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design of the electrical installation in building used to be simple and straight forward . Such installations generally included electrical service from an electricity board company , power distribution within the building for sockets (receptacles ), air conditioniong and other electrical loads , lighting and few specialty system such as fire alram and telephone .

Generation , transmission and distributions of electrical energy

Transmission of Electricity
From power station to consumer

Power Station

Generation Primary Transmission 11kV, 17kV, 22kV, 23kV 330kV, 500kV Yard transformer Regional Substation Secondary Transmission 60kV, 132kV

High Voltage Distribution

11kV, 33kV Zone Substation


Distribution Substation

Distribution of Power
High Voltage and low voltage distribution system
Consumer 1 and 2: 230V two wire Bulk Supply Consumer Consumer 3 : 230/400V three wire Consumer 4 : 230/400V four wire

Delta/Star transformer Three phase, high voltage distribution Three phase four wire distribution low voltage 230/400V

Line 1(A) Line 2(B) Line 3(C) Neutral

Three Phase Star System

Types of phase: There are 3 phase types:

1. Red phase or phase (A) 2. Yellow phase or phase (B) 3. Blue phase or phase (C)

Phase system:
There are 3 types of phase system : 1. One system or 1 phase system 2. Tow system or 2 phase system 3.Three system or 3 phase system


Electrical codes :- the principles used in electrical design and
installation are know as electrical codes.

Examples : UK- UAE- QATAR- OMAN- SUDAN:UK, UAE, Qatar ,Oman,Sudan follow B.S (British standards) know IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission)

USA-KSA:USA,KSA follow NEC codes (National electrical codes) which is chapter no 70 in NFPA book (National fire protection association )

European countries:
European countries follow IEC standards (international electrical technical commission ).

Voltages and codes around the world

U.K U.K follow B.S codes (also know as IEE regulation )
Normal voltages Normal voltage 230/400V 50Hz. 110/220 220/380 60Hz 60Hz

USA USA follow NEC (NFPA 70)

KSA KSA follow NEC (NFPA 70)

Before 2010 KSA was having 2 voltages 127/220 V 60Hz 220/380 V 60 Hz In 2010 the ministry of electricity decided that new project after 2010 will have only one voltage through out KSA 220/380 60Hz

Voltages and codes around the world

UAE UAE follow B.S

Normal voltage


50 Hz

SUDAN Sudan follow B.S

Normal voltage


50 Hz

Qatar Qatar follow B.S

Normal voltage 240/415v


used for on or off purpose of small equipment like light ceiling fan

exhaust fan - socket water heaters washing machine cooking range- window and split A/C small water pumps.etc

Rating of switch : the maximum current which can flow through

switch safety without any damages for switch is know as rating of switch

Standard Rating of Switch

10 A 15 A 20 A 25 A 30A or 32 A

Note In Gulf we used 10 A switch for light only In Gulf we used 20 A switch for W/H W/M etc

Types of Switch
One way switch

Two way switch

Intermediate switch

back box
In Gulf they are 2 standard back box size 1. 33 2. 63

Gang : represents no. of switch in back box

1 Gang 2 gang 3 gang

four gang 4G five gang 5G six gang 6G

Types of S/O in BS (Sudan , Oman, Qatar, UAE ) 3pin 13A general s/o
15A s/o for A/C 45A flex outlet for W/H , W/M , C/R

K.S.A : S/Os in NEC standard are know as receptacles Receptacles 15A/20A , 220 V Receptacles 15A or 20A , 127 V

Other classification

1. Single S/O outlet : The back box has only one s/o inside .the
back box size is used 33.

2.Double or twin S/O outlet : The back box has two s/o , the
back box size is used 63

3.Shaver outlet : (110_ 220 v)

WIRES AND CABLES: Wire : conductor + insulation (small size) Cables : conductor + insulation + sheath (large size ) Bare conductor : only conductor (no insulation). Ex, over head lines in Sudan Units of wires and cables : mm Sudan and B.S countries (UAE, K.SA,Qatar)

OR AWG (American Wire Gnage ) mm : it is cross sectional area of conductor without insulation

Equivalent of mm to AWG
MM 1.0 mm 1.5 mm 2.5 mm 4 mm 6 mm 10 mm 16 mm 25 mm 35 mm 50 mm 70 mm 95 mm 120 mm 150 mm 185 mm 240 mm 300 mm AWG 18 AWG 16 AWG 14 AWG 12 AWG 10 AWG 8 AWG 6 AWG 4 AWG 2 AWG 1 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG 3/0 AWG 4/0 AWG 250 kc MIL 350 kc MIL 400 kc MIL 500 kc MIL REMARK AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA AWG For KSA

Core (c) represents the numbers of conductors in the cable , there are two types of the cable based on the cores of cables

1. Single core cable (1c)

2. Multi core cable (a) 2 core cable (2c)

(b) Three core cable (3c)

(c)Four core cable (4c)

(d)3 core or 3.5 core

Run of cable:Run of cable represents the no .of single core or multi core
Always the earth is separate run and 1c only . no multi core for earth

wire We prefer multi core cables above 6mm, avoid single cables above 6mm 1.5 mm single core (1c) 2.5 mm single core (1c) 4 mm single core (1c) 6 mm single core (1c) 10 mm (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c) 16 mm (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c) 25 mm (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c) : : 300 mm (2c,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

Earth wire sizing

Earth wire is dependent on phase size
Wire or cable size for phase and N 1.0mm 1.5 mm 2.5 mm 4 mm 6 mm 10 mm 16 mm 25 mm 35 mm 50 mm 70 mm 95 mm 120 mm 150 mm 185 mm 240 mm 300 mm Earth wire or cable size 1.0 mm 1.5 mm 2.5 mm 4 mm 6 mm 10 mm 16 mm 16 mm 16 mm 25 mm 35 mm 50 mm 70 mm 95 mm 95 mm 120 mm 150 mm

Conductor materials :

1. Copper (cu)

2. Aluminum (al)

Insulation materials
1. PVC :(Poly-Viny Chloride)
PVC insulated wires are used for smaller loads like light , fans , s/o , w/m , w/h , c/r They can with stand up to 60 C,

2. LSOH : Low Smoke zero Holagen LSOH insulated wires are used for smaller loads like lights , fans , s/o , w/h , w/m . c/r .

Insulation materials
XLPE : cross linked polyethylene
XLPE insulated cables are used as main

feeder cable (service wire) for DB OR SMDB OR MCC OR T/F etc. and for heavy mechanical load like chiller AHU Boilers XLPE cables can with stand up to 90 c

FR : Fire Retardant or MICC (Mincal Insulated Cable

Conductor ) FR cable are professed for emergency load like lights fire fighting pumps , emergency lights ,fire alarms cables

Types power cable :

1.Un armoured cable

2. Armoured cable
a) b) c) d)

SWA (Steel Wire Armour ) AWA(Aluminum Wire Armour) SSA (Steel Strip Armour ) ASA (Aluminum Strip Armour)

Voltage classification :H.V High Voltage (above 1000 v) 2. M.V Medium Voltage (250 to 1000v) 3. L.V Low Voltage (30 to 250 v) 4. ELV Extra Low Voltage (voltage less than 30 ac or 54 v dc) Grade of cable : means the with stand voltage whether the cable is for LV or MV or HV.

Color codes of cable

PHASE In sudan or gulf New color code countries in europe Brown Black Grey Blue Y/G

Phase (A) or (1) Red Phase (B) or (2) Yellow Phase (C) or (3) Blue Neutral Earth Black Green or Y/G

Final representation of cables :

14c10mm ,XLPE/SWA/PVC.Cu,0.6/1kv + 11c10mm, pvc /pvc ,cu Y/G

1 run 4c core 10mmsize XLPE insulation SWA armour PVC sheath Cu conductor material 0.6/1kv M.V /L.V grade Earth 1 run 1c core 10mm size PVC insulation PVC sheath Cu conductor material Y/G Earth

Electrical faults
Types of electrical faults :
Over load Short circuit Earth fault or shock Over voltage Under voltage

1. Over load
Over load mean current more than rated current of equipment Ex : 10 A rated switch 2A safe 6A safe 10A safe 11A un safe (over load current) When over load current passes then the s/w gets damage.

2. Short circuit
When any phase of neutral or any two phase meet

each other then infinite current flows through them. Usually thousands of current in 1 ms (KA of current in 1ms ), this increase the temperature is know as short- circuit condition

3.Earth fault or shock

When any phase meet earth wire or any conducting materials eg

(metals human body water etc. ) some a mount of current passes in to ground through the earth wire or any conducting material This current passing to earth from phase wire is know as earth leakage current and the fault is know as earth fault .
Good conductor Silver (best) Cu and AL All metals expect few semi- conductor Human body Water Bad conductor wood Rubber Plastic paper glass

porcelain Air

P + N Short circuit P P Short circuit P E or human body earth fault shock N E or human body No effect E human body No effect

Productive devices
The devices which protected from electrical faults are knows as protective devices

Types of protective devices

1. Fuse protective from over load only 2. Circuit breaker protects from over load and s.c faults 3. RCB or ELCB or GFCI protects from earth faults or

shock 4. RCBO or RCCB protects from over load , s.c and earth faults 5. UVR (Under Voltage Relay) protects from under voltage

Circuit Breaker : The CB is protective devices which can be

operated manually and automatically it trips in case of over load and short- circuit condition

Standard C.B Rating

5 A to 40 A MCB (Miniature circuit breaker )

50 A to 600 A MCCB (Modulate Case circuit breaker ) 800 A to 3500 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker)

Standard short circuit rating of C.B :

1. 6KA 2. 10KA 3. 6KA 4. 25KA 5. 35KA 6. 50KA Example

1.MCB Miniature Circuit Breaker 2.MCCB Modulate Case Circuit Breaker 3.ACB Air Circuit Breaker

other breaker used in H.V (power plants and s/s )

4.VCB Vacuum C.B 5. OCB Oil C.B 6.SF6

Types of MCB
B curve MCB

C curve MCB

D curve MCB

Application of B,C,D curve MCB

1. B curve MCB is preferred for lighting circuit. 2. C curve MCB is preferred for small heavy like W/H W/M C/R 3.D curve MCB is preferred for machine like (backing machine ).

MCCB(Modulate Case circuit breaker )

Rating 50 to 600A

Types of MCCB

1. Adjustable MCCB:
here we can set the tripping value normally

2. Fixed

or un adjustable MCCB

ACB : Air Circuit Breaker

Rating 800 to 3500A

1.Motorized with drawable ACB :

Here the start and stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after it is off we can with draw the ACB to avoid are flash

2.Motorized non_ with draw able ACB

Here the start and stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after it is off/on we need to with raw ACB


B.S (Sudan and UAE,Qatar)

RCD (Residual Current Devices )

ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)


GFCI : Ground fault Circuit Breaker

Working principle of RCD

The RCD continuously monitors the current difference

between phase and neutral . if the leakage current is equal to sensitivity of RCD then the RCD is trip

Recommended sensitivity of RCD :

For lights use 100mA RCD (0.1A) For sockets use 30 Ma RCD (0.03A) For W/H- W/M- C/R use 30 ma (0.03A) For A/C use 100ma RCD (0.1A) For under water lighting use 10ma RCD (0.001A)

Note: the RCD is provide with a test buttons to verity that RCD
is working propyl

Working principle of RCD

No .of poles :
Since neutral is compulsory in RCD we have

1. Two poles RCD

2. Four poles RCD Examples


Residual Current Circuit Breaker


Residual CB with over current protection (over load & S.C) Note
RCCB or RCBO protects from all 3 faults (over load , S.C and

earth fault)Since this technology is now they are very less used

Ex : (C 40A - 100ma

- 10KA)

C type of MCB 40 A rating of RCBO 100ma sensitivity of MCBO 10KA short- circuit rating Note In UAE they have both CB and RCD for all lights and W/H. S/O , A/C In Qatar RCD are minatory for S/O , W/H , W/M only not require for lights and A/C. In KSA RCD are not used GFCI are minatory only for equipment inside bath room and kitchen.

Isolator or disconnect switch (D/S):

Isolator or D/S is not a protective devices is it doesnt trip in case of

any fault it is only meant for on and off purpose It can look similar to CB with handle side handle or rotary handle Important note : In sudan and B.S countries the isolator is used as main breaker knows as (main isolator ) inside the DB or final DB Always install D/S near to every heavy mechanical equipment such as chiller , AHU , Motor and pumps , lights for maintains and repair purpose





No.of poles D/S near the heavy mechanical equipment SPN for single phase equipment

TPN for three phase equipment

Wires and cables insulation methods

Majorly the wires of cables are said to be installed in two methods Cable in air
No 1 2 3 4 5

(2) Cable in ground

Methods for cable in Air Free in Air conduit Cable trunking Cable tray Cable ladder Methods for cable in ground Directly buried or directly laid under ground cable Duct bank or electrical ducts Cable tranch

Conduit: (electrical pipe)

Material of conduit : PVC


GI/GS Galvanized Iron/

Galvanized Steel

Conduit: (electrical pipe)

Material of conduit : EMT Electrical Metallic Tubes

RGS/RGI Rigid Galvanized Steel/

Rigid Galvanized Iron

Note PVC conduits are used as connected conduit inside the wall , slabs ,

and floor screed. GI/GS or RGI/RGS are used as exposed conduits or the wall , or slab in India and B.S countries (Qatar , UAE ,Oman) EMT conduits are used as exposed conduits on the wall or slab in KSA

Standard size of conduits

16 mm 20 mm 1 25mm 1 32 mm 2 50 mm 3 75 mm 4 100 mm Note conduits are not recommended (20 mm) 0r 1 (25 mm) conduit can be use for wiring

lighting 1 (25 mm) or (32mm) conduit can be used for wiring of s/o , w/h , w/m , c/r , pumps and low current system like fire alarms wires , CCTV telephone and TV wires.

Conduits accessories:
Coupler : coupler used to join 2conduts

Bends : In gulf countries bends are made

at site in the same coduit using PVC bending

Junction box (JB) or pull box (PB) : There are 2 types of JB

1. Circular JB (used mostly in Sudan and BS) 2. Octagonal JB (used in KSA)

circular JB
is fixed near to every light point , ceiling and exhaust and smoke electors

Types of JB circular JB One way

two way through

two way angle

two way U

three way

four way

Junction box
octagonal JB

back bax : are used for s/o flex outlet etc

adapter : use for fixing conduit to the back box

Standard mounting heights of wiring accessories

All switches 1250 mm AFFL (After Finish Floor

Level) Light , fan , w/h , w/m . Sockets 450 mm AFFL Tel/sockets 450 mm AFFL Sockets in kitchen 250 mm above kitchen plat form s/o for w/h , w/m , A/C , near the equipment

laying of conduit is knows as coduiting there are three stages for

conduiting . conduiting in slab

conduiting in wall

conduiting in floor

Cable trunking
Cable trunking is used to carry branch of wires (many wires )

Materials' :

1. PVC cable trunking 2. Metallic cable trunking

Standard size of cable trunking

1. 50mm 50mm (5cm5cm) 2. 100mm 100mm (10cm10cm) 3. 150mm 150mm (15cm15cm) 4. 200mm 200mm (20cm20cm) 5. 250mm 250mm (25cm25cm) 6. 300mm 300mm (30cm30cm) 7. 400mm 400mm (40cm40cm) 8. 500mm 500mm (50cm50cm) Note: other combination are also available ex : 300mm100mm

Installation methods of cable trunking

The cable trunking can be installed is three method as per

requirements On the surface of the wall

Hanging from slab

Under floor trunking

Cable tray is used to carry heavy cable

Types of cable tray:

1. Perforated cable tray :

is preferred for carraying power cables

2. Plain cable tray : can be used for low current system like TV , CCTV ,FF

Materials of cable tray:

1. No PVC 2. Metallic
(a) Galvanized cable tray (b) Hot dip galvanized cable

Standard cable tray size

50mm 50mm (5cm5cm) 150mm 150mm (15cm15cm) 200mm 100mm (20cm10cm) 250mm 100mm (25cm10cm) 300mm 100mm (30cm10cm) 400mm 100mm (40cm10cm) 500mm 100mm (50cm10cm) 600mm100mm (60cm10cm) 800mm100mm (80cm10cm) 900mm100mm (90cm10cm) Note: if more than 900mm cable tray is required then use two cable tray parally
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Cable tray installation

Cable tray can be installed in three methods : 1. On the surface of wall

2. Hanging from cable

3.Floor mounted (on the floor )

Cable laying methods on cable tray

There are three methods of cable laying on cable tray Flat formation touching Flat formation spacing Trefoil formation (only for single core cables )

Cable ladder
Cable ladder are preferred only for vertical installation only in

electrical shaft or riser

Cable installation in ground :

there are three methods of cable tray installation in ground 1.Directly buried or directly laid under ground 2.Duct bank or electrical duct 3.Cable trench

Coordination with mechanical system

1. HAVC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning ) 2. Plumbing

water supply b) drainage 3. Fire fighting 4. Conveyors like ,lifts scalolar 5. Swimming pool.

Types of HVAC system

1. Window A/C

2. Split A/C

3.VRV or VRF system

Types of HVAC system

4. Package A/C

5. Central A/C VAV system

6. Chilled water system

Plumbing system
1. Water supply

2. Central hot water system

3. Drainage system

Plumbing system
Fire fighting system

Duty and stand by pumps

Plumbing system
Lift : The installation works of lift etc is done by separate contractor know as lift contractor The has to provide a D/S inside the lift room for supply to the lift system Summing pool : are usually done by separate contractor knows as swimming pool contractor . Sometimes the elec. Engineer has to supply electricity to under water lights which is done at voltage not greater than 30 v a.c the lights shall be provide with 10ma RCD.

Panel board
An enclosure with protection devices such as C.B and RCD knows as panel board . Ex : DB SMDB MCC MDB (All are panel board) Switch gear : a panel board including instruments is knows as switch gear. Ex : MDB MCC

MCC (motor control center )

MCC is a panel board to which major mechanical motors or loads are connected. MCC has measuring indicating remote start indicates. Ex : MCC panel has ammeter voltmeter frequency meter power factor meter , phase indicators motor run off trip indicating lamps auto , manual selector switch CB and motor starters with remote terminal blocks.

Panel board
The panel board and switch gear (DB- SMDB MDB MCC ) are manufactured in separate factories knows as switch gear manufacturing company and these panel boards are delivered at site for installation Well know switch gear companys : 1. ABB 2. Schneider electric 3. Mitsubishi 4. Merlin gerin 5. Siemens 6. L&T

Bus duct system

Note : bus duct has a housing with bus bar insulated , bus bar is used

to carry current of very high ratings , ex : above 600A only STANDARD BUS DUCT RATING: 600A 800A 1000A 1230A 1500A 2000A 2500A 3000A 3500A Bus way or bus duct riser : is used for power distribution inside the high building for each house

IP Ingress Protection or International Protection IP is the number assigned to the electrical equipment and motors installed outside the building or in wall areas to protection from water and dust and object
No 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Protection form object and Protection form water dust Not protect Not protect Hand protect Vertical water Finger protect 15 Tool protect 60 Wire protect Splashing of water Dust protect Low jets of water Complete protect High jets of water Immession Complete submersible

Types of transformer 1. steps up transformer 2. step down transformer

Types base on phase system single phase three phase Types of transformer base on poling oil cooled transformer air cooled transformer

Note: for indoor transformer use air cooled transformer for outdoor transformer use oil cooled transformer in gulf countries the transformer are indoor type

installed in separate room ex substation room or transformer room oil cooled transformer are not referred inside the building . air cooled transformer are used inside building unit of transformer is KVA


STANDARD RATING OF TRANSFORMER 1) 50 KVA 2) 60KVA 3) 80KVA 4) 100KVA 5) 150KVA 6) 250KVA 7) 315KVA 8) 500KVA 9) 630KVA 10) 800KVA 11) 1000KVA 12) 1500KVA 13) 2000KVA 14) 2500KVA 15) 3000KVA 16) 3500KVA

Need of transformer Gulf countries Transformer is not require for building whose total max demand less than 400kva If the total max demand is greater than 400kVA then we require transformer Max permit transformer size 2500kVA Sometimes is 3000kVA

Steps to calculate the transformer size :

1.Consider Total max demand of MDB = KW 2.Total max demand of MDB in KVA = KW/cos = KVA 3.Add 10% as future load Total max demand with future load in KVA = kVA 1.10 4. Transformer size = Total max demand with future load in KVA
Transformer load (90%)

Then select the standard size

Ex : calculate the Transformer size for project inside whose max demand is

100kw Solution : Total max demand of MDB = 100 KW 1.Total max demand of MDB in KVA = KW/cos = 100/0.8=125KVA 2. Add 10% as future load 3. Total max demand with future load in KVA =125 kVA 1.10=137.5KVA 4. Transformer size = Total max demand with future load in KVA Transformer load (90%) = 137.5Kva/.90 = 157.7Kva Standard T/F size = 250KVA / oil cooled 11kv/440v / outdoor T/F Y/ / z% = 5% 3, 4 wires 50 Hz

Capacitor bank
Types of load:

1.Resistive load: current is in phase with voltage 2.Inductive load: current lags voltage 3.Capacitive load: current leads voltage Phase angle: angle between voltage and current Note: All loads in our daily life are resistive inductive loads, ex (tube light,bulb, motor and pumps ,w/h, w/m , r/c). Hence capacitor bank are required which are connected to MDB ,which improves the over all power factor of the system . Sudan PF = 0.80 (low PF) Final PF = .98 or .96 (improve p.f)

Capacitor bank
Capacitor bank is not require for single phase equipment or for

small project Capacitor bank required for project involving three phase equipment or here phase motors or MCC panels and this capacitor bank is connected to MDB. Unity of capacitor bank: KVAR (Kilo Volt Ampere Reactive)

Formula to calculate capacitor bank:

Capacitor bank (KVAR) Max demand of MDB in KW {tan(cos-1) tan (cos-2)} Where 1 initial power factor = 0.8 2 final power factor = 0.98

Capacitor bank
standard capacitor bank Types of capacitor bank:

1.Fixed capacitor bank 2.APFC (Automatic Power Factor Corrector) APFC: in this types the capacitor are automatic , they become on and off depending on the load Ex: If full load then all capacitor are on If half load then few capacitor are on If no load then very few capacitor on


UPS / Inverter

(Un interrupted Power Supply)

DG (Disel Generator )

or stand by generator

UPS / Inverter
UPS Un interrupted Power Supply UPS is used for back up of electronic equipment

,ex(computer, CCTV)
Inverter is used for back up of electrical and

electronic equipments Ex electrical (fans lights w/m ) Ex electronic (computer CCTV )

Unit of UPS/Inverter KVA (Kilo Volt Ampere )

UPS / Inverter
Standard of UPS /Inverter Step to calculate UPS/inverter size:

1.Calculate the total load in KW 2.Calculate the total load in KVA 3. UPS/Inverter size = total load in KVA UPS/Inverter loading = total load in KVA 0.80 (80% or 85% loading) 4. select the standard size

UPS / Inverter
Wattages of load: 1. Tube lights = 40 w 2. Ceiling fans = 80 w 3. Computer (a)CRT computer = 300 w (b)LCD computer = 200 w (c)LED computer = 160 w 4. printer = 200 w 5. router = 50 w 6. (6) EPBAX = 50 w 7. (7) CCTV = 50 w

Diesel generator
The diesel generator can be connected in two methods

1.C.O.S (Change Over Switch ) manually operated switching 2. A.T.S (Auto Transformer Switch ) automatic switching Units of generator KVA

Diesel generator
Standard generator size Step to calculate generator size:

1. Calculate the total load in kw = (SMDB Comm) 2. Total load in KVA = kw /cos = KVA 3. Generator size = = total load in KVA generator loading (0.80) 4. Select the standard generator size

Electrical instruments (testing and commission):

1. Voltmeter 2. Ammeter 3. Energy meter or Kwh meter 4. P.F meter 5. Frequency 6. Phase indicators 7. Multi meter

Earthing and lighting protection system

Earthing : connection of wire to the ground is knows as

earthing Types of earthing conductor: 1.Earth continuity conductor (ECC) or protection earth conductor 2.Main earth conductor 3.Equipment bonding conductor 1.Earth continuity conductor (ECC) or protection earth conductor: The earth wire passing to final loads and DB to SMDB or MDB is knows as ECC. 2.Main earth conductor: The earth wire connected to ground is knows as main earth conductor usually it is connected to MDB.

Earthing and lighting protection system

3.Equipmential bonding conductor: Every metallic part in the electrical installation shall be connected to ground (earth) Types of earth pits: 1.Pipe earthing 2.Electrode earthing 3.Plate earthing

Lighting protection system

lighting protection system is building above 15 meter lighting system: lamp any device which gives light is knows as lamp types of lamp:

1.Incandescent lamps

2.Fluorescent lamps a) CFL (compact Fluorescent lamps) b)tube

Types of lamp
3.Mercury vapor lamps 4.Metal halide lamps

5.HPS(High Pressure Sodium)

6.Halogen lamps

Types of lamp
Note: Incandescent lamps are not recommended as their efficiency is very low (high input current , low output current For indoor purpose the best lamps are fluorescent lampsas their efficiency is very good (less input current or power high out put light The M.V lamps and metal ,HPS lamps are preferred for out door street light. Lamp input: is measured in watts Ex : tube light(40w,36w) or CFL (24w , 36w) Lamp output: lamp output is measured in lumens .

Luminaire or lighting fixture

Lamp fixed on a frame or reflectors is knows as luminaire Illumination:

The lumen output of any luminaire falling on asq.meter room area is knows as illumination It is measured is 1.Lux (Lx) if the room dimensions are in meter 2.Foot candle (F.C) if the room dimension are in feets Relation between LUX and F.C: 1 LUX = 0.1 F.C 1F.C = 10 LUX

Recommended lux level for different rooms by IENSNA

IENSNA: Illumination Engineer Society North America

Bedroom = 50 lux = 5 FC Hall = 150 lux = 15 FC Kitchen = 300 lux = 30 FC Bathroom =100 lux = 10 FC Coefficient of utilization (Cu): The Cu depends on the reflection factors of ceiling wall and floor colors . also it depends on the work plane height Note: for manual calculation consider cu= 0.45%

Lamp lumen factor (LLF)

Lamp lumen factor (LLF) or lumen loss factor(LLF)

or maintenance factor (MF): Ex : tube light (40 w) Today 2450 lumens After 3 years less than 2450 lumens The LLF depends on cleaning of luminaire Note For manual calculation for 3 years maintence consider LLF= 0.67

Formula to calculate no.of luminaire in room:
No.of luminaires = illumination (lux or FC) room area ( No .of lamps /luminaire )(luminairecuLLF)

Cu = .45 LLF = 0.67

Arrangement of luminaire: (x=2x) X distance from wall to luminaire 2Xdistance between luminaire to luminaire