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Name: Paige Leuthold Major: K-6 Elementary Education Minor: Mathematics Supervisor: Lucy Sheehan School: Rio Grande Elementary Grade: 5th grade Date: February 21, 2014

This was my first time at Rio Grande Elementary School. I had never had a field placement located there before and I was excited to see what was in store. Rio Grande is located at 5555 Rio Grande Street. It is located on 32 acres of land. Students that attend Rio Grande come from rural and suburban areas that include Rosedale, Sandcut, and Fontanet, Indiana. Currently, there are over 15,000 students in the corporation with approximately 540 students attending Rio Grande. Corporation-wide, there are 7,127 students with free meals, 1,324 students with reduced price meals, and 6,955 students with paid meals. At Rio Grande there are 155 students with free meals, 48 with reduced priced meals, and about 303 students with paid meals. There is one American Indian students, 2 Asian students, 9 Hispanic students, 18 Multiracial students, and 476 Caucasian students. In my classroom, there are 28 students, which is a considered a large class for instructional purposes. The school was originally an open concept school, but was renovated in 2001 to self-contained classrooms. This made classroom size on the smaller side, which also posed potential difficulties considering the amount of students in each class. I had a 5th grade class with 28 students and ages ranging from 10-12 years old. I typically had 26-28 students present on any given day. The classroom was small, with limited wall space, and incredibly limited chalkboard space. With 28 students in my class, it was full to the brim with almost no extra space. In case of discipline or focus issues, it was hard to move a childs desk position in order for every single child to be successful. Technology was limited,

with one teacher computer and one projector that was not utilized. The school was well equipped with paper and supplies. The make-up of the children was diverse. I had students that were at the top of the socio-economic ladder, wearing designer clothes and living very privileged lives while some students came from a more modest lifestyle and lived/worked on a farm. The remaining students fell somewhere in between these two socio-economic backgrounds. I believe this caused some distractions and behavior issues. I had students that were gifted and students that struggled. For the most part, I had mostly students that could be considered average performing students. In addition, there were students that left the room for extra help with a handful of students in the process of being qualified for resource services. Students in the class have been identified with a typical development pattern as any advanced students would have been identified and be placed in the gifted and talented program located at another school. No students with diverse languages were included in this class. Three students with IEPs and two students that are in process of being tested for potential IEPs were also a part this class. It is important to note that whole class instruction time was incredibly valuable and limited. Students were out for resource room support at points during the day, for Orchestra twice a week, for speech, for preschool helpers throughout the week. Full, whole class instruction was limited to a few hours a day. Family involvement is especially important in elementary school and it sets the tone for the students entire education. For the most part, the parents of my students would be considered actively involved parents with approximate 90%

participation. To communicate with the parents of my students I used the purple Tuesday folders, which had a section for notes and was required to be signed and returned the next day, indicating that they saw the papers in the folder. Also I had missing assignment sheets that were sent home when students did not complete their work that had to be signed by the parent or guardian. This informed the parent or guardian that the child had not completed the required work. Often times I would also write short notes to parents in the students agenda and I received notes from parents frequently with questions and issues. Parents actively participated in classroom parties and often times parents came in during Super Kid, which highlighted one student a week on Friday afternoons. Also parents are asked to chaperone the only field trip students are allowed to take (because of budget issues) to Saint Louis. If other field trips were allowed, the Childrens Museum, Swope Art Gallery and many other educational resources are available in the surrounding area. An additional way to get parents involved in regards to one of my lessons would be to send home a Versatiles set and a packet to be completed together. Also asking for parents to check initial all homework could be a potential way to get the parents involved as well.

To assess what my students already knew about dividing fractions, a concept that is heavily tested for on the ISTEP, I gave a pre-test. A pre-test is a test given in advance, or before lessons, to determine if students are sufficiently prepared to begin a new concept. For the pre-test, I chose to give my group of students brand

new material that may or may not have been taught to them before. I was told by my cooperating teacher that dividing fractions was a concept that they had only very briefly visited earlier in the year. She also said that students that were on the math team might have possibly learned this concept in their after school practices. This pretest was twenty division problems with numerators and denominators ranging between one and twenty. It also included four story problems. The total pretest was scored out of 24 possible points. I recorded each students score as the number correct out of 24. Students received a half point deduction if the answer was correct, but not in simplest form. This made it easier to show improvement or areas that needed to be addressed. At this point, I knew that it was very possible that some students might not know how to perform the operation at all and might not be able to answer any of the questions on the pre-test. I thought it was important that I inform them prior to the pre-test that it was strictly to measure what knowledge he/she had already in regards to dividing fractions. A few students in my class tend to stress or get upset if they do not perform perfectly, so it was especially important for me to reassure those particular students to not get discouraged.

MA.5.2 2000 - Computation Students solve problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and The students will correctly solve fraction division expressions.

Learning Activities

Introduction and group practice on the chalkboard

Assessment

Students will be assessed based upon participation in class lesson/instruction and teacher observation. The students will also be

decimals.

MA.5.2 2000 - Computation Students solve problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals.

assessed based upon completion and accuracy of dividing fractions worksheets Students will be assessed based upon participation in class lesson/instruction and teacher observation. The students will also be assessed based upon completion and accuracy of dividing fractions worksheets.

Lesson/Activity Plan Template Teacher Candidate _________________Paige Leuthold__________________________ Name of Lesson _____Dividing Fractions ____________________________________ Subject ____Mathematics_________________ Grade __5th__________________ Rationale for lesson: Students will be tested on this material in the following weeks. Dividing fractions is a skill that is tested on ISTEP and will be required for higher-level mathematics.

Learning outcomes: The students will correctly solve fraction division expressions.

Assessment of student outcomes: Students will be assessed based upon participation in class lesson/instruction and teacher observation. The students will also be assessed based upon completion and accuracy of dividing fractions worksheets.

Related Foundations/Indiana Academic Standard: MA.5.2 2000 - Computation Students solve problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals. Materials Needed: Dividing fractions worksheet Chalkboard/Chalk Lesson/Activity Presentation: Anticipatory set: Remind the students of the pre-test we took last week. It was a new concept so the teacher shouldnt expect students to answer the questions correctly (in fact most students couldnt even answer the questions). Tell the

students that you know that the students on the math team have just recently learned how to divide fractions, but now its time for everyone to learn it.

Teaching procedures: Ask the class if anyone knows what the term reciprocal means. If no student responds correctly, a reciprocal is flipping the fraction, ergo the numerator becomes the denominator and the denominator becomes the numeration. (Example: the reciprocal of is 4/3.) Also if we have a single digit such as 35, what is that written as a fraction? (A student should tell the class that it is written 35/1). These are two important concepts to know when dividing fractions. Explain to the students that to divide fractions, we flip or change the second fraction to its reciprocal and then change the division sign to multiplication. Then we will multiply straight across. Write 3/15 4/3. To solve, we change 4/3 to (because we change it to its reciprocal) and then we change the to , making our expression read, 3/15 . Our normal multiplication rules tell us that we multiply straight across, giving us the answer of 9/60 or 3/20 in simplest form. Do 5 or 10 more random examples on the board and have students talk through them or complete the expressions on the board. Guided and Independent Practice: Guided practice is the whole class instruction. The independent practice is the practice worksheet that checks the students understanding of the new concept. Closure: Inform the students that we will be practicing this concept the next day and will be taking a post-test later in the week. Ask for any questions and be available for questions, concerns, or further explanations. Differentiated instruction: The class grouping itself is differentiated instruction, considering that they are grouped by ability and I have the highest ability group. I could modify the worksheet for struggling students, however, I like to challenge the students. The modifications could include a change in the amount of problems and the numbers that are involved. Multicultural emphasis (if appropriate):N/A Technology (if appropriate): N/A Reflection on lesson: The lesson went very well. Students picked up the concept almost immediately and seemed confident in their ability to perform the operation.

Lesson/Activity Plan Template Teacher Candidate _________________Paige Leuthold__________________________ Name of Lesson _____Dividing Fractions ____________________________________ Subject ____Mathematics_________________ Grade __5th__________________ Rationale for lesson: Students will be tested on this material in the following weeks. Dividing fractions is a skill that is tested on ISTEP and will be required for higher-level mathematics.

Learning outcomes: The students will correctly solve fraction division expressions.

Assessment of student outcomes: Students will be assessed based upon participation in class lesson/instruction and teacher observation. The students will also be assessed based upon completion and accuracy of dividing fractions worksheets.

Related Foundations/Indiana Academic Standard: MA.5.2 2000 - Computation Students solve problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals. Materials Needed: Chalkboard/Chalk Versatiles Accompanying Versatiles worksheets with answer keys. Lesson/Activity Presentation: Anticipatory set: Have students turn in the previous worksheet on dividing fractions. Ask the students how they feel about the new material. Have students

give a thumbs up if they feel great about the homework and the new material, a thumbs down if they are still really unsure about what they are doing, or a thumbs in the middle if they are so-so about the new material. Inform the students that we will be practicing what we learned.

Teaching procedures: Write a fraction division expression on the board. Have multiple students help walk through the example. Then pass out the packets that accompany the Versatiles. There are two packets. One packet is a review of adding, subtracting, and estimating fraction expressions. This is a concept that is important to review. The other packet is strictly dividing fractions. Give the packets out to every other student so that no two students are working on the same thing next to each other. The Versatiles are self-assessing so the teacher has to be available for help or questions. Guided and Independent Practice: Guided practice is the whole class instruction. The independent practice is the Versatiles. Also the independent practice is the practice worksheet that checks the students understanding of the concept. Closure: Inform the students that we will be tested on this material the following week. Pass out a worksheet that is more difficult than the first one. It is a good way to monitor student learning. Differentiated instruction: The class grouping itself is differentiated instruction, considering that they are grouped by ability and I have the highest ability group. I could modify the worksheet for struggling students, however I like to challenge the students. The modifications could include a change in the amount of problems and the numbers that are involved.

Reflection on lesson: Students were confident in their ability. Students worked quietly and were determined to have 100% accuracy. My observations were that the concept was mastered and it was time for a post-test.

Assessment is a large part of effectively teaching children. There are multiple options when it comes to assessment. There are formal assessments, which can include pencil and paper assessments such as worksheets and tests. There are also informal assessments that can include participation and teacher observation. I planned to use a combination of both formal and informal assessment to measure student progress toward the learning outcomes/objectives. I used formal assessment, a pre-test, before teaching the lessons. This gave me a numerical baseline for students as previously mentioned. During instruction, I planned to use observation and participation assessments in the introduction lesson and in the lesson involving Versatiles. The Versatiles gave a performance-based outlook on student understanding because it was hands on and it was instant gratification for the students when it came to accuracy. I observed who understood the material based upon the completion of these tasks. I paid special attention to student participation during examples completed on the chalkboard during whole class instruction, making mental notes of students that might need extra instruction. Also after each of the introduction lesson and review lesson, I used pencil and paper assessment in the form of worksheets to monitor student progress. This gave me the opportunity to alter instruction in case of misunderstandings. After instruction I gave the exact same assessment that I gave as a pre-test. This showed precise numerical data in regards to student progress. I did not plan on using technology for my planning and/or instruction. I would absolutely love to, if that technology were available to me. My cooperating teacher had an Elmo projector, however it had

technical issues so it was never used. I have always considered myself technology savvy, but my resources did not allow me to include technology at this time. I administered the pre-test and I saw panic on their faces. They were completely clueless as to how to divide fractions. Apparently they were not able to recall their previous introduction. This let me know immediately that I was going to have to start from the very beginning with dividing fractions. I used observation as one tool to determine student performance but also the scores on the pre-test were clear that the students had little to no knowledge regarding this particular concept. This indicated a distinct pattern with the multiple unanswered or incorrectly answered expressions. This drove me to develop a lesson with the bare basics of dividing fractions. My hopes were that the students would pick the skill up quickly considering they are the high ability group.

Pre-test Results:

24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Kara Ariana Noah S Noah C Seth Addy Kendall Jacob Josiah Blade

Nicho

Dono

Collin

Oliver

David

Kerri

Josie

Taylor

Natalie

Gracie

Hayden

Robbie

Caden

Briley

Caleb

Callie

Cody

During my lesson sets, as I hoped my students learned the skill very easily. In fact multiple students said, This is so easy! This led me to the decision that I was only going to need one more review lesson on this concept. I did not want to take the students time going over a concept multiple times if they felt they have mastered it after one or two lessons and evidence in the classroom and on their homework supported this. Also, I adapted my second lesson plan, with the Versatiles, to be an independent activity so that if needed, I was available to help individuals or a small group of students in case of misunderstandings. This was a good decision as I had a few students absent during the introduction lesson and the review lesson time gave me a chance to teach those students and help the other students as well. I did not have to re-teach the concept to the whole class as the students felt confident in their ability after just the introductory lesson. I chose to include worksheets in my assessment of progress. After the first lesson, I assigned a worksheet and graded it before moving on to the second lesson. Those worksheet grades provided clear evidence that the concept was well received. In fact, most of the incorrect responses we not dealing with the dividing of the fractions, but actually in the simplifying of the fractions. This can be addressed later on in the curriculum. This led me to the decision of only completing one additional review lesson. I taught the second lesson, assigned a more advanced worksheet, scored it, and came to the conclusion that the students were successfully answering the expressions. That indicated that the students were ready to take the posttest to measure the progress.

Post Test Results in Comparison to Pretest Results: Note: Pretest results are represented by series 1 and the post test results are represented by series 2.

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Blade Kendall Noah C Kara Jacob Ariana Addy Noah S Seth Josiah Donovan Oliver Caleb Natalie Collin Josie Nicholas David Cody Gracie Kerrigan Caden Hayden Robbie Taylor Briley

Series1 Series2

I believe that this graph almost speaks for itself. Pre-test scores were between 0-4. Post test scores hovered around the upper teens and lower twenties. I had a few outliers with some low scores. I saw clear improvement from the pre-test scores. The average increase in score was about 17 points. The issues were not in the mastery of the concept of dividing fractions itself. The issue was in simplifying fractions. We have been very clear all year that fractions need to be represented in simplest form. We discussed it on multiple occasions. I told the class from the very beginning that they would receive a half

point deduction if their answer was correct, but not in simplest form. This is exactly how all fraction homework and classwork had been graded. Lower scores for students are reflective of incorrectly simplifying the fractions, not in the process of dividing them. On the homework, simplifying was a minor issue, but for the most part, barely affected scores. The post test was a different story. It directly affected most students scores and led to false data representation. I believe the concept of dividing fractions was mastered by almost every student. However, I believe our next step needs to be a review in simplifying fractions considering that seems to be a major weakness among my students.

Since the conclusion of the work sample, I have begun creating a lesson focusing on simplifying fractions. As previously mentioned, the concept of dividing fractions was the original objective, and that objective was achieved. My evidence shows clear student learning as illustrated in the graph. However, it highlighted another issue that needs to be addressed immediately, especially before ISTEP testing. My assumptions about my students knowledge prior to teaching the lesson was that this was a fresh concept that might have briefly been discussed but never taught. I was expecting my students to know very little, but I expected them to pick it up quickly. My expectations were met. Next time I teach this concept I will definitely include a separate lesson on simplifying fractions as a refresher. I believe one strength of my own teaching is my classroom management. With 28 students in my class, classroom management is of the utmost importance for any kind of

learning to take place. I also feel that I can connect with the students and I am approachable for help or questions. I think areas that I could grow upon are my variety of teaching techniques. I am always open to learning new ways of explanation or teaching and I look forward to learning new techniques to reach all students in turn making every single student successful. Learning does not stop when you graduate, it happens every day, sometimes in the most unlikely places, but I cannot wait to continue to grow and become an even more competent, caring, professional educator.

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