systematic. W h e n c h o o s i n g a m e t h o d of exercise, o n e should consider personal training goals and one's own physical condition. If t h e goal is a h e a l t h y b o d y , relaxed a n d c o m f o r t a b l e e x e r c i s e w h i c h a v o i d s t h e u s e o f b r u t e s t r e n g t h i s all t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . If o n e perseveres in practice, benefits naturally accrue. If o n e wants to train n o t o n l y for h e a l t h but also for martial ability, t h e n besides a d h e r i n g to t h e principles of relaxed exercises w h i c h avoid brute strength, o n e must also pay close a t t e n t i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e m o v e m e n t s i n strict f o r m . F o r t h o s e o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a l t h , f o l l o w i n g t h e written d i r e c t i o n s is sufficient. But for t h o s e w h o wish to train for martial ability, it is best to practice u n d e r a t e a c h e r ' s g u i d a n c e . Always r e m e m b e r this: as long as o n e practices in a relaxed m a n n e r without using brute strength t h e e x e r c i s e s will n a t u r a l l y c o n f o r m t o t h e c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e s o f m o v e m e n t . H e r e o n e m u s t e x a m i n e t h e self. M a n y p e o p l e h a v e t h e s a m e k i n d o f f e e l i n g a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s , t h a t is, t h e y feel c o m f o r t a b l e a n d r e l a x e d a s i f t h e y h a d just taken a bath. This is evidence that the practice is correct and that the p r i n c i p l e s are b e i n g c o r r e c t l y f o l l o w e d .

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Editor's I n t r o d u c t i o n by Dan Miller


T h e material in this c h a p t e r is a c o m b i n a t i o n of written material taken f r o m W a n g Lian Y i ' s bookShen Gong and m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d b y Z h a n g B a o Y a n g , W a n g J i n Yu, H e Y u Q i , a n d W a n g H u a n S h e n g . T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a c h e x e r c i s e follows t h e same format; there is an introduction, followed by practical information on h o w to perform the exercise, followed by a " s o n g " explaining the exercise. T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e " s o n g " were written by W a n g Lian Yi in his Shen Gong b o o k . T h e p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h o w t o p r a c t i c e t h e e x e r c i s e was provided by Zhang a n d the others m e n t i o n e d above. Y o u will f i n d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y Z h a n g ' s g r o u p i s v e r y d i r e c t a n d p r a c t i c a l w h i l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b y W a n g L i a n Y i i s a t t i m e s uses t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e . W e p r o v i d e b o t h o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s a s w e feel i t will h e l p t h e r e a d e r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e full d e p t h o f t h e e x e r c i s e s . Y o u w i l l n o t i c e t h a t m a n y o f t h e e x e r c i s e s h a v e t w o titles, t h e first t i t l e listed i s W a n g L i a n Yi's title, t h e s e c o n d title is t h a t used by Z h a n g B a o Yang's group. A t first g l a n c e t h i s e x e r c i s e set m a y a p p e a r t o b e v e r y s i m i l a r t o a n y o t h e r q i gong o r nei gong set o f e x e r c i s e s o n e m a y h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d w h i l e s t u d y i n g t h e i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l arts. H o w e v e r , W a n g j i W u ' s g e n i u s i n p u t t i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r set of exercises t o g e t h e r is in the set's c o m p l e t e n e s s as an internal d e v e l o p m e n t s y s t e m . T h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s w a s n o t p u t t o g e t h e r h a p h a z a r d l y . T h e r e i s a c o m p l e t e n e s s a n d w h o l e n e s s i n its d e s i g n a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s i s s i m p l e , p r a c t i c a l , easy t o l e a r n , a n d e a s y t o e x e c u t e . A n y i n t e r n a l d e v e l o p m e n t e x e r c i s e set s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f e x e r c i s e s w h i c h s e r v e to integrate the body, mind, and breath while strengthening the body energetically, viscerally, a n d physically in a natural a n d b a l a n c e d m a n n e r . E n e r g e t i c a l l y , t h e set s h o u l d c o n t a i n e x e r c i s e s w h i c h a r c d e s i g n e d t o c a l m t h e m i n d a n d b o d y s o t h a t e n e r g y s i n k s t o t h e dan dan. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d d i s t r i b u t e t h a t e n e r g y i n a full a n d b a l a n c e d f a s h i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o d y t h r o u g h gentle coaxing. T h e m o v e m e n t of energy should not be forced through t h e use of strong i n t e n t i o n or muscular t e n s i o n . T h e m i n d is calm a n d t h e p h y s i c a l m o v e m e n t g e n t l y u r g e s t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e qi. A s W a n g L i a n Y i s t a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o e x e r c i s e n u m b e r f o u r , " W a n g j i W u felt t h a t t h e b e g i n n e r s h o u l d n o t t r y a n d f o r c e t h e q i t o f l o w t h r o u g h s t r o n g i n t e n t i o n . His a d v i c e w a s to practice the exercises with a relaxed m i n d a n d the intention focused on the dan tian. A f t e r t h e qi h a s g a t h e r e d in t h e dan tian, it will f i n d its o w n w a y in t h e "Small Heavenly Cycle" through the gentle coaxing of the physical m o v e m e n t s . " T h e e n e r g y m o v e m e n t e x e r c i s e s i n W a n g j i W u ' s set a r e d e s i g n e d t o m o v e e n e r g y t o all distal p o i n t s o f t h e b o d y i n a n a t u r a l , b a l a n c e d , a n d safe m a n n e r . A n o t h e r important c o m p o n e n t in a n y c o m p l e t e internal d e v e l o p m e n t system is visceral m a n i p u l a t i o n , or s i m p l y stated, m o t i o n designed to m o v e each of t h e visceral organs to a small degree so that t h e organs are gently massaged a n d thus t h e r e i s less c h a n c e f o r fluid s t a g n a t i o n . I n t h e last c h a p t e r W a n g L i a n Y i s t a t e d 108

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"life is m o v e m e n t . " E v e r y o n e k n o w s t h a t if a n y part of t h e b o d y r e m a i n s s t a t i o n e r y f o r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , i t b e c o m e s stiff. I f m u s c l e s , t e n d o n s , a n d l i g a m e n t s a r e n o t m o v e d t h r o u g h t h e i r full r a n g e o f m o t i o n o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l will start t o l o o s e t h a t full r a n g e o f n a t u r a l , u n r e s t r i c t e d m o t i o n . A w e l l d e s i g n e d set o f e x e r c i s e s will b e d e v i s e d s o t h a t all o f t h e b o d y ' s j o i n t s , m u s c l e s , t e n d o n s , a n d l i g a m e n t s are m o v e d t h r o u g h t h e i r full r a n g e o f m o t i o n d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e set. W a n g ' s set d o e s t h i s , b u t a d d i t i o n a l l y s o m e o f t h i s s e t ' s exercises work to gently m o v e and manipulate the internal organs so that the o r g a n s f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y a n d all o f t h e s y s t e m s o f t h e b o d y w h i c h p u m p fluids are s t i m u l a t e d . W h e n b o d i l y fluids s u c h a s l y m p h , bile, b l o o d , e t c . are a l l o w e d t o s t a g n a t e a n y w h e r e i n t h e b o d y , p r o b l e m s will a r i s e . I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t stagnation, the body needs to bend, m o v e , and stretch so that no small " p o o l s " o f fluids a r e a l l o w e d t o c o l l e c t a n d b e c o m e s t a g n a n t . W a n g J i W u ' s set o f e x e r c i s e s i s e x p e r t l y d e s i g n e d t o w o r k all o f t h e v i s c e r a s o t h a t t h e o r g a n e n e r g y i s s t i m u l a t e d a n d t h e b o d i l y fluids a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o m o v e f r e e l y . I n t e r m s o f p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s n o t o n l y g e n t l y stretches the muscles, joints, ligaments, and tendons to keep t h e m operating o p t i m a l l y t h r o u g h t h e i r full r a n g e o f m o t i o n , i t a l s o h e l p s t o b u i l d t h e t y p e o f whole body, coordinated strength w h i c h is functional in t h e internal martial arts.

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Exercise One: Uniting the Original Qi (Circling the Arms in Front of the Chest)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e s t a t e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s h e a l t h c a n h e said t o b e d e t e r m i n e d by several factors, including heredity, external factors (food, weather, etc.), o n e ' s s t a t e o f m e n t a l h e a l t h , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , o n e ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d life, e t c . U n d e r further analysis, such influences as e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors a n d internal factors, such as t h e emotion, c o m b i n e to form complex patterns of influence on one's health. But from t h e point of view of m e d i c i n e , physiology, cultivation of t h e health and t h e Xing Yi Q u a n m e t h o d of exercise, the state of one's qi is the primary consideration. A c c o r d i n g t o ( C h i n e s e ) m e d i c a l s c i e n c e , t h e b a s i c t h e o r i e s o f Yin/Yang and t h e Five F l e m e n t s h o l d t h a t i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , p h y s i c a l f o r m s m u s t i n t e r a c t w i t h qi in order to create; m o v e m e n t a n d stillness m u s t follow o n e a n o t h e r if t h e t h i n g s o f c r e a t i o n are t o d e v e l o p , a n d t h e s t a t e o f p e r s o n a l h e a l t h i s d e t e r m i n e d by the condition of the qi a n d blood. "Qi is t h e leader of t h e b l o o d , b l o o d i s t h e m o t h e r o f qi." W h e n t h e qi a n d b l o o d are "sufficient" the body is healthy. According to the theory of Xing Yi Quan's internal and external methods of cultivation and training, the original "pre-birth" yang qi is t h e v e r y r o o t of t h a t which protects the health. Therefore, in preserving and building health the cultivation of qi, s t r e n g t h e n i n g of t h e dan tian and refining the essence until it t r a n s f o r m s i n t o qi are m o s t important. T h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h i s first e x e r c i s e lies i n r e g u l a t i n g t h e b r e a t h , c u l t i v a t i n g t h e qi, a n d b r e a t h i n g w i t h t h e dan tian as t h e root of t h e breath, thus allowing t h e original qi to circulate freely throughout the whole body. W h e n t h e qi is s u f f i c i e n t t h e spirit is full, a n d o n e m a y p r e v e n t illness, cure disease, i m p r o v e a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , raise t h e level o f h e a l t h a n d e x t e n d t h e l i f e . Preparatory Posture

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P r e p a r a t o r y Posture: Stand up naturally, the heels together, the toes point o u t w a r d a t a 6 0 d e g r e e a n g l e (see p h o t o 1 - 1 ) . T h e w h o l e b o d y i s r e l a x e d a n d c o m f o r t a b l e , d o n o t s t a n d stiffly, t h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , c l o s e t h e m o u t h , the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h , breathe naturally, imagine the breath m o v e s i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian, c o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi. N o w y o u a r e p r e p a r e d for m o v e m e n t . Method of Practice: 1 . O p e n t h e legs, t h e feet p o i n t s t r a i g h t a h e a d a n d are p a r a l l e l , t h e f e e t a r e shoulder width apart, slightly b e n d t h e knees. T h i s is usually called " s q u a t t i n g in t h e horse riding s t a n c e " but here the purpose and emphasis is different. You must hold the chest naturally, stretch the back (lengthen the spine) a n d gently lift t h e a n u s . See p h o t o 1 - 2 . 2 . Lift t h e h a n d s t o t h e f r o n t w i t h t h e p a l m s f a c i n g o u t w a r d ( p h o t o 1 - 3 ) . 3 . M o v e t h e h a n d s t o t h e left side ( p h o t o 1 - 4 ) . M o v e v e r y s l o w l y . C o n t i n u e , m o v i n g t h e h a n d s d o w n I n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y , t h e p a l m s will n a t u r a l l y f a c e i n w a r d as the h a n d s m o v e down ( p h o t o 1-5). C o n t i n u e m o v i n g the h a n d s toward the right side ( p h o t o 1 - 6 ) . R e t u r n t h e h a n d s t o t h e s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n ( p h o t o 1 - 7 ) . C o n t i n u e m o v i n g t h e h a n d s t o t h e left, d o w n w a r d , t o t h e r i g h t a n d t h e n b a c k u p ( p h o t o s 1-3 t h r o u g h 1 - 7 ) . C o n t i n u e m a k i n g c i r c l e s w i t h t h e a r m s i n f r o n t o f the body. 4 . After c o m p l e t i n g a n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s , r e v e r s e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e a n d repeat for t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f repetitions ( p h o t o s 1-8 t h r o u g h 1-11). Number of Repetitions: One should perform the exercise according to one's physical c o n d i t i o n . T h o s e w h o are weak o r ill, o r w h o h a v e j u s t b e g u n t o e x e r c i s e , can practice fewer repetitions. T h e strong can practice more repetitions. As the physical condition improves, o n e may increase the n u m b e r of repetitions from eight to sixteen to thirty two or even more if o n e desires. Important Points: 1 . T h e a r m s m u s t n o t b e stiff a s i f u s i n g strength, and must not be bent too m u c h . Bend t h e a r m s at a natural angle. 2 . The f i n g e r s are s l i g h t l y s p r e a d a p a r t a n d t h e palms are r o u n d e d . 3. Relax the shoulders. 4. Breathe naturally. At the top of the circle, begin to exhale, at t h e b o t t o m begin to inhale. 5. W h i l e m o v i n g , as an aid in c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e spirit, o n e m a y s i l e n t l y c o u n t t h e

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number of repetitions. 6. M o v e slowly. I m a g i n e that your h a n d s are m o v i n g t h r o u g h water. The R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : T h e m a i n purpose of this exercise is to c o n d i t i o n t h e shoulders. T h e muscles of t h e arms are also exercised. T h i s exercise is structured a r o u n d c o n t r a c t i n g t h e upper arm inward t h e n e x t e n d i n g it outward, t h e a r m s are twisted in a n d out. T h e s e m o t i o n s provide a c o m p l e x m o v e m e n t w h i c h involves the trapezius muscle, latissimus muscle, t h e pectorals, t h e biceps, t h e triceps, a n d t h e muscles of t h e forearms. Therefore, this exercise can be used in c o n j u n c t i o n with medical t r e a t m e n t as an aid in curing p r o b l e m s with t h e shoulders, arms, a n d back. F o r m a r t i a l arts t h i s e x e r c i s e is v e r y g o o d f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e jing ( t r a i n e d s t r e n g t h ) r e q u i r e d w h e n d e f l e c t i n g t o t h e side o r b l o c k i n g i n a d o w n w a r d o r upward m o t i o n .

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P h o t o 1-11

P h o t o 1-12

P h o t o 1-13

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The "Song" of Uniting the Original Qi:


T h e b o d y s t a n d s n a t u r a l l y e r e c t , t h e t w o a r m s are r e l a x e d , h a n d s a t t h e s i d e s . C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h as possible. The The The The h e a r t i s a s still a s eyes l o o k straight m o u t h is closed, q i a n d b r e a t h fill water; heaven and earth exist together. a h e a d , t h e limbs a n d b o d y are relaxed. the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . t h e a r t e r i e s , c i r c u l a t i n g t o a n d f r o m t h e " s e a o f qi."

T h e feet are o p e n e d p a r a l l e l , i n t h e h o r s e r i d i n g p o s t u r e . T h e entire contracted liie knees The palms opened. soles of t h e feet grip t h e g r o u n d , t h e " b u b b l i n g springs p o i n t " is inward. are b e n t , t h e e n e r g y o f t h e w a i s t m o v e s d o w n w a r d . are placed on t h e tops of t h e thighs, t h e fingers are stretched a n d

R e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d e m p t y t h e c h e s t , press t h e h e a d u p w a r d a n d s t r a i g h t e n the back of the neck. T h e i n t e n t i s k e p t i n t h e dan tian, t h e b r e a t h i s d e l i c a t e , i n h a l e g e n t l y . Exhale s m o o t h l y , delicately, even, slow, a n d long. Press u p t h e sky a n d s t a n d e r e c t o n t h e e a r t h , o n e q i c o m p l e t e a n d n a t u r a l . T h e two arms e x t e n d forward, m o v i n g from t h e shoulders. B e n d t h e e l b o w s a n d lift t h e p a l m s , b e n d t h e m a t a n a t u r a l a n g l e . F r o m t h e left t o t h e r i g h t , m a k e a c i r c l e i n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y . M o v i n g in c o n t i n u o u s circles, circling around in a t u r n i n g m o t i o n . At t h e top of t h e circle, begin to exhale, at the b o t t o m begin to i n h a l e . The e n e r g y c o m e s f r o m t h e dan tian, f r o m t h e s h o u l d e r t o t h e e l b o w s . T h e elbows p u s h t h e p a l m s a n d hands, t h e power reaches t h e four extremities. F r o m right t o left, m a k e a c i r c l e i n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y . M o v i n g in c o n t i n u o u s circles, circling around in a t u r n i n g m o t i o n . At t h e t o p of t h e circle, begin to exhale, at the b o t t o m , begin to inhale. F o c u s o n t h e t h r e e h e a r t c e n t e r s , t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a l m s , t h e c e n t e r o f t h e feet, and the center of the body. R e l a x i n g all o f t h e j o i n t s , t h e p o w e r r e a c h e s t h e f o u r e x t r e m i t i e s . T h e q i a n d b r e a t h m o v e i n a n d o u t , t h e dan tian e x p a n d s a n d c o n t r a c t s . T h e qi follows the m o v e m e n t s of t h e palms, t h e palms m o v e and the qi goes. T h e spirit a n d f o r m u n i t e a s o n e , t h e i n t e n t first l e a d s , i t m o v e s t h r o u g h a c o m p l e t e cycle and t h e n returns, in cycles without e n d . T h e q i i s full a n d t h e spirit c o n c e n t r a t e d , w h e n t h e spirit i s c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e h e a r t i s a t p e a c e , t h e fire a n d w a t e r are u n i t e d , t h e k i d n e y s a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d t h e skill is r e f i n e d .

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Exercise Two: The Jade Dragon Weaves Around the Body (Pulling Horizontally Right and Left)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : I n t h i s e x e r c i s e t h e t w o p a l m s m o v e a s i f t h e y are i n t h e c l o u d s . T h e p a l m s a r e h e l d a b o u t five i n c h e s a p a r t , t h e yang h a n d o v e r t u r n s a n d t h e yin h a n d supports. T h e jade d r a g o n suddenly appears, his b o d y s w i m m i n g t h r o u g h space, the qi and power follow o n e another, the heart with the intent, the intent with t h e qi a n d t h e qi with the power, these arc the three internal c o n d i t i o n s . Use t h e i n t e n t t o lead t h e qi, t h e q i t o m o v e t h e p o w e r a n d t h e p o w e r t o m o v e t h e h a n d s a n d f e e t The./j f o l l o w s t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l f o r m , t h e f o r m g o e s a n d t h e qi m o v e s , t h e form a n d qi arc sensitive to o n e a n o t h e r , t h e ten t h o u s a n d things are created. Yin a n d Yang a r e u n i t e d , t h e five e l e m e n t s m u s t f o l l o w s m o o t h l y , t h e e x t r e m e of stillness c o n t a i n s t h e intent to m o v e , m o v e m e n t a n d s t i l l n e s s u n i t e as o n e , t h e qi is s t o r e d in t h e dan tian, f r o m t h e r e it m a y be i s s u e d externally.

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Gong T h e horse riding stance. See p h o t o s 2 - 1 a n d 2 - 2 .

Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

1 . B e n d t h e e l b o w s a n d e x t e n d t h e a r m s t o t h e left side ( p h o t o 2 - 3 ) . 2 . T h e left h a n d i s a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e left a r m p i t , t h e left p a l m f a c e s u p w a r d . 3 . T h e right p a l m i s i n f r o n t o f t h e c h e s t , w i t h t h e p a l m f a c i n g d o w n w a r d . 4 . S l i g h t l y r o u n d t h e p a l m s a s i f t h e h a n d s are g r a b b i n g s o m e t h i n g (like a l a r g e r o p e ) . T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e h a n d s i s a b o u t f o u r o r five i n c h e s , pull t h e h a n d s t o t h e r i g h t , level w i t h t h e g r o u n d ( p h o t o 2 - 4 ) . 5 . A s t h e r i g h t h a n d p a s s e s t h e right a r m p i t , t u r n t h e p a l m t o f a c e u p w a r d , t h e left p a l m s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t u r n s t o f a c e p a l m d o w n . The r i g h t h a n d p a s s e s t h e right a r m p i t a n d t h e left h a n d i s i n f r o n t o f t h e c h e s t ( p h o t o 2 - 5 ) . C o n t i n u e , p u l l i n g t h e h a n d s b a c k a c r o s s i n f r o n t o f t h e c h e s t t o w a r d t h e left ( p h o t o s 2 - 6 a n d 2-7). 6. C o n t i n u e the exercise by pulling the hands b a c k a n d forth in front of t h e c h e s t (photos 2-3 through 2-8). N u m b e r o f R e p e t i t i o n s : Start with eight repetitions back a n d forth. Increase t h e n u m b e r to sixteen and eventually to thirty-six or m o r e . Important Points: 1 . W h e n p u l l i n g t h e h a n d s h o r i z o n t a l l y left a n d r i g h t , e x t e n d a n d b e n d t h e a r m s n a t u r a l l y , d o n o t s t i f f e n t h e a r m s . I n a d d i t i o n , i m a g i n e y o u are a c t u a l l y p u l l i n g s o m e t h i n g f r o m left I n r i g h t . 2 . A s y o u a r e p u l l i n g , t h e h i p s will n a t u r a l l y t u r n a little t o a i d i n t h e m o t i o n , but do not swing t h e hips i n t e n t i o n a l l y . 3. T h e shoulders remain relaxed. The R a n g e of M o t i o n a n d Effects: This m o v e m e n t is also primarily an exercise of t h e shoulders. T h e arms m o v e , o n e rotating outward while t h e other twists inward, t h e range of m o t i o n is s o m e w h a t greater t h a n t h a t of exercise o n e .

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P h o t o 2-3

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The "Song" of the Jade Dragon Weaves Around the Body:


T h e b o d y s t a n d s u p s t r a i g h t , t h e h a n d s are h a n g i n g b e s i d e t h e b o d y . C a l m t h e h e a r t a n d q u i e t t h e qi, n o t h o u g h t s , n o c a r e s . L o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . Close the m o u t h , the t o n g u e touches t h e roof o f t h e m o u t h . R e g u l a t e t h e b r e a t h i n g , i n a n d o u t f r o m t h e dan tian. T h e feet are o p e n e d p a r a l l e l , a b i t w i d e r t h a n t h e s h o u l d e r s . Stand in the horse riding posture, b e n d t h e knees. T h e e n e r g y of t h e two knees is as if t h e y are m o v i n g towards each o t h e r w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y m o v i n g , t h e t w o feet feel a s i f t h e y are t w i s t i n g i n w a r d . T h e qi s i n k s to t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m is g e n t l y l i f t e d . R e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d e m p t y t h e c h e s t , press t h e h e a d u p a n d s t r a i g h t e n t h e back of the neck. Press u p t o w a r d t h e sky a n d s t a n d e r e c t o n t h e e a r t h , o n e < / i complete and natural. T h e i n t e n t is k e p t in t h e dan tian, t h e i n t e n t l e a d s t h e qi. T h e left a r m e x t e n d s o u t s t r a i g h t t o t h e left f r o n t , a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c h e s t . T h e p a l m o f t h e left h a n d f a c e s u p w a r d , r e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d s i n k t h e e l b o w s . T h e r i g h t a r m a l s o e x t e n d s o u t t o t h e left, t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e left a r m . T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e left a n d r i g h t p a l m s i s a b o u t 4 - 5 i n c h e s , t h e r i g h t p a l m faces t h e g r o u n d . O n e h a n d faces up a n d t h e o t h e r faces down, o n e should i m a g i n e o n e is stroking something, the energy is the same as "cloud h a n d s . " M o v e f r o m t h e left t o t h e r i g h t , t h e e n e r g y o f t h e h a n d s c o o r d i n a t e a n d t h e h a n d s m o v e t h r o u g h a level p l a n e , t o t h e r i g h t s i d e . T h e e l b o w s are n a t u r a l l y b e n t , t h e s h o u l d e r s a r e r e l a x e d a n d o p e n e d . After t h e h a n d s h a v e m o v e t o t h e r i g h t f r o n t , t h e r i g h t h a n d t u r n s p a l m u p , t h e left h a n d t u r n s p a l m d o w n , t h e left p a l m i s t o t h e left o f t h e r i g h t p a l m . T h e palms are about 4-5 i n c h e s apart. T h e h a n d s m o v e f r o m t h e r i g h t t o t h e left t h r o u g h a level p l a n e , m o v i n g t o t h e left s i d e . T h e h a n d s m o v e t o t h e left a n d right, i n c y c l e s w i t h o u t e n d . Yin a n d Yang a r e u n i t e d , t h e 171 m o v e s to the dan tian, t h e s h o u l d e r s are r e l a x e d a n d t h e e l b o w s s i n k , t h e p a l m s f e e l a s i f t h e y are p u l l i n g a t h o u s a n d p o u n d s , t h e w a i s t a n d h i p s , t h e h a n d s a n d f e e t , t h e i n t e n t a n d t h e q i a r e all c o n n e c t e d , t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s a r e s o l i d a n d t h e life i s p r o l o n g e d .

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Exercise Three: Opening and Closing Soothes the Meridians (Circling the Arms to the Front and Back)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : The j o i n t s , m e r i d i a n s a n d s k e l e t a l f r a m e s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a l l o w i n g t h e b o d y m o b i l i t y . P r a c t i c i n g t h e X i n g Y i Q u a n E x e r c i s e s f o r h e a l t h will k e e p t h e s e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n , p r e v e n t i n g a g i n g a n d loss o f mobility w h i l e p r o m o t i n g cellular m e t a b o l i s m w h i c h preserves the capabilities o f y o u t h ; s u p p l e m u s c l e s , q u i c k r e a c t i o n s , a n d g r e a t v i t a l i t y f o r life.

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P r e p a r a t o r y P o s t u r e : T h e horse riding stance. Method of Practice:

Sec p h o t o s 3-1 a n d 3-2.

1 . T h e r i g h t p a l m p r e s s e s a g a i n s t t h e left a r m p i t . T h e f o u r f i n g e r s a r c u n d e r t h e a r m p i t , t h e t h u m b i s o u t s i d e against t h e front o f t h e s h o u l d e r . T h e palm presses a g a i n s t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e left c h e s t m u s c l e ( p h o t o 3 - 3 ) . 2 . T h e left h a n d m a k e s a fist, t h e s h o u l d e r i s r e l a x e d , t h e e l b o w i s c o m f o r t a b l y extended tphoto 3-3). 3 . T h e left fist m o v e s f r o m h a n g i n g s t r a i g h t d o w n a n d b e g i n s t o lift u p t o w a r d the front ( p h o t o 3-4), it c o n t i n u e s circling over the top and down towards the rear, m a k i n g a c o m p l e t e 3 6 0 d e g r e e r e v o l u t i o n ( p h o t o s 3 - 5 t h r o u g h 3 - 7 ) . A f t e r m a k i n g a certain n u m b e r of repetitions, reverse t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e circle ( p h o t o s 3-8 through 3-10). 4. C h a n g e a r m s and repeat circling t h e right arm in t h e forward a n d reverse directions (photos 3-11 through 3-20). N u m b e r of R e p e t i t i o n s : Make the same n u m b e r of repetitions with each arm i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . O n e m a y start w i t h e i g h t r e p e t i t i o n s a n d s l o w l y i n c r e a s e t h e n u m b e r over time. Important Points: 1. 2. 3. 4. T h e s h o u l d e r s m u s t n o t b e rigid Bend the arms a natural a m o u n t . Do not use power. i m a g i n e t h e r e i s s o m e r e s i s t a n c e a r o u n d t h e wrists a n d h a n d s .

T h e R a n g e of M o t i o n a n d Effects: This exercise is a c o m b i n a t i o n of bending a n d s t r a i g h t e n i n g t h e a r m s as well as m o v i n g t h e a r m s in a circular m o t i o n . As t h e range of m o t i o n of t h e shoulder is great in this exercise, it is a g o o d exercise f o r t h o s e w h o h a v e stiff s h o u l d e r s .

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Opening and Closing Soothes the Meridians:


T h e body stands naturally erect, t h e h a n d beside t h e b o d y . C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, t h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r . C l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . T h e eyes l o o k straight a h e a d , t h e b o d y is relaxed. Close the m o u t h , t h e t o n g u e t o u c h e s the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b r e a t h fill t h e a r t e r i e s , c i r c u l a t i n g t o a n d f r o m t h e dan tian. The feet are o p e n e d p a r a l l e l , s l i g h t l y w i d e r t h a n s h o u l d e r w i d t h . Adopt t h e horse riding posture, t h e e n t i r e soles of t h e feet grip t h e g r o u n d . Bend b o t h knees, the "bubbling spring p o i n t " is contracted inward. T h e palms are on t h e tops of t h e thighs, t h e fingers o p e n a n d e x t e n d . R e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d e m p t y t h e c h e s t , press t h e h e a d u p a n d s t r a i g h t e n t h e back of the neck. The i n t e n t is k e p t in t h e dan tian, i n h a l e d e l i c a t e l y . Exhale s m o o t h l y , the breath fine, even, slow and long. Press u p t o w a r d t h e sky a n d s t a n d e r e c t o n t h e e a r t h , o n e q i c o m p l e t e a n d n a t u r a l . P l a c e t h e r i g h t p a l m o n t h e t o p o f t h e left ribs, t h e h a n d a n d e l b o w are pressed firmly against t h e front of the chest. T h e left h a n d m a k e s a fist, w i t h t h e s h o u l d e r j o i n t a s t h e a x i s b e g i n m o v i n g t h e left a r m i n c o m p l e t e r e v o l u t i o n s . F r o m t h e b o t t o m t o t h e f r o n t , f r o m t h e f r o n t t o t h e rear, s w i n g t h e a r m f r e e l y i n a circle. P l a c e t h e left p a l m o n t o p o f t h e r i g h t ribs, t h e h a n d a n d e l b o w are pressed f i r m l y against the front of the chest. T h e right h a n d m a k e s a fist, w i t h t h e s h o u l d e r j o i n t a s t h e a x i s , b e g i n m o v i n g t h e right a r m in c o m p l e t e revolutions. F r o m t h e b o t t o m t o t h e f r o n t , f r o m t h e f r o n t t o t h e rear, s w i n g t h e a r m f r e e l y i n a circle. Relax t h e s h o u l d e r a n d ease t h e elbow, t h e m o v e m e n t m a t c h e s t h e circulation of qi a n d b r e a t h . This m o v e m e n t can help open and stimulate the meridians, joints, increase t h e circulation, aid digestion, o p e n t h e s t o m a c h , peristalsis of t h e intestines, increase t h e a b s o r p t i o n of nutrients, resistance to disease, b r e a k d o w n a n d e l i m i n a t i o n of wastes a n d overall health of the b o d y . exercise increase increase increase the the the the

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Exercise Four: Ju Que and Xuan Wu Divide the North and South (Clapping the Palms Above and Below)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : Traditional C h i n e s e Medicine, Xing Yi Quan, pre-birth m e t h o d s o f c u l t i v a t i o n a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e all h o l d t h e f o l l o w i n g t o b e t r u e : T h e s t a t e of an individual's health is directly influenced by t h e fullness or lack of original p r e - b i r t h yang qi, a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e q i a n d b l o o d . I f t h e q i a n d b l o o d a r e in g o o d c o n d i t i o n t h e n t h e b o d y is h e a l t h y . Of utmost i m p o r t a n c e is t h e state of t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yang qi; if it is " f u l l , " s t r o n g a n d c i r c u l a t e s f r e e l y throughout the body t h e n t h e health of the body is positively effected. This exercise is particularly helpful in stimulating t h e flow of qi t h r o u g h t h e m e r i d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Ren a n d Du m e r i d i a n s . If t h e qi c i r c u l a t i o n in t h e Ren a n d Du m e r i d i a n s is s t r o n g , the "Small Heavenly Cycle" is open a n d there arc great b e n e f i t s to h e a l t h , including increased m e t a b o l i c activity, increased resistance to disease, increased powers of recovery from illness a n d leading to a long a n d h e a l t h y life. W h i l e qi c i r c u l a t i o n in t h e Ren a n d Du m e r i d i a n s is a v i t a l p a r t of m a i n t a i n i n g health, W a n g j i W u felt that t h e b e g i n n e r s h o u l d n o t try a n d force t h e qi to flow t h r o u g h strong i n t e n t i o n . His a d v i c e w a s t o p r a c t i c e t h e exercises with a relaxed m i n d a n d t h e i n t e n t i o n f o c u s e d o n t h e dun tian. After t h e qi h a s g a t h e r e d in t h e dan tian, it w i l l f i n d its o w n w a y in t h e "Small Heavenly Cycle" through the gentle coaxing of the physical movements.

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Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e feet a r e t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 4 - 1 ) .

1 . T h e t w o a r m s h a n g b y t h e s i d e s . Lift t h e h a n d s f o r w a r d a n d u p t o a h e i g h t just a b o v e t h e t o p o f t h e h e a d a n d c l a p t h e t w o p a l m s t o g e t h e r . I n h a l e d e e p l y a s y o u e x e c u t e t h i s m o v e (see p h o t o s 4-1 t h r o u g h 4 - 3 ) . 2 . C o n t i n u i n g , t h e t w o a r m s s w i n g d o w n t o t h e rear a n d c l a p t h e h a n d s b e h i n d t h e b a c k . C l a p t h e h a n d s a s h i g h a s p o s s i b l e b c h i n d t h e b a c k . E x h a l e . See p h o t o s 4-4 and 4-5. 3. Continue clapping the hands above and behind.

N u m b e r o f R e p e t i t i o n s : Start b y clapping a b o v e a n d b e h i n d sixteen times, increasing as o n e ' s physical condition improves. Important Points: 1 . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p t h e s h o u l d e r s r e l a x e d . Let t h e b r e a t h m a t c h t h e m o v e m e n t naturally. 2 . The a r m s aTe n a t u r a l l y s t r a i g h t , o n e m u s t n o t h o l d t h e a r m s rigid.

T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : T h i s exercise i n v o l v e s a great range o f m o t i o n t o t h e f r o n t a n d rear. This e x e r c i s e , a l o n g w i t h e x e r c i s e s o n e , t w o , a n d t h r e e c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r a s a set o f e x e r c i s e s p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e s h o u l d e r s . T h o s e with p r o b l e m s of the shoulders, back a n d h a n d s m a y use these exercises as treatment.

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Exercis

The "Song" of Ju Que and Xuan Wu Divide the North and South
S t a n d erect, with t h e h a n d s h a n g i n g at t h e sides. C a l m t h e h e a r t a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s possible. T h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . Close the mouth, the tongue touches t h e top of the m o u t h . R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. T h e feet are c o m f o r t a b l y h e l d t o g e t h e r . Adopt a naturally erect posture, slightly b e n d t h e knees. T h e e n e r g y o f t h e k n e e s feels a s i f t h e y are g e n t l y p u l l e d t o g e t h e r , t h e feet c l o s e inward. T h e q i s i n k s t o t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m i s g e n t l y p u l l e d u p w a r d . Relax t h e shoulders a n d e m p t y t h e chest, press t h e h e a d up and straighten t h e back of the neck. Press u p t o w a r d t h e sky a n d s t a n d e r e c t o n t h e e a r t h , o n e q i c o m p l e t e a n d n a t u r a l . T h e i n t e n t is on t h e dan tian, t h e i n t e n t g u i d e s t h e qi. The two a r m s m o v e forward a n d up. T h e two palms clap together over the head. A t t h i s t i m e , r e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s , t h e a r m s are p a r a l l e l , b r e a t h e i n d e e p l y . S w i n g b o t h h a n d s d o w n f r o m a b o v e t o t h e f r o n t a n d t h e n b a c k t o t h e rear, clapping the palms together behind the back. At this time relax t h e shoulders and shock with t h e arms, e x h a l e completely. Repeat as m a n y times as c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Five: Uphold the Heavens and Firm the Root (The Two Hands Uphold the Heavens)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : According to t h e theories of Chinese medicine, the internal body i n c l u d e s t h e six yin o r g a n s a n d six yang o r g a n s i n c l u d i n g t h e triple w a r m e r . The triple w a r m e r i s n o t a s i n g l e o r g a n b u t r a t h e r a c o m p l e x o f i n t e r a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a c c u m u l a t i o n a n d d i s p e r s i o n o f m e t a b o l i c a l l y g e n e r a t e d h e a t a n d body-fluids via the thoracic cavity, a b d o m i n a l cavity, and pelvic or lower a b d o m i n a l cavity. T h e triple w a r m e r has no c o n c r e t e organ a n d therefore c a n n o t be observed during an a u t o p s y , b u t c a n o n l y b e k n o w n b y o b s e r v i n g its f u n c t i o n i n t h e l i v i n g b o d y . In t h e m e d i c a l t r e a t i s e Lin Qu Ying Wei Sheng HueiPien it is w r i t t e n , " T h e u p p e r w a r m e r is like fog, t h e m i d d l e w a r m e r is like f o a m , t h e l o w e r w a r m e r is like a d i t c h . " In t h e Medical Recipes for the Internal Organs, it s a y s , " T h e c l a s s i c s say t h e u p p e r w a r m e r i s like fog, t h e r e t h e spirit o f h a r m o n y o f o r i g i n a l q i s t e a m s f o r t h ; t h e m i d d l e w a r m e r i s like f o a m , t h i s i s t h e c e n t e r f o r t h e d i g e s t i o n a n d a b s o r p t i o n o f f o o d : t h e l o w e r w a r m e r i s like a d i t c h , i t i s t h e r o u t e f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f w a s t e p r o d u c t s . " From t h e a b o v e it c a n be seen that the upper warmer f u n c t i o n s to d i s s e m i n a t e t h e p r o t e c t i v e qi, t h e m i d d l e w a r m e r f u n c t i o n s i n a b s o r b i n g n u t r i e n t s , nurturing the blood and supplying the entire body wilh the nutrients it needs, and the lower warmer f u n c t i o n s in absorbing liquids and excreting urine and feces.

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T h i s e x e r c i s e i n v o l v e s l i f t i n g t h e h a n d s a n d b e n d i n g t h e w a i s t . T h i s will i m p r o v e t h e digestive a n d absorptive f u n c t i o n s of t h e triple warmer, especially t h e digestive capabilities of t h e s t o m a c h a n d intestines a n d t h e ability of t h e b l a d d e r t o rid t h e b o d y o f w a s t e s . T h e a b i l i t y t o d i g e s t a n d a b s o r b f o o d , a s w e l l a s e l i m i n a t e w a s t e p r o d u c t s c a n all b e i m p r o v e d . T h i s i n t u r n will s t r e n g t h e n t h e physical c o n s t i t u t i o n and p r o m o t e h e a l t h and a l o n g life. Preparatory Posture: M e t h o d of Practice: S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e feet t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 5 - 1 ) . This exercise i s practiced i n t w o parts.

Part O n e 1. Interlace t h e fingers in front of the body, t h e p a l m s face down ( p h o t o 5 - 2 ) . 2 . Lift t h e p a l m s u p a l o n g t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t u r n t h e h a n d s t o f a c e p a l m s u p . E x t e n d t h e a r m s u n t i l t h e h a n d s are s t r a i g h t u p o v e r t h e t u p of the head (photo 5-3). 3 . L e a n t h e u p p e r b o d y b a c k w a r d a s far a s p o s s i b l e , t h e n c o n t i n u e b y l e a n i n g t o t h e left a n d right, t h e h a n d s i n i t i a t e t h e m o t i o n a n d g u i d e t h e b o d y t o l e a n left a n d r i g h t . L e a n b a c k , left a n d right t h r e e t i m e s e a c h w a y ( p h o t o s 5 - 4 t h r o u g h 5-6). 4 . N o w b e n d o v e r f o r w a r d a n d let t h e h a n d s m o v e d o w n t o t h e f r o n t . T h e p a l m s t o u c h t h e g r o u n d in front of t h e feet ( p h o t o 5 - 7 ) . 5 . T h e f e e t are t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e k n e e s s t r a i g h t , c o n t i n u i n g , s l i g h t l y t u r n t h e waist t o t h e left a n d press t h e p a l m s d o w n i n f r o n t o f t h e left f o o t , n o w t u r n t h e waist to the right a n d press t h e p a l m s d o w n in front of t h e right f o o t (the fingers arc interlaced t h r o u g h o u t ) . Sec p h o t o s 5 - 8 t h r o u g h 5 - 1 0 . 6 . S t a n d u p a n d a g a i n lift t h e p a l m s u p a n d s t r a i g h t e n t h e a r m s w i t h t h e p a l m s over t h e t o p of t h e head. Repeat steps 1 - 5 t h r e e or four times ( p h o t o s 5-2 through 5-10). Part T w o 1. Bend the arms with the palms facing in with the hands held in front of the f o r e h e a d . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t a k e a s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e left f o o t a n d b e n d t h e leg w h i l e s t r a i g h t e n i n g t h e r i g h t leg i n t o a left b o w a n d a r r o w s t a n c e ( p h o t o 5 11). 2 . T u r n t h e b o d y t o t h e left a n d l o o k t o t h e rear, l o o k b a c k a n d d o w n a t t h e right heel, at the same time the hands can help the fKKly twist to the left (photo 5-12). 3 . Turn b a c k t o t h e f r o n t a n d w i t h d r a w t h e left leg, s t e p o u t w i t h t h e r i g h t f o o t i n t o a r i g h t b o w a n d a r r o w s t a n c e , t u r n t h e w a i s t t o t h e right a n d l o o k b a c k a n d d o w n t o t h e left h e e l ( p h o t o s 5 - 1 3 t h r o u g h 5 - 1 7 ) . 4 . R e p e a t part t w o o f t h i s e x e r c i s e t w i c e t o t h e left a n d r i g h t . N u m b e r of Repetitions: The n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s s u g g e s t e d a b o v e i s t h e m i n i m u m a m o u n t . O n e m a y i n c r e a s e t h e n u m b e r a s o n e i s a b l e . Those w h o a r e w e a k o r i n f i r m m a y lessen t h e n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s . Important Points: 1 . W h e n s t a n d i n g i n t h e b o w a n d a r r o w s t a n c e , t h e rear h e e l m u s t n o t l e a v e t h e

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ground, t h e foot should be flat. 2 . S i n c e t h i s e x e r c i s e p l a c e s c o m p a r a t i v e l y g r e a t e r a m o u n t o f stress o n t h e w h o l e body, o n e should be especially careful n o t to use force. In t h e b e g i n n i n g , if o n e is u n a b l e to perform t h e exercise as described, do n o t try to force the m o v e m e n t s , c o m p e t e n c y will c o m e w i t h t i m e . 3 . The b r e a t h i n g s h o u l d b e n a t u r a l . T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : The first part o f t h e e x e r c i s e , t h e f o r w a r d a n d b a c k w a r d b e n d i n g , will s t r e t c h o u t t h e b a c k a n d a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s . A s t h e a r m s l e a d t h e b o d y t o s t r e t c h side t o side, t h e w a i s t a n d s t o m a c h are s t r e n g t h e n e d . N o t o n l y are t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e a b d o m e n a n d w a i s t s t r e n g t h e n e d , t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s a r e a l s o e x e r c i s e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e k i d n e y s a n d m a j o r b l o o d vessels i n t h e a b d o m i n a l cavity. Part t w o o f t h e e x e r c i s e s t r e t c h e s a n d c o n t r a c t s t h e i n t e r c o s t a l m u s c l e s a n d exercises the lumbar region.

P h o t o 5-1

P h o t o 5-2

P h o t o 5-3

P h o t o 5-4 l SO

P h o t o 5-5

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P h o t o 5-15

P h o t o 5-16

P h o t o 5-17

Photo 5-18

P h o t o 5-19

P h o t o 5-20

Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Uphold the Heavens and Firm the Root:


Stand erect w i t h t h e h a n d s h a n g i n g at the sides. C a l m t h e h e a r t a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s possible. The e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . T h e m o u t h is closed, the tongue touches the roof of the mouth. R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. Interlace t h e fingers, place the h a n d s in front of t h e lower s t o m a c h . T h e palms face downward, the energy of the arms hangs down. Turn t h e p a l m s t o f a c e u p w a r d , raise t h e a r m s a n d lift t h e m a s i f h o l d i n g u p t h e sky. T h e power c o m e s from t h e shoulders and arms, relax t h e shoulders a n d lean the waist back. R e t u r n t o p r e s s i n g s t r a i g h t u p t o t h e sky, n o w l e a n t h e b o d y t o t h e left s i d e . L e a n t h e b o d y a l t e r n a t e l y t o t h e r i g h t a n d left t h r e e t i m e s . Breathe out slowly, b r e a t h e in s m o o t h l y . ( n o t e : T h i s m o v e m e n t s t i m u l a t e s t h e s t o m a c h b y p r o v i d i n g e v e n p r e s s u r e all around and strengthens t h e upper warmer.) Bend at the waist and straighten the arms, slowly b e n d forward to the ground. T h e h a n d s a r e still i n t e r l o c k e d , press t h e p a l m s t o t h e g r o u n d i n f r o n t o f t h e f e e t . T u r n t h e b o d y t o t h e left, t o u c h t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e t h e left f o o t . T u r n t h e b o d y to t h e right, t o u c h t h e g r o u n d outside t h e right foot. C o n t i n u e the exercise as long as comfortable. ( n o t e : T h i s m o v e m e n t s t i m u l a t e s t h e b l a d d e r b y p r o v i d i n g e v e n p r e s s u r e all around and strengthens the lower warmer.) E x t e n d t h e left f o o t f o r w a r d , m o v e i t o u t a s t e p . T h e f r o n t leg i s b e n t , t h e rear leg i s s t r a i g h t e n e d . T h e h a n d s a r c i n t e r l o c k e d , raise t h e h a n d s a b o v e t h e h e a d . T h e p a l m s f a c e u p w a r d , t w i s t t h e b o d y t o t h e left. Look back at t h e right foot, the power c o m e s from t h e inner thighs. Extend t h e right foot forward, m o v e it out a step. T h e f r o n t leg i s b e n t , t h e rear leg i s s t r a i g h t e n e d . T h e h a n d s a r e i n t e r l o c k e d , raise t h e h a n d s a b o v e t h e h e a d . T h e p a l m s face upward, twist the b o d y to the right. L o o k b a c k a t t h e left f o o t , t h e p o w e r c o m e s f r o m t h e i n n e r t h i g h s . ( n o t e : T h i s m o v e m e n t stimulates t h e m i d d l e o f t h e a b d o m e n a n d central part o f t h e b o d y b y p r o v i d i n g e v e n p r e s s u r e all a r o u n d a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e m i d d l e warmer.)

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Exercise Six: Empty the Foot and Lift a Single Hand


B a l a n c i n g Yin a n d Yang, r e g u l a t i n g t h e Five E l e m e n t s , r e f i n i n g t h e e s s e n c e i n t o in, q i i n t o spirit a n d spirit i n t o t h e v o i d a r e all t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f C h i n e s e medicine, a n d X i n g Yi Q u a n internal cultivation practices, a n d are supported by p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . P r a c t i c i n g t h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s c a n i n c r e a s e o n e ' s i n t e r n a l power, cultivate t h e body, increase vitality, slow t h e aging process, cure disease a n d e x t e n d life. P r a c t i c i n g t h e s e m o v e m e n t s w i t h i n t e n t c a n b a l a n c e t h e i n t e r n a l systems, aid t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e organs, s t r e n g t h e n t h e muscles a n d s h a r p e n t h e s e n s e s . T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e e s s e n c e i n t o q i b u i l d s u p t h e " p r o t e c t i v e qi" w h i c h surrounds t h e b o d y a n d wards off illness. T h e internal circulatory systems are r e g u l a t e d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s a r e e n l i v e n e d , t h e b l o o d i s n o u r i s h e d a n d t h e q i will b e full. T h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m i s s t r e n g t h e n e d , t h e s t o m a c h a n d i n t e s t i n e s are s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d d i g e s t i o n i s i m p r o v e d . T h e liver a n d s p l e e n are b e n e f i t e d a n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n of b l o o d is increased. T h e entire skeletal system receives benefit. T h i s exercise c a n be said to be a m a r v e l o u s m e t h o d of cultivating t h e b o d y a n d improving the health. T h o s e w h o wish to strengthen the b o d y must look here! T h e b e s t m e d i c i n e i n t h e w o r l d i s i n s i d e y o u r o w n b o d y , all t h a t i s l a c k i n g i s t h e p r a c t i c e a n d r e f i n e m e n t t o m a k e u s e o f it. N o m a t t e r t h e r e a s o n o n e h a s n o t t a k e n advantage of the healing power of the body before, whether it be ignorance of the correct m e t h o d , laziness, disbelief or insufficient m o t i v a t i o n , n o w that t h e m e t h o d i s k n o w n , all t h a t i s n e e d e d i s t o put t h e m e t h o d i n t o p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r to build h e a l t h , cure disease and p r o l o n g life.

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Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e f e e t are t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 6 - 1 ) .

1 . S l i g h t l y b e n d t h e left k n e e , t h e left f o o t i s flat o n t h e g r o u n d . S h i f t t h e e n t i r e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y o n t o t h e left f o o t . 2 . Lift t h e h e e l o f t h e r i g h t f o o t o f f t h e g r o u n d . T h e b a l l o f t h e r i g h t f o o t l i g h t l y touches the ground. 3 . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , b e n d t h e e l b o w s a n d lift t h e h a n d s u n t i l t h e p a l m s are i n f r o n t o f t h e c h e s t , t h e left h a n d i s a g a i n s t t h e b o d y , p a l m f a c i n g d o w n , t h e r i g h t p a l m i s o u t s i d e t h e left p a l m f a c i n g p a l m u p ( p h o t o 6 - 2 ) . 4 . T h e left h a n d p r e s s e s d o w n w a r d past t h e left side o f t h e s t o m a c h a n d h i p , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e right h a n d p u s h e s u p w a r d past t h e f o r e h e a d . Do not c o m p l e t e l y e x t e n d t h e a r m s (photos 6-3 a n d 6 - 4 ) . 5 . C o n t i n u i n g , p u t t h e right f o o t d o w n flat, s h i f t t h e w e i g h t t o t h e r i g h t f o o t a n d lift t h e left h e e l w i t h t h e left t o e s l i g h t l y t o u c h i n g t h e g r o u n d . 6 . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e r i g h t h a n d presses d o w n w a r d , t u r n t h e p a l m t o f a c e d o w n , m o v e t h e h a n d a l o n g t h e b o d y , t h e left p a l m t u r n s p a l m u p a n d m o v e s u p o u t s i d e t h e right p a l m , t h e left p a l m lifts u p a s t h e right p a l m p r e s s e s d o w n ( p h o t o s 6-5 t h r o u g h 6 - 8 ) . 7. Repeat with o n e palm pressing up as t h e o t h e r presses d o w n .

N u m b e r of Repetitions: P r a c t i c e e i g h t t i m e s t o t h e right a n d left t o start, gradually increasing to sixteen repetitions. Important Points: 1. W h e n pushing one hand up and the other down, inhale. W h e n changing, e x h a l e . O n e m a y a l s o just b r e a t h e n a t u r a l l y . 2 . I m a g i n e s o m e resistance w h e n p u s h i n g t h e palms but use n o external force. The Range of Motion and Effects: The upward and downward pressing

motions of the palms and


t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e h e e l flex and extend the muscles and j o i n t s o f t h e h a n d s , wrists, a n d feet. S h i f t i n g t h e w e i g h t from foot to foot also helps improve balance. The actions of the h a n d s stretch t h e m u s c l e s a t t h e sides o f the body and the movement is also beneficial to the peristalsis a n d digestion. P h o t o 6-1 P h o t o 6-2 135

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Empty the Foot and Lift a Single Hand


Stand naturally, the arms h a n g by t h e sides. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, t h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r . C l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . T h e eyes look straight a h e a d , t h e b o d y is relaxed. Close the m o u t h , the t o n g u e t o u c h e s the roof of the m o u t h . T h e (ji a n d b r e a t h fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. M o v e t h e w e i g h t t o t h e left f o o t , e m p t y t h e r i g h t f o o t , t h e ball o f t h e right f o o t lightly touches the ground. Regulate the qi and breath, the intent encompasses the entire universe. A s f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s , h e a v e n a n d m a n are o n e . T h e b o d y i s agile, r e a c h a s i f for t h e s k y . T h e left a r m b e n d s a t t h e e l b o w , t h e left h a n d i s h e l d p a l m o p e n . M o v e t h e h a n d u p past t h e s t o m a c h , t h e h a n d s t o p s a b o v e t h e c h e s t . T h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a l m t u r n s i n w a r d , fill t h e p a l m w i t h qi. M o v e t h e right h a n d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r , m o v i n g t o t h e right side o f t h e b o d y . C o n t i n u i n g , t u r n t h e p a l m , s w i n g t h e r i g h t p a l m u p a s t h e left p a l m i s l o w e r e d . T h e left h a n d i s a t t h e left side, t h e p a l m f a c i n g d o w n w a r d . T h e qi moves i n t o the palm, t h e intent is as if pressing d o w n t h e earth. T h e r i g h t a r m b e n d s a t t h e e l b o w , t h e right h a n d i s h e l d i n a p a l m . T h e p a l m f a c e s i n w a r d , t h e q i fills t h e p a l m . T h e left p a l m i s m o v e d t o t h e left s i d e . C o n t i n u i n g , t u r n t h e p a l m o v e r , lift i t u p p a s t t h e c h e s t . T h e h a n d m o v e s u p t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e top o f t h e head, t h e palm faces upward. T h e q i fills t h e p a l m , t h e i n t e n t i s a s i f l i f t i n g u p t h e s k y . T h e w e i g h t i s m o v e d t o t h e right f o o t , t h e left f o o t i s e m p t y , t h e b a l l o f t h e f o o t lightly touches the ground. Regulate the qi and breath, the intent e n c o m p a s s e s the entire universe. A s f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s , h e a v e n a n d m a n a r c o n e , t h e b o d y i s agile, r e a c h a s i f t o t o u c h t h e sky. T h e right a r m b e n d s a t t h e e l b o w , t h e r i g h t h a n d i s h e l d i n a p a l m . M o v e t h e h a n d u p past t h e s t o m a c h , t h e h a n d s t o p s a b o v e t h e c h e s t . T h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a l m t u r n s i n w a r d , fill t h e p a l m w i t h qi. M o v e t h e left h a n d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r , m o v i n g t o t h e left side o f t h e b o d y . C o n t i n u i n g , t u r n t h e p a l m , s w i n g t h e left p a l m u p a s t h e r i g h t p a l m i s l o w e r e d . T h e right p a l m i s a t t h e right side, t h e p a l m f a c i n g d o w n w a r d . T h e qi m o v e s i n t o t h e palm, the intent is as if pressing d o w n t h e earth. T h e left a r m b e n d s a t t h e e l b o w , t h e left h a n d i s h e l d i n a p a l m . T h e p a l m f a c e s i n w a r d , t h e q i fills t h e p a l m . T h e right p a l m i s m o v e d t o t h e left s i d e . C o n t i n u i n g , t u r n i n g t h e p a l m o v e r , lift i t u p past t h e c h e s t . T h e h a n d m o v e s up to t h e height of t h e top of t h e head, t h e palm faces upward. The qi fills t h e p a l m , t h e i n t e n t is as if l i f t i n g up t h e s k y .

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Exercise Seven (Part One): Concentrate the Spirit and Gaze at the Heel (Lean, Tilt, Look Right and Gaze Left)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit t o q u i e t t h e h e a r t , t h e h e a r t i s q u i e t a n d w i t h o u t interfering t h o u g h t , w i t h o u t worry. T h i s is t h e state of Wu ji *&) t h e o r i g i n a l v o i d . All i s u n i t e d i n t o o n e , d i m a n d i n d i s t i n c t , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e g r e a t void, tranquil a n d flowing endlessly, t h e large a n d small h e a v e n l y cycles flow naturally, strengthening t h e kidneys and the essence, nourishing the core of the b o d y , b e n e f i t i n g t h e b r a i n a n d n e r v e s , fire a n d w a t e r a r e b a l a n c e d , t h e r o u t e o f t h e dan tian I s o p e n . T h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l are c u l t i v a t e d t o g e t h e r , m o v e m e n t and stillness follow o n e a n o t h e r , t h e i n t e n t m o v e s a n d form follows, t h e f o r m relies o n t h e c h a n g e s o f t h e i n t e n t , b e d i l i g e n t i n c u l t i v a t i o n a n d practice, return to that w h i c h is natural, t h e heart is quiet a n d t h e i n t e n t is true, it is like p o l i s h i n g g o l d or f i l i n g steel i n t o a n e e d l e , s t u d y d i l i g e n t l y w i t h a q u i e t m i n d . O n c e t h e m e t h o d i s realized, o n e will e n j o y l o n g life, w i t h b o u n d l e s s happiness.

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Exercise Seven (Part Two): The Golden Cock Eats Rice


Introduction: According to the traditional theories of Chinese Medicine, besides t h e " p r e c i o u s " organs, the body also has a network of meridians w h i c h m n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e b o d y . A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e are t w e l v e m a i n m e r i d i a n s w h i c h are c o n n e c t e d t o t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s a n d are d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e s y s t e m s . S i x o f t h e m e r i d i a n s a r e "yang" a n d are l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e l a t e r a l s u r f a c e o f t h e b o d y . S i x o f t h e m e r i d i a n s a r e "yin" a n d a r e l o c a t e d o n t h e m e d i a l s u r f a c e o f t h e body. Because the twelve meridiansare c o n n e c t e d to and nourish the important internal organs, their condition is most important to the health of the body. T h e goal of health exercises and internal cultivation is to cause the original p r e - b i r t h yang q i t o f l o w f r e e l y t h r o u g h t h e m e r i d i a n s . T h e q i leads t h e b l o o d , t o g e t h e r t h e y n o u r i s h all t h e o r g a n s a n d p r e v e n t d i s e a s e , a n d i n c r e a s e o n e ' s v i t a l i t y . T h e c a v i t i e s t h a t lie a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n s are i m p o r t a n t j u n c t u r e s i n t h e flow of energy. T h e state of these cavities plays a significant role in t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d i s e a s e . T h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e X i n g Y i e x e r c i s e s for h e a l t h c a n s t i m u l a t e t h e f l o w o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yang q i t h r o u g h t h e m e r i d i a n s , h e l p i n g to r e m o v e a n y o b s t r u c t i o n s in t h e cavities thereby greatly i m p r o v i n g t h e health. T h e benefits of this exercise include comfortably extending t h e spine a n d nerves w h i c h run to a n d f r o m t h e brain, as well as o p e n i n g the i m p o r t a n t c a v i t i e s w h i c h lie a l o n g t h e s p i n e , i n c r e a s i n g t h e f l o w o f e n e r g y i n t h e Ren a n d D u m e r i d i a n s , i n c r e a s i n g t h e life e n e r g y , r e l i e v i n g f a t i g u e a n d c a l m i n g t h e spirit while benefiting the brain.

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Gong S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e feet are t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 7 - 1 ) . This exercise is divided into two parts.

Preparatory Posture: M e t h o d of Practice: Part O n e :

C o n c e n t r a t e t h e Spirit a n d Gaze a t t h e Heel

1 . T h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , s l o w l y t u r n t h e h e a d t o t h e left, l o o k i n g b a c k a s far a s p o s s i b l e , a s i f l o o k i n g o v e r t h e left s h o u l d e r a t t h e h e e l s ( p h o t o 7 - 2 ) . 2 . R e p e a t t h e m o v e m e n t t u r n i n g t h e h e a d t o t h e r i g h t ( p h o t o s 7-3 a n d 7 - 4 ) . 3 . R e p e a t t u r n i n g t h e h e a d left a n d r i g h t a n d l o o k i n g b a c k a t t h e h e e l s ( p h o t o s 7-1 t h r o u g h 7 - 4 ) . Part T w o : T h e G o l d e n C o c k Eats Rice 1 . L e a n t h e h e a d b a c k a s far a s p o s s i b l e a n d l o o k u p ( p h o t o 7 - 6 ) . 2 . L o o k d o w n a s far a s p o s s i b l e ( p h o t o 7 - 7 ) . 3. Repeat leaning the head back t h e n bending t h e head forward.

N u m b e r o f R e p e t i t i o n s : Repeat according t o your physical c o n d i t i o n . T h o s e w i t h h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e , o r w h o b e c o m e dizzy, c a n start w i t h just a few repetitions and gradually increase the n u m b e r . Important Points: 1 . D u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e , o n e s h o u l d Temain a s q u i e t a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d a s p o s s i b l e . M o v e slowly t o avoid b e c o m i n g dizzy. 2. W h e n tilting t h e head forward t h e c h i n t o u c h e s the chest. 3. Breathe naturally.

T h e R a n g e of M o t i o n a n d Effects: This is primarily an exercise for the head a n d neck. T h e actions of this exercise work the muscles of the head and the cervical vertebrae, t h e c i r c u l a t i o n to t h e h e a d is increased. T h e m o v e m e n t s h e l p relieve m e n t a l f a t i g u e a n d relieve t e n s i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m , w h i l e i m p r o v i n g its f u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e e y e s l o o k b a c k a s far a s p o s s i b l e , t h e m u s c l e s a r o u n d t h e e y e s are s t r e n g t h e n e d . T h e e x e r c i s e i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h o s e w i t h problems in the head, neck or central nervous system. The muscles of the neck a n d c e r v i c a l v e r t e b r a e r e m a i n h e a l t h y a n d t h e e x e r c i s e will a l s o h e l p restore b a l a n c e to those w i t h high b l o o d pressure or h a r d e n i n g of t h e arteries.

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The "Song" of Concentrate the Spirit and Gaze at the Heel


Stand erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g a t t h e sides. T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , t h e r e i s n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t d i s t u r b a n c e . T h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . T h e m o u t h is closed, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t f r o m t h e dan tian. Turn t h e h e a d a n d n e c k t o t h e left, s l o w l y a n d g e n t l y . G a z e a t t h e h e e l s , t h e i n t e n t m o v e s first. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit o n t h e b a c k w a r d gaze, f o c u s o n t h e h e e l s . T h e i n t e n t and(/i m o v e t o g e t h e r , t h e e n e r g y will f l o w t h r o u g h t h e Ken m e r i d i a n . Yin a n d Yang a r e u n i t e d , t h e e n e r g y f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e h e a v e n l y c y c l e s . Slowly and gently, t h e intent a n d qi m o v e in an u n i n t e r r u p t e d flow. T h e h e a d r e t u r n s t o t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , t h e q i i s c o n t a i n e d o n t h e dan tian. Turn t h e head a n d neck to the right, slowly a n d gently. Craze a t t h e h e e l s , t h e i n t e n t m o v e s first. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit o n t h e b a c k w a r d gaze, f o c u s o n t h e h e e l s . The i n t e n t a n d q i m o v e t o g e t h e r , t h e e n e r g y wilt f l o w t h r o u g h t h e Ren m e r i d i a n . T h e energy flows t h r o u g h t h e h e a v e n l y cycles. The m o v e m e n t i s s o f t a n d g e n t l e , r e p e a t a s m a n y t i m e s a s i s c o m f o r t a b l e . T h e qi and breath flow comfortably, this exercise prevents dizziness.

142

Health

Exercises

The "Song" of The Golden Cock Eats Rice


Stand erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g at t h e sides. The h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , w i t h o u t t h e s l i g h t e s t d i s t u r b a n c e . T h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. T h e h e a d i s h e l d u p w i t h t h e n e c k s t r a i g h t , relax t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d e m p t y t h e chest. T h e feet g r i p t h e g r o u n d , t h e " b u b b l i n g s p r i n g " p o i n t w i t h d r a w s u p w a r d . S i n k t h e qi to t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m is c o n t r a c t e d u p w a r d . Move the crown of the head backward, t h e chin moves upward. S l o w l y i n h a l e , b r e a t h e i n t o t h e " s e a o f qi." Return t h e head to t h e upright position, proceed slowly. T h e heart is calm and the qi s m o o t h , you must not hold the breath. The e y e s l o o k f o r w a r d , r e l a x e d , q u i e t a n d n a t u r a l . T h e head is held up with t h e neck straight, relax t h e shoulders a n d e m p t y t h e chest. S i n k t h e q i t o t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m i s g e n t l y c o n t r a c t e d u p w a r d . M o v e t h e crown of t h e h e a d forward, t h e "jade pillow" (a point at t h e base of t h e skull) moves upward. S l o w l y e x h a l e , t h e air l e a v e s t h e " s e a o f qi."

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Exercise Eight: Ape Arms Enliven the Blood (Rubbing the Palms)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e C h i n e s e m e d i c a l t r e a t i s e BenZangPian s t a t e s , " T h e m e r i d i a n s are t h e p a t h w a y s o f q i a n d b l o o d , t h e y m a n a g e yin andyang, n o u r i s h t h e t e n d o n s and bones and benefit t h e joints." The m e a n i n g of this is the internal organs, b o n e s a n d j o i n t s are n o u r i s h e d b y t h e f l o w o f q i a n d b l o o d . A b a l a n c e d f l o w o f qi a n d b i o o d also benefits t h e c o n n e c t i v e tissue, b o n e s a n d skin. T h e balances o f t h e b o d y are all d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h i s f l o w . I f t h e r e are n o o b s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e n o r m a l f l o w o f q i a n d b l o o d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e b o d y , all parts o f t h e b o d y will b e n o u r i s h e d a n d will f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y . T h e b o d y i s t h e n a b l e t o w a r d o f f h a r m f u l i n f l u e n c e s a n d m a i n t a i n its h e a l t h . In t h e Ling Qiu Theory of Regulating the Meridians t h e r e is a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e " l i v e r s t o r i n g b l o o d . " T h i s refers t o t h e liver's a b i l i t y t o s t o r e a n d r e g u l a t e t h e a m o u n t o f b l o o d i t c o n t a i n s . The v a r i o u s d i s e a s e s o f t h e b l o o d are c a u s e d b y t h e " i n a b i l i t y o f t h e liver t o s t o r e b l o o d . " T h e purpose of this exercise is to open the meridians, including the Twelve M a i n Meridians a n d t h e Eight Extra Meridians, a l l o w i n g the energy to flow u n i m p e d e d . T h e b l o o d v e s s e l s t o o are o p e n e d a n d t h e c i r c u l a t i o n i s s t r o n g . W i t h t h e q i a n d b l o o d c i r c u l a t i n g n o r m a l l y , all t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n s a n d s y s t e m s o f t h e body receive t h e n u t r i e n t s n e e d e d for o p t i m a l h e a l t h a n d p r e v e n t i o n of disease.

Health

Exercises

Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e feet a r e t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 8 - 1 ) .

1 . B e n d t h e k n e e s s l i g h t l y , s h i f t t h e w e i g h t t o t h e r i g h t f o o t , lift t h e left h e e l a n d l i g h t l y t o u c h t h e g r o u n d w i t h t h e b a l l o f t h e left f o o t . 2 . B e n d t h e left e l b o w , lift t h e left h a n d u n t i l i t i s level w i t h a n d i n f r o n t o f t h e left side o f t h e f o r e h e a d . 3 . Put t h e f i n g e r s o f t h e right h a n d t o g e t h e r , r u b t h e left p a l m i n a n u p a n d d o w n m o t i o n w i t h t h e right f i n g e r s ( p h o t o 8 - 2 ) . 4 . T u r n t h e h e a d a n d l o o k t o t h e right, a s i f l o o k i n g a t t h e right h e e l . 5 . After r u b b i n g t h e left p a l m a n u m b e r o f t i m e s , p u t t h e left f o o t d o w n , s h i f t t h e w e i g h t t o t h e left f o o t , b e n d t h e k n e e s l i g h t l y a n d t o u c h t h e ball o f t h e r i g h t f o o t l i g h t l y o n t h e g r o u n d . Lift t h e r i g h t p a l m a n d r u b w i t h t h e left l i n g e r s ( p h o t o s 8-3 and 8-4). 6 . R e p e a t t o t h e left a n d r i g h t . N u m b e r of Repetitions: u n t i l it is w a r m . Important Points: 1 . T h e s h o u l d e r s m u s t b e r e l a x e d , t h e a r m s m u s t n o t b e rigid. P e r f o r m t w i c e o n t h e r i g h t a n d left sides. R u b t h e p a l m

T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : T h i s e x e r c i s e will i n c r e a s e t h e e n d u r a n c e o f t h e arms and fingers. It is especially beneficial to t h o s e w h o have injured their ha u d s or f i n g e r s . R u b b i n g t h e pal m s t i m u l a t e s t h e Lao Gong p o i n t (in t h e c e n t e r of the p a l m ) . This is beneficial to those suffering from " h e a t " in the internal organs, e x t r e m e thirst, nasal problems, inability to focus t h e attention a n d stroke.

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Ape Arms Enliven the Blood


S t a n d e r e c t , t h e h a n d s h a n g d o w n b y t h e sides. The h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , w i t h o u t t h e s l i g h t e s t d i s t u r b a n c e . T h e e y e s l o o k straight a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . Close the m o u t h , the tongue touches the roof of the mouth. R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. E m p t y t h e left f o o t , t h e ball o f t h e left f o o t l i g h t l y t o u c h e s t h e g r o u n d . T h e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y i s o n t h e right f o o t . T h e i n t e n t i s o n t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m i s g e n t l y lifted u p . B e n d t h e left e l b o w , lift i t past t h e s t o m a c h t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c h e s t . Lift t h e left p a l m , p l a c e i t b e s i d e t h e left side o f t h e h e a d . T h e center of t h e palm is at t h e height of t h e forehead, as if you are holding up t h e sky. B e n d t h e right e l b o w s l i g h t l y , lift t h e r i g h t p a l m . Lift i t t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a d , p l a c e t h e right f i n g e r t i p s a g a i n s t t h e left p a l m . The right f i n g e r s r u b t h e left p a l m , r u b w i t h a n u p a n d d o w n m o t i o n . T u r n t h e head to t h e right, look at t h e right h e e l . E m p t y t h e right f o o t , t h e b a l l o f t h e right f o o t l i g h t l y t o u c h e s t h e g r o u n d . T h e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y i s o n t h e left f o o t . T h e i n t e n t is on t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m is l i f t e d u p w a r d . B e n d t h e r i g h t e l b o w , lift i t p a s t t h e s t o m a c h t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c h e s t . Lift t h e left p a l m , p l a c e i t b e s i d e t h e left side o f t h e h e a d . T h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a l m i s a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e f o r e h e a d , a s i f y o u are h o l d i n g u p t h e sky. B e n d t h e left e l b o w s l i g h t l y , lift t h e left p a l m . Lift i t t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a d , p l a c e t h e r i g h t f i n g e r t i p s a g a i n s t t h e right p a l m . T h e left f i n g e r s r u b t h e r i g h t p a l m , rub w i t h a n u p a n d d o w n m o t i o n . T u r n t h e h e a d t o t h e left, l o o k a t t h e left h e e l . Repeat as long as c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Nine: Raising the Back Seven Times


I n t r o d u c t i o n : W h e n o n e i s a b l e t o lead t h e b r e a t h , t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yang qi c a n ensure that t h e n o u r i s h i n g qi flows freely t h r o u g h t h e m e r i d i a n s , t h e b l o o d c i r c u l a t i o n will b e c o m p l e t e a n d e a c h p a r t o f t h e b o d y will receive t h e n o u r i s h m e n t i t n e e d s . T h e o r g a n s will t h e n f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y , t h e b o d y will b e h e a l t h y a n d d i s e a s e will h a v e n o p l a c e t o t a k e h o l d . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , w h e n b r e a t h i n g c o r r e c t l y o n e m a y a l s o fill t h e dan tian w h i c h s t r e n g t h e n s t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . T h i s e x e r c i s e will s t r e n g t h e n t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e l u n g s , i m p r o v e r e s p i r a t i o n , vital capacity a n d s t i m u l a t e m e t a b o l i c activity. Practicing r h y t h m i c b r e a t h i n g also improves the f u n c t i o n of t h e heart, s t r e n g t h e n s t h e b l o o d vessels, a n d increases the heart's power of endurance which p r o m o t e s health and a long, h e a l t h y life.

US

Health

ExercifM'K

Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y , t h e f e e t are t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 9 - 1 ) .

1 . Lift t h e h a n d s u p i n f r o n t t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h e a d , t h e p a l m s f a c e o u t w a r d . 2 . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , raise u p o n t h e t o e s , t h e legs a r e t o g e t h e r a n d t h e k n e e s a r e s t r a i g h t . T h e e n t i r e w e i g h t o f t h e b o d y i s o n t h e balls o f t h e feet. I n h a l e d e e p l y . See p h o t o s 9-2 a n d 9 - 3 . 3. Lower t h e heels as t h e two arms drop straight d o w n in front of t h e body, b e n d t h e knees a n d slightly squat (dropping t h e b o d y w e i g h t and t h e arms swiftly as t h e h e e l s are l o w e r e d ) , e x h a l e t h o u g h t t h e m o u t h w i t h t h e " H A " s o u n d ( p h o t o 9-4). 4 . I m m e d i a t e l y raise u p o n t h e t o e s a g a i n a n d s w i n g t h e a r m s u p a b o v e t h e h e a d (photos 9-5 and 9-6). 5. Repeat steps 1-4.

N u m b e r o f R e p e t i t i o n s : Start w i t h seven repetitions, work u p t h e n u m b e r o f repetitions as y o u are able. Important Points: 1. T h e w h o l e b o d y is relaxed. Match the breath with the m o v e m e n t . Inhale w h e n raising up on the toes and exhale w h e n lowering the heels. R e m e m b e r to e x h a l e through the m o u t h with an audible " H A " sound. 2. Perform the exercise slowly.

T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d Effects: Thisexercise stretches t h e m u s c l e s o f the four extremities, with t h e m a t c h e d b r e a t h i n g there is a slight shock w h e n t h e heels d r o p , w h i c h i s g o o d f o r t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . T h e e x e r c i s e i s r e l a t e d t o e x e r c i s e five and has a similar effect. In addition, since the entire weight of the b o d y is s u p p o r t e d b y t h e balls o f t h e f e e t , t h e b a l a n c e i s i m p r o v e d .

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Exercises

The "Song" of Raising the Back Seven Times:


Stand erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g at t h e sides. T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still a s w a t e r , w i t h o u t t h e s l i g h t e s t i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h e e y e s l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d , t h e spirit i s h e l d w i t h i n . Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . R e g u l a t e t h e q i a n d b r e a t h , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e dan tian. T h e qi s i n k s to t h e dan tian, t h e p e r i n e u m is g e n t l y lifted u p w a r d . Lift t h e h a n d s t o g e t h e r , s l o w l y raise t h e m u p o v e r t h e h e a d . T h e t w o palms face t h e front. A t t h e s a m e t i m e raise u p o n t h e b a l l s o f t h e f e e t , t h e h e e l s raise u p o f f t h e g r o u n d . I n h a l e d e e p l y , t h e p o i n t o f p o w e r i s i n t h e feet, a r m s , w a i s t a n d h i p . T h e two arms forcefully swing d o w n . T h e heels lower to the ground, exhale with a " h a " sound. All o f t h e stale air i n t h e l u n g s i s e x h a l e d w i t h t h e " h a " s o u n d . This cleans the lungs and benefits the brain, strengthens the heart and improves t h e liver. R e m e m b e r in your heart, Repeat t h e exercise, seven t i m e s is ideal. All i l l n e s s a n d d i s e a s e will d i s a p p e a r .

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Exercise Ten: Both Fists Strike the Back


I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e Ren m e r i d i a n r u n s a l o n g t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y a n d r e g u l a t e s t h e yin, i t i s t h e " s e a " o f t h e yin m e r i d i a n s . T h e D u m e r i d i a n r u n s a l o n g t h e h a c k a n d c o n t r o l s t h e yang, i t i s t h e " s e a " o f t h e yang m e r i d i a n s . W h e n t h e Ren a n d D u m e r i d i a n s are u n i t e d a n d t h e q i a n d b r e a t h f l o w f r e e l y i n c o n t i n u o u s c y c l e s , t h e n t h e b o d y will b e s t r o n g a n d full o f v i t a l i t y . W h e n t h e energy flows u n i m p e d e d t h r o u g h t h e D u m e r i d i a n , t h e yang q i o f t h e k i d n e y will rise t o t h e " w e l l o f t h e s h o u l d e r s " a n d will f l o w d o w n w a r d t o t h e h e e l s . The k i d n e y q i will b e full, t h e spirit p u r e a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d , t h e w a i s t a n d legs will b e s t r o n g , t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s will b e a t e a s e . W i t h c o n t i n u e d p r a c t i c e o f t h i s e x e r c i s e t h e results will b e c o m e o b v i o u s .

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Exercises

Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

Stand in t h e horse riding stance ( p h o t o 10-2).

1 . C l o s e t h e h a n d s i n t o l o o s e fists, b e n d t h e e l b o w s a n d s w i n g t h e h a n d s u p w a r d . Use t h e " t i g e r ' s e y e " ( t h e radial side o f t h e fist) t o strike d o w n w a r d o n t h e t o p s of t h e trapezius muscles. 2. At the same time, push out the stomach and lean back (photos 10-3 through 10-5). 3 . T h e fists fall b a c k t o t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n h a n g i n g b y t h e sides ( p h o t o s 1 0 6 and 10-7). 4. Repeat steps 1-3. Sixteen repetitions is average, o n e m a y work up to

N u m b e r of Repetitions: t w e n t y four or m o r e . Important Points:

1 . W h e n striking t h e back and pushing out t h e s t o m a c h , inhale. W h e n returning t o t h e u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n a n d d r o p p i n g t h e fists, e x h a l e . 2 . After c o m p l e t i n g e x e r c i s e n i n e , o n e m a y rest a b r i e f p e r i o d b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g e x e r c i s e t e n . E x e r c i s e n i n e i s a bit m o r e stressful a n d o n e s h o u l d a l l o w t h e b o d y time to c a l m d o w n a n d b e c o m e quiet before going on to exercise ten, in order t o a v o i d loss o f b r e a t h . t h e Range of M o t i o n a n d Effects: This exercise c o n d i t i o n s the m u s c l e s o f the s t o m a c h a n d w a i s t . W h e n p u s h i n g o u t t h e s t o m a c h t h e a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s are s t r e t c h e d , t h i s i n f l u e n c e s t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . The l i g h t t a p p i n g o n t h e t r a p e z i u s muscles is beneficial to (hose w h o have injured their neck, shoulders, or back.

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P h o t o 10-1

P h o t o 10-2

P h o t o 10-3

P h o t o 10-4

P h o t o 10-5

P h o t o 10-6

P h o t o 10-7 154

P h o t o 10-8

P h o t o 10-9

Health

Exereis.es

The "Song" of Both lists Strike the Back:


Stand up naturally, the h a n d s h a n g beside the body. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h as p o s s i b l e . T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , t h e h e a v e n a n d e a r t h e x i s t t o g e t h e r . T h e eyes look straight a h e a d , t h e limbs a n d b o d y are relaxed. Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b l o o d fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g t o a n d f r o m t h e " s e a o f qi." T h e feet are o p e n e d p a r a l l e l i n t h e h o r s e r i d i n g p o s t u r e . T h e entire contracted T h e knees The palms opened. soles of t h e feet grip t h e g r o u n d , the " b u b b l i n g s p r i n g s " p o i n t s are upward. are b e n t , t h e e n e r g y o f t h e w a i s t m o v e s d o w n w a r d . are p l a c e d o n t h e t o p s o f t h e t h i g h s , t h e f i n g e r s are s t r e t c h e d a n d

Relax t h e shoulders a n d e m p t y t h e chest, press t h e h e a d upward a n d straighten the back of the neck. The i n t e n t is k e p t in t h e dan tian, t h e b r e a t h is d e l i c a t e , i n h a l e g e n t l y . Exhale s m o o t h l y , delicately, even, slow, and long. Press u p t h e sky a n d s t a n d e r e c t o n t h e e a r t h , o n e q i c o m p l e t e a n d n a t u r a l . T h e s h o u l d e r s a n d e l b o w s r e l a x e d , c l o s e t h e fisls t i g h t l y . T h e shoulders "urge" the elbows, the elbows "urge" the hands. W a v e t h e t w o fists, s w i n g t h e m u p w a r d . Swing t h e m above t h e head, then d o w n the back. T h e fists s t r i k e t h e " w e l l o f t h e s h o u l d e r s " t h e c h e s t a n d w a i s t l e a n b a c k . T h e qi and breath m o v e in a n d nut, regulating t h e m o v e m e n t . Repeat in this m a n n e r , striking t h e "well of t h e shoulders." C o n t i n u e as long as is c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Eleven: Rotating the Waist Strengthens the Kidneys


I n t r o d u c t i o n : According to the theories of traditional Chinese medicine, the f u n c t i o n s of the kidneys include the removal of wastes a n d uric acid, a n d also r e p r o d u c t i o n . In t h e Su Xing: Ling Lan Mi Dion Lun it is w r i t t e n , " T h e k i d n e y is a n o r g a n w h i c h gives s t r e n g t h , i t m a k e s o n e c l e v e r . " T h e m e a n i n g o f " g i v i n g o n e s t r e n g t h " refers t o e n e r g y a n d v i t a l i t y , w h i l e " m a k i n g o n e c l e v e r " refers t o h a v i n g a s h a r p m i n d . A l t h o u g h t h e b r a i n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h o u g h t , t h e c e r e b r a l fluid is produced by t h e kidneys, therefore t h e health of t h e kidneys is closely related to one's mental powers. The k i d n e y s a r e related t o t h e e l e m e n t w a t e r . T h e a n c i e n t s b e l i e v e d w a t e r i s yin, h o w e v e r , yin is c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n yang, t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e r e is fire in t h e midst of water. Because of this, t h e t w o kidneys are divided into t h e water kidney a n d t h e fire k i d n e y , t h e left k i d n e y i s w a t e r a n d t h e r i g h t k i d n e y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e ming men p o i n t a n d i s fire. T h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e t w o k i d n e y s a r e c o o r d i n a t e d , w h e n they f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r in h a r m o n y t h e b o d y is able lo m a i n t a i n a state of great vitality. Therefore, t h e health of t h e kidneys is very i m p o r t a n t to t h e overall h e a l t h of the body. Practicing the Xing Yi health exercises, especially this exercise, can greatly i m p r o v e t h e strength and function of the kidneys resulting in increased vitality, g o o d health in general, a sharp m i n d a n d t h e e n e r g y to s u c c e e d in life.

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Stand in the horse riding stance ( p h o t o 11-2).

1 . P u t t h e h a n d s o n t h e s i d e s o f t h e waist, t h e t h u m b s are f o r w a r d u n d e r t h e f r o n t o f t h e l o w e r ribs a n d t h e f o u r f i n g e r s are o n e a c h side o f t h e b a c k n e a r t h e l u m b a r region (photo 11-3). 2 . T u r n t h e w a i s t i n a c i r c l e first t o t h e left, t h e n t o t h e f r o n t , t h e n t o t h e r i g h t , t h e n t o t h e rear ( m a k i n g a c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e ) . See p h o t o s 1 1 - 3 t h r o u g h 1 1 - 7 . 3 . After a n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s , reverse t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e a n d r e p e a t ( p h o t o s 11-H t h r o u g h 1 1 - 1 1 ) . 4. Repeat steps 1-3. N u m b e r of Repetitions: increase the number. Important Points: 1. T h e m o v e m e n t should be light a n d slow. 2 . T h e size o f t h e c i r c l e c a n v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o o n e ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . 3 . T h e f e e t r e m a i n flat o n t h e g r o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e m o v e m e n t . O n l y t h e h i p s a n d waist s h o u l d m o v e . 4 . D o n o t let t h e h e a d r o t a t e o r s w i n g , t r y t o k e e p t h e h e a d r e l a t i v e l y still. 5 . T h e h a n d s s h o u l d firmly h o l d t h e waist. T h i s helps protect t h e waist muscles and also helps o n e perform the exercise. 6. Breathe naturally. T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : T h i s e x e r c i s e m o v e s t h e waist, h i p s , k n e e s , a n d wrists t h r o u g h u n c o m m o n a n g l e s o f m o t i o n . T h e w a i s t i s t h e c e n t r a l axis of t h e body's m o t i o n , t h e muscles of t h e waist a n d a b d o m e n as well as the k i d n e y s will b e s t i m u l a t e d b y t h i s e x e r c i s e . T h e m o v e m e n t i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h o s e w i t h pain in t h e waist. Start with eight o r sixteen repetitions a n d gradually

P h o t o 11-1

P h o t o 11-2

P h o t o 11-3 157

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P h o t o 11-4

P h o t o 11-5

P h o t o 11-6

P h o t o 11-7

P h o t o 11-8

P h o t o 11-9

P h o t o 11-10

P h o t o 11-11

P h o t o 11-12

Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Rotating the Waist Strengthens the Kidneys


T h e body stands naturally erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g at t h e sides. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h as p o s s i b l e . T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h e x i s t t o g e t h e r . T h e eyes look straight a h e a d , t h e limbs a n d b o d y relax. Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b r e a t h fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e " s e a o f qi." T h e feet o p e n o u t p a r a l l e l , a d o p t t h e h o r s e r i d i n g p o s t u r e . T h e e n t i r e s o l e s o f t h e feet g r i p t h e g r o u n d , t h e b u b b l i n g well p o i n t i s c o n t r a c t e d upward. T h e knees are b e n t , t h e e n e r g y o f t h e waist m o v e s d o w n w a r d . T h e h a n d s are h e l d p a l m s open, place t h e palms b e h i n d t h e back. Put t h e p a l m s o n t h e l o w e r b a c k o n e a c h side o f t h e s p i n e , t h e t i p s o f t h e f i n g e r s should be touching. T h e qi s i n k s to t h e dan tian, t h e qi a n d b r e a t h are n a t u r a l . Lean back, t h e s t o m a c h m o v e s forward, m o v e t h e waist in a circle. R o t a t e f r o m t h e f r o n t t o t h e left, f r o m t h e left t o t h e rear. F r o m t h e rear t o t h e right, from t h e right b a c k t o t h e f r o n t . Repeat as long as is c o m f o r t a b l e . Lean back, t h e s t o m a c h m o v e s forward, m o v e t h e waist in a circle. R o t a t e f r o m t h e f r o n t t o t h e r i g h t , f r o m t h e r i g h t t o t h e rear, F r o m t h e rear t o t h e left, f r o m t h e left b a c k t o t h e f r o n t . R e p e a t as l o n g as is c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Twelve: Moving the Hips to the Left and Right


I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e f r a m e , t o r s o , waist a n d h i p s are i n v o l v e d i n t h e o v e r a l l m o t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e b o d y , t h e s e areas m u s t n o t b e n e g l e c t e d d u r i n g e x e r c i s e . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f p h y s i o l o g y , a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e b o d y , t h e frame, torso, waist a n d h i p s include m a n y i m p o r t a n t meridians, o r g a n s a n d vital areas of c i r c u l a t i o n . T h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e areas s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when executing exercises to strengthen t h e overall f u n c t i o n s of the body. After p r a c t i c i n g t h e X i n g Y i e x e r c i s e s f o r h e a l t h , o n e will s t r e n g t h e n t h e v e r y r o o t o f t h e self, m a k i n g t h e b o d y h e a l t h y , t h e q i full, t h e l i m b s agile, t h e w a i s t a n d legs s t r o n g , t h e l o w e r b o d y s t a b l e , m o v e m e n t s a d r o i t , t h e s t e p s l i g h t , t h e back straight a n d t h e b o d y light a n d agile.

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Exercises

Preparatory Posture: are parallel. Method of Practice:

S p r e a d t h e legs t o d o u b l e s h o u l d e r w i d t h a p a r t , t h e feet

1. T h e upper body leans forward, t h e h a n d s grasp t h e ankles. 2 . S q u a t d o w n o n t h e left leg, t h e left k n e e p r e s s e s a g a i n s t t h e c h e s t , t h e left f o o t r e m a i n s flat o n t h e g r o u n d . T h e r i g h t leg i s s t r e t c h e d s t r a i g h t . N o w t h e w a i s t , b a c k a n d h i p s are all t u r n t o w a r d t h e r i g h t s i d e . T h e e y e s l o o k t o w a r d t h e r i g h t (photo 12-1). 3 . R e l a x t h e s h o u l d e r s , s i n k t h e e l b o w s , t h e p a l m s r e a c h t o w a r d t h e right f o o t a n d a l t e r n a t e l y r e a c h f o r w a r d a n d pull b a c k ( p h o t o s 12-1 t h r o u g h 1 2 - 4 ) . 4 . R e p e a t , s q u a t t i n g d o w n o n t h e r i g h t leg ( p h o t o s 1 2 - S t h r o u g h 1 2 - 8 ) . 5. Repeat t h e exercise twice on e a c h side. N u m b e r of R e p e t i t i o n s : If o n e has sufficient endurance, more repetitions m a y be performed if desired. Important Points: 1. Breathe naturally. 2 . F o r b e g i n n e r s o r t h o s e w h o are u n a b l e , i f o n e c a n n o t p e r f o r m d e s c r i b e d , d o n o t f o r c e it. O v e r t i m e o n e will e v e n t u a l l y b e a b l e t o completely. 3. T h e exercise is to be d o n e slowly, with stability a n d in a S q u a t t i n g f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s will relax t h e t e n d o n s a n d i n c r e a s e is preferable to adding repetitions. T h e Range of Motion a n d Effects: the exercise as do the exercise quiet manner. flexibility, this

I n t h i s e x e r c i s e t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e leg With the

rotates o u t w a r d to a great degree. T h e weight of t h e b o d y is b o r n e by t h e h i p . At t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e knees, waist a n d a n k l e s are also c o n d i t i o n e d . pushing and pulling motions of the hands, the whole body is exercised.

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Moving the Hips to the Left and Right:


Stand u p naturally, t h e h a n d s h a n g b y t h e sides. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h as possible. The h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h e x i s t t o g e t h e r . T h e eyes look straight ahead, t h e limbs a n d b o d y relax. Close the m o u t h , the t o n g u e touches the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b l o o d fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e " s e a o f qi." T h e feet a r e o p e n e d p a r a l l e l , t h e feet a r e o p e n e d c o m f o r t a b l y , s l i g h t l y w i d e r t h a n shoulder width. T h e e n t i r e s o l e s o f t h e f e e t g r i p t h e g r o u n d , t h e " b u b b l i n g s p r i n g p o i n t " (yong quan) is c o n t r a c t e d u p w a r d . T h e a n k l e s are b e n t , r e l a x t h e h i p s . S q u a t d o w n o n t h e left leg, t h e b u t t o c k s sit o n T h e knee touches the chest, the torso remains T h e right leg i s p u l l e d s t r a i g h t a n d i s level w i t h right foot remains on t h e ground. T h e a n k l e s a r e b e n t , t h e e y e s l o o k a t t h e right t h e left h e e l . erect. t h e ground, the entire sole of t h e foot.

T h e left h a n d g r a b s t h e t o p o f t h e left f o o t , t h e r i g h t h a n d g r a b s t h e t o p o f t h e right f o o t . T h e h e a d , neck, waist, a n d shoulders twist to t h e right. Sink t h e e l b o w s a n d relax t h e shoulders, t h e p a l m s push toward the right side. T h e qi and breath m o v e in and out, follow what is natural. S q u a t d o w n o n t h e right leg, t h e b u t t o c k s sit o n t h e r i g h t h e e l . T h e knee touches the chest, the torso remains erect. T h e left leg i s p u l l e d s t r a i g h t a n d i s level w i t h t h e g r o u n d , t h e e n t i r e s o l e o f t h e left f o o t r e m a i n s o n t h e g r o u n d . T h e a n k l e s a r e b e n t , t h e e y e s l o o k a t t h e left f o o t . T h e right h a n d g r a b s t h e l o p o f t h e r i g h t f o o t , t h e left h a n d g r a b s t h e t o p o f t h e left f o o t . T h e h e a d , n e c k , w a i s t , a n d s h o u l d e r s t w i s t t o t h e left.

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Exercise Thirteen: Pressing on the Knees Regulates the Meridians (The White Crane Rotates its Knees)
I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e meridians, ligaments, and tendons c o n n e c t and control the s k e l e t a l s y s t e m , w a i s t , legs, a r m s a n d h a n d s . T h e m e r i d i a n s a n d c o n n e c t i v e tissue, w h e n h e a l t h y , m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y , e l a s t i c i t y , a n d tenacity. T h e y allow t h e b o d y to m o v e with agility and t h e b o d y is in a fine state o f h e a l t h . W i t h regular e x e r c i s e , t h e l i m b s a n d b o d y will b e s t r e n g t h e n e d , t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s i m p r o v e d , t h e o r i g i n a l p r e - b i r t h yangqi will b e c u l t i v a t e d a n d t h e e n t i r e b o d y will b e n e f i t . I n t h i s s t a t e t h e spirit will b e s t r o n g , t h e b o d y h e a l t h y a n d free o f d i s e a s e a n d o n e will live a p r o s p e r o u s l i f e .

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Exercises

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y w i t h t h e feet t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 1 3 - 1 ) . This exercise is performed in two parts.

1 . L e a n t h e u p p e r b o d y f o r w a r d , t h e h a n d s are p l a c e d o n t h e k n e e s ( p h o t o 1 3 2). 2 . B e n d t h e k n e e s a n d r o t a t e t h e k n e e s t o t h e left i n a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e (photos 13-3 through 13-6). 3 . After a n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s , r e v e r s e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e . P e r f o r m t h e same n u m b e r of revolutions clockwise (photos 13-6 through 1 3 - 1 0 ) . Part T w o 1. Return to position n u m b e r o n e described above ( p h o t o 13-10). 2 . S q u a t s t r a i g h t d o w n u n t i l t h e h e e l s press a g a i n s t t h e b u t t o c k s a n d t h e k n e e s press a g a i n s t t h e c h e s t ( p h o t o 1 3 - 1 1 ) . 3 . S t a n d u p a n d r e p e a t s t e p 2 for a n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s ( p h o t o s 1 3 - 1 0 t h r o u g h 13-12). N u m b e r of Repetitions: number. Important Points: 1. Breathe naturally. 2 . T h e k n e e i s o n e o f t h e m o s t c o m p l e x j o i n t s i n t h e b o d y , its r a n g e o f m o t i o n i s s m a l l , try t o r o t a t e t h e k n e e s t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e s t r a n g e o f m o t i o n p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , d o n o t force t h e m o v e m e n t i n part o n e . B e careful n o t t o a l l o w t h e knees to e x t e n d laterally b e y o n d a c o m f o r t a b l e range of m o t i o n . T h e Range of Motion and Effects: strengthen the knee joint. The main purpose of this exercise is to Start w i t h e i g h t r e p e t i t i o n s a n d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e

A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e feet a n d a n k l e s a s well a s t h e

s u p p o r t i n g m u s c l e s o f t h e legs are a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d .

P h o t o 13-1

P h o t o 13-2

P h o t o 13-3 165

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Pressing on the Knees Regulates the Meridians:


Stand naturally erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g beside t h e b o d y . C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h e x i s t t o g e t h e r . T h e eyes look straight a h e a d , t h e limbs a n d b o d y relax. Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b l o o d fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e " s e a o f qi." T h e e n t i r e s o l e s o f t h e feet g r i p t h e g r o u n d , t h e " b u b b l i n g s p r i n g s " p o i n t s a r e contracted upward. Bend t h e knees forward, to about a 90 degree angle. T h e h a n d s are placed o n t h e knees, t h e h a n d s tightly grip t h e knees. T h e hands help support the knees, the knees make revolutions. F r o m t h e f r o n t t o t h e left, f r o m t h e left t o t h e rear. F r o m t h e rear t o t h e r i g h t , f r o m t h e r i g h t b a c k t o t h e f r o n t . T h e feet r e m a i n flat o n t h e g r o u n d , t h e y m u s t n o t raise u p . C o n t i n u e making circles as long as is comfortable.

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Exercise Fourteen: Strengthening the Meridians by Rubbing the Knees and Stretching the Body
I n t r o d u c t i o n : T r a n s f o r m i n g t h e e s s e n c e i n t o qi, t h e q i i n t o spirit a n d t h e spirit i n t o t h e v o i d a r e t h e t h r e e i m p o r t a n t s t e p s o f t h e art o f X i n g Y i Q u a n . I t c a n b e stated that these steps are t h e m e t h o d of improving t h e health, s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e b o d y , s l o w i n g t h e e f f e c t s o t a g i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g lite. O n c e o n e h a s r e a c h e d t h e level o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e spirit i n t o t h e v o i d , t h e p r e - b i r t h q i will b e c o m e refined to t h e highest degree, filling the body with e n e r g y a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e brain. In t h e Lin Qtt: HaiLim I'ien it is w r i t t e n , " T h e b r a i n is t h e sea of m a r r o w , w h e n t h e r e is a s u r p l u s of m a r r o w t h e b o d y is full of e n e r g y , if t h e r e is a d e f i c i e n c y of m a r r o w , t h e r e will b e r i n g i n g i n t h e ears, t h e legs will a c h e , o n e will b e dizzy, t h e e y e s i g h t will n o t b e c l e a r a n d o n e will b e u n a b l e t o s l e e p s o u n d l y . " T h e S u Wen: lie ling Wei l.un s t a t e s , " T h e m a r r o w fills t h e b o n e s . " In t h e Wei Lun it is a l s o w r i t t e n , " W h e n t h e b o n e s are ' d r y ' t h e m a r r o w will b e i n s u f f i c i e n t , t h e b o n e s will w i t h e r . " T h e s e p a s s a g e s refer t o t h e fact t h a t t h e b r a i n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e b o d y a n d t h e clarity o f sight. T h e m a r r o w nourishes t h e b o n e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e k i d n e y s , b r a i n , e s s e n c e , m a r r o w , b o n e s a n d c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e all h a v e a r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t o n o n e a n o t h e r a n d are m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e o t h e r ' s growth. Strengthening the meridians by rubbing the knees and stretching the b o d y i s a n e x e r c i s e o f t h e X i n g Y i h e a l t h e x e r c i s e set w h i c h s t i m u l a t e s a n d s t r e n g t h e n s t h e m e r i d i a n s , b o n e s , a n d m a r r o w . A d d i t i o n a l l y i t aids t h e m o v e m e n t capabilities of the limbs, strengthens the kidneys, benefits the brain, increases t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e s s e n c e a n d m a r r o w , b a l a n c e s t h e yin a n d yang o f t h e b o d y , improves the f u n c t i o n s of the internal organs, slows the aging process and e x t e n d s life.

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Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

Stand naturally (photo 14-1)

1 . Raise t h e left leg a n d p l a c e t h e h e e l o n a l o w s t o o l (if o n e d o e s n o t h a v e a c c e s s t o a s t o o l o r s i m i l a r o b j e c t , o n e m a y e x t e n d t h e leg s t r a i g h t o u t i n f r o n t a n d p l a c e t h e h e e l o n t h e g r o u n d w i t h t h e t o e s p o i n t i n g u p a n d t h e right leg s l i g h t l y b e n t ) . 2 . T h e p a l m s a r e p l a c e d o n e o n t o p o f t h e o t h e r o n t h e left k n e e . R u b t h e k n e e i n c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s f o r a n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s t h e n reverse t h e d i r e c t i o n ( p h o t o 14-2). 3 . R e a c h a n d g r a b t h e t o e s o f t h e left f o o t w i t h t h e h a n d s a n d l e a n t h e u p p e r b o d y o v e r , t r y t o t o u c h t h e c h i n t o t h e left h e e l ( p h o t o 1 4 - 3 ) . R e p e a t several t i m e s . 4. Cross the arms a n d grab the opposite elbow with the hands. Bend forward and t r y t o t o u c h t h e t o e s o f t h e left f o o t a l t e r n a t e l y w i t h e a c h e l b o w ( p h o t o s 1 4 - 4 a n d 1 4 - 5 ) . Repeat several t i m e s . 5. S w i t c h legs a n d r e p e a t s t e p s 1 - 5 ( p h o t o s 1 4 - 6 t h r o u g h 1 4 - 9 ) . N u m b e r of Repetitions: Important Points; 1. Try to rub and move the kneecap as m u c h as possible. 2. Breathe naturally. 3. Beginners and those whose physical condition is not good may n o t be able to perform t h e exercise as described. Slowly try to increase t h e range of m o t i o n over t i m e . Do not try to force t h e stretch as it m a y cause i n j u r y . 4 . W h e n s t r e t c h i n g f o r w a r d a n d p r e s s i n g t h e leg, m o v e s l o w l y , s t a b l y , a n d s m o o t h l y , o n e m a y hold t h e stretch for a period of t i m e . T h e R a n g e of M o t i o n a n d Effects: T h e m a i n purpose of this exercise is to stretch t h e l e g s . T h e leg p r e s s i n g e x e r c i s e i s a n i m p o r t a n t m e t h o d o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e f l e x i b i l i t y a n d e l a s t i c i t y o f t h e l e g s . T h i s skill i s a c o m m o n r e q u i r e m e n t o f all m a r t i a l arts. Those w h o practice calisthenic exercises, dancers and opera p e r f o r m e r s , all use t h e leg press. 'The leg press e x e r c i s e i n c l u d e s p r e s s i n g t o t h e f r o n t a n d t o t h e s i d e . X i n g Y i Q u a n uses t h e f r o n t press v a r i a t i o n . T h i s e x e r c i s e i n c r e a s e s t h e e l a s t i c i t y o f t h e leg w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e c o n d i t i o n s t h e w a i s t , b a c k , k n e e s , a n d t h e m u s c l e s a l o n g t h e sides o f t h e t o r s o . R e p e a t w i t h e a c h leg t w o t i m e s .

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The "Song" of Strengthening the Meridians by Rubbing the Knees and Stretching the Body
Stand naturally erect, t h e h a n d s h a n g by t h e sides. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h as possible. T h e h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h T h e eyes look straight ahead, t h e limbs a n d b o d y Close the m o u t h , the t o n g u e touches the roof of T h e q i a n d b l o o d fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d exist together. relax. the mouth. o u t o f t h e " s e a o f qi."

T h e left leg e x t e n d s a s t e p t o t h e f r o n t . T h e heel is on t h e ground, t h e toes point upward. T h e h a n d s press o n t h e k n e e g e n t l y , r u b t h e k n e e f r o m left t o r i g h t . Lean the b o d y forward, t h e p o w e r is in t h e hips. Stretch t h e waist as if t h e h e a d w a n t s to t o u c h t h e t o e s . T w i s t t h e b o d y , b e n d t h e left e l b o w a n d t o u c h t h e t o e s w i t h t h e left e l b o w . T w i s t t h e b o d y , b e n d t h e right e l b o w a n d t o u c h t h e t o e s w i t h right e l b o w . Repeat as long as c o m f o r t a b l e . T h e r i g h t leg e x t e n d s a s t e p t o t h e f r o n t . T h e heel is on the g r o u n d , t h e toes point upward. T h e h a n d s press t h e k n e e g e n t l y , rub t h e k n e e f r o m left t o r i g h t . Lean the body forward, t h e power is in t h e hips. S t r e t c h t h e waist a s i f t h e h e a d w a n t s t o t o u c h t h e t o e s . T w i s t t h e b o d y , b e n d t h e left e l b o w a n d t o u c h t h e t o e s w i t h t h e left e l b o w . T w i s t t h e b o d y , b e n d t h e right e l b o w a n d t o u c h t h e t o e s w i t h r i g h t e l b o w . Repeat as long as c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Fifteen: Yin Opens and Yang Closes


I n t r o d u c t i o n : W h e n yin a n d yang a r c b a l a n c e d i n t h e b o d y , t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s will all f u n c t i o n h a r m o n i o u s l y , t h e " f i v e e l e m e n t s " will c h a n g e a p p r o p r i a t e l y a n d all s y s t e m s w i l l f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y . This exercise regulates the breath, thereby stimulating and strengthening the heart, improving the functions of the gall b l a d d e r a n d s t o m a c h , i m p r o v i n g d i g e s t i o n a n d t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s , benefiting t h e internal organs, i m p r o v i n g t h e overall h e a l t h , cultivating t h e spirit, i n c r e a s i n g e n e r g y a n d e x t e n d i n g life.

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Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

Stand naturally with t h e feet t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 1 5 - 1 ) .

1 . Lift t h e h a n d s u p i n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y u n t i l t h e y a r c a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e shoulders. T h e arms are straight with t h e palms facing d o w n w a r d ( p h o t o 15-2). 2 . The a r m s m o v e o u t w a r d t o t h e left a n d r i g h t u n t i l t h e y are s t r a i g h t o u t t o t h e sides o f t h e b o d y i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . A s t h e a r m s r e a c h t h e s t r a i g h t o u t p o s i t i o n , t h e palms turn over to face up (photos 15-3 and 15-4). 3. C o n t i n u i n g , close t h e h a n d s t o g e t h e r again in front of the body, t u r n i n g the h a n d s to face palm down as they m o v e in towards each other (photos 15-5 through 15-7). 4. Repeat t h e exercise, o p e n i n g and closing t h e arms.

Number of Repetitions: Important Points:

Repeat t h e m o v e m e n t sixteen t i m e s .

1. Inhale as the hands open, exhale as the h a n d s close. 2. T h e m o v e m e n t should be slow a n d gentle. 3. Be careful n o t to stick out t h e chest. T h e R a n g e of M o t i o n a n d Effects: This is primarily a breathing exercise. The m u s c l e s o f t h e c h e s t , t h e i n t e r c o s t a l m u s c l e s a n d t h e d i a p h r a g m are all c o n d i t i o n e d . T h e slow a n d gentle m o v e m e n t c o u p l e d with t h e s m o o t h a n d stable b r e a t h i n g a l s o s e r v e s a s a r e g u l a t o r y e x e r c i s e w h i c h b a l a n c e s t h e b o d y . The e f f e c t s o f t h i s exercise are especially a p p a r e n t if p e r f o r m e d after t h e " c r a w l i n g tiger" exercise (see t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y exercise s e c t i o n ) .

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Health

Exercises

The "Song" of Yin Opens and Yang Closes


Stand naturally erect, t h e arms h a n g at t h e sides. C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit, q u i e t t h e qi, c l o s e o u t i n t e r f e r i n g t h o u g h t s a s m u c h a s possible. The h e a r t i s c a l m a s still w a t e r , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h e x i s t t o g e t h e r . T h e eyes look straight ahead, t h e l i m b s a n d b o d y are relaxed. Close the mouth, the tongue touches the roof of the m o u t h . T h e q i a n d b l o o d fill t h e a r t e r i e s , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e " s e a o f qi." T h e t w o a r m s are slowly raised to t h e front. T h e y c o m e to t h e h e i g h t of the shoulders, the p a l m s face d o w n w a r d . M o v e t h e a r m s o u t t o t h e left a n d right k e e p i n g t h e m p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e g r o u n d . T h e a r m s m o v e out u n t i l t h e y are i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e t o t h e s i d e s . Slowly inhale as the arms m o v e outward. Turn t h e p a l m s t o f a c e p a l m u p , Move t h e m in together to the center. T h e h a n d s m o v e u n t i l t h e y are t o g e t h e r i n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y , s l o w l y e x h a l e . Repeat as long as c o m f o r t a b l e .

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Exercise Sixteen: The Heels Kick Backward


A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a n y e x e r c i s e set, t h e b o d y s h o u l d g e n t l y b e b r o u g h t t o a calm and natural position. The energy of the body, which has been stimulated and transported throughout the body during the practice, is allowed to gather a n d s i n k t o t h e dan tian. T h e h e e l k i c k e x e r c i s e r e g u l a t e s t h e e n e r g y o f t h e w h o l e b o d y a n d will r e l a x t h e b o d y a f t e r e x e r c i s e .

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Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice:

S t a n d n a t u r a l l y w i t h t h e feel t o g e t h e r ( p h o t o 1 6 - 1 ) .

1 . B e n d t h e knee a n d kick backward with force, try t o t o u c h t h e heel t o t h e buttocks (photo 16-2). 2 . A l t e r n a t e k i c k i n g b a c k w i t h t h e right a n d left legs ( p h o t o s 1 6 - 2 a n d 1 6 - 3 ) . Number of Repetitions: Important Points: 1. Perform the exercise slowly and gently. Breathe naturally. O n e m a y r e p e a t t h i r t y six t i m e s o r m o r e .

2 . T h e a r m s h a n g n a t u r a l l y a t t h e sides. L o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d . W h i l e k i c k i n g t h e body should not sway. T h e R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : This i s a v e r y o l d X i n g Y i Q u a n e x e r c i s e u s e d to regulate the b o d y . This m o v e m e n t will relax t h e w h o l e b o d y after exercise.

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Supplemental Exercise The Crawling Tiger (Laying on the Palms)


Preparatory Posture: Method of Practice: 1 . M a k e t w o fists a n d l o w e r y o u r s e l f d o w n o n t o t h e g r o u n d i n t h e p u s h - u p position (resting o n t h e fists). T h e h a n d s are shoulder width apart { o n e m a y also perform this exercise on t h e fingertips or holding o n t o w o o d e n handles). Hold t h e a r m s s t r a i g h t , t h e b o d y parallel t o t h e g r o u n d , s u p p o r t e d b y t h e h a n d s i n t h e f r o n t a n d t h e b a l l s o f t h e feet i n t h e rear ( p h o t o S - l ) . 2 . B e n d t h e e l b o w s a n d a l l o w t h e b o d y t o d r o p d o w n parallel t o t h e g r o u n d a n d a b o u t six i n c h e s a b o v e t h e g r o u n d ( p h o t o S - 2 ) . 3. Push up with the arms while the buttocks stay in place ( p h o t o S - 3 ) . 4 . L o o k straight a h e a d . C o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit, l o o k b a c k t o t h e right a n d t h e n t o t h e left. T h e legs are t o g e t h e r . 5 . Lift t h e b u t t o c k s a n d t h e waist t o t h e rear ( p h o t o s S - 4 a n d S - 5 ) . 6 . P u s h f o r w a r d w i t h t h e legs d o w n i n t o t h e l o w p u s h - u p p o s i t i o n ( p h o t o S - 6 ) . 7. R e p e a t 1 - 3 t i m e s ( p h o t o s S-2 t h r o u g h S - 6 ) . N u m b e r of Repetitions: Important Points: 1. Breathe naturally. Do as many your endurance permits. Stand naturally

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2. Do not overdo t h e exercise. 3 . After c o m p l e t i n g t h e e x e r c i s e , c o n c e n t r a t e t h e spirit a n d s t a n d u p . The R a n g e o f M o t i o n a n d E f f e c t s : This exercise stimulates t h e entire b o d y . T h e t o r s o , e x t r e m i t i e s a n d h e a d are all i n v o l v e d . I f o n e ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n p e r m i t s , o n e m a y a d d t h i s e x e r c i s e a f t e r e x e r c i s e f o u r t e e n " R u b t h e K n e e s a n d Press t h e L e g s . " F r o m t h e first e x e r c i s e t h r o u g h t h e " c r a w l i n g t i g e r " m a k e s u p t h e t r a i n i n g section of t h e system. Exercises fifteen and sixteen are cool d o w n exercises w h i c h serve t o regulate a n d relax t h e b o d y .

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180

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Song of the Sixteen Health Exercises


by Zhang Bao Yang
T h e two h a n d s circle as if closing up. T h e f r o n t h a n d drags, t h e h a c k h a n d h o o k s a n d t h e y pull d i a g o n a l l y w i t h force. T h e fists s l o w l y r o t a t e f r o n t a n d b a c k o v e r t h e c r o w n o f t h e h e a d . T h e hands clap above and below and t h e b o d y stands erect. T h e t w o h a n d s h o l d u p t h e sky a n d a l s o s u p p o r t t h e h e a r t , t a k e a s t e p forward and rotate the eyes. O n e h a n d h o l d s u p t h e sky a s t h e o t h e r p r e s s e s t h e e a r t h . L o o k left, gaze right a n d see w h a t i s b e h i n d , t h e h e a d rises a n d l o w e r s w i t h the strength of the neck. The p o s t u r e o f t h e b o d y l o o k s like t h a t o f a n a p e . T h e h a n d strokes, t h e n e c k turns a n d t h e b o d y squats d o w n , t h e back shakes a n d t h e f o u l air i s e x p i r e d . T h e t w o fists s t r i k e t h e b a c k a s t h e b o d y l e a n s t o t h e r e a r . If t h e waist is rotated r o u n d a n d r o u n d the kidneys b e n e f i t . M o v e t h e k n e e s left a n d r i g h t w i t h t h e b o d y l o w e r e d . Turn t h e k n e e s , flex a n d e x t e n d w h i l e t h e t o e s g r i p t h e g r o u n d . K n e a d i n g t h e k n e e s a n d e x e r c i s i n g t h e legs o n e m u s t b e n d t h e w a i s t . W i t h t h e yang o f o p e n i n g a n d t h e yin o f c l o s i n g t h e l u n g s are free o f d i s e a s e . K i c k i n g t h e rear w i t h feet c a u s e s t h e q i t o d e s c e n d . exercises of Xing Yi Q u a n . The c r a w l i n g t i g e r uses b o t h h a n d s f o r s u p p o r t . These are t h e s i x t e e n

T h e a b o v e song was written by Z h a n g B a o Yang in order to help students r e m e m b e r the order and i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s of t h e exercises. It is printed here for y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e c r a w l i n g tiger w a s o r i g i n a l l y n o t p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n exercises, however, as we c o m m o n l y practice this exercise along with the others the line about it has been added to the song. 181

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Afterword
My classmates a n d I followed our fathers a n d h a v e practiced martial arts with m a s t e r W a n g j i W u f r o m six o r s e v e n y e a r s o f a g e . B e f o r e p r a c t i c e , w e i n v a r i a b l y performed the sixteen exercises. S o m e t i m e s because of schoolwork, I didn't have e n o u g h time to practice X i n g Yi Quan, but I never missed a day of practicing the sixteen exercises. Later, as I was growing up, I often followed Master W a n g in his medical practice. As soon as a patient was near recovery, t h e Master would teach t h e m t h e sixteen exercises. This n o t o n l y speeded recovery but also helped to p r e v e n t a n y c o m p l i c a t i o n s a n d m a d e t h e b o d y s t r o n g . After I b e g a n m y c a r e e r as a health practitioner, I followed Master W a n g ' s e x a m p l e and taught the s i x t e e n e x e r c i s e s t o m y p a t i e n t s . I n o r d e r t o raise t h e level o f h e a l t h o f t h e p e o p l e , a n d a i d i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d i s e a s e , w e o f f e r t h i s set o f e x e r c i s e s a n d h o p e t h a t others in t h e health care profession m a y find t h e m useful in their o w n professions. Wang Huan Sheng Beijing, C h u n g W e n District Chian Men Hospital January, 1981

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Exercises

Xing Yi Exercises Performed Lying On A Bed


Edited a n d Transmitted by Zhang Bao Yang Translated by Tim Cartmell Introduction: T h e f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e set i s p e r f o r m e d i n t h e m o r n i n g b e f o r e g e t t i n g o u t o f b e d a n d i n t h e e v e n i n g b e f o r e g o i n g t o s l e e p . I t will h e l p a w a k e n t h e b o d y a n d prepare it for t h e day in t h e m o r n i n g a n d relax t h e b o d y before sleep at night. Exercises: T h e h e a r t a n d m i n d a r e q u i e t , t h e q i a n d b l o o d are p u r e , practice m o r n i n g and night, the exercises lying on a bed. R u b t h e h a n d s t o g e t h e r , u n t i l t h e y are w a r m , t h e n " w a s h " ( r u b ) t h e f a c e , t h e b l o o d v e s s e l s w i l l all o p e n . Rub t h e eyes with t h e h a n d s , this clears t h e vision, r u b b e s i d e t h e n o s e , t h e b r e a t h i n g passages will b e o p e n . C l e n c h t h e t e e t h t o g e t h e r , i t will s t r e n g t h e n t h e g u m s , w a s h t h e m o u t h w i t h air, t h i s p r o d u c e s m o r e s a l i v a . C o m b t h e h a i r w i t h t h e h a n d s , t h e spirit will b e p u r e , r u b t h e n e c k , i t will d i s p e l t h e e f f e c t s o f d r a f t s . Strike the "sky d r u m " (the base of t h e skull), listen to t h e s o u n d , r u b t h e ears, t h e h e a r i n g will b e s h a r p . R u b t h e u p p e r a r m s , t h i s will o p e n t h e m e r i d i a n s , and also helps t h e circulation, this is a supplement to training. U s e t h e fists t o r u b t h e waist, t h u s p r e v e n t i n g p a i n , k n e a d t h e h i p s , t h e j o i n t s will feel l i g h t . Rub t h e lower extremities, this also o p e n s t h e meridians, push d o w n a l o n g t h e outside, and return a l o n g t h e inside. Rub t h e s o l e s o f t h e f e e t , t h i s b e n e f i t s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e k i d n e y s , m o v e t h e balls o f t h e feet, r e l a x t h e a n k l e s . P u s h o n t h e r i g h t ribs, t o s o o t h e t h e liver, m o v e t o t h e left ribs, t h e s p l e e n a n d s t o m a c h will b e free o f o b s t r u c t i o n . Rub t h e Shen Que (in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e u p p e r b a c k ) , w i t h a n e m p t y p a l m , p u s h i n g o n t h e Ren m e r i d i a n , t h e " t r i p l e w a r m e r " will b e c l e a r . After a l o n g p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e , d i s e a s e will n o t b e a b l e t o t a k e h o l d , be consistent in practice, do n o t take these exercises lightly. O u r ancestors passed this k n o w l e d g e d o w n , it is a marvelous m e t h o d , t o b e p r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , t o save t h e ill. 183

Xing

Yi

Nei

Gong

Five

Element

Spear

Chapter 6

Xing Yi Five Element Spear

Zhang Bao Yang with the Xing Yi "Needles"

185

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Xing Yi Five Element Spear


by Dan Miller Introduction
All s y s t e m s o f C h i n e s e i n t e r n a l m a r t i a l arts i n c l u d e s o m e t y p e o f p o w e r d e v e l o p m e n t t r a i n i n g u s i n g h e a v y a n d / o r l o n g w e a p o n s . Tai J i p r a c t i t i o n e r s u t i l i z e a l o n g spear or staff, Ba G u a p r a c t i t i o n e r s use a l a r g e b r o a d s w o r d , l a r g e s t r a i g h t s w o r d , a n d a l o n g spear, a n d X i n g Y i p r a c t i t i o n e r s u t i l i z e t h e l o n g s p e a r o r h e a v y s t r a i g h t s w o r d . I n t h i s c h a p t e r w e w i l l p r e s e n t t h e five X i n g Y i l o n g s p e a r e x e r c i s e s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e five e l e m e n t fist m o v e m e n t s o f t h e Xing Yi open h a n d system. T y p i c a l l y t h e X i n g Y i s t u d e n t will n o t b e t a u g h t t h e five e l e m e n t l o n g spear practice until he or she has spent a considerable a m o u n t of t i m e practicing the san t i s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e a n d t h e b a r e h a n d f o r m s . I f t h e b o d y ' s a l i g n m e n t s a n d t h e m o v e m e n t s a n d m e c h a n i c s o f t h e b a r e h a n d f o r m s are n o t c o r r e c t , w h e n t h e s t u d e n t p r a c t i c e s w i t h t h e spear, t h e s e b a d h a b i t s will b e f u r t h e r i n g r a i n e d a s t h e s t u d e n t will b e t r y i n g t o " m u s c l e " t h e spear w i t h h i s a r m s a n d u p p e r b o d y instead of using aligned strength a n d w h o l e b o d y power. On t h e other h a n d , if t h e student has spent a sufficient a m o u n t of t i m e with t h e bare h a n d forms a n d his o r h e r m e c h a n i c s a n d p o w e r are c o r r e c t , p r a c t i c e o f t h e five e l e m e n t l o n g s p e a r e x e r c i s e s will g r e a t l y e n h a n c e t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r a c t i c e . E a c h o f t h e spear t e c h n i q u e s will i m p r o v e t h e w h o l e b o d y c o n n e c t i o n a n d p o w e r n e c e s s a r y f o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e five fists. A l t h o u g h t h e h a n d a n d a r m m o v e m e n t s are n o t e x a c t l y t h e s a m e i n s o m e c a s e s , i t i s t h e p o w e r c o m i n g f r o m t h e legs a n d t o r s o t h a t t h e s e spear t e c h n i q u e s a r e t r a i n i n g . After t h e s t u d e n t h a s p r a c t i c e d t h e s e spear m e t h o d s , t h e r e s h o u l d b e a n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e b a r e h a n d m e t h o d s . T h e spear t h a t i s u s e d i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 t o 1 2 feet i n l e n g t h , h o w e v e r , s m a l l e r s p e a r s c a n b e u s e d . I n f a c t , b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t s m a y w a n t t o start w i t h a six f o o t s p e a r u n t i l t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e m o v e m e n t are c o r r e c t b e f o r e t r y i n g t o use a l o n g e r , h e a v i e r s p e a r . N o t e : The photographs taken in this section were captured from a video that was taken by one of Zhang Bao Yang's students, t h e original video was taken on a h o m e video camera in the PAL format used in mainland China. This video had to be converted to the NTSC format used in the United States and thus some of the resolution was lost in t h e conversion process. Due to the conversion and video capture, the photos arc not quite as clear as we would like them to be, however, wc feel that they are clear enough for the reader to understand the movements and since this was the only source of photographs available we went ahead and used t h e m . In all photograph sequences the sequence begins in the middle of a repetitive line. Because of the camera angle and the distance from the camera w h e n Zhang began the line, the photographs of the beginning and ending form were not clear enough to include here. However, t h e form beginning and ending arc inconsequential. 186

Five

Element

Spear

Pi Qiang

- Splitting Spear)

T h e s p l i t t i n g spear m o v e m e n t s t r a i n t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e d o w n w a r d ( v e r t i c a l ) s t r i k i n g m o t i o n o f t h e s p l i t t i n g fist. C o n c e n t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e f o c u s e d on e x p a n d i n g t h e torso (especially t h e intercostal muscles) as t h e spear m o v e s upward a n d t h e c o n t r a c t i n g of t h e torso as the spear m o v e s downward. See t h e photographs on the following page. P h o t o 1 : I n t h i s p h o t o Z h a n g h a s just c o m p l e t e d o n e r e p e t i t i o n a n d i s a b o u t t o b e g i n a n o t h e r . B e g i n i n t h e son t i s t a n c e w i t h t h e s p e a r h e l d a p p r o x i m a t e l y level t o t h e g r o u n d . P h o t o 2 : S t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e r e a r leg a n d b e g i n t o pull t h e s p e a r s t r a i g h t u p w a r d . A s y o u pull t h e spear u p w a r d , d o n o t u s e t h e a r m , u s e t h e t o r s o t o m o v e t h e s p e a r . T h e a r m will r e m a i n i n a n a l m o s t s t r a i g h t p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s m o v e m e n t . T h e f o r w a r d h a n d slides u p t h e s h a f t o f t h e spear a s t h e spear m o v e s u p w a r d . D o n o t g r i p t h e s p e a r w i t h t h e f o r w a r d h a n d a n d pull u p w a r d w i t h t h e a r m . A l l o w t h e h a n d t o s l i d e a s t h e b a c k m u s c l e s m o v e t h e weapon. P h o t o 3 : Raise t h e f o r w a r d k n e e u p s o t h a t t h e t h i g h i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e g r o u n d as you c o n t i n u e to bring t h e spear straight up to a perfectly vertical position. T h e f o r w a r d h a n d c o n t i n u e s t o slide u p t h e s h a f t o f t h e s p e a r a s t h e spear i s l i f t e d . The f o r w a r d a r m i s s t r a i g h t a n d v e r t i c a l i n t h i s p o s i t i o n a n d t h e c h e s t i s e x p a n d e d on t h e forward h a n d side. However, t h e shoulders are relaxed. P h o t o 4 : S t e p o u t w i t h t h e f o r w a r d leg a n d b e g i n t o p r e s s t h e s p e a r s t r a i g h t d o w n w a r d . Use a c o n t r a c t i n g m o t i o n in t h e chest, torso, a n d back, h o w e v e r do not allow the chest to collapse or t h e back to round. T h e spine remains straight. The c o n t r a c t i n g m o t i o n i s s t r a i g h t d o w n w a r d . D o n o t press d o w n w i t h t h e a r m m u s c l e s . A l l o w t h e p s o a s m u s c l e , t h e i n t e r c o s t a l m u s c l e s a n d t h e l a t i s i m u s dorsi m u s c l e s t o d o t h e w o r k . The h a n d o f t h e f o r w a r d a r m will s l i d e i n w a r d a l o n g t h e spear s h a f t a s t h e a r m m o v e s d o w n w a r d . P h o t o 5 : T h e f o r w a r d f o o t i s p l a n t e d o n t h e g r o u n d a s t h e spear c o n t i n u e s t o split d o w n w a r d . A g a i n , t h e h a n d i s s l i d i n g a l o n g t h e s h a f t . D o n o t p u s h downward with the arm. A l l o w t h e s l i d i n g o f t h e h a n d t o press t h e spear downward. P h o t o 6 : T h e s p e a r h a s split all t h e w a y d o w n t o a level p a r a l l e l t o t h e g r o u n d . The m o m e n t u m o f t h e d o w n w a r d m o t i o n will c a r r y t h e t i p l o w e r t h a n p a r a l l e l , however, y o u want to stop t h e d o w n w a r d m o t i o n of y o u r a r m s at t h e parallel p o s i t i o n . B e g i n t o b r i n g t h e rear leg f o r w a r d a n d e x e c u t e t h e n e x t r e p e t i t i o n .

187

Five

Element

Spear

Zuan Qiang (gfctffr - Drilling Spear)


T h e drilling spear m o v e m e n t is very similar to b o t h t h e basic Tai Ji a n d t h e B a G u a l o n g spear p o w e r e x e r c i s e s . A s i n all o f t h e s p e a r e x e r c i s e s , t h e practitioner should concentrate on t h e m o v e m e n t s of the torso and not muscle t h e spear w i t h t h e a r m s a n d s h o u l d e r s . All m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d b e s m o o t h a n d fluid. P h o t o 1 : S t a r t i n a sun t i s t a n c e w i t h t h e spear s t r a i g h t o u t i n f r o n t o f y o u . I n t h i s p h o t o Z h a n g h a s just c o m p l e t e d o n e r e p e t i t i o n a n d i s g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r t h e n e x t s o t h e spear i s h e l d a bit h i g h e r i n t h i s p i c t u r e t h a n i n t h e n o r m a l s t a r t i n g posture. P h o t o 2 : 1'ull t h e s p e a r b a c k w i t h t h e rear h a n d a l l o w i n g t h e spear s h a f t t o slide t h r o u g h t h e f r o n t h a n d ( f r o n t h a n d stays i n p l a c e ) . T h i s m o v e m e n t i s e x e c u t e d by e x p a n d i n g from t h e c e n t e r of t h e b o d y a n d o p e n i n g up in t h e chest area, h o w e v e r d o n o t s t i c k o u t t h e c h e s t t o o far. D o n o t s i m p l y d r a w t h e a r m b a c k without the m o v e m e n t being initiated from the center of the body. All m o v e m e n t s c o m e from the center of the b o d y and torso, n o t t h e arms alone. As t h e s p e a r i s d r a w n b a c k , b e g i n t o s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e rear f o o t i n t o a f o r w a r d c r o s s - s t e p p o s i t i o n . Also, a s t h e spear i s d r a w n b a c k , t h e f r o n t h a n d t u r n s o v e r to face palm up. P h o t o 3 : After t h e s p e a r i s d r a w n b a c k t o t h e p o s i t i o n s h o w n i n p h o t o 2 , t h e rear h a n d flips u p t o w a r d s t h e rear s h o u l d e r a n d t h e r e i s a q u i c k f l i c k i n g m o t i o n o f t h e r e a r w r i s t . T h e r e a r e l b o w stays i n p l a c e a s t h e h a n d m o v e s t o w a r d t h e s h o u l d e r . T h e m o t i o n o f t h e rear f o r e a r m a n d wrist s h o u l d c a u s e t h e s p e a r t i p t o m o v e d o w n w a r d a n d t o t h e left s i d e . T h e s t e p p i n g f o o l c o n t i n u e s f o r w a r d . P h o t o 4 : W i t h t h e e l b o w still i n p l a c e , t h e rear f o r e a r m r o t a t e s a w a y f r o m t h e b o d y a n d d o w n w a r d . T h i s will b r i n g t h e spear t i p b a c k u p t o c e n t e r . T h e stepping foot begins to plant firmly on the ground. P h o t o S : T h e rear h a n d c o n t i n u e s m o v i n g d o w n w a r d a n d b e g i n s t o m o v e i n towards the body as the elbow m o v e s outward slightly (notice the difference in t h e rear e l b o w p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n p h o t o s 4 a n d 5 ) . P h o t o 6 : W h e n t h e f o r w a r d f o o t i s p l a n t e d o n t h e g r o u n d t h e b o d y w e i g h t shifts forward a n d the forward h a n d rotates a n d presses d o w n w a r d on the spear shaft. N o t i c e t h a t in p h o t o 5 t h e f o r w a r d h a n d is f a c i n g u p w a r d a n d in p h o t o 6 it is facing d o w n w a r d . T h e overturning of the palm helps whip t h e spear d o w n w a r d and to t h e right. In t h e s e q u e n c e starting in p h o t o 3 and ending with p h o t o 6, t h e s p e a r t i p h a s d r a w n a h o r s e s h o e s h a p e d p a t t e r n i n t h e air. It m o v e d d o w n w a r d a n d t o t h e left i n p h o t o 3 , u p w a r d t o c e n t e r i n p h o t o s 4 a n d 5 , a n d t h e n d o w n w a r d a n d t o t h e r i g h t i n p h o t o 6 . T h e f l i c k i n g u p w a r d o f t h e wrist (in p h o t o 3 ) a n d t h e r o l l i n g o v e r o f t h e p a l m (in p h o t o 6 ) h e l p t h e s p e a r m o v e properly.

189

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P h o t o 7 : T h e r e a r f o o l b e g i n s t o s t e p f o r w a r d a n d t h e rear h a n d b e g i n s t o p u s h t h e spear shaft straight forward. P h o t o 8: T h e rear foot c o n t i n u e s stepping forward a n d f he rear h a n d c o n t i n u e s p u s h i n g t h e s p e a r s h a f t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The s p e a r s h a f t slides t h r o u g h t h e f o r w a r d h a n d as it is t h r u s t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . P h o t o 9 : T h e rear f o o t s t e p s f o r w a r d a s t h e s p e a r i s t h r u s t f o r w a r d . P h o t o 1 0 : T h e rear h a n d m e e t s t h e f r o n t h a n d a s t h e s t e p p i n g f o o t i s p l a n t e d f i r m l y o n t h e g r o u n d a n d t h e a r m s e x t e n d i n a full f o r w a r d t h r u s t o f t h e s p e a r . T h e practitioner is n o w ready to repeat t h e m o v e m e n t s .

Drilling S p e a r 3

Drilling S p e a r 4

190

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Spear

Drilling Spear 9

Drilling S p e a r 10

191

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Beng Qiang

(fafc

- Smashing Spear)

T h e s m a s h i n g spear m o v e m e n t s are a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e m o v e m e n t s o f the open hand smashing fist as executed in W a n g j i Wu's Xing Yi system. The m o t i o n of the hips and torso rotating around the body's center helps to provide the power in this m o v e m e n t . P h o t o 1: B e g i n in a san ti p o s t u r e w i t h t h e s p e a r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d l e v e l .

P h o t o 2 : S t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e f o r w a r d leg, t u r n a t t h e h i p s s o t h a t t h e f o r w a r d hip m o v e s forward. T h e forward shoulder moves forward in c o o r d i n a t i o n with t h e step a n d h i p m o v e m e n t a n d t h e forward h a n d slides forward o n t h e spear shaft a n d presses d o w n w a r d slightly with a quick, crisp m o t i o n . T h e spear tip should m o v e downward as s h o w n in the p h o t o . T h e m o v e m e n t of the forward h a n d is coordinated with the m o v e m e n t of the forward step. P h o t o ;i: T h e w e i g h t m o v e s f o r w a r d a n d t h e r e a r leg b e g i n s t o s t e p f o r w a r d .

P h o t o 4 : The r e a r leg c o n t i n u e s t o s t e p f o r w a r d a s t h e rear h a n d b e g i n s p u s h i n g t h e s p e a r f o r w a r d . T h e spear s h a f t m o v e s t h r o u g h t h e f o r w a r d h a n d . P h o t o 5 : A s t h e rear f o o t i s p l a n t e d just b e h i n d t h e f o r w a r d f o o t , t h e s p e a r i s t h r u s t f o r w a r d w i t h t h e rear h a n d . The t w o h a n d s m e e t t o g e t h e r a s t h e s p e a r i s thrust forward. Do not execute this m o v e m e n t by simply pushing with the arm. T h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e rear h i p f o r w a r d a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e d m o v e m e n t o f t h e h i p a n d shoulder in c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e step provide t h e thrusting force. P h o t o 6 : B e g i n t o s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e f o r w a r d leg a n d d r a w t h e s p e a r b a c k w i t h t h e rear h a n d . P h o t o 7: C o n t i n u e stepping forward a n d drawing t h e spear back. s h a f t slides t h r o u g h t h e f o r w a r d h a n d . P h o t o 8: Repeat as e x p l a i n e d in step 2 a b o v e . The s p e a r

Smashing Spear 1

Smashing Spear 2

Five

Element

Spear

Smashing Spear 3

Smashing Spear 4

Smashing Spear 5

Smashing Spear 6

Smashing Spear 7

Smashing Spear 8

193

Xing

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Nei

Gong

Pao Qiang

- Pounding Spear)

P h o t o 1 : Start i n t h e san t i p o s t u r e w i t h t h e spear h e l d a p p r o x i m a t e l y level t o t h e g r o u n d . T h e h a n d s arc held closer t o g e t h e r in this exercise, t h e y are approximately o n e foot apart on t h e spear shaft. P h o t o 2 : T h e rear h a n d r o t a t e s u p w a r d a n d m o v e s u p t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e b o d y as t h e forward h a n d rotates d o w n w a r d a n d t h e arm e x t e n d s straight out. P h o t o 3 : Begin t o p u l l t h e spear b a c k w i t h b o t h h a n d s a s y o u b e g i n t o s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h t h e b a c k leg i n a f o r w a r d c r o s s - s t e p . P h o t o 4 : C o n t i n u e s t e p p i n g f o r w a r d w i t h t h e rear leg a n d p u l l i n g t h e s p e a r b a c k w i t h b o t h h a n d s . T h e f o r w a r d p a l m i s f a c i n g y o u a n d t h e rear p a l m i s f a c i n g away from you. P h o t o 5 : A s t h e rear f o o t h i t s t h e g r o u n d t h e h a n d s a r e b r o u g h t u p t o s h o u l d e r height. P h o t o 6: Begin to step forward with t h e rear foot a n d bring t h e h a n d s d o w n and forward. P h o t o 7: Repeat as described in step 2.

Pounding Spear 1

Pounding Spear 2

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Heng Qiang
P h o t o 1:

($rJ&

- Crossing Spear)

S t a r t i n t h e son t i s t a n c e w i t h t h e spear parallel t o t h e g r o u n d .

P h o t o 2 : Pull a c r o s s t h e f r o n t o f y o u r b o d y t o t h e left w i t h t h e f o r w a r d h a n d . Insure that the m o v e m e n t c o m e s from the torso, not the arm. T h e forward h a n d slides f o r w a r d o n t h e s p e a r s h a f t a s y o u p u l l . P h o t o 3: Push t h e spear back across t h e front of t h e b o d y as you begin to e x e c u t e a f o r w a r d c r o s s - s t e p w i t h t h e rear f o o t . P h o t o 4 : C o n t i n u e e x e c u t i n g t h e forward cross-step a n d push t h e spear across t h e front of the body h o r i z o n t a l l y . T h e spear shaft, r e m a i n s parallel to t h e g r o u n d . T h e f o r w a r d h a n d slides o n t h e spear s h a f t a s i t p u s h e s . D o n o t p u s h f r o m t h e a r m m u s c l e s , use t h e t u r n i n g m o t i o n o f t h e h i p s a n d s h o u l d e r s . P h o t o 5 : T h e r e a r f o o t l a n d s f o r w a r d a s t h e spear r e a c h e s t h e l i m i t o f its c r o s s i n g m o v e m e n t t o t h e right. P h o t o 6 : B e g i n s t e p p i n g f o r w a r d w i t h t h e rear leg a n d p u l l i n g t h e spear b a c k a c r o s s t h e b o d y t o t h e left. The f o r w a r d a r m r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t a n d slides o n t h e s p e a r shaft a s t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e t o r s o pulls t h e spear a c r o s s t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y . D o n o t pull t h e spear w i t h t h e a r m a l o n e , a l l o w t h e h i p s t o do t h e work. P h o t o 7 : C o n t i n u e s t e p p i n g f o r w a r d w i t h t h e rear f o o t a n d p u l l i n g t h e s p e a r across t h e front of the body. P h o t o 8: Repeat as specified a b o v e in step 2.

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Crossing Spear 2

Five

Element

Spear

Crossing Spear 3

Crossing Spear 4

Crossing Spear 5

Crossing Spear 6

Crossing Spear 7

Crossing Spear 8

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About the Translator


Tim Cartmell
T i m C a r t m e l l b e g a n h i s m a r t i a l arts t r a i n i n g i n K u n g F u S a n S o o i n 1 9 7 2 a t t h e a g e o f e l e v e n . H e r e c e i v e d his e i g h t h d e g r e e b l a c k b e l t ( M a s t e r ' s D e g r e e ) i n t h e art in 1 9 8 4 . After g r a d u a t i o n f r o m L o n g B e a c h S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y i n 1 9 8 4 , T i m m o v e d t o the Republic of C h i n a (Taiwan) lo begin training in the internal Chinese martial arts. O r i g i n a l l y s t u d y i n g w i t h M a s t e r Hsu H o n g C h i , T i m e a r n e d his b l a c k bell in Tang Shou Tao Xing Yi in 1987. I n 1 9 8 6 , T i m w o n t h e m i d d l e w e i g h t d i v i s i o n o f t h e All T a i w a n I n v i t a t i o n a l Full C o n t a c t T o u r n a m e n t a n d a g a i n w o n t h a t d i v i s i o n o f t h e C h u n g C h e n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Full C o n t a c t T o u r n a m e n t later t h a t s a m e y e a r . T i m h a s s t u d i e d B a G u a Z h a n g , X i n g Y i Q u a n , C h e n a n d Y a n g s t y l e Tai J i Q u a n , Y i Q u a n , t h e W h i t e Crane system, and various other methods of Qi G o n g and internal boxing since m o v i n g to Taiwan. He is presently a senior student of Ba Gua Zhang Master Luo De Xiu. I n a d d i t i o n t o his m a r t i a l arts t r a i n i n g , T i m s t u d i e d C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a t u r e full t i m e a t t h e T a i w a n N o r m a l U n i v e r s i t y f o r five y e a r s . T i m C a r t m e l l still lives i n t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a w h e r e h e p r a c t i c e s a n d t e a c h e s m a r t i a l arts, w r i t e s , a n d w o r k s as a t r a n s l a t o r .

Wang J i n Yu, Zhang Bao Yang, and Tim Cartmell


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About the Editor


D a n Miller
A native of Springfield, Virginia, Dan Miller graduated from t h e U n i t e d States Naval A c a d e m y in Annapolis, Maryland in 1 9 8 2 with a Bachelor of Science in M a t h e m a t i c s and accepted a c o m m i s s i o n in t h e United States Marine Corps. H e s u b s e q u e n t l y s e r v e d f o r t e n years a s a n o f f i c e r o f M a r i n e s . W h i l e i n t h e military he was sent to study at t h e Naval Postgraduate S c h o o l in M o n t e r e y , California ( 1 9 8 7 - 1 9 8 9 ) a n d e a r n e d a Masters Degree-in Electrical Engineering. D a n b e g a n his study of C h i n e s e martial arts a n d Qi G o n g in 1 9 8 3 . S i n c e t h a t t i m e h e h a s s t u d i e d B a G u a Z h a n g , X i n g Y i Q u a n , Tai J i Q u a n a n d Q i G o n g w i t h v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e U n i t e d States, T a i w a n , a n d m a i n l a n d C h i n a . H e c u r r e n t l y s t u d i e s B a G u a Z h a n g w i t h Park B o k N a m a n d X i n g Y i Q u a n w i t h V i n c e Black. In 1 9 9 0 , D a n a n d his wife N a n c y founded High View Publications a n d began p u b l i s h i n g t h e Pa Kua Chang Newsletter. In 1 9 9 2 t h e n e w s l e t t e r w a s u p g r a d e d t o a J o u r n a l a n d D a n M i l l e r left t h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e t o p u r s u e m a r t i a l arts p r a c t i c e , p u b l i s h i n g , a n d i n s t r u c t i n g full t i m e . S i n c e m o v i n g b a c k t o t h e M o n t e r e y P e n i n s u l a i n t h e fall o f 1 9 9 2 D a n M i l l e r h a s t a u g h t B a G u a Z h a n g , Tai J i Q u a n a n d X i n g Y i Q u a n , c o n t i n u e d t o e d i t a n d p u b l i s h t h e P a Kua Chang Journal, h a s p u b l i s h e d five m a r t i a l arts b o o k s a n d p r o d u c e d t h r e e m a r t i a l arts instructional videos.

Wang J i n Yu, Zhang Bao Yang, and Dan Miller


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