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maia kopaleiSvili

nugzar sxirtlaZe
ekaterine qardava
paata turava (red.)

administraciuli
saproceso samarTlis
saxelmZRvanelo

Maia Kopaleishvili
Nugzar Skhirtladze
Ekaterine Kardava
Paata Turava (Red.)

Lehrbuch zum
Verwaltungsprozessrecht

Tbilisi 2008
Tbilisi 2008

Herausgegeben mit finanzieller Untersttzung der Deutschen


Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
gamocemulia germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis
sazogadoebis (GTZ) finansuri mxardaWeriT

wigni momzadebulia jgufi siestas mier

ISBN 978-9941-9032-2-9

gtz

gamomcemloba `siesta~, 2008

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Vor- und Geleitwort
Ein altes lateinisches Sprichwort sagt: Habent sua fata libelli- auch
Bcher haben ihre Schicksale, und so ist es auch mit diesem Buch: Es ist
sozusagen der logische Nachfolger und die notwendige Ergnzung des
ersten und erfreulicherweise sehr erfolgreichen Bandes ber das Allgemeine Verwaltungsrecht, der 2005 erschienen ist und eine sehr positive
Aufnahme gefunden hat. Auerdem teilt er das klassische Schicksal vieler
solcher Vorhaben: Das Buch wird erheblich spter zur Verffentlichung
fertig als geplant. Dies hat seine Grnde jedoch nicht primr darin, dass
die Autoren und Autorinnen zu wenig effektiv gewesen wren. Vielmehr
waren die Autoren vor die Herausforderung gestellt, mit der georgischen
rechtspolitische Gegenwart Schritt zu halten: Die Diskussionen und Beratungen zu den Gesetzesentwrfen im Allgemeinen Verwaltungsrecht
und im Verwaltungsprozessrecht haben sich schneller entwickelt, als dies
mit den Manuskripten verfolgt werden konnte. Zudem waren die Autorinnen und Autoren mit einer Schwierigkeit konfrontiert, die die Rechtswissenschaftler im brigen Europa meist nicht zu bewltigen haben: Sie
mussten auf fr das georgische Recht vllig neuen Gebieten neue Wege
und Strukturen aufzeigen. Viele Begriffe und Strukturen, die es bislang
in Georgien berhaupt nicht oder jedenfalls so nicht gab, mussten erst
erklrt und verstndlich gemacht werden. Insofern konnte die Funktion
des deutschen Professors und Beraters nur eine koordinierende, anleitende sein, und seine Beitrge nur die einer research person. Das bedeutet
aber auch, dass dies Buch ein originr georgisches ist von georgischen
Autorinnen und Autoren verantwortet und geschrieben. Dass die Schwierigkeiten erheblich waren und die zeitlichen Vorgaben irgendwann auch
ernst genommen werden mussten, ist unter anderem auch daran zu erkennen, dass nicht alle Beteiligten bis zum Schluss durchgehalten und
erfolgreich ein ihr-Manuskript abgeschlossen haben.
Unter den erfolgreichen Autorinnen und Autoren, die dieses Buch jetzt
erfolgreich zu Ende gebracht haben, waren die meisten schon beim ersten
Band dabei, was zeigt, dass sich die Kooperation zwischen Potsdam und
Tiflis offenbar bewhrt hat. Die Arbeit an diesem Thema hat im Herbst
2005 mit einem gemeinsamen programmatischen Workshop in Tiflis begonnen und wurde am Jahresende 2005 mit einem Seminar in Potsdam

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fortgesetzt. Weiter ging es dann mit der Arbeit an den Manuskripten und
Themen bei Treffen im November 2006 in Tiflis und Gudauri und zwei
weiteren Arbeitstreffen jeweils in Potsdam und Batumi. Die georgischen
Beteiligten, mit denen eine sehr positive und offen-kritische s Diskussionsforum sich entwickelte waren und die immer bereit waren, rechtliche
und pdagogische Unsicherheiten offen zu besprechen, letztlich aber auch
immer einen gangbaren georgischen Weg suchten, waren Frau Maja
Kopaleishvili, Stellvertretende Justizministerin Georgiens, Herr Nugsar
Skhirtladze, Richter am Obersten Gericht und Frau Ekaterina Kardava,
Doktorandin an der Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin sowie natrlich Herr
Dr. iur. Paata Turava LL.M., der an der Universitt Potsdam promovierte,
mit dem deutschen Verwaltungsrecht vertraut ist und der organisatorisch
verantwortliche spiritus rector des Unternehmens war.
Eine Bemerkung zum Thema dieses Buches: Traditionell wird das
Verfahrensrecht, das Prozessrecht, schon von den Studenten wenig geliebt und von den Brgern meist nicht als verstndlich angesehen und
in seiner Bedeutung unterschtzt. Aber das ist ein Irrtum: Das beste Gesetz ist wirkungslos, wenn es nicht eine Verfahrensordnung gibt, die das
materielle Recht implantiert, d.h. in die Lebenswirklichkeit umsetzt. Das
bedeutet, dass der Anspruch, der dem Brger nach materiellem Recht z.B.
gegen den Staat zusteht, nicht vom Wohlwollen eines Verwaltungsbeamten abhngt, sondern notfalls vor Gericht in einem dafr vorgesehenen
Verfahren eingeklagt werden kann oder dass eine negative Entscheidung
gegenber dem Brger gerichtlich berprft werden kann. Eine solche
verwaltungsgerichtliche Rechtskultur muss sich aber erst entwickeln.
Was in Deutschland bereits in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts begann,
kann sich im Georgien des 21. Jahrhunderts nicht von heute auf Morgen
realisieren und bewhren.
Die historisch umstrittene Frage Wie scharf drfen Verwaltungsrichter Behrdenmanahmen prfen? wurzelt in der noch lteren, ob
hoheitliches Verwatungshandeln berhaupt durch Richter fremd kontrolliert werden darf. Einerseits setzt wie Martin Ibler 1999 in seiner Habilitationsschrift deutlich machte wirklicher rechtsstaatlicher Rechtsschutz die Kontrollierbarkeit der Verwaltung voraus, andererseits wre es
eine Illusion anzunehmen, dass es ein Rechtsschutzsystem gbe, das in
der Lage wre, jegliches Staatshandeln lckenlos zu berprfen. Die so-

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genannte Kontrolldichte oder Kontrollintensitt ist nicht nur in Westeuropa ein Dauerthema, sie wird es auch in Georgien sein. Nicht zuletzt
wird die Thematik auch bedeutsam fr das Vertrauensverhltnis zwischen
Staat und Brger sein.
Vor diesem Hintergrund kann die Bedeutung und Relevanz des in diesem Buche behandelten Rechtsgebiets fr Georgien kann gar nicht hoch
genug eingeschtzt werden und insofern ist zu hoffen, dass das Thema,
das natrlich eng mit der Bedeutung der Dritten Gewalt im Rahmen der
Gewaltenteilung verbunden ist, d.h. mit einer unabhngigen Gerichtsbarkeit, in seiner Bedeutung erkannt wird. Die Unabhngigkeit der Richterinnen und Richter ist hier von besonders groer Bedeutung, weil es zumeist um Klagen gegen den Staat geht und der Staat verstndlicherweise
ebenso ungern einen Prozess verliert wie ein normaler Brger. Hier sind
persnliche Integritt, hohe fachliche Kompetenz und innere und uere
Unabhngigkeit gefragt. Dies ist aber wohlgemerkt eine zweiseitige Konstellation, denn auch der Staat muss lernen, ihm negative Entscheidungen
der Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit zu respektieren und damit letztlich auch
die Richter selbst zu respektieren.
In Deutschland gibt es das Sprichwort: Aller guten Dinge sind dreizwei Bcher zum Verwaltungsrecht und zum Verwaltungsprozess sind
jetzt erschienen. Es fehlt nun logischerweise noch ein dritter Band, der
zum Besonderen Verwaltungsrecht, d.h. zum Baurecht, Gewerberecht,
Polizeirecht etc. um die Trias vollstndig zu machen. Es ist zu hoffen, dass die Sponsoren dieses Bandes, nmlich die Konrad-AdenauerStiftung in Berlin und die Gesellschaft fr technische Zusammenarbeit
(GTZ), die hier in positiver Weise kooperierten, auch das abschlieende
dritte Thema untersttzen.
Schlielich kann nur wiederholt werden, was der Berater bereits am
Ende des Vorwortes zum ersten Band schrieb: Diesem... Lehrbuch... ist
hohe Akzeptanz bei den Lesern, Frderung der wissenschaftlichen Diskussion und praktische Wirkung in der Verwaltungswirklichkeit zu wnschen!
Potsdam/Karlsruhe im Juli 2008
Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Dieter C. Umbach, VR LSG a.D.

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Sesavali da winaTqma
Zveli laTinuri andaza ambobs: Habent sua fata libelli wignebsac sakuTari bed-iRbali gaaCniaTo da am wignis saqmec asea: igi, ase vTqvaT, logikuri gagrZelebaa da aucilebeli damateba pirveli da sabednierod, warmatebuli
tomisa zogadi administraciuli samarTlis Sesaxeb, romelic 2005 wels gamovida da Zalze pozitiuri gamoxmaureba hpova. amasTan wigni iziarebs mravali sxva msgavsi publikaciis klasikur beds: igi bevrad ufro gvian momzadda
gamosacemad, vidre es dagegmili iyo. pirvel rigSi es imiT
ki ar aixsneba, rom avtorebi naklebad efeqturebi iyvnen,
aramed mTavari faqtori aq qarTuli samarTlebriv-politikuri sinamdvile gaxldaT: diskusiebi, konsultaciebi
da kanonproeqtebi bevrad ufro swrafad icvleboda da es
yovelive xelnawerebSi saTanadod swrafad ver aisaxeboda. da kidev erTi: avtorebi kidev erT sirTules waawydnen, romlis daZlevac sxva evropuli qveynebis samarTlis specialistebs xSirad ar uwevT xolme: maT qarTuli
samarTlis sruliad axal sferoebTan mimarTebaSi unda
emsjelaT ganviTarebis axal gzebsa da struqturebze da
aexsnaT, gasagebi gaexadaT isini. amitom im mraval cnebebsa
Tu struqturebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic aqamde saqarTvelosaTvis ucnobi an sxva SinaarsiT datvirTuli iyo,
germaneli profesoris da konsultantis funqcia mxolod
imaSi mdgomareobda, moexdina koordinireba, xelmZRvaneloba da wvlili Seetana am saqmeSi research person is poziciidan gamomdinare. es ki imavdroulad imasac niSnavs,
rom es wigni qarTuli Semoqmedebaa, dawerili qarTveli
avtorebis mier da maTi pasuxismgeblobis qveS. rom seriozuli sirTuleebi arsebobda da odesme drois faqtoric
unda yofiliyo gaTvaliswinebuli, kargad Cans iqidan, Tu
vityviT, rom bevrma monawilem bolomde ver gauZlo wnexs
da ver daasrula warmatebiT sakuTari xelnaweri.
im avtorTa umravlesoba, romlebmac am wignis saqme
warmatebiT miiyvanes bolomde, pirveli tomis SeqmnaSic

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monawileobda, rac imaze metyvelebs, rom kargad gaamarTla TanamSromlobam potsdamsa da Tbiliss Soris. am
Temaze muSaoba 2005 wlis Semodgomaze TbilisSi programuli xasiaTis vorkSopiT daiwyo da gagrZelda 2005 wlis
dasasruls potsdamSi Catarebuli seminariT, amas mohyva
xelnawerebze da Temebze muSaoba 2006 wlis noemberSi Tbilissa da gudaurSi, aseve samuSao Sexvedrebi potsdamsa da
baTumSi. qarTveli monawileebisagan Sedga pozitiuri da
kritikulad ganwyobili forumi/jgufi, romelic yovelTvis mzad iyo, Riad esaubra samarTlebrivi Tu pedagogiuri xasiaTis problemebze da bolosdabolos moeZebna
saqarTvelosaTvis misaRebi gza. am jgufs ganekuTvnebodnen: qalbatoni maia kopaleiSvili -saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris moadgile, batoni nugzar sxirtlaze
- saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle da qalbatoni ekaterine qardava - berlinis humboltis saxelobis universitetis doqtori da TavisTavad cxadia, doqt.
paata turava, LM-is kursdamTavrebuli, romelmac sakandidato disertacia potsdamis universitetSi daicva, kargad icnobs germanul administraciul samarTals da mTeli am saqmis sulis Camdgmeli (spiritus rector) iyo.
erTi SeniSvna am wignis TemasTan dakavSirebiT: tradiciaa, rom studentebs saproceso samarTali didad ar axatia gulze, Cveulebriv moqalaqeebs ki igi ar esmiT da mas
nakleb mniSvnelobas aniWeben. magram es ase ar aris: saukeTeso kanonic ki veraferSia gamosadegi, Tu ar arsebobs saproceso procedurebi, romlebic moaxdenen materialuri
samarTlis implementirebas anu cxovrebaSi mis gatarebas.
es niSnavs, rom pretenzia/moTxovna, romelic moqalaqes
materialuri samarTlis mixedviT SeiZleba gaaCndes saxelmwifos mimarT, romelime moxelis keTilganwyobaze
ki ar aris damokidebuli, aramed SesaZlebelia saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos ganxilvis sagnad iqces an
moqalaqis mimarT gamotanili uaryofiTi gadawyvetileba
magaliTad saCivris saxiT gadasinjul iqnes. magram amdagvari samarTlebrivi kultura ganviTarebas moiTxovs.

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is, rac germaniaSi ukve me-19 saukunis Sua xanebidan arsebobs, ar SeiZleba 21-e saukunis saqarTveloSi erT dReSi
gakeTdes.
istoriulad sadavo sakiTxi -ramdenad mkacrad SeuZliaT administraciuli sasamarTlos mosamarTleebs uwyebis RonisZiebebis Semowmeba saTaves iRebs jer kidev.
erTis mxriv rogorc es 1999 wels martin iblerma Tavis
sadoqtoro disertaciaSi aSkarad warmoaCina samarTlebriv-saxelmwifoebrivi samarTlebrivi dacva iTvaliswinebs administraciis gakontrolebas, meores mxriv iluzia iqneboda imis varaudi, rom arsebobs samarTlebrivi
dacvis sistema, romelic SeZlebda unaklod Seemowmebina saxelmwifos mxridan ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi. e.
w. kontrolis intensivoba problemas warmoadgens ara
mxolod dasavleT evropisaTvis, aramed saqarTveloSic
iCens igi Tavs. da bolos, es Tematika mniSvnelovani iqneba
saxelmwifosa da moqalaqeebs Soris ndobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTac.
am fonze SeuZlebelia jerovni mniSvneloba mieniWos
saqarTvelosaTvis am wignSi ganxilul samarTlebriv sferos da amdenad vimedovnebT, rom Temas, romelic cxadia
mesame xelisuflebasTan mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli,
anu damoukidebeli marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebasTan, daimsaxurebs yuradRebas. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba mosamarTleTa damoukideblobas, vinaidan
saubaria moqalaqeTa mxridan saxelmwifos mimarT Setanil/aRZrul sarCelebze da saxelmwifosac, iseve rogorc
nebismier moqalaqes, sulac ar uxaria sasamarTlo procesis wageba. aq mTavari mniSvneloba eniWeba pirad damoukideblobas/miukerZoeblobas, maRal kompetenturobas da
Sinagan Tu garegan damoukideblobas. magram es ormxrivi
procesia, vinaidan saxelmwifomac unda iswavlos, angariSi gauwios negatiur gadawyvetilebebs administraciul
samarTalwarmoebaSi da amiT TviT mosamarTleebsac.
germaniaSi aseTi andazaa: RmerTi samobiTaa (karg ambebTan dakavSirebiT). ori wigni -administraciuli samar-

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Tali da administraciuli procesi ukve gamovida. logikurad gvaklia mesame tomi, administraciuli samarTlis
gansakuTrebuli nawili, anu samSeneblo samarTali, samewarmeo samarTali, policiuri samarTali da sxva, raTa
sameili Seivsos. imedia, rom am tomis sponsorebi, kerZod
konrad-adenaueris fondi berlinSi da GTZ-i (germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoeba), romlebic am konkretul magaliTze kargad TanamSromlobdnen, mesame, daskvniT Temasac gauweven daxmarebas.
da bolos, SegviZlia mxolod gavimeoroT is, rac konsultantma wignis pirvel tomSi Tqva: vusurveb am wigs,
rom igi kargad miiRos mkiTxvelma, rom man xeli Seuwyos
mecnieruli diskusiis ganviTarebas da rom igi praqtikulad gamosadegi gaxdes administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi!
potsdami/karlsrue, 2008 wlis ivlisi
iur. mecnierebaTa doqt. diter c. umbaxi

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Das vorliegende Lehrbuch zum Verwaltungsprozessrecht soll die
Weiterentwicklung des Verwaltungsrechts in Georgien untersttzen. Das
Lehrbuch ist das Ergebnis der Kooperation zwischen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit und der Konrad-AdenauerStiftung. Diese Verffentlichung sehen wir als einen weiteren wichtigen
Beitrag zum Aufbau der georgischen juristischen Fachliteratur und als
Fortsetzung der erfolgreichen Zusammenarbeit mit unseren Partnern an.
Die Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)
GmbH besteht seit 1975 und ist ein weltweit ttiges Dienstleistungsunternehmen fr Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Sie arbeitet als privatwirtschaftlich organisiertes Unternehmen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fr das
entwicklungspolitische Ziel, die Lebensbedingungen der Menschen in
den Lndern des Sdens und Ostens nachhaltig zu verbessern und die
natrlichen Lebensgrundlagen zu erhalten.
Im Auftrag des deutschen Bundesministeriums fr wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ) fhrt die GTZ in den Lndern des
sdlichen Kaukasus mehrere Projekte zur Untersttzung der Rechts- und
Justizreformen durch. Das GTZ-Projekt zur Untersttzung des Rechtsund Justizsystems in Georgien widmet sich gegenwrtig vor allem der
Implementierung der neuen georgischen Gesetze, was die Erstellung von
geeigneter Fachliteratur einschliet. Dadurch soll die Anwendung der
Reformgesetze auf eine rechtsstaatskonforme Weise vor allem fr professionelle Rechtsanwender erleichtert werden.
Wir danken allen Mitwirkenden fr ihre engagierte Mitarbeit bei der
Entstehung dieses Lehrbuches. Besonderer Dank gebhrt den Autoren
und Herrn Prof. Dr. iur. Dieter C. Umbach, der durch seine Beratung die
Entstehung des Buches mit ermglicht hat.
Franziska Bhm
Projektleiterin
Untersttzung des Rechts- und Justizsystems in Georgien

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administraciuli procesis winamdebare saxelmZRvanelom xeli unda Seuwyos administraciuli samarTlis
ganxorcielebas saqarTveloSi. saxelmZRvanelo aris Sedegi TanamSromlobisa germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoebasa da konrad adenaueris fonds Soris. am
publikacias ganvixilavT, rogorc mniSvnelovan wvlils
qarTuli iuridiuli literaturis ganviTarebisa da Cvens
partniorebTan warmatebuli TanamSromlobis gagrZelebis saqmeSi.
germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoeba
(GTZ), Sps, arsebobs 1975 wlidan da warmoadgens ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli TanamSromlobis sferoSi msoflios mraval qveyanaSi warmodgenil momsaxureobis sawarmos/firmas. igi germaniis federaciuli respublikis
mTavrobis davalebiT kerZo samarTlis organizaciuli
formis saxiT moqmedebs ganviTarebis politikis gatarebis farglebSi im mizniT, rom gaumjobesdes samxreTisa da
aRmosavleTis qveynebis xalxTa keTildReoba da SenarCunebul iqnes maTi bunebrivi sasicocxlo pirobebi.
GTZ germaniis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis federaluri saministros (BMZ) davalebiT samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi ramdenime proeqts anxorcielebs,
romelTa mizania samarTlisa da sasamarTlo sistemis reformis xelSewyoba. GTZ-is proeqti saqarTvelos samarTlisa da sasamarTlo sistemis xelSewyoba amJamad cdilobs daxmareba gauwios qveyanas axali qarTuli kanonebis
danergvis saqmeSi, rac, sxvaTa Soris, saWiro iuridiuli
literaturis SemuSavebasac iTvaliswinebs. amiT reformirebuli kanonmdeblobis momarjvebis saqmeSi, upirveles
yovlisa, iuristebs unda gaewios daxmareba.
Cven madlobas movaxsenebT yvela monawiles maTi maRalprofesiuli TanamSromlobisaTvis am saxelmZRvanelos Sedgenis procesSi. gansakuTrebul madlobas vuxdiT
avtorebs da prof., iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqt., baton
diter c. umbaxs, romlis konsultaciebis Sedegadac SesaZlebeli gaxda am wignis SemuSaveba.
franciska biomi
proeqtis xelmZRvaneli
samarTlisa da iusticiis sistemis xelSewyoba
saqarTveloSi

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Vorwort
Die Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung ist eine deutsche politische Stiftung.
In Deutschland und weltweit setzen wir uns durch politische Bildung
fr Frieden, Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit ein. Mit unseren Auslandsbros
betreuen wir weltweit mehr als 200 Projekte in ber 120 Lndern. Konrad Adenauer und seine Grundstze sind fr uns Leitlinien, Auftrag und
Verpflichtung. Die Stiftung trgt seit 1964 den Namen des ersten Bundeskanzlers; sie ging aus der bereits 1955 gegrndeten Gesellschaft fr
christlich-demokratische Bildungsarbeit hervor.
Auch in Georgien setzt sich die Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung fr die
Frderung von Demokratie und Rechtsstaatlichkeit, fr die Strkung
der Meinungs- und Medienfreiheit sowie die Durchsetzung sozialer
und marktwirtschaftlicher Strukturen ein. Durch eine Vielzahl von Beratungs- und Dialogprogrammen sowie die Aus- und Weiterbildung von
Nachwuchskrften untersttzen wir die Entwicklung von politischen Parteien, gesellschaftlichen Gruppen sowie einer freien und unabhngigen
Medienlandschaft.
Eine leistungsfhige, rechtsstaatlichen Grundstzen entsprechende
Rechtsordnung ist Kernbestandteil eines demokratischen Systems. Gerade das Verwaltungsrechtrecht hat eine grundrechts- und damit rechtsstaatssichernde Funktion. Die Entwicklung und Reform des Verwaltungsprozessrechts ist daher von besonderer Bedeutung fr die Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Die Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit und
die Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung haben gemeinsam die Erstellung dieses
Buches ermglicht. Ohne die Arbeit der Autoren und ohne die stete Beratung und Untersttzung durch Prof. Dr. iur. Dieter C. Umbach wre
dieses Lehrbuch zum Verwaltungsprozessrecht aber nie zustande gekommen. Ihnen gilt der besondere Dank der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Katja Christina Plate
Leiterin des Regionalprogramms Politischer Dialog Sdkaukasus
der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung

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winasityvaoba
konrad adenaueris saxelobis fondi germanuli politikuri fondia. politikuri ganaTlebis xelSewyobiT,
Cven, germaniasa da mTels msoflioSi mSvidobis, Tavisuflebisa da samarTlianobisTvis viRwviT. 120-ze met qveyanaSi arsebuli ofisebis saSualebiT, fondi 200-ze met
proeqts axorcielebs. konrad adenaueris principebi Cveni saqmianobis safuZvels warmoadgens. fondi 1955 wels
dafuZnda qristianul-demokratiuli saganmanaTleblo
sazogadoebis saxiT, xolo 1964 wlidan konrad adenaueris saxeli ewoda.
konrad adenaueris fondi saqarTveloSic demokratiisa da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos gamyarebas, azris gamoxatvisa da mediis Tavisuflebas emsaxureba. garda amisa
cdilobs xeli Seuwyos socialuri da sabazro ekonomikuri struqturebis danergvas.
Cveni saseminaro, agreTve perspeqtiuli axalgazrdebisaTvis gankuTvnili saganmanaTleblo programebis saSualebiT, xels vuwyobT politikuri partiebis, sazogadoebrivi jgufebisa da Tavisufali, damoukidebeli mediis
ganviTarebas.
qmedunariani samarTlebrivi principebis Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba, demokratiuli sistemis erT-erTi mTavari
Semadgeneli nawilia. swored zogad administraciul samarTals gaaCnia ZiriTadi uflebis da Sesabamisad samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos garantis funqcia. aqedan gamomdinare, zogadi administraciuli saproceso samarTlis ganviTareba da reforma, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens
konrad adenaueris saxelobis fondisTvis.
es wigni germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoebis da konrad adenaueris fondis erToblivi Sromis
Sedegia. rom ara avtorebis dauRalavi muSaoba da profesor diter umbaxis konsultaciebi, administraciuli
saproceso samarTlis es saxelmZRvanelo dRis Suqs ver
ixilavda. swored am adamianebs msurs gadavuxado gansakuTrebuli madloba gaweuli samsaxurisTvis.
katia kristina plate
regionuli programis
samxreT kavkasiis politikuri dialogi
xelmZRvaneli

Sinaarsi:

Tavi I. administraciuli procesis principebi....... 19


1. dispoziciurobis principi....... 20
2. SejibrebiTobis principi....... 22
3. kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi....... 24
4. inkviziciurobis principi....... 25
5. mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis principi....... 27
6. sasamarTlos damoukidebloba da miukerZoebloba....... 29
7. administraciuli procesis zepirobisa da uSualobis principi.......30
8. administraciuli procesis saqveynoobis principi....... 31

Tavi II. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa uwyebrivi


qvemdebareobaF da gansjadoba....... 33
1. Sesavali................................. . ............................................................................ 33
2. uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba....... 36
3. kerZo arbitraJis da saerTo sasamarTlos qvemdebareoba..................40
4. sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo sasamarTloebs Soris
qvemdebareobis gamijvna....... 56
5. saxelisuflo aqti....... 79
6. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTlo da
saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba....... 86
7. dava saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs Soris....... 93
8. saerTo sasamarTloebis mier normis ganmarteba da sasamarTlo
praqtika....... 96
9. gadawyvetilebis kanonierebisa da mizanSewonilobis gamijvna.......102
10. sarCelis dasaSveboba....... 107
11. administraciuli saCivari, rogorc sarCelis dasaSvebobis
winapiroba....... 114
12. Sualeduri aqti....... 118
13. dainteresebuli mxaris cnebis arsi........................................................120
14 . gansjadoba....... 141
15. sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvna adamianis uflebaTa evropuli
sasamarTlos mier....... 187
16. administraciuli xelSekrulebis gamijvna kerZo-samarTlebrivi
xelSekrulebisagan....... 194
17. realaqtTan dakavSirebuli gansjadobis davebi....... 201

18. sasamarTlos roli gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi....... 204


19. gansjadobis sakiTxebis gadawyveta sazRvargareTis qveynebSi......211
Tavi III. mxareebi administraciul procesSi....... 225
1. mosarCele da mopasuxe....... 225
2. warmomadgeneli administraciul procesSi....... 228
3. administraciuli procesis mxareTa saproceso uflebebi da
movaleobebi....... 230
4. mesame pirebi administraciul procesSi....... 230
5. sasamarTlo mtkicebulebebi....... 244

Tavi IV. administraciuli organos saqmianobis samarTlebrivi


formebis saproceso-samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba....... 247
1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti....... 247
1.1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis cneba......247
1.2. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanoniereba da ukanonoba....... 256
1.2.1 individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
formaluri da materialuri kanoniereba....... 257
1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formaluri
kanoniereba....... 257
1.2.2. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
materialuri kanoniereba....... 260
1.3. ukanono individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti...262
1.4. arara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti.......263
1.5. individualuri administraciul samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanonierebis gadamowmeba....... 264
2. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti....... 268
2.1. Sesavali....... 268
2.2. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis cneba....... 274
2.3. administraciuli warmoeba normatiuli administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemasTan dakavSirebiT....... 276
2.4. sasamarTlo praqtika....... 277
3. realaqti....... 283
3.1. realaqtis cneba....... 283
3.2. realaqtis gamovlenis formebi....... 284
3.3. realaqtis ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi....... 286
4. administraciuli xelSekruleba....... 287
4.1. administraciuli xelSekrulebis cneba....... 287
4.2. administraciuli xelSekrulebis sakanonmdeblo safuZveli......290

4.3.administraciuli xelSekruleba da individualuri


administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti....... 290
4. 4. administraciuli xelSekrulebis kanoniereba....... 293
4.1.1 administraciuli xelSekrulebis formaluri kanoniereba....... 293
4.4.2. administraciuli xelSekrulebis materialuri kanoniereba.....294

Tavi V. administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba pirveli instanciis


sasamarTloSi....... 296
1. administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis stadiebi....... 296
1.2. administraciuli saCivari, rogorc sarCelis dasaSvebobis
winapiroba....... 301
1.2.1 saCivris wardgena....... 301
1.2.2. administraciuli saCivris wardgenaze uflebamosili
subieqti....... 303
1.2.3. saCivris wardgenis samarTlebrivi Sedegebi....... 304
1.2.4. warmoebis mimdinareoba....... 304
1.2.4.1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanonierebis gadamowmeba....... 304
1.2.4.2 administraciuli organos gadawyvetileba....... 305
2. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis an
Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Taobaze....... 306
2.1. sarCelis dasaSveboba....... 306
2.2.1. sarCelis mizani administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gauqmeba....... 306
2.2.2. gansjadoba....... 307
2.2. sarCelis gamijvna....... 324
2.3. sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgena....... 326
3. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze....
...................................................................................................................................332
3.1. Sesavali...........................................................................................................333
3.2. sarCelis dasaSveboba..................................................................................334
3.2.1. administraciuli organos uari...........................................................334
3.2.2. ziani, sasarCelo uflebamosileba......................................................335
3.2.3. gasaCivrebis vadebi. .................................................................................M337
3.2.4. diskreciuli uflebamosileba. ...........................................................338
3.3. sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgena......................................................341
3.3.1. zogadi..........................................................................................................341
3.3.2 uflebamosili administraciuli organo..........................................343
3.3.3. mosarCelis kanonieri ufleba an interesi.......................................344
3.4. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelTan dakavSirebiT....... 348

3.5. administraciuli aqtis gamocemis davalebis Sesaxeb sarCelTa


saxeebi da kavSiri sarCelTa sxva saxeebTan ...............................................352
4. sarCeli moqmedebis ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis
Sekavebis moTxovniT....... 355
4.1. sarCelis dasaSveboba....... 355
4.2. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze
sarCelTan dakavSirebiT....... 356
4.2.1. zogadi....... 356
4.2.2 uflebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi....... 357
5. aRiarebiTi sarCeli....... 359
5.1. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ararad aRiarebis
Sesaxeb....... 362
5.2. aRiarebiTi sarCeli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arsebobaararsebobis dadgenis Sesaxeb (zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli)......364
5.3. prevenciuli (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiTi sarCeli,
romelic mimarTulia momavalSi moqmedebaze............................................369
5.4. ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli..................................................... ......371
5.5. aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasabuTebuloba.................................................377
5.6. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba...................................................................279
6. saxelSekrulebo davebi................................................................................381
6.1. saxelSekrulebo davebis gadawyveta saerTo sasamarTloebisaTvis
mimarTvis gziT.....................................................................................................381
6.2. administraciuli da kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba............383
6.3. saxelSekrulebo davis ganxilva kerZo arbitraJis mier.................385
7. uflebis prevenciuli dacva......................................................... . .............385
7.1. zogadi.............................................................................................................385
7.2. gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba................................................................................388

Tavi VI. apelacia da kasacia 398


1. saapelacio da sakasacio gasaCivrebis dasaSveboba..............................399
2. saapelacio saCivari.......................................................................................399
3. sakasacio saCivari...........................................................................................402

19
Tavi I
administraciuli procesis principebi
principi aris saxelmZRvanelo idea, romelic samarTlis ama Tu im dargis arss gansazRvravs. principebSi aisaxeba saxelmwifos arsi, demokratiulobis xarisxi, saxelmwifoSi arsebuli samarTlebrivi sturuqturis buneba.
samarTlis principebis Tvisobrioba saxelmwifos politikasTan, mis organizaciul mowyobasTan aris dakavSirebuli da konkretuli saxelmwifos SinaarsiT aris ganpirobebuli. samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos samarTali demokratiul, maRali samarTlebrivi kulturiT gamsWvalul
principebs emyareba. samarTlis principebi saTaves qveynis
konstituciaSi iReben da samarTlis yvela dargSi aisaxeba.
iuridiuli literatura samarTlebrivi principebis
or ZiriTad saxes ganasxvavebs: zogad da specialur samarTlebriv principebs. zogadi saxis principebi qveynis
konstituciaSia gansazRvruli. ramdenadac konstitucia qveynis ZiriTadi kanonia da mas samarTlis yvela sxva
dargi unda Seesatyvisebodes, konstituciaSi aRniSnuli
principebi yvela sxva samarTlebrivi dargisaTvis zogadi
da saxelmZRvaneloa. specialuri principebi zogadi principebis paralelurad qmnian konkretuli samarTlebrivi
dargis Sinaarss. specialuri principebi gansazRvravs samarTlis konkretuli dargis gansakuTrebul Tvisebebs da
Seicavs konkretuli samarTlis dargisTvis specifikur
debulebebs.
gamomdinare aqedan, samarTlis yovel dargs gaaCnia zogadi, mTlianad saxlmwifoSi arsebuli samarTlisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli, da aseve, mxolod konkretuli, ama Tu im
samarTlis dargisaTvis gankuTvnili specialuri principebi.
iseve rogorc yvela samarTlis dargs, administraciuli samarTlis processac misTvis damaxasiaTebeli spe-

20
cialuri principebi gaaCnia. isini adinistraciuli saproceso samarTlis safuZvels da mis Sinaarss gansazRvraven.
administraciuli procesis mniSvnelovani principebia:
dispoziciurobis principi, inkviziciurobis principi,
mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis principi, administraciuli procesis zepirobisa da uSualobis principi,
saqveynoobis principi, SejibrebiTobis principi, kanonis
winaSe Tanasworobis principi, sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis principi. garda am principebisa, mniSvnelovania administraciuli gadawyvetilebis
miRebis principebi, kerZod, proporciulobisa da Tanazomierebis principi da diskreciuli uflebamosilebis
principi.
imisaTvis rom CavwvdeT administraciuli procesis
arss aucilebelia TiToeuli am principis zedmiwevniT
gansazRvra.

1. dispoziciurobis principi
dispoziciurobis principis safuZvelia saqarTvelos
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-3 muxli. dispoziciurobis principi procesis mxareebs aZlevs uflebas
Tavad gadawyviton sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis, davis sagnis gansazRvrisa da saqmis morigebiT damTavrebis sakiTxebi.
dispoziciurobis principi administraciuli procesis mxareebs aniWebs wamyvan rols. mxolod mosarCelea
uflebamosili gansazRvros Tu moTxovnis ra farglebiT
mimarTavs igi saqmis ganmxilvel sasamarTlos. dispoziciurobis principi uflebas aZlevs mxareebs Tavad gadawyviton sakiTxi saqmis morigebiT damTavrebis Sesaxeb. mxareebi dispoziciurobis principis farglebSi Tavad wyveten
sakiTxs mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenisa da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, maTi ukan gamoTxovis Sesaxeb. dispoziciurobis

21
principis Sedegi isaa, rom misi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia
sarCelis aRiareba an mxareTa morigeba konkretul SemTxvevaSi.
dispoziciurobis principis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare
sasamarTloSi administraciuli saqmis ganxilva iwyeba
mosarCelis werilobiTi gancxadebis safuZvelze; sasamarTlo ganixilavs da wyvets saqmes mxolod sarCelSi Camoyalibebuli moTxovnis farglebSi1 mxolod mosarCeles
aqvs ufleba Secvalos Tavisi sasarCelo moTxovna an ukan
gamoiTxovos igi; mxolod mxareebi arian kompetenturni
Tavad gadawyviton sakiTxi morigebis Taobaze.
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis
me-3 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad, administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi monawile administraciuli organo
uflebamosilia saqme morigebiT daamTavros, uari Tqvas
sarCelze an cnos sarCeli, Tu es ar ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobas. am formulirebidan gamomdinare
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom miuxedavad dispoziciurobis
principiT mxareTaTvis miniWebuli garkveuli uflebebisa
(administraciuli procesis warmarTvisa da misi dasrulebis ufleba), kanoni garkveul Sezudvebs mainc awesebs konkretul SemTxvevebSi. es gansakuTrebiT administraciuli
procesis mxareTa morigebiTa Tu mopasuxis mier sarCelis
cnobiT damTavrebas Seexeba. kerZod, ismeba kiTxva imis
Taobaze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara administraciuli procesis dasruleba mxareTa iniciativiT yvela SemTxvevaSi da
Tu ar aris SesaZlebeli, maSin ra saxis SezRudvebs awesebs
kanoni? administraciuli procesi SesaZlebelia ar dasruldes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu konkretuli administraciuli
saqmis Semdgomi ganxilva da saqmeze WeSaritebis dadge1 sasamarTlo araa uflebamosili gascdes sasarCelo moTxovnis farglebs. administraciuli procesis msvlelobisas sasamarTlos ufleba
aqvs mxolod sasarCelo moTxovnis Sevsebisa Tu dazustebis mizniT
misces garkveuli rekomendaciebi mxareebs. am formiT xdeba mxolod
sarCelSi arsebuli xarvezebisa da naklovanebebis gamosworeba da ara
zemoqmedeba sarCelis Sinaarsze.

22
na, upirveles yovlisa, sajaro interesebidan gamomdinareobs.
konkretuli SezRudva im mizans emsaxureba, rom dispoziciurobis principidan gamomdinare, gansakuTrebul situaciaSi ar moxdes mxaris iniciativiT administraciuli
procesis damTavreba ise, rom saqmis arsebiTi garemoebebi
zedmiwevniT ar iqnes gamokvleuli. aRniSnuli winapiroba
kontrols axorcielebs administraciuli procesis warmarTvaze da davis safuZvlianad gamokvlevis garantias
qmnis2.

2. SejibrebiTobis principi
SejibrebiTobis principi warmoadgens konstituciursamarTlebriv princips da igi damaxasiaTebelia ara marto administraciuli, aramed sxva saxis procesebisTvisac.
administraciul procesSi SejibrebiTobis principis gamoyenebis safuZvels qmnis administraciuli saproceso
kodeqsis me-4 muxli. SejibrebiTobis principi gulisxmobs administraciul procesSi monawile yoveli subieqtis uflebas, moaxdinos sakuTari interesebis dacva yvela
SesaZlo saSualebiT. kerZod, mtkicebulebebis warmodgeniTa Tu zepiri mosmenis dros azris gamoxatvis meSveobiT. es principi warmoadgens adamianis uflebebis dacvis
mniSvnelovan garantias, radgan procesis mimdinareobisas
moqalaqe ara obieqtis, aramed procesis subieqtis rolSi gvevlineba, romelsac aqvs ufleba sakuTari azrisa Tu
mtkicebulebebis warmodgenis meSveobiT zemoqmedeba moaxdinos administraciuli procesis warmarTvasa da mis
ganviTarebaze.
SejibrebiTobis principis arsi isaa, rom mxareebi sargebloben Tanabari uflebebiTa da SesaZleblobebiT,
2Etra Colmann Die Erledigung im Verwaltungsprozess, 1998, S. 53

23
daasabuTon TavianTi moTxovnebi, uaryon an gaaqarwylon
meore mxaris mier wamoyenebuli moTxovnebi, mosazrebebi
Tu mtkicebulebebi. SejibrebiTobis principi mxareebs aZlevs SesaZleblobas Tavad gansazRvron, Tu romeli faqtebi unda daedos safuZvlad maT moTxovnebs an romeli
mtkicebulebebiT unda iqnes dadasturebuli es faqtebi
(sssk-is me-4 muxli).
SejibrebiTobis principi vrceldeba rogorc fizikur,
aseve iuridiul pirebze. garda mosarCelisa da mopasuxisa administraciul procesSi monawile sxva subieqtebic
sargebloben SejibrebiTobis principiT Tu sasamarTlos
gadawyvetileba uSualod Seexeba maT interess.
SejibrebiTobis principis gaanalizebisas SeiZleba pirobiTad sami aspeqti gamovyoT
-
-

sasamarTlosadmi mimarTva, rac gulisxmobs mxareebis uflebas mimarTon sakuTari interesebis dasacavad
administraciul sasamarTos.
yoveli piris ufleba mimarTos sasamarTlos, gulisxmobs ara marto fizikuri pirebis uflebas, daicvas
sakuTari interesebi sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis meSveobiT, aramed, aseve, igi moiazrebs iuridiuli pirebisa da administraciuli organos sasamarTlosadmi
mimarTvis uflebasac. es ukanaskneli ar aris uflebamosili sarCeli Seitanos sasamarTloSi im sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, romlis gadawyvetac mis uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba.
SejibrebiTobis principis Sinaarsi gulisxmobs mxareTa uflebas yvela SesaZlo saSualebebiT daicvan sakuTari interesebi sasamarTlos winaSe.

24
3. kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi
SejibrebiTobis principis paralelurad unda ganvsazRvroT mxareTa kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi.
kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba gulisxmobs administraciuli
procesis msvlelobisas mosarCelisa da mopasuxis Tanasworuflebianobas.
rogorc viciT, administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi umeteswilad or araTanabar safexurze mdgom
subieqtebs Soris mimdinareobs. administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia subordinaciuloba. Tumca administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas
ori araTanabar safexurze mdgomi subieqti administraciuli organo da moqalaqe Tanasworuflebiania. sakuTari interesebis dasacavad maT Tanabari procesualuri
saSualebebi aqvT, rac gamyarebulia administraciuli
procesis principebiT.
kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi formulirebulia saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-4
muxlSi. misi Sinaarsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom yvela (iqneba
es fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piri, aseve administraciuli
organo) Tanasworia kanonis winaSe. dauSvebelia administraciuli procesis monawile romelime piris kanonieri
uflebisa da Tavisuflebis, kanonieri interesis SezRudva an maTi ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSla, agreTve
maTTvis kanonmdeblobiT gauTvaliswinebeli raime upiratesobis miniWeba an romelime mxaris mimarT raime diskriminaciuli zomebis miReba.
Tanasworobisa da SejibrebiTobis principis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, praqtikulad administraciuli sasamarTlo momrigeblur funqcias asrulebs kerZo da sajaro interesebis dacvis zRvarze. administraciul procesSi gamoikveTeba administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos uflebamosileba, saqmis ganxilvis dros daicvas
procesSi monawile mxareTa Tanasworoba da uzrunvelyos
am umniSvnelovanesi principis realizacia.

25
4. inkviziciurobis principi
garda yoveli piris sajaro-samarTlebrivi uflebebis
dacvisa, administraciuli procesi awesebs, aseve, administraciuli saqmianobis kanonSesabamisobaze obieqtur
kontrols. es kontroli xorcieldeba inkviziciurobis
principis safuZvelze.
inkviziciurobis principis Sinaarsi imaSi mdgomareobs,
rom administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia, sajaro interesebidan gamomdinare, sakuTari iniciativiT Tavad izrunos administraciuli davis
gansaxilvelad saWiro mtkicebulebaTa mopovebaze. administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli mosamarTle pasuxismgebelia procesis warmarTvaze. mosamarTle faqtiurad xelmZRvanelobs process. saqmis yovelmxrivi gamokvlevisas
sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs mxareebi da mesame pirebi Caabas
administraciuli saqmis ganxilvaSi da misces maT konkretuli miTiTebebi. magaliTad, SesaZlebelia sasamarTlom
daavalos mxares daazustos Tavisi sasarCelo moTxovna,
Seavsos faqtobrivi Cveneba, warmoadginos damatebiT saWiro mtkicebulebani. konkretul SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia Tavad gansazRvros saWiro mtkicebulebaTa saxe da izrunos maT mosapoveblad. Tumca aRniSnuli ar
niSnavs imas, rom mxareebi mTlianad Tavisufldebian valdebulebisagan daasabuTon sasarCelo moTxovna.
inkviziciurobis principis safuZvels qmnis saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-4 muxli,
romlis Tanaxmad . . . sasamarTlo uflebamosilia Tavisi
iniciativiT miiRos gadawyvetileba damatebiTi informaciis an mtkicebulebis warmosadgenad. administraciuli procesis inkviziciuri buneba ganasxvavebs mas samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi procesisagan. sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo saqmis ganxilvis dros sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili mxareebs misces miTiTeba damatebiTi mtkicebulebebis warmodgenis Sesaxeb. samoqalaqo procesSi xdeba
mxolod kerZo interesebis samarTlebrivi dacva, xolo

26
administraciuli procesis mizani ki kerZo, subieqturi
interesebis dacvis paralelurad, upiratesad, sajaro interesis dacvazea orientirebuli. swored sajaro interesis upiratesoba ganapirobebs administraciuli procesis
inkviziciur bunebas.
inkviziciurobis principi ukavSirdeba saqmis arss. administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas mniSvnelovania imis
gansazRvra, Tu vinaa pasuxismgebeli saqmesTan dakavSirebuli garemoebebis gamokvlevaze. SejibrebiTobisa da
dispoziciurobis principis arsidan gamomdinare, mxareebi Tavad gansazRvraven Tu romeli faqtebi da garemoebebi unda daedos safuZvlad maT moTxovnas da romeli mtkicebulebebiT unda iqnes dadasturebuli es faqtebi. amis
sapirispirod inkviziciurobis principi sasamarTlos aZlevs uflebas Tavisi iniciativiT miiRos gadawyvetileba
damatebiTi informaciis an mtkicebulebis warmosadgenad.
inkviziciurobis principis Sinaarsi sasamarTlos akisrebs wamyvan rols administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas da
saqmis garemoebaTa gamokvlevis proceduris sworad warmarTvis valdebulebac administraciuli saqmis ganmxilvel sasamarTlos eniWeba.
inkviziciurobis principi moqmedebs maSin, roca konkretul saqmesTan mimarTebaSi warmoCenilia specifikuri
sajaro interesi. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac sajaro interesTa arseboba gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebis miRebaze. sajaro interesebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi mxolod
mxareebs ar SeiZleba mivandoT administraciuli saqmis
gadawyvetisa da WeSmaritebis dadgenisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi mtkicebulebebisa da garemoebebis obiequrad moZiebis prerogativa. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos
uflebamosileba, Tavad gansazRvros saqmisaTvis saWiro
mtkicebulebebis warmodgenis sakiTxebi an Tavisi iniciativiT gamoikvlios Sesabamisi garemoebebi, warmoadgens
sajaro interesebis dacvis winapirobas. Tumca, rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT, administraciuli procesis inkviziciuroba ar niSnavs imas, rom procesis monawile mxareebi mT-

27
lianad Tavisufldebian valdebulebisagan, daasabuTon
sakuTari sasarCelo moTxovnebi. inkviziciurobis principi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar gulisxmobs administraciuli
procesis monawile mxareebis pasiurobas saqmis ganxilvis
dros. piriqiT, mxareebi, romlebsac administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo aZlevs konkretul miTiTebebs, aqtiurni xdebian.
inkviziciurobis principi administraciul procesSi
sasamarTlos erTgvar pasuxismgeblobasac aniWebs. sasamarTlos Tavisufali mixedulebis uflebac eZleva, rac
mas moqmedebis Tavisuflebis uflebas aZlevs. sasamarTlos Tavisufali mixedulebis ufleba da moqmedebis Tavisufleba ar qmnis imis safuZvels, rom sasamarTlom
umizezod uari Tqvas mxaris mier warmodgenili mtkicebulebebis ganxilvaze. Tu administraciuli procesis
mimdinareobisas sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom mxareTa mier
warmodgenili mtkicebulebebi arasakmarisia saqmis garemoebaTa obieqturi gamokvlevisaTvis, igi Tavad iwyebs
Tavisi iniciativiT mtkicebulebaTa moZiebasa da garemoebaTa gamokvlevas. amasTanave, administraciuli saqmis
ganxilvisas sasamarTlom SeiZleba imgvar garemoebebze
gaamaxvilos yuradReba, romlebzec mxareebs procesis
msvlelobisas aranairi informacia Tu mtkicebuleba ar
warmoudgeniaT.

5. mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis principi


mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis principi mWidro kavSirSia rogorc dispoziciurobis, aseve inkviziciurobis principTan. mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis principis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare administraciul
process sasarCelo moTxovnis farglebSi warmarTavs administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo. mxolod
sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares ekisreba pasuxismgebloba

28
administraciuli procesis sworad warmarTvis, vadebis
dacvisa Tu saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgenis sakiTxebze. administraciuli saqmis ganmxilvel mosamarTles ekisreba
valdebuleba formaluri Secdomebis gamosworebis, mcdari an arasakmarisi gancxadebebis Tu informaciis xarvezebis aRmofxvris, mniSvnelovani ganmartebebis micemis
procesSi.
mosamarTlis aqtiuroba da administraciuli procesis
warmarTvaze zedamxedveloba prioritetulia administraciuli sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebidan saqmeze gadawyvetilebis gamotanis momentamde.
mosamarTlis mier procesis warmarTvis princips ukavSirdeba koncentraciis principi. koncentraciis principis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlom unda moaxdinos procesis
warmarTvis imgvari koncentracia, rom saqme rac SeiZleba
swrafad iqnes ganxiluli da gadawyvetili. administraciul saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetileba efeqturia Tu mis
misaRebad naklebi dro daixarjeba. saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 27-e, 28-e muxlebis Sinaarsi koncentraciis principis arss Seesatyviseba. kerZod,
gamartivebuli samarTalwarmoeba (27-e muxli) da daCqarebuli administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba (28-e muxli) administraciul procesSi miznad isaxavs administraciul
saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miRebas maqsimalurad swrafad,
Tumca im pirobiT, rom saqmis yovel konkretuli garemoeba obieqturad da zedmiwevniT unda iqnes Seswavlili da
gamokvleuli.
sask-is 281 muxlis Tanaxmad, procesis daCqarebis mizniT
mosamarTlis aqtiuri roli vlindeba mis uflebamosilebaSi, rom mas SeuZlia daexmaros mxares moTxovnis transformirebaSi. Tumca es uflebamosileba unda gavrceldes
ara orive mxaris, aramed kerZo pirebis mimarT, ramdenadac
administraciuli organo warmodgenili unda iyos saTanadod momzadebuli iuristebiT. kerZo pirebs yovelTvis
ara aqvT SesaZlebloba isargeblon advokatis momsaxurebiT.

29
6. sasamarTlos damoukidebloba da miukerZoebloba
sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis
principi erT-erTi ZiriTadi prioritetuli konstituciuri principia. misi Sinaarsi moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da
Tavisuflebebis dacvas, administraciuli saqmis obieqturad ganxilvasa da gadawyvetas emsaxureba.
sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis
principis Tanaxmad, administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli
sasamarTlo valdebulia, Tavisi uflebamosileba yovelgvari zemoqmedebis gareSe da mxolod sakuTari Sinagani
rwmenis safuZvelze ganaxorcielos. mosamarTle Tavis
saqmianobaSi damoukidebelia, rac niSnavs imas, rom saqmis
ganxilvis dros igi emorCileba mxolod saqarTvelos konstituciasa da kanons. raime zemoqmedeba mosamarTleze an
Careva mis saqmianobaSi gadawyvetilebis miRebaze zegavlenis mizniT dauSvebelia da isjeba kanoniT (sssk-is me-6
muxli).
sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis
principis Tanaxmad, administraciuli saqmis ganxilvaSi ar
SeiZleba monawileobdes is mosamarTle, romelsac piradi
interesi aqvs saqmis arsTan dakavSirebiT anda arsebobs
sxva garemoeba, romelic zegavlenas moaxdens konkretul
administraciul saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miRebisas. sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis principis safuZvels qmnis saqarTvelos administraciuli
saproceso kodeqsis me-7 muxli. aRniSnul princips ukavSirdeba acilebis samarTlebrivi instituti, romlis Tanaxmadac, miukerZoeblobis principis uzrunvelsayofad,
mosamarTle ver miiRebs konkretuli administraciuli
saqmis ganxilvaSi monawileobas, Tu igi amave saqmesTan dakavSirebiT adre monawileobda administraciul warmoebaSi.

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7. administraciuli procesis zepirobisa da uSualobis principi
administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba mimdinareobs zepirad, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. administraciuli procesis zepirobis principis Tanaxmad,
administraciul saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetileba im faqtebze unda damyardes, romlebic zepiri mosmenis sagans
warmoadgenen da romelTa Sesaxebac mxareebma sakuTari
azri zepirad gamoxates.
administraciuli procesis zepirobis principi uzrunvelyofs administraciul saqmeze obieqturi gadawyvetilebis miRebas. zepiri mosmenis dros mxareebs eZlevaT SesaZlebloba TavianTi argumentebi werilobiTi dokumentebis wardgenis paralelurad uSualod sakuTari zepiri
azris gamoxatvis meSveobiTac gaamyaron.
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis
27-e muxlis Tanaxmad, SesaZlebelia administraciul saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miReba gamartivebuli wesiT. gamartivebuli wesiT saqmis ganxilva da gadawyvetilebis gamotana gulisxmobs mxareTa dauswreblad, zepiri mosmenis
gareSe saqmis ganxilvas. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom gamartivebuli samarTalwarmoeba dasaSvebia mxolod mxareTa
werilobiTi moTxovnis safuZvelze. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba unda Catardes zepiri mosmeniT, garda mxareTa mier werilobiTi gancxadebis safuZvelze gamartivebuli samarTalwarmoebiT
saqmis ganxilvis moTxovnisa.
zepirobis princips ukavSirdeba administraciuli
saqmis ganxilvis uSualobis principi. misi Sinaarsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom administraciul saqmeze gadawyvetileba unda miiRos im sasamarTlos Semadgenlobam an im
mosamarTlem, romlebic uSualod monawileobdnen saqmis
ganxilvaSi, zepir mosmenaSi, mtkicebulebaTa moZiebisa da
ganxilvis procesSi.
uSualobis principis darRvevad CaiTvleba sasamarT-

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los iseTi qmedeba, rodesac igi gadawyvetilebas imgvar
mtkicebulebebsa da garemoebebze daafuZnebs, romlebic
zepiri mosmenis dros ar ganuxilavT. agreTve, Tu saqmis
ganmxilveli mosamarTle zepiri mosmenis dros faqtiurad
ar monawileobda procesis mimdinareobaSi da misi daswreba procesze zedapirul xasiaTs atarebda.

8. administraciuli procesis saqveynoobis principi


saqveynoobis principis Sinaarsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom
administraciul saqmeze mimdinare zepiri mosmena unda Catardes saqveynod, sajarod, Riad. am principis Tanaxmad,
zepir mosmenaSi monawile pirebTan erTad administraciuli saqmis ganxilvas SeiZleba daeswros gareSe pirebic.
kerZod, yoveli dainteresebuli moqalaqe. es demokratiuli principi administraciul procesSi gadawyvetilebaTa
miRebis obieqturobis Segnebas amyarebs; igi garantias
qmnis administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis gamWvirvalobisaTvis da aqarwylebs saidumlod saqmis ganxilvisa da
gadawyvetis eWvs moqalaqeTa TviTSegnebaSi. saqveynoobis
principi, amavdrouad, mosamarTleTa damoukideblobis
principsac amyarebs, rac mis demokratiulobas kidev erTxel adasturebs. paraleluad am principis realizaciis
meSveobiT xdeba administraciul samarTalwarmoebaze
kontrolis ganxorcieleba, rac adamianis uflebebis dacvis realur garantias qmnis.
saqveynoobis principi gonivrulad unda iqnes realizebuli. magaliTad, Tu sasamarTlo sxdomis darbazis farTobi ver iZleva moqalaqeTa garkveuli raodenobis procesze daswrebis SesaZleblobas, es ar niSnavs sajaroobis
principis darRvevas.
saqveynoobis principi SeiZleba SeizRudos saxelmwifo
an pirad saidumloebas mikuTvnebuli informaciis ganxilvisa Tu gadawyvetis SemTxvevaSi (saqarTvelos zogadi

32
administraciuli kodeqsis 28-e muxli). kanonmdebloba
iTvaliswinebs mxaris motivirebuli SuamdgomlobiT administraciuli saqmis ganxilvis SesaZleblobas daxurul
sasamarTlo sxdomaze. yvela zemoaRniSnul SemTxvevaSi,
rodesac izRudeba saqveynoobis principi, administraciul saqmeze miRebul gadawyvetilebas sasamarTlo mainc
acxadebs sajarod.

33
Tavi II
administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa uwyebrivi
qvemdebareobaF da gansjadoba
1. Sesavali
samarTlis dayofa kerZo da sajaro samarTlis dargebad
sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli dasavlur qveynebSi, aseTi
dayofa praqtikulad Semdgar faqtad unda iqnes miCneuli
saqarTveloSic. marTlmsajulebis sistemis, samoqalaqo
da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis momwesrigebeli kanonmdeblobis ganviTarebis kvaldakval, kerZo da
sajaro samarTlis gamijvnis sakiTxma wminda Teoriuli
msjelobaTa sferodan praqtikul sibrtyeSi gadainacvla. gamijvnis praqtikuli mniSvneloba exeba ZiriTadad
imas, Tu samarTlis romeli norma unda iqnes gamoyenebuli konkretul SemTxvevaSi da romelma sasamarTlom unda
ganixilos dava. administraciuli marTlmsajulebis arseboba uciloblad, ukve TviT Tavisi arsebobis faqtiT,
iwvevs gansjadobasTan dakavSirebul davebs, sajaro da
kerZo samarTlis gansazRvris saWiroebas. qarTuli samarTali, romanul-germanuli samarTlis sistemis msgavsad,
iyofa sajaro (jus publikum) da kerZo (jus privatum an jus civile) marTlwesrigad. administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi Tavisi bunebiT principulad gansxvavdeba
kerZosamarTlebrivi urTierTobisagan. kerZo samarTlis
normebi yovelTvis rodi faravs administraciul samarTalurTierTobebs, ukanasknelTa regulireba specialuri administraciuli kanonmdeblobisa da procedurebis
gareSe SeuZlebelia. kerZo samarTlebrivi davebi ganixileba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT, SejibrebiTobis safuZvelze, xolo sajaro samarTlebrivi davebis ganxilva administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT, inkviziciurobis safuZvelze mimdinareobs.
administraciul organos miniWebuli aqvs kanoniT zustad gansazRvruli specialuri uflebamosileba, maSin,

34
rodesac fizikuri da kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebi
uflebamosilni arian ganaxorcielon kanoniT aukrZalavi
nebismieri moqmedeba. administraciuli organo SeboWilia kanonierebis principis da saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis dacviT, masze ar vrceldeba kerZo samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli nebis avtonomiurobis principi. aRniSnuli
fuZemdebluri gansxvavebebis gamo ver xerxdeba administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis monawile pirebis
Cayeneba samoqalaqo-samarTlebriv reJimSi. aRniSnuli
ganapirobebs administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis monawile pirebisaTvis specialuri samarTlebrivi
reJimis SemoRebas.
gansjadobis Sesaxeb davebis Tavidan acileba sajaro samarTalurTierTobis ganviTarebis dinamiurobis, iurisdiqciuli sistemis sirTulis, gansjadobis kriteriumebis arasakmarisi simkveTris, mosazRvre viTarebebis mravalsaxeobis gamo SeuZlebelia. amdenad, administraciul
samarTalwarmoebaSi, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisagan
gansxvavebiT, daSvebulia davebi saqmis gansjadobasTan
dakavSirebiT (sask-is 26-e mux.). sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvna Zalze rTuli da mravali davis gamomwvevi
amocanaa. aRniSnuls damatebiT arTulebs is garemoeba,
rom admistraciuli saproceso kanonmdebloba mkveTrad
ar mijnavs erTmaneTisagan gansjadobisa da uwyebrivi
qvemdebareobis sakiTxs. terminTa aRrevis gamo sasamarTlos kompetenciasTan dakavSirebuli yovelgvari sakiTxi
administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gansjadobis sakiTxTan asocirdeba. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gansjadobis problematika moicavs sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis da sakuTriv gansjadobis sakiTxebs,
ris gamo saWirod vTvliT maT cal-calke ganxilvas. ssk-is
me-11 muxli Seicavs im urTierTobebis mxolod sanimuSo
CamonaTvals, romlebidanac warmoSobili davebi samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT ganixileba. aseT CamonaTvals Seicavs agreTve administraciuli

35
saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxli3. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis (kompetenciis,
iurisdiqciis) da gansjadobis normebis gamijvnas, maT
gradacias praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs, igi xels uwyobs
sasamarTloTa Soris kompetenciis gamijvnis swor gadawyvetas, saqmeTa administraciul Tu samoqalaqo kategoriisadmi kuTvnilebis garkvevas. vinaidan sasamrTlo uwyebriobis da gansjadobis darRvevas sxvadasxva, gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi Sedegi mosdevs, saWiroa maTi detaluri ganxilva.
sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapirobebis oficialur Semowmebas literaturaSi saproceso winamZRvrebs uwodeben (Prozessvoraussetzungen), romelTa gareSe saerTod aranair procesze ar SeiZleba saubari. sasamarTlo uwyebrivi
qvemdebareoba da gansjadoba sasamarTlosTan mimarTebaSi saproceso winamZRvrebs ganekuTvneba4. saproceso winamZRvrebi sajaro interesebis gamomxatvelia, sajaro interesi gamoixateba imaSi, rom sarCels mxolod maSin SeiZleba Sedegi mohyves, roca yvela saproceso winamZRvrebi
saWiroebisamebr aris mocemuli. sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, rom
oficialuri Semowmeba samZebro principis elementebs
moicavs, Tu am ukanasknelisa da SejibrebiTobis principis urTierTdamakavSirebeli saSualebaa, iuridiul literaturaSi ar aris mkacrad gansazRvruli. sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia Seamowmos procesis dasaSveboba mxareTa
damoukideblad.
3 T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali ,,samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis komentari gv. 26; j. rusiaSvili, i. tabucaZe ,,saqarTvelos adminitsraciuli
saproceso kodeqsis komentari, Tb. 2000, gv.14.
4 iuridiul literaturaSi ganasxvaveben agreTve mxareebTan mimarTebaSi arsebul saproceso winamZRvrebs(mxareTa arseboba, maTi ufleba
da qmedunarianoba, araqmedunarianobis SemTxvevaSi kanonieri warmomadgenlobis dasaSveboba, uflebamosileba saqmis warmoebaze) da davis
saganTan mimarTebaSi arsebul saproceso winamZRvrebs(sadavo saqme ar
unda imyofebodes igive an sxva sasamarTlos warmoebaSi, ar unda arsebobdes davis am saganze sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba, sasarCelo gancxadeba unda Seicavdes yvela aucilebel
rekvizits).

36
2. uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba
sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba kanoniT gansazRvrul im uflebamosilebaTa erTobliobaa, romelTa
farglebSi sasamarTlos SeuZlia miiRos da ganixilos saqmeebi. sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis Semowmebas
sasamarTloebi (ssk-is 377.4, 404.3 mux.) axdenen TavianTi
iniciativiT. gadawyvetilebis gamotana saqmeze, romelic
sasamarTlos uwyebrivad ar eqvemdebareba, aris am gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absoluturi safuZveli (ssk-is 394-e
muxlis ,,g qvepunqti). moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba sakmarisad farToa, rac uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis 1-li
punqtis moTxovnis realizacias, romlis Tanaxmad yovel
adamians aqvs ufleba Tavis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa
dasacavad mimarTos sasamarTlos. qvemdebareoba samarTlis dargTaSorisi institutia, romelic asrulebs sxvadasxva iurisdiqciul organoTa Soris saqmeebis ganawilebis meqanizmis funqciebs. konstitucia avaldebulebs
kanonmdebels Seqmnas samarTlebrivi meqanizmi, romelic
gamoricxavs koliziebs sxvadasxva organoebis iurisdiqcias Soris, gamoricxavs sxvadasxva organoebis kompetenciis gadakveTis SemTxvevebs, iseT viTarebas, rodesac
konkretuli saqme ar ganekuTvneba arc erT sasamarTlo
organos.
sasamarTlo dacvis ufleba adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa rigs ganekuTvneba, igi garantirebulia saerTaSoriso samarTlis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli principebiT da
normebiT. sasamarTlo dacvis ufleba aris yvela danarCeni ufleba-Tavisuflebebis ganxorcielebis aucilebeli garantia, romelTa dacva saxelmwifos valdebulebaa.
saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis, agreTve adamianis uflebebisa da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebis konvenciis
me-6 muxlis, samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis me-14 muxlis mixedviT, marTlmsajuleba unda pasuxobdes samarTlianobis moTxovnebs

37
da uzrunvelyofdes uflebebis efeqtur aRdgenas, sasamarTlos dacva unda iyos sruli, rac gulisxmobs nebismieri piris ara mxolod SesaZleblobas mimarTos sasamarTlos, aramed, agreTve, sasamarTlos valdebulebas, miiRos
samarTliani da dasabuTebuli gadawyvetileba.
sasamarTloebs Soris kompetenciis gamijvnis problemis gadasawyvetad e.w. `taqsaciis~ meTods iyeneben. ganasxvaveben taqsaciis or saxes: pozitiurs (sasamarTlos uflebamosilebis gansazRvra kanonSi sasamarTlos qvemdebare saqmeebis CamonaTvaliT) da negatiurs (davaTa im kategoriaze miTiTeba, romelic ar SeiZleba ganekuTvnebodes
ama Tu im sasamarTlos kompetencias). taqsaciis meTodis
saxeobas warmoadgens agreTve e.w. `enumeraciis~ meTodi,
rodesac kanonSi konkretuli saqmis an davaTa jgufis
miTiTebis nacvlad, dadgenilia davaTa zogadi Sinaarsi,
mag., sagadasaxado, miwis, socialuri da sxv. davebi5.
administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis uwyebriv qvemdebareobas (gansjadoba obieqturi TvalsazrisiT) exeba
sask-is me-2 muxli(pozitiuri taqsacia), romlis mixedviT
sasamarTloSi administraciuli davis sagans SeiZleba
warmoadgendes: a) administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
Sesabamisoba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan; b) administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadeba, Sesruleba an Sewyveta;
g) adminitraciuli organos valdebuleba zianis anazRaurebis, administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis
an sxva raime qmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze; d) aqtis
ararad aRiareba, uflebis an samarTalurTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgena. zemoaRniSnulTan erTad, sasamarTloSi administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT
ganixileba aranebayoflobiTi fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis
mizniT piris stacionarSi moTavsebis saqme. administraciul saproceso kodeqsSi 25.05.06w. kanoniT Setanili cvlilebis Tanaxmad, kodeqss daemata VII3 Tavi _ `adminis5 .. , . a, `
~. 20003., . 199

38
traciuli samarTalwarmoeba ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis,
ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvasa da daxmarebasTan
dakavSirebiT~. dauSvebelia administraciuli organos
sarCeli im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romlis gadawyveta
mis uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba (negatiuri taqsacia).6
administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba administraciuli
samarTlis kompleqsuri institutia, romelic aregulirebs sasamarTlo organoebis saqmianobas sajaro-samarTlebrivi davebis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT. mocemuli
davebis gadawyvetas dargTaSorisi xasiaTi aqvs imdenad,
ramdenadac administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis meSveobiT, sisxlis samarTlis, samoqalaqo procesebisagan
gansxvavebiT, xdeba ara mxolod erTi dargis - administraciuli samarTlis, aramed miwis, safinanso, municipaluri
da samarTlis sxva dargebis normebis realizacia. amdenad,
sask-is me-2 muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemuli CamonaTvali
ar aris amomwuravi, amasTanave igi asaxavs ara sasamarTlos
mier gadasawyvet administraciuli davebis Sinaarss, romlebic Zalzed mravalferovania, aramed administraciuli
davis sagans, romlis gadawyveta xdeba administraciuli
samarTalwarmoebis wesiT(enumeracia). sask-is me-2 muxlis
pirvel nawilSi mocemuli CamonaTvalis ganvrcobis SesaZleblobas iZleva zogadi Sinaarsis mqone amave muxlis me6 vadagadacilebuli sabiujeto davalianebis dakisrebis Sesaxeb sagadasaxado inspeqciis sasarCelo moTxovnasTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio
palatam araerTgzis miuTiTa, rom sagadasaxado kodeqsis safuZvelze
sagadasaxado organos ufleba aqvs TiToeul gadamxdels kuTvnili gadasaxadi daaricxos. sagadasaxado inspeqciis mier ar iqna gamoyenebuli gadasaxadebis sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad biujetSi
iZulebiT gadaxdevinebis kompetencia. vinaidan saerTo sasamarTloebi
maTdami uwyebrivad daqvemdebarebul saqmeebs ganixilaven, Tu maTi
ganxilva kanonis Tanaxmad sxva organos kompetenciaSi ar Sedis (sskis me-11 mux.), sakasacio palatam rig ganCinebaSi yuradReba gaamaxvila
amgvari tipis saqmeebis uwyebriv qvemdebareobaze da ssk-is 272-e muxlis
`a~ qvepunqtis, ask-is 2.3 muxlis, 262 muxlis me-4 nawilis safuZvelze
saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis safuZvlis arsebobaze (ix. mag. sus 02.12.05w.
#bs-1000-586 (k-05); 11.05.06w. #1105-684 (5k-05) ganCinebebi).

39
3-e nawili, romelic afarTovebs adminitsraciul davaTa
areals. administraciul saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis
pirvel nawilSi mocemuli CamonaTvalis Sesabamisad saproceso kanonmdebloba (22-e-251 muxlebi) awesebs administraciuli sarCelebis Semdeg saxeebs: sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Taobaze; sarCeli administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze; sarCeli qmedebis
ganxorcielebis Taobaze; aRiarebiTi sarCeli; sarCeli
dakavSirebuli administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba
imis Sesaxeb, rom administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
normebiT ganixileba iseTi davebi, romelsac gamoxatvis
adminitsraciul-procesualuri forma aqvs. administraciuli sarCelis administraciul-procesualuri buneba
gamowveulia ara misi materialuri SinaarsiT, aramed misi
administraciul-procesualuri formiT.7
sarCelis sasamarTlo warmoebaSi miRebis Semdeg mxareTa Soris wamoWrili dava ar SeiZleba romelime sxva sasamarTlom an organom ganixilos (ssk-is 184 mux. me-2 naw.).
administraciuli organo ar ganixilavs administraciul
saCivars, Tu sasamarTlo warmoebaSia saqme davaze imave
mxareebs Soris, imave saganze da imave safuZvliT (szakis 182-e muxlis I-li nawilis ,,b qvepunqti). saqarTvelos
uzenaesi sasamarTlos administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis erT-erT ganCinebaSi8 sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom piris mier administraciuli saCivrisa da administraciuli sarCelis erTdroulad wardgenis
SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTloSi aRniSnuli sarCelis warmoeba7 ,,saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis komentari, red.
v. loria, gamomc. ,,merani, 2004w., gv. 13-17; v. loria ,,administraciuli
davis sagani da adminitsraciul saqmeTa gansjadoba sasamarTloebisadmi, Jurn. ,,marTlmsajuleba da kanoni, 2006w., #2, gv. 37.
8 sus 28.04.06w. ganCineba, saqme #bs-1416-991 (k-05).

40
Si miRebis Semdeg, ssk-is 184.2 muxlis da szak-is 182-e muxlis ,,b qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, administraciuli organo ar
aris uflebamosili ganixilos administraciuli saCivari,
xolo Tu man mainc ganixila igi da gaauqma mis mier gamocemuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti, am SemTxvevaSi davis sagnis ararsebobis gamo, saqmis
ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom unda Sewyvitos saqmis warmoeba, Tu ar arsebobs sask-is 32-e muxlis me-3 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli garemoeba. sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom
sask-is 32-e muxlis me-3 nawilis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad gamocxadebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo uflebamosili iyo, mxaris kanonieri
interesis arsebobisas da misi moTxovniT, baTilad gamoecxadebina es individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti misi gamocemidan. administraciuli organos
mier sadavo aqtis baTilad cnoba ar warmoadgenda samarTalwarmoebis Sewyvetis upirobo safuZvels. sask-is 32-e
muxlis me-3 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli mxaris kanonieri
interesi saxezea maSin, rodesac arsebobs igive mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis ganmeorebis SesaZlebloba, reabilitaciis, zianis anazRaurebis interesi.

3. kerZo arbitraJis da saerTo sasamarTlos qvemdebareoba
zogadi wesis Tanaxmad, mxareTa saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba qonebrivi davebis kerZo arbitraJis mier ganxilvis
Sesaxeb, savaldebuloa sasamarTlosaTvis, rac sarCelis
warmoebaSi miRebis gamomricxav garemoebas warmoadgens
(ssk-is 186-e muxlis ,,d qvepunqti). sasamarTlos ufleba ara aqvs ganixilos sasarCelo gancxadeba sakiTxze,
romelic saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis sagans warmoadgens,
garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac mxareebi iTxoven saqmis

41
ganxilvas sasamarTloSi, anda, Tu sasamarTlo daadgens,
rom saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba baTili an Zaladakargulia.
sasamarTlo praqtikiT aRiarebulad aris cnobili, rom
saarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebisas yuradRebaa gasamaxvilebeli saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis procesualur-samarTlebriv mxareze. saarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba SeiZleba gasaCivrdes
mxolod procesualuri safuZvliT. ar daiSveba gadawyvetilebis materialur-samarTlebrivi aspeqtiT gasaCivreba, aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom uari unda Tqvas
sarCelis(gancxadebis) warmoebaSi miRebaze. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arsebobs saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba, magram mxareebi
iTxoven davis saerTo sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetas, SesaZloa davis saerTo sasamarTlos mier ganxilva. Tu saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba mxareTa Soris arsebuli xelSekrulebis Semadgeneli nawilia da mosarCele iTxovs rogorc
saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis, aseve mTlianad xelSekrulebis
baTilad cnobas, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia miiRos warmoebaSi sarCeli mxolod saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis nawilSi.
moTxovna xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobis nawilSi(vidre
saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba ZalaSia) ver gaxdeba sasamarTlos
msjelobis sagani, anu aseTi saxis sarCeli dauSvebelia.
im SemTxvevaSi Tu ramdenime moTxovnidan erT-erTi saarbitraJo sasamarTlos gansjadia, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia am nawilSi ar miiRos sarCeli warmoebaSi an Sewyvitos saqmis warmoeba9. amasTanave, ar aris erTiani azri
administraciuli xelSekrulebis mxareebs Soris davis
SemTxvevaSi saarbitraJo daTqmis gaTvaliswinebis dasaSvebobasTan dakavSirebiT. aRniSnulis pirdapir akrZalvas saproceso kanonmdebloba ar Seicavs, Tumca sask-is
251 muxlis me-3 nawilis miTiTeba imis Sesaxeb, rom kerZo
arbitraJs gansaxilvelad SeiZleba gadaeces administra9 `saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo da administraciul saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT~, Tb. 2006w., gv7-10

42
ciuli organos mier dadebuli kerZosamarTlebrivi xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare dava, agreTve ,,kerZo arbitraJis Sesaxeb kanonis I-li muxlis miTiTeba imis Sesaxeb, rom
mudmivmoqmed an davisaTvis sagangebod Seqmnil droebiT
kerZo arbitraJs SeiZleba gansaxilvelad gadaeces pirebs
Soris wamoWrili samoqalaqo dava, myar niadags uqmnis mosazrebas administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis kerZo
arbitraJisaTvis gansaxilvelad gadacemis dauSveblobis, mxareTa saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis miuxedavad aseTi
davebis mxolod saerTo sasamarTloebis mier ganxilvis
Sesaxeb. amasTanave, arsebobs mosazreba, rom administraciuli xelSekrulebis mxareebs Soris qonebrivi davis
warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi davis arbitraJisaTvis gadacemis
SesaZleblobas iZleva sask-is 1.2 muxli, ssk-is me-12 muxli
(,,qonebrivi dava mxareTa SeTanxmebiT, SeiZleba gadaeces
gansaxilvelad arbitraJs), miT ufro, rom ,,kerZo arbitraJis Sesaxeb kanonis 43-e da 44-e muxlebi iTvaliswineben
mxareebis mier saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis
SesaZleblobas sasamarTloSi. `kerZo arbitraJis Sesaxeb~
kanonis me-3 da 43-e muxlebidan gamomdinare saarbitraJo sasamarTlo ar aris kompetenturi ganixilos sisxlis
samarTlisa da administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa
kanonmdeblobidan warmoSobili samarTalurTierTobebi. amasTanave igi uflebamosilia ganixilos pirTa Soris
(pirebs Soris moiazreba fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi,
agreTve administraciuli organo da TviT saxelmwifoc)
wamoWrili nebismieri samoqalaqo dava (1.1 mux.). kerZosamarTlebriv urTierTobebSi administraciuli organo
moqmedebs, rogorc samoqalaqo samarTlis subieqti(szakis 651 mux.). administraciuli organos mier xelSekrulebis dadebisas gamoiyeneba szak-is da samoqalaqo kodeqsis Sesabamisi normebi da gaTvaliswinebuli damatebiTi
moTxovnebi(szak-is 65.2 mux.). aRniSnulidan gamomdinare,
arsebobs sakamaTo mosazreba szak-is ZalaSi Sesvlamde
miRebuli `kerZo arbitraJis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 1-li muxlis pirveli punqtis debulebis vrclad ganmartebis, ad-

43
ministraciuli xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili davebis
saarbitraJo sasamarTlos mier samoqalaqo kodeqsis da
zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis normebis safuZvelze
ganxilvis dasaSvebobis Sesaxeb(aRsaniSnavia, rom 01.01.05w.
amoqmedebuli sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli
iyo sagadasaxado davis gadawyvetis SesaZlebloba arbitraJis mier. gadasaxadis gadamxdelis arCeviT davis arbitraJis mier gadawyvetis SesaZlebloba gauqmda sagadasaxado kodeqsSi 22.04.05w. kanoniT Setanili cvlilebebis
Sedegad). iuridiul literaturaSi aRiniSneba samediatoro ganxilvebis institutis farTo SemoRebis saWiroeba,
romelmac gaamarTla kerZo-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis sferoSi da romlis gamoyeneba sajaro-samarTlebrivi
davebis pirvelad ganxilvaSi savsebiT gamarTlebulia.10
aRniSnuls adasturebs agreTve evropis sabWos ministrTa kabinetis 05.09.01w. rekomendacia `administraciul
organoebsa da kerZo pirebs Soris sasamarTlo ganxilvis
alternativebis Sesaxeb~, romelSic sxva saSualebebTan
erTad(morigeba, Suamavloba, molaparakebebis Sedegad davis mogvareba) miTiTebulia agreTve saarbitraJo ganxilva, rogorc davaze gadawyvetilebis gamotanis winapiroba,
administraciuli iusticiis damxmare saSualeba mkveTrad
gansazRvrul sferoebSi. aRniSnuli dokumentis Tanaxmad
davis gadawyvetis alternatiuli saSualebebi SesaZloa
gamoyenebuli iqnes sasamarTlo warmoebis dawyebamde (rekomendaciis Tanaxmad maTi gamoyeneba SesaZloa iqces samarTalwarmoebis dawyebis savaldebulo pirobad), aseve,
mosamarTlis rekomendaciiT, sasamarTlo warmoebis mimdinareobis procesSi. samediatoro procedurebi SesaZloa Seexos administraciuli aqtis mizanSewonilobas da/
an kanonierebas.11 xsenebulis Sesabamisad unda aRiniSnos,
10 . ` ,
327

., 2001,

,,,

11 evropis sabWos ministrTa komitetis 05.09.01w. rekomendacia.


http://www.coe.int/t/cm/WCD/simpleSearch-en.asp#

gv.

44
rom ucxo qveynis kanonmdebloba srulebiT ar gamoricxavs
administraciuli xelSekrulebis mxareebs Soris davis
SemTxvevaSi saarbitraJo daTqmis gaTvaliswinebis SesaZleblobas. ase mag., gfr-Si miuxedavad imisa, rom sajarosamarTlebrivi davebis kerZo arbitraJis mier ganxilvas
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesebi pirdapir ar
iTvaliswineben, igi daSvebulad aris miCneuli praqtikaSi da iuridiul literaturaSi,12 rasac safuZvlad udevs
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis kanonis daTqma,
rom Tu sxva ram ar aris dadgenili am kanoniT, daSvebulia samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis normebis gamoyeneba,
sajaro-samarTlebrivi sferos calkeul kanonebSi (`qonebis Sesaxeb~ kanoni, `cxovelTa dacvis Sesaxeb~ kanoni,
`xorcis higienis Sesaxeb~ kanoni, `frinvelis xorcis higienis Sesaxeb~ kanoni, `sakvebi produqtis, sursaTis da
pirveli moxmarebis saqonlis Sesaxeb~ kanoni, `cxovelTa
seleqciis Sesaxeb~ kanoni da sxv.) sajaro-samarTlebrivi
davebis kerZo arbitraJisaTvis gansaxilvelad gadacemis
SesaZleblobis gaTvaliswineba, agreTve `saarbitraJo
warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis normebi, romlebic iTvaliswineben administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebze kerZo arbitraJisaTvis daxmarebis gawevas ara samoqalaqo, aramed
administraciuli sasamarTloebis mier, administraciuli
kategoriis saqmeebze arbitraJis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebas ara saerTo wesiT _ meore instanciis sasamarTloSi, aramed administraciuli sasamarTlos pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi.
safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 2060 muxli pirdapir
krZalavs samediatoro SeTanxmebis dadebis SesaZleblobas im sakiTxebis mimarT, romlebic sajaro warmonaqmnebs,
agreTve mTlianad sazogadoebrivi wesrigis sferos exeba. amasTanave, muxli iTvaliswinebs komerciuli sajaro
dawesebulebisaTvis samediatoro SeTanxmebis gaTvalis-

12 Schoch. `Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung. kommentar.~ 2003. gv. 82-85.

45
winebis nebarTvis micemas dekretiT. arbitraJis (samediatoro SeTanxmebis) gaTvaliswinebis dauSvebloba dadasturebulia safrangeTis saxelmwifo sabWos 13.11.1957w.,
28.10.2005w. dadgenilebebSi. safrangeTis samoqalaqo
samarTalwarmoebis wesebiT (ssk-is 83, 1004 mux.) sajaro
iuridiuli pirebisaTvis davebis gadasaWrelad arbitraJisadmi mimarTvis akrZalvis miuxedavad calkeuli kanonebi (kerZod, gazis mrewvelobis da eleqtroenergetikis
nacionalizaciis (17.04.1996w), sazogadoebrivi samuSaoebis momwesrigebeli (08.04.1946w.) kanonebi) iTvaliswineben administraciuli organos (saxelmwifos, departamentis da komunis) uflebas mimarTon davebis gadasawyvetad
saarbitraJo proceduras13. 8.01.2002w. mTavrobis dekreti
iTvaliswinebs administraciuli organoebis mier saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis dadebis SesaZleblobas wiaRis mopovebis seqtorSi. 1.08.2000w. dekreti garkveuli pirobebis
arsebobisas SesaZleblad Tvlis kerZo arbitraJis gziT
sadavo sakiTxebis gadawyvetas umaRlesi ganaTlebis administraciuli organoebisaTvis.
safrangeTSi administraciuli organos saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT warmoSobili konfliqtebis mogvarebis
mizniT gaTvaliswinebulia morigebis procedurebi. zogierTi maTgani SezRudul(moqmedeben mkacrad gansazRvrul sferoebSi), xolo zogi piriqiT, universalur xasiaTs atarebs. am ukanasknels ganekuTvneba konfliqtis
mosagvareblad gansakuTrebul SuamavalTan mediatorTan mimarTva. safrangeTSi administraciuli meqanizmebis
SeuCerebelma zrdam, ekonomikur da socialur sferoebSi saxelmwifos SeRwevam, mosaxleobaSi administraciuli iusticiis organoebis arasakmarisma avtoritetma da
parlamentis mier administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
praqtikam ganapiroba mediatoris institutis SemoReba. mediatoris Tanamdeboba SemoRebul iqna 03.01.1973w.
13 . ,, , ., . ,,, 1973,
. 314.

46
promulgirebuli kanoniT14, skandinaviuri ombudsmenisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis funqciebi, upirveles yovlisa, ukavSirdeba politikur kontrols administraciis
saqmianobaze. safrangeTis mediatori aris ara saparlamento Tanamdeboba, aramed administraciuli kontrolis
sistemaSi CarTuli Suamavali. mediatori Tanamdebobaze
iniSneba ministrTa kabinetis dekretiT, eqvsi wlis vadiT,
sargeblobs xelSeuxeblobiT da ganixilavs saxelmwifo
administraciis, teritoriuli koleqtivebis, saxelmwifo
dawesebulebebis da nebismieri sxva organizaciebis, romlebsac mindobili aqvT sajaro saqmeebis warmarTva, saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT Setanil saCivrebs. ministrebs
da sajaro xelisuflebis organoebs kanoniT evalebaT
safrangeTis respublikis mediatorTan TanamSromloba.
kanoni ar uSvebs uSualod mediatorTan saCivris Setanis
SesaZleblobas, dainteresebuli piris saCivari Seitaneba
parlamentarTan, romelic gadascems mas mediators, ukeTu is mis gamgeobaSi Semaval sakiTxs exeba da saWiroebs
Carevas. Tu mediatoris azriT moqmedi sakanonmdeblo da
sareglamentacio debulebebis gamoyeneba gamoiwvevs usamarTlo Sedegs, mediators SeuZlia sakiTxis samarTliani
gadawyvetis rekomendaciis micema Sesabamisi organosaTvis. mediatoris mier wamoyenebul sakiTxze gadawyvetilebis miReba sabolood xdeba sajaro administraciis mier.
mediatori uzrunvelyofs Seqmnili konfliqturi situaciis sajaroobas, rac qmnis konfliqtis miukerZoebeli
ganxilvis garkveul garantiebs. mediators unda ecnobos
saqmeSi misi Carevis Sedegebze, mimarTvis upasuxod datovebis SemTxvevaSi mas ufleba aqvs gamoaqveynos Tavisi rekomendaciebi. mediatori yovelwliur angariSs warudgens
prezidents da parlaments, romelic qveyndeba beWdviT saSualebebSi. mediatori ar Semoifargleba individualuri
14 kanonis miRebis winapirobebis analizi da kanonis teqsti, 24.12.76w.,
13.01.89w., 06.02.92w. kanonebiT Setanili cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT,
ix. wignSi: g. miqanaZe `evropis ombudsmenebi,~ Tb., 99w., gv.155-178.

47
problemebis gadaWriT, 24.12.76w. kanoniT mediators mieniWa samarTlebrivi normebis modificirebis mizniT zomebis miRebis SeTavazebis ufleba. mediators didi wvlili
miuZRvis iseTi sakiTxebis reglamentaciaSi, rogoricaa
administraciuli dokumentaciis Senaxvis vadis gansazRvra, danaSaulebrivi Tavdasxmis msxverplTaTvis zaralis
anazRaurebis proceduris optimizacia, aseve mediatoris
winadadeba safuZvlad daedo administraciuli aqtebis
motivaciis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo novacias da sxv.
davebis gadawyvetis gansakuTrebuli momrigebeli procedurebi safrangeTSi gamoiyeneba sajaro administraciis
saqmianobis iseT sferoSi, rogoricaa _ saxelmwifo SekveTebis Sesasruleblad Ria konkursebis Catareba (momrigebel organod am sferoSi gvevlineba premier-ministrTan
Seqmnili sakonsultacio komiteti, romlis kompetenciaSi Sedis saministroebis mier dadebuli kontraqtebis ganmartebasTan dakavSirebuli davebis morigeba, qonebriv
pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebul davebSi _ premierministris mier aseTi komitetebi iqmneba ramdenime departamentTan, maT kompetenciaSi Sedis savaWro-samrewvelo
sferos gareT moqmedi saxelmwifos da sajaro organizaciebis qonebriv pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebuli davebis gadawyveta).
saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis sferoSi e.w. administraciuli konsultirebis procedurebi farTod gamoiyeneba
iaponiaSi, sadac davebis morigebiT dasrulebis tradiciul formebs kvlavindeburad mowinave roli ukaviaT.
administraciis organoebis mier uflebaSelaxuli pirebi werilobiTi gancxadebiT mimarTaven administraciuli
menejmentis damoukidebeli saagentos administraciuli
zedamxedvelobis departaments. administraciuli konsultirebiT qveynis mTel teritoriaze moqmedebis mizniT
saagentos generaluri direqtori adgilebze niSnavs specialur administraciul konsultantebs. saCivris miRebis
Semdeg administraciuli zedamxedvelobis departamenti
mimarTavs organos, romlis moqmedebazec Semosulia sa-

48
Civari. aseT mimarTvas ar aqvs savaldebulo Zala, amasTanave igi ubiZgebs administraciul organos aRmofxvras
saCivris mizezi da mSvidobianad moagvaros konfliqti.
mxareTa morigebis idea dominirebs sasamarTlo ganxilvis
msvlelobis periodSic. sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis
procesSi mxareebs SeuZliaT iTxovon gadawyvetilebis gamotanis nacvlad Seiqmnas momrigebeli komisia, romelsac
evaleba mxareebisaTvis SesaZlo morigebis SeTanxmebis SeTavazeba. momrigebeli komisia, rogorc wesi, kompleqtdeba ori momrigeblisa da mosamarTlis SemadgenlobiT. aqve
unda aRiniSnos, rom mosamarTle ar monawileobs komisiis
sxdomebSi, raTa ar Seiqmnas STabeWdileba, rom dava sasamarTlo xelisuflebis mier iqna gadawyvetili.
unda aRiniSnos, rom saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis sferoSi sajaro iuridiul pirebs SeuZliaT gadascen davebi
samediatoro sasamarTlos. saerTaSoriso saarbitraJo
praqtikaSi iSviaTobas ar warmoadgens saarbitraJo sasamarTlos mier ganxilul davaSi erT-erT modave mxared
saxelmwifos an saxelmwifos saagentos gamosvla (magaliTad, ucxo qveynis kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirsa da
saxelmwifos Soris dadebuli xelSekruleba navTobisa da
gazis mopovebis Sesaxeb). iseTi davebis gadaWra, sadac monawile mxareebi saerTaSoriso sajaro samarTlis subieqtebia, SesaZlebelia saerTaSoriso sajaro saarbitraJo
organoebis mier.
Sida arbitraJTan erTad ganuwyvetlad mzardi saerTaSoriso arbitraJis gavrcelebis pirobebSi gaxSirda sasamarTloebis mier saerTaSoriso arbitraJis momwesrigebeli aqtebis gamoyenebis da normebis ganmartebis saWiroeba.
`ucxouri saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebebis cnobisa da aRsrulebis Sesaxeb~ niu-iorkis konvenciis15 2.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo sasamarTlo gadascems arbitraJs saqmes
gansaxilvelad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erT-erTi mxare
15 saqarTvelo konvencias
03.02.94w. dadgenilebiT

SeuerTda

saqarTvelos

parlamentis

49
Suamdgomlobs amis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos winaSe. sasamarTlo ver miiRebs aseT gadawyvetilebas sakuTari iniciativiT (unda aRniSnos, rom konvenciis 2.3 muxlis moTxovna,
romlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo valdebulia erT-erTi mxaris moTxovniT gagzavnos mxareebi arbitraJSi, saxelmwifo sasamarTlos mier xorcieldeba ssk-is 186-e muxlis `d~
qvepunqtis da 272-e muxlis `v~ qvepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli sarCelis miRebaze uaris Tqmisa da saqmis warmoebis
Sewyvetis gziT. sxva procesualur meqanizmebs saproceso
kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs). garda amisa, kerZo arbitraJisTvis saqmis gadacemis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad unda
gairkves moicavs Tu ara saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba sarCelSi
dasmul sakiTxs(xSirad arsebiT ganxilvamde am sakiTxis
garkveva praqtikulad SeuZlebelia). konvenciis 2.1 muxlis
Tanaxmad saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba uSvebs arbitraJisaTvis
mxolod iseTi davebis gadacemis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas, romlis obieqti SeiZleba iyos saarbitraJo ganxilvis sagani.
amdenad, saxelmwifo sasamarTlo, romelsac mimarTa davis mxarem, valdebulia gaarkvios davis arbitraJisaTvis
gadacemis dasaSvebobis sakiTxi. aseTi valdebuleba aqvs
agreTve arbitrs, romelmac unda ganixilos saarbitraJo
SeTanxmebiT moculi dava. konvenciis 5.2 muxlis Tanaxmad,
saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis cnobas da aRsrulebas SeiZleba uari eTqvas Tu im qveynis sasamarTlo, sadac xdeba
saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis cnobis da aRsrulebis gamoTxova, miiCnevs, rom qveynis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad
davis sagani ar SeiZleba iyos saarbitraJo ganxilvis sagani. davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobis sakiTxi, romelsac exeba konvenciis me-2 da me-5 muxli, warmoadgens
`sajaro wesrigis~ doqtrinis erT-erT kerZo SemTxvevas
da ar aris mTlianad moculi mis mier. iuridiul literaturaSi rigi avtorebis mier gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis
Sesaxeb, rom konvenciis me-2 muxlis debulebas davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobis dasaSvebobis (arbitralurobis) Sesaxeb farTo ganmarteba unda mieces, raTa moculi
iqnes sajaro wesrigis doqtrinis yvela SemTxveva. aseT

50
ganmartebas safuZvlad udevs mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom
ar aqvs azri saqmis saarbitraJo ganxilvisaTvis gadacemas, vinaidan gadawyvetileba sajaro wesrigis darRvevis
gamo saboloo jamSi ver iqneba aRsrulebuli. iuridiul
literaturaSi gamoTqmulia agreTve sawinaaRmdego mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmad, konvenciis me-2 muxli Seicavs
im pirobebis amomwurav CamonaTvals, romelTa arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo sasamarTlo uflebamosilia miiRos gadawyvetileba, arbitraJisaTvis saqmis gadacemis
gareSe, saqmis arsebiTad ganxilvis Taobaze. konvenciis
me-2 muxli ar Seicavs saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis da davis
sagnis sajaro wesrigis doqtrinisadmi Sesabamisobis moTxovnas. konvenciis me-2 muxlSi amomwuravad CamoTvlili
safuZvlebis (saarbitraJo daTqma an saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba ar aris namdvili, dakarguli aqvs Zala, SeuZlebelia
misi Sesruleba) garda, sajaro wesrigze miTiTebiT, arbitraJisaTvis saqmis gadacemaze uaris Tqmis damatebiTi uflebamosilebiT sasamarTlos aRWurvis SemTxvevaSi
umarTebulod SeizRudeba konvenciis moqmedebis sfero,
vinaidan erovnuli samarTlebrivi sistemebis midgoma sajaro wesrigis sakiTxis mimarT sakmaod gansxvavebulia.16
interess iwvevs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli qveynis kanonmdeblobiT unda xelmZRvanelobdes sasamarTlo
niu-iorkis konvenciis me-2 muxlis Sesabamisad saqmis saarbitraJo organosaTvis daqvemdebarebis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas. konvencia ar Seicavs raime miTiTebas aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT. sayovelTaod miRebuli azris Tanaxmad,
sasamarTlo unda xelmZRvanelobdes Tavisi qveynis da ara
im qveynis kanonmdeblobiT, romelsac mxareebma dauqvemdebares saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba an sadac unda iqnes gamotanili saarbitraJo gadawyvetileba, anu saqmis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobis sakiTxi gansxvavebulad wydeba
16 . . ` . - 1958 .~ . 2001., ,,, . 77-79.

51
vidre im samarTlebrivi normebis dadgenis sakiTxi, romelTa safuZvelze xdeba saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis namdvilobis Sefaseba. amdenad, Tu arbitraJis Catarebis adgili
aris sxva qveyana, romlis kanonmdeblobiT gansxvavebulad wydeba saarbitraJo ganxilvis sagnad davis daSvebis
sakiTxi, aseT SemTxvevaSi arbitraJi Sedgeba, gamotanili
gadawyvetileba daeqvemdebareba aRsrulebas im qveyanaSi,
sadac aseTi davis sagani daiSveba arbitraJis gansaxilvelad. davis sagnis arbitrabelurobisadmi moTxovnis gaTvaliswinebis savaldebuloba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom
saarbitraJo ganxilvisadmi davis sagnis daqvemdebarebis
ganmsazRvrel normebs, sajaro wesrigis rigs mikuTvnebuli sxva normebis msgavsad, imperatiuli, anu iseTi xasiaTi
aqvT, romelTa moqmedebis gamoricxva mxareebs ar ZaluZs.
aRniSnulis Sedegad arbitrebi gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas valdebulni arian gaiTvaliswinon ara mxolod davis
arsis maregulirebeli qveynis samarTlis normebi arbitrabelobis Sesaxeb, aramed agreTve sxva samarTlebrivi
sistemebis analogiuri normebi (arbitraJis Catarebis
adgilis samarTali, saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis adgilis samarTali), raTa miRebuli gadawyvetileba
aRsrulebadi iyos. amdenad, arbitrebis winaSe mdgari davis sagnis arbitrabelobis amocana bevrad ufro rTulia,
vidre nebismieri saxelmwifo sasamarTlos winaSe mdgari
analogiuri amocana, vinaidan ukanasknelma unda ixelmZRvanelos mxolod Tavisi saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobiT.
unda aRiniSnos, rom konvenciis wevri qveynebis kanonmdeblobaSi savsebiT mkveTrad ikveTeba tendencia, romlis
Tanaxmad, Tavad arbitrebs eZlevaT SesaZlebloba gadawyviton yvela iurisdiqciuli winaaRmdegoba, rac dasturdeba `kompetenciis kompetenciis~ principis sayovelTao
aRiarebiT, romlis Tanaxmad arbitri uflebamosili da
valdebulicaa, Tavad gadawyvitos yvela iurisdiqciuli
mosazreba, wamoyenebuli maT mier davis ganxilvis uflebis winaaRmdeg. Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom am principis sayovelTao aRiareba ar arTmevs saxelmwifo sasamarT-

52
los uflebamosilebas Seamowmos, Tu rogor wyvets arbitri kompetenciis sakiTxs. amdenad, im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
kompetenciis sakiTxze Tavdapirvelad arbitrebs eZlevaT
azris gamoTqmis SesaZlebloba, maTi gadawyvetileba SesaZloa gasaCivrdes arbitraJis Catarebis adgilis saxelmwifo sasamarTloSi, amave sakiTxs SeiZleba miubrundes is
saxelmwifo sasamarTloc, romelic wyvets saarbitraJo
gadawyvetilebis Tavis qveynis teritoriaze aRsrulebis
sakiTxs. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arbitris gadawyvetileba misi kompetenciis Sesaxeb aris saboloo, magram
imavdroulad igi eqvemdebareba Semdgom sasamarTlo kontrols. ufro metic, konvenciis me-5 muxlis Tanaxmad,
kompetenciis arsebobasTan dakavSirebiT iurisdiqciul
sakiTxze arbitris gadawyvetilebaze sasamarTlo kontrolis albaToba bevrad ufro didia, vidre arbitris gadawyvetilebis arsebiTi gadamowmeba. amdenad, konvenciis
me-2 muxlis safuZvelze davis saxelmwifo sasamarTlodan
arbitraJisadmi gadacema ar niSnavs imas, rom yvela iurisdiqciuli sakiTxi erTxel da samudamod aris gadawyvetili. dainteresebul mxares SeuZlia arbitris iurisdiqciis sakiTxi sadavod gaxados saxelmwifo sasamarTloSi,
saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis aRsasruleblad moyvanis
stadiaSi. amdenad, saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis `gasamyareblad~ arbitri valdebulia detalurad Seiswavlos da
Seafasos misi iurisdiqciis sawinaaRmdegod gamoTqmuli
yvela mosazreba, romelic SeiZleba exebodes ara mxolod
saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis fiqsaciis formas, mis namdvilobas, ZalaSi yofnas da aRsrulebas, aramed agreTve saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis moculobas da bolos, davis arbitrabelurobis da sajaro samarTlis sxva sakiTxebs, romelTa
gadawyvetisas arbitrma, saxelmwifo sasamarTlosagan
gansxvavebiT, mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos im saxelmwifoTa
samarTlis normebi, sadac iqneba wardgenili saarbitraJo
gadawyvetilebis aRsasruleblad moyvanis moTxovna. kompetenciis sakiTxi kidev ufro rTuldeba, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT imas, rom saarbitraJo SeTanxmebiT SesaZloa

53
mocul iqnes sakiTxTa mTeli kompleqsi, romelTagan erTi
nawili eqvemdebareba arbitraJs, xolo meore scildeba
arbitraJis kompetenciis sferos. saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis mniSvnelovani xarvezis gamovlenis SemTxvevaSi, arbitris gadawyvetileba saarbitraJo SeTanxmebis baTilobis, Zalis dakargvis, aRusruleblobis Sesaxeb sabolooa,
iurisdiqciuli sakiTxis negatiuri gadawyvetiT arbitri
faqtobrivad uars ambobs sarCelis dakmayofilebaze. ama
Tu im qveynis sasamarTloSi misi gasaCivrebis SemTxvevaSi
saxelmwifo sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili daavalos
arbitrs Secvalos Tavisi Tvalsazrisi da ganixilos dava
arsebiTad. aseT SemTxvevaSi dainteresebuli mxare mimarTavs Tavisi uflebis dasacavad sasamarTlos, amasTanave
arbitris gadawyvetilebas saarbitraJo daTqmis baTilobis Sesaxeb eqneba preiudiciuli faqtis mniSvneloba,
romlis gaTvaliswinebiTac unda gadawydes saxelmwifo
sasamarTlos kompetenciis sakiTxi. aRniSnuli SemTxvevisagan unda ganvasxvavoT SemTxveva, rodesac saarbitraJo
SeTanxmebis avtonomiurobis safuZvelze moqmedi arbitri, akeTebs ra daskvnas ZiriTadi xelSekrulebis baTilobis Sesaxeb, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda saarbitraJo
SeTanxmeba, ar acxadebs TviT saarbitraJo SeTanxmebas
baTilad, Zaladakargulad an aRusruleblad. aseT SemTxvevaSi, arbitri uflebamosilia miiRos gadawyvetileba
garigebis baTilobis Sedegebis gamoyenebis, usafuZvlo
gamdidrebis Sesaxeb da sxv.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aSkaraa davaze saerTaSoriso arbitraJis kompetenciis gavrcelebis SeuZlebloba, konvenciis me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia ganixilos dava arsebiTad, arbitraJis mier davis ganxilvaze
kompetenciis arsebobis Sesaxeb sakiTxis gadawyvetamde.
amasTanave, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arbitraJi mimdinareobs
sxva saxelmwifos teritoriaze, saxelmwifo sasamarTlos
gadawyvetileba davis arsebiTad ganxilvis Sesaxeb ar gamoricxavs arbitris mier saarbitraJo ganxilvis Catarebas da damoukidebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanas. aseT

54
SemTxvevaSi ar aris gamoricxuli ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego gadawyvetilebis gamotana. ucxouri saarbitraJo
gadawyvetilebis aRsasruleblad im qveyanaSi wardgenis
SemTxvevaSi, romlis sasamarTlomac gamoitana gadawyvetileba davis mimarT arbitraJis iurisdiqciis ararsebobis Sesaxeb da ganixila saqme arsebiTad, saxelmwifo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas ar eqneba preiudiciuli mniSvneloba, vinaidan konvenciis me-5 muxli, romelic Seicavs
gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebaze uaris Tqmis amomwurav
safuZvlebs, ar iTvaliswinebs aRsrulebaze uaris Tqmis
safuZvlad saxelmwifos sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis arsebobas.
konvenciis meqanizmebis dispoziciuri xasiaTi eyrdnoba davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobisa da sajaro wesrigis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis imperatiulobas. konvenciis
5.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis cnobis
da aRsrulebis moTxovna SesaZloa ar dakmayofildes, ukeTu davis obieqti am qveynis kanoniT ar SeiZleba iyos saarbitraJo ganxilvis sagani an Tu am gadawyvetilebis cnoba
da aRsruleba ewinaaRmdegeba am qveynis sajaro wesrigs.
davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobis da sajaro wesrigis
sakiTxebi unda iqnes Seswavlili saxelmwifo sasamarTlos
mier im SemTxvevaSic, Tu mopasuxe mxarem ar gamoiyena es
argumentebi saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis
winaaRmdeg an saerTod ar monawileobs procesSi. Teoriulad SesaZloa iseTi viTarebis Seqmna, rodesac nebayoflobiT iqneba aRsrulebuli ucxouri saarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gamotanili arbitraJis araqvemdebare saqmeze. aseT pirobebSi ar aris gamoricxuli, rom
aseTi aRsruleba, Sesabamisi saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobis
Tanaxmad, samarTaldarRvevis Cadenas gauTanabrdes.
davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdebareobis kriteriumebis
dadgena aris konvenciis monawile qveynis sasamarTlos
gadasawyveti, am qveynis kanonmdeblobis normebidan gamomdinare. arc konvencia, arc mis gansaviTareblad miRebuli aqtebi ar Seicaven davis arbitraJisadmi qvemdeba-

55
reobis saerTaSoriso standartebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom
sxvadasxva qveynis kanonmdebloba gansxvavebulad wyvets
sakiTxs erovnuli sasamarTloebis gansakuTrebuli kompetenciis Sesaxeb, specialistebi uTiTeben SedarebiT msgavs midgomebs rigi sakiTxebis mimarT, romelsac avlenen
ganviTarebuli qveynebis sasamarTloebi. Cveulebisamebr
dava arbitraJis qvemdebared ar miiCneva, ukeTu igi ukavSirdeba konkurenciis (antitrestuli kanonmdeblobis),
gakotrebis proceduris, patentis, savaWro niSnebis, inteleqtualuri da samrewvelo sakuTrebis sxva saxis sakiTxebs; fasiani qaRaldebis, savaluto mowesrigebis, gadasaxadebis da sxva saxis administrirebis (mag., licenziebis
gacema, konkursebis da auqcionebis Catareba da sxv.), uZrav qonebaze uflebis aRiarebis Sesaxeb17, korufciasTan
brZolis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobas.18 arbitraJisadmi araqvemdebare davebs axasiaTebs erTi saerTo niSani: aseTi
davebi Seicaven iseT samarTalurTierTobebs, romlebic
wesrigdeba ara mxolod kerZo samarTlis normebiT. rac
ufro metad Warbobs davaSi sajaro elementi, miT ufro
17 saqarTvelos Sida arbitraJis praqtikaSi samwuxarod gvxvdeba arbitraJis mier uZrav qonebaze uflebis aRiarebis SemTxvevebi. ase, mag.
fizikur pirsa da q. quTaisis meriis teqinventarizaciis samsaxuris
SeTanxmebis safuZvelze kerZo arbitraJma ganixila dava, romliTac
sacxovrebeli farTis da miwis nakveTis mesakuTred cno fizikuri piri.
sxva SemTxvevaSi fizikur pirsa da q. quTaisis saxelmwifo qonebis marTvis sammarTvelos Soris daido saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba, romliTac
quTaisis mudmivmoqmed kerZo arbitraJs gansaxilvelad gadaeca mxareebs Soris arsebuli dava Senobis mesakuTred cnobis Sesaxeb. kerZo
arbitraJis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT 114 kv.m. arasacxovrebeli
farTis mesakuTred cnobil iqna fizikuri piri. kerZo arbitraJis mier
kompetenciis farglebis dacvis sakiTxis Semowmebis saWiroebaze miTiTebiT sakasacio palatis 03.11.04w. #bs-731-624-k-04, 25.01.05w. #bs-808690-k-04 ganCinebebiT qvemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi, romliTac ar dakmayofilda administraciuli organos sarCeli
kerZo arbitraJis gadawyvetilebis da mis mier gamowerili saaRsrulebo furclis baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb, gauqmda da saqme xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis daubrunda Sesabamis saapelacio palatas.
18 . , miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 184-211.

56
metia saxelmwifo sasamarTlos mier davis arbitraJis
araqvemdebared miCnevis albaToba, ris Sedegad sasamarTlo uars ganacxadebs davis arbitraJisaTvis gadacemaze an
uars ityvis ucxo arbitraJis gadawyvetilebis cnobaze da
aRsrulebaze. vinaidan saxelmwifos monawileobis xarisxi
ama Tu im urTierTobebSi sxvadasxva qveynebSi ar aris erTnairi, erTi da igive sakiTxi erT qveyanaSi SesaZloa erT
SemTxvevaSi miCneul iqnes arbitraJis qvemdebared, xolo
meoreSi - ara.
ucxouri saarbitraJo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis
cnobaze da aRsrulebaSi moyvanaze SesaZloa uari iTqvas
aramxolod qveynis kanoniT davis obieqtis saarbitraJo ganxilvis sagnis dauSveblobis gamo, aramed, agreTve,
imis gamo, rom am gadawyvetilebis cnoba da aRsruleba
ewinaaRmdegeba qveynis sajaro wesrigs. ucxouri saabitraJo gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebaze uari dasaSvebia mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi, ganviTarebuli qveynebis sasamarTlo praqtika Zalzed viwrod axdens sajaro
wesrigis sakiTxebis ganmartebas. ar daiSveba saarbitraJo
gadawyvetilebis (an misi aRsrulebis Sedegebis) erovnul
kanonmdeblobasTan yovelgvari Seusabamoba, sajaro wesrigis darRvevad miCneva. aseTad SeiZleba miCneuli iqnes
mxolod is SemTxveva, rodesac aRsruleba daarRvevs im
saxelmwifos marTlwesrigis safuZvlebs, moralsa da samarTlianobis Sexedulebebs, sadac unda moxdes saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba.

4. sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo sasamarTloebs Soris qvemdebareobis gamijvna


sasamarTlo organoebs Soris kompetenciis gamijvna
efuZneba saerTo sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciisadmi saqmeebis universalur qvemdebareobas, garda im saqmeebisa,
romlebic specialuri iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebs gane-

57
kuTvneba. konstituciur-samarTlebrivi davebi eqvemdebareba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqcias. enumeraciuli principis mixedviT konstituciur-samarTlebrivi
aris dava, romelic ar eqvemdebareba saerTo sasamarTloebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos da saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis uflebamosileba ganaxorcielon
normatiul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis konstituciisadmi
da sxva normatiuli aqtebisadmi Sesabamisobis Semowmeba aris sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze
sasamarTlo kontrolis umniSvnelovanesi instrumenti.
saerTo sasamarTloebs da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos,
maTi kompetenciisadmi gankuTvnili saqmeebis mimarT
gaaCniaT saboloo gadawyvetis uflebamosileba. saerTo
iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis mier aqtebis gauqmebis Sesaxeb sarCelebis ganxilva, normatiuli aqtebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan Sesabamisobis dadgena gaTvaliswinebulia administraciuli saproceso kodeqsiT, zogadi
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsiT, ,,adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb organuli kanoniT da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT. saqarTvelos konstituciis 89-e
muxlis, ,,saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb organuli kanonis me-19 muxlis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos
sakonstitucio sasamarTlo konstituciuri sarCelis an
konstituciuri wardginebis safuZvelze uflebamosilia
ganixilos da gadawyvitos: a) saqarTvelos konstituciasTan konstituciuri SeTanxmebis, saqarTvelos kanonebis,
saqarTvelos parlamentis normatiuli dadgenilebebis,
saqarTvelos prezidentis, saqarTvelos mTavrobis, afxazeTisa da aWaris a.r. xelisuflebis umaRles organoTa
normatiuli aqtebis Sesabamisobis sakiTxebi; saqarTvelos konstituciasTan saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo aqtebisa da saqarTvelos parlamentis dadgenilebebis miRebis/gamoyenebis, xelmoweris, gamoqveynebisa da amoqmedebis Sesabamisobis sakiTxebi; b) dava saxelmwifo organoebs
Soris kompetenciis Taobaze; g) moqalaqeTa politikur
gaerTianebaTa Seqmnis da saqmianobis konstituciurobis

58
sakiTxi; d) referendumisa da arCevnebis momwesrigebeli
normebis da am normebis safuZvelze Catarebuli an Casatarebeli arCevnebis(referendumis) konstituciurobasTan
dakavSirebuli dava; e) piris sarCelis safuZvelze normatiuli aqtebis konstituciuroba konstituciis meore
TaviT aRiarebuli adamianis ZiriTad uflebasTan da TavisuflebasTan mimarTebiT; v)saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaTa an SeTanxmebaTa konstituciurobis sakiTxi; z) saqarTvelos parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis cnobis an
uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis sakiTxi; T) saqarTvelos prezidentis, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos
Tavmjdomaris, saqarTvelos mTavrobis wevris, saqarTvelos generaluri prokuroris, saqarTvelos kontrolis
palatis Tavmjdomarisa da saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis
sabWos wevrebis mier saqarTvelos konstituciis darRvevis sakiTxi; i) nebismieri instanciis saerTo sasamarTlos
wardginebis safuZvelze im normatiuli aqtis konstituciurobis sakiTxi, romelic saerTo sasamarTlom unda gamoiyenos gadawyvetilebis misaRebad konkretuli saqmis
ganxilvis dros; k) dava `aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statusis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos konstituciuri kanonis darRvevis Taobaze; l) saqarTvelos konstituciasTan, `aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statusis Sesaxeb~
saqarTvelos konstituciur kanonTan, konstituciur SeTanxmebasTan, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebasTan da SeTanxmebasTan da saqarTvelos kanonebTan aWaris
a.r. umaRlesi sabWos normatiuli aqtebis Sesabamisobis
sakiTxi. moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, konstituciuri sarCeli an konstituciuri wardgineba gansaxilvelad
ar miiReba, Tu: masSi miTiTebuli arc erTi sadavo sakiTxi
ar aris sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gansjadi; masSi miTiTebuli yvela sadavo sakiTxi ukve gadawyvetilia sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier; arc erTi miTiTebuli sadavo
sakiTxi ar aris gadawyvetili konstituciiT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mosarCele an wardginebis avtori iTxovs ramdenime sakiTxis gadawyvetas, romelTa nawili sakonstitucio

59
sasamarTlos gansjadia, xolo nawili xelisuflebis sxva
organoTa kompetencias ganekuTvneba, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ganixilavs mxolod mis kompetencias mikuTvnebul sakiTxebs. konstituciuri sarCeli an wardgineba gansaxilvelad ar miiReba Tu masSi miTiTebuli arc erTi sakiTxi ar aris sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gansjadi.
sajaro samarTalurTierTobebidan warmoSobili saqmeTa ricxvidan normatiuli aqtebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan Sesabamisobis dadgenis Taobaze saqmeebs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvT. am kategoriis saqmeTa mniSvnelobis miuxedavad srulyofilad ar aris gansazRvruli
sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo iurisdiqciis
sasamarTloebs Soris kompetencia.19
19 normatiul aqtebze sakonstitucio kontrols saerTo sasamarTloebi axorcieleben anglosaqsuri samarTlebrivi sistemis
qveynebSi. am qveynebSi saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis mier sakonstitucio kontrolis ganxorcielebas didi istoriuli warsuli
aqvs. jer kidev me-17 saukuneSi amerikuli koloniebis sasamarTloebi
iRebdnen gadawyvetilebebs, romliTac uars ambobdnen inglisis mefis brZanebebis Sesrulebaze koloniur qartiasTan maTi Seusabamobis gamo. saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis mier sakonstitucio
kontrolis ganxorcielebisaTvis fuZemdebluri mniSvneloba hqonda
`u. merberi (MMMarbury) j. medisonis (Madison) winaaRmdeg~ saqmeze aSS-is
uzenaesi sasamarTlos 1803 wlis gadawyvetilebas, romliTac Seiqmna
federaluri kanonis normis, kerZod `sasamarTlo mowyobis Sesaxeb~
1789w. kanonis me-13 muxlis umoqmedod cnobis pirveli precendenti.
miuxedavad imisa, rom aSS-is 1787w. konstituciaSi araferia naTqvami
sasamarTlos mier sakonstitucio kontrolis ganxorcielebaze, aSS-s
uzenaesma sasamarTlom j. marSalis TavmjdomareobiT ganacxada, rom
sasamarTlos ufleba hqonda arakonstituciurad ecno kongresis
kanoni, ukeTu igi ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. ganasxvaveben saerTo
sasamarTloebis mier sakonstitucio kontrolis ganxorcielebis or
saxes: decentralizebuls (mag. aSS, argentina, meqsika, skandinaviis
qveynebi) da centralizebuls (mag. kanada, avstralia, indoeTi). pirveli
modeli uSvebs sakonstitucio kontrolis ganxorcielebaSi yvela
sasamarTlo instanciis monawileobas, amasTanave qveda instanciis
sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ama Tu im aqtis arakonstituciurad
cnobis Sesaxeb savaldebuloa mxolod konkretul saqmeSi monawile
mxareebisaTvis, magram Tu saqme uzenaes sasamarTlomde mivida, am

60
sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo sasamarTloebs Soris qvemdebareobis gamijvna Cveulebisamebr
warmoebs normatiuli aqtis gasaCivrebis saSualebis da
sadavo aqtis donis, normatiuli aqtebis ierarqiaSi misi
adgilis, kanonqvemdebare aqtiT ganxorcielebuli regulirebis rigiTobis mixedviT. iuridiul literaturaSi
ukanasknelis gadawyvetileba savaldebulo xdeba saxelmwifos yvela
sasamarTlosaTvis. meore modeli iTvaliswinebs sakonstitucio
kontrolis
ganxorcielebas
mxolod
umaRles
sasamarTlo
instanciis mier, qveda instanciis sasamarTlos winaSe kanonis
arakonstituciurobis sakiTxis wamoWris SemTxvevaSi, saqme am sakiTxis
gadasawyvetad umaRles sasamarTlo instancias gadaecema.
evropis saxelmwifoebis umravles qveynebSi me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi
specializebuli sakonstitucio kontrolis modeli gavrcelda,
romelic
iTvaliswinebs
mxolod
sakonstitucio
kontrolis
gansaxorcieleblad damoukidebeli, gancalkevebuli saxelmwifo
organos Seqmnas. es organoebia: 1) sakonstitucio sasamarTloebi
(avstria, germania, espaneTi, poloneTi da sxv.); 2) kvazisasamarTlo
organoebi (sakonstitucio sabWo (safrangeTi, yazaxeTi da sxv.),
sakonstitucio-religiuri sabWo (mag. irani, pakistani)); 3) zogierTi
qveynis uzenaes sasamarTloSi specialuri sakonstitucio palatis
Seqmna (estoneTi, kosta-rika da sxv.). konstituciuri kontrolis
damoukidebeli specializebuli institutis formirebis aucileblobis
Teoriul dasabuTebaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili aqvs Setanili venis
universitetis samarTlis profesors h. kelzens, romlis mier
SemuSavebulma `samarTlis wminda Teoriam~ konstituciuri iusticiis
modelis Seqmnis konceftualuri safuZveli Seadgina.
sakonstitucio kontrolis e.w. amerikul
(anglosaqsuri) da
evropul (avstriuli) modelTan erTad rig qveynebSi (saberZneTi,
portugalia, samxreT afrika) damkvidrebulia e.w. Sereuli modeli,
romlis pirobebSic sakonstitucio kontroli erTdroulad
xorcieldeba rogorc specializebuli organos, aseve saerTo
iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis mier, yvela maTgani maTTvis
kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli kompentenciis farglebSi moqmedebs.
sasamarTlo xelisuflebis mier sakanonmdeblo (konstituciuri
kontroli) da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze(administraciuli
samarTalwarmoeba) kontrolis meqanizmebis SemuSavebam gamoiwvia
sasamarTlo xelisuflebis rolis gazrda saxelmwifo mowyobis
sistemaSi. dasavleTis iuridiul literaturaSi sul ufro farTo
gavrcelebas hpovebs mosazreba, rom Seqmnilma realobam gamoiwvia e.w.
,,mosamarTleTa mmarTveloba.

61
gamoyofen normatiul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gasaCivrebis
or xerxs: gaSualedebuls da uSualos. pirvel SemTxvevaSi
gasaCivreba warmoebs gaSualebulad, anu dainteresebuli
piris mier romelime uflebis dacvis Sesaxeb sxva pirebTan warmoebuli davis meSveobiT da daiyvaneba normatiul
aqtebs Soris koliziis gadaWramde, sadavo samarTalurTierTobis mimarT saTanado normatiuli aqtis gamoyenebis da sxva, sawinaaRmdego normatiuli aqtis gamoyenebaze
uaris Tqmis sakiTxis gadawyvetamde, imavdroulad uflebis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetiT. mTavari aseT SemTxvevebSi
aris konkretul subieqtebs Soris uflebis Sesaxeb davis
gadawyveta. naklebi iuridiuli Zalis mqone normatiuli
aqtis ufro maRali donis normatiuli aqtisadmi Sesabamisobis sakiTxs sasamarTlo wyvets mxolod mocemul saqmesTan dakavSirebiT da aseTi Seusabamobis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi uars ambobs normatiuli aqtis gamoyenebaze, misi
formaluri gauqmebis gareSe (incidenturi kontroli),
amasTanave gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawilSi sasamarTlo ar uTiTebs mis gauqmebaze. normatiuli aqti, romelic Seusabamobis gamo ar iqna gamoyenebuli sasamarTlos mier, avtomaturad ar kargavs Zalas da agrZelebs moqmedebas. im kategoriis saqmeebi, romlebic normatiuli
aqtebis gaSualedebur gasaCivrebas exeba, ar aris sakonstitucio sasamarTlos qvemdebare. saqmeTa aRniSnuli kategoria uwyebrivad saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebs
eqvemdebareba. aRniSnulis Sesabamisad ssk-is me-6 muxlis
me-3 nawili adgens, rom Tu saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos azriT, kanons ar Seesabameba kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqti, romlis Semowmebac ar Sedis sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi, sasamarTlo gamoitans gadawyvetilebas kanonis mixedviT.
normatiuli aqtebis uSualo gasaCivrebis SemTxvevaSi
(e.w. abstraqtuli normakontroli) dava ar ukavSirdeba
mxareTa Soris raime sxva davas, aseT saqmeebze sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis sagans Seadgens moTxovna normatiuli
aqtis konstituciisadmi, saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebi-

62
sadmi, sxva upiratesi Zalis mqone normatiuli aqtisadmi
Seusabamobis dadgenis, sadavo normatiuli aqtis gauqmebis Sesaxeb.20 normatiuli aqtis uSualo gasaCivreba warmoqmnis saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebsa da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Soris kompetenciis gamijvnis problemas. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi ar Seicavs
im normatiuli aqtebis konkretul CamonaTvals, romelTa
marTlzomierebis ganxilva ganekuTvneba saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetencias. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencia normatiuli aqtebis
konstituciisadmi Sesabamisobaze aris gansakuTrebuli
da zustad gansazRvruli. amasTanave, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo adgens mxolod saqarTvelos konstituciasTan
da ara sxva romelime sakanonmdeblo aqtTan mimarTebiT
normatiuli aqtis Sesabamisobis sakiTxs (sakonstitucio
sasamarTlo uflebamosilia ganixilos da gadawyvitos
aWaris a.r. umaRlesi sabWos normatiuli aqtebis saqarTvelos konstituciasTan, ,,aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis
statusis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos konstituciur kanonTan,
konstituciur SeTanxmebasTan, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebasTan da SeTanxmebasTan, saqarTvelos
kanonebTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi). saerTo da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos normakontrolis uflebamosilebaTa
gamijvnaSi gadamwyveti unda iyos sasamarTlos dacvaze
moqalaqeTa uflebis Sesaxeb konstituciuri debulebis maqsimaluri realizacia, saxeldobr, piris ufleba20 unda aRiniSnos, rom zogierT qveyanaSi (mag. safrangeTi) abstraqtuli normakontroli dasaSvebia normatiuli aqtis oficialuri gamoqveynebis Semdeg kanoniT gansazRvrul vadaSi. am vadis gasvlis
Semdeg, miuxedavad uSualo gasaCivrebis uflebis ararsebobisa, mosarCeles aqvs ufleba dasvas sakiTxi normatiuli aqtis ukanonobis Sesaxeb am normatiuli aqtis safuZvelze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis meSveobiT. mosarCelis moTxovnis marTlzomierebis dadgenis
SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, akrZalos normatiuli aqtis
moqmedeba konkretulad mosarCelis mimarT. danarCeni pirebis mimarT
normatiuli aqtis moqmedeba grZeldeba.

63
Tavisuflebebi ganapirobeben kanonebis azrs, Sinaarss
da gamoyenebas. normatiuli aqtebis gasaCivrebis Sesaxeb
saqme, romelic ar eqvemdebareba uwyebrivad specialur
sasamarTlos, ganekuTvneba saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetencias. administraciuli saproceso kanonmdeblobis
mixedviT (sask-is me-2, 22-e, 32-e muxlebi) dasaSvebad unda
iqnes miCneuli saerTo sasamarTloebis mier kanonqvemdebare aqtis saqarTvelos kanonebTan, agreTve sxva upiratesi iuridiuli Zalis mqone normatiul aqtebTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxis gadawyveta. kanonis konstituciurobis
prezumfciidan da sasamarTlos mxolod kanonisadmi daqvemdebarebis, misi kanonis farglebiT SezRudvis (yovel
SemTxvevaSi kontinentaluri samarTlis sistemaSi moqmedi
sasamarTlosaTvis) gaTvaliswinebiT iuridiul literaturaSi sabuTdeba kanonis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb sakiTxis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos garda sxva sasamarTlo organoebis mier gadawyvetis dauSvebloba. normatiuli aqtis saerTo sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SemTxvevaSi
mosarCelem unda daasabuTos, rom normatiuli aqti an misi
nawili pirdapir da uSualo zians ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess an ukanonod zRudavs mis uflebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi mimarTvis subieqts,
rogorc wesi, ar moeTxoveba imis dasabuTeba, rom sadavo
normatiuli aqti an misi romelime norma laxavs am subieqtis konstituciiT ganmtkicebul uflebamosilebebs. sakmarisia imis argumentacia, rom sadavo normatiuli aqti
Tu norma ar Seesabameba konstituciis ama Tu im debulebas. gamonakliss warmoadgens saqarTvelos moqalaqis, moqalaqeobis armqone piris da saqarTvelos iuridiuli piris konstituciuri sarCeli saqarTvelos konstituciis
me-2 TaviT gaTvaliswinebul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT
miRebuli aqtebis konstituciurobis Taobaze. aRniSnuli pirebi sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebis subieqtebi gaxdebian da maTi sarCelebi arsebiTad gansaxilvelad
miiReba Tu daasabuTeben, rom sadavo aqtiT darRveulia,
an SesaZlebelia uSualod dairRves saqarTvelos konsti-

64
tuciis me-2 TaviT aRiarebuli maTi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. Sesabamisad, ama Tu im aqtis arakonstituciurad
miCneva saqarTvelos moqalaqeebsa da iuridiul pirebs
sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas avtomaturad ar aniWebs. maT damajereblad unda daasabuTon, rom eqcevian sadavo aqtis regulirebis sferoSi an
samomavlod uSualod gaxdebnian aqtiT regulirebuli samarTalurTierTobis monawile da arsebobs maTi uflebis
darRvevis realuri safrTxe. saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs,
saqarTveloSi mcxovreb sxva fizikur pirebs da saqarTvelos iuridiul pirebs, ,,saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb organuli kanonis 39-e muxlis Tanaxmad,
aqvT sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi normatiuli aqtis an
misi calkeuli normebis konstituciurobis Taobaze konstituciuri sarCelis Setanis ufleba. konstituciuri
sarCelis dasaSvebobis pirobas ar warmoadgens agreTve
konstituciuri sarCelis aRZvramde uflebis aRsadgenad
yvela samarTlebrivi saSualebis savaldebulo wesiT gamoyeneba.21 kanonmdebloba darRveuli sakonstitucio uflebis dacvis iniciativas aniWebs ara mxolod konstituciuri urTierTobebis uSualo monawiles, romlis ufleba
dairRva, aramed agreTve specialuri kompetenciis mqone
saxelmwifo organoebs. aRniSnuli ganpirobebulia sakonstitucio kontrolis miznebiT. saerTo sasamarTlos saqmianobis mizani mdgomareobs mxareebs Soris davis gadawyvetaSi, xolo konstituciuri kontrolis ZiriTad mizans
_ konstituciuri marTlwesrigis dacva, sakonstitucio
normebis darRvevis aRkveTa Seadgens. miuxedavad aRniS21 rig qveynebSi (mag. gfr, meqsika, slovenia) konstituciuri saCivris dasaSvebobis savaldebulo pirobas warmoadgens dacvis yvela
legitimuri saSualebis amowurva, darRveuli uflebis aRsadgenad
samoqalaqo an administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis normebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saSualebebis gamoyeneba, yvela sasamarTlo instanciis gavla. amgvari reglamentaciis erT-erT mizezs warmoadgens is, rom sakonstitucio saCivari aRiqmeba ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis
damatebiT, eqstraordinalur samarTlebriv saSualebad.

65
nulisa, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos saqmianoba Tavisi
bunebiT iurisdiqciulia, igi sasamarTlo-procesualuri
formiT mimdinareobs da, rogorc wesi, socialur-samarTlebrivi konfliqtebis gadasawyvetadaa mimarTuli. aseT
konfliqts latenturi formiT adgili aqvs konstituciuri kontrolis iseTi saSualebis SemTxvevaSi, rogoricaa wardginebis ganxilva. mxareTa Soris davis gadawyveta
mimdinareobs sasamarTlo warmoebis formisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli SejibrobiTobisa da Tanasworobis principis
safuZvelze. amasTanave, konstituciuri kontrolis funqciis ganxorcieleba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos da saxelmwifo xelisuflebis im organos Soris, romlis aqtis
an qmedebis konstituciuroba aris gasaCivrebuli, warmoqmnis politikur-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis samarTalurTierTobebs.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saerTo sasamarTlos mier sarCelis
warmoebaSi miRebis Semdeg gamoirkveva, rom sadavo sakiTxi
eqvemdebareba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ganxilvas, aRniSnuli ssk-is 272-e muxlis ,,a qvepunqtiT saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis safuZvels qmnis. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo da saerTo sasamarTloebi sxvadasxva iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebia, rac TavisTavad unda gamoricxavdes maTi
kompetenciis gadakveTas. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, imTaviTve mcdaria sakiTxis dayeneba imis Sesaxeb, Tu romel
sasamarTlos gaaCnia upiratesi iuridiuli Zala.
saerTo sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili ganaxorcielos raime, Tundac nawilobrivi kontroli kanonebis
konstituciurobaze. amdenad, saerTo sasamarTlo baTilad cnobs administraciul aqts, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba
konstituciis moTxovnebs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi Tu aqti
ewinaaRmdegeba agreTve kanons. kanonis qmediToba eWvqveS
dadgeboda, ukeTu SesaZlebeli iqneboda mis safuZvelze
gamocemuli (miRebuli) administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtebis gauqmeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencia gamoricxavs kanonis konstituciurobis kontrolis
sferoSi nebismieri sxva sasamarTlo dawesebulebis kom-

66
petencias. kanonis qmediToba ar SeiZleba dadges eWvqveS
mis safuZvelze miRebuli administraciuli aqtebis gasaCivrebasTan dakavSirebiT. zogjer saerTo sasamarTloSi
gasaCivrebuli normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ama Tu im sadavo normaSi asaxulia kanonis an konstituciis calkeuli debuleba, Sesabamisad maTi Semowmeba scildeba saerTo sasamarTlos kompetenciis farglebs.
normatiul administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtSi konstituciis calkeuli debulebis asaxvis SemTxvevaSi, misi
Semowmeba utoldeba TviT konstituciis Sesabamisi debulebis konstituciurobis Semowmebas, rac dauSvebelia
rogorc saerTo sasamarTlosaTvis, aseve sakonstitucio
sasamarTlosaTvis. ukeTu administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis safuZvlad miTiTebulia konstituciis moTxovnebi, magram aqti gamocemulia kanonis
Sesabamisad, aseT SemTxvevaSi konstituciis darRveva
bralad eracxeba kanonmdebels da ara aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas, Sesabamisad igi ver iqneba mxedvelobaSi miRebuli saerTo sasamarTlos mier. administraciuli davebis ganxilvis TvalsazrisiT kanoni faravs aqtis SesaZlo arakonstituciurobas. aqtis sakanonmdeblo formiT
aRWurvisTanave, igi savaldebuloa saerTo sasamarTlos
mosamarTlisaTvis im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac sakanonmdeblo aqti ewinaaRmdegeba qveynis konstituciis debulebebs an samarTlis saerTo principebs.
sakonstitucio sasamarTlos da saerTo sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciis Tanmimdevrul gamijvnas emsaxureba kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli kanonis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb saerTo sasamarTlos wardginebiT mimarTva sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi, risi analogiebi cnobilia mag. gfr-is, rf-is, italiis da sxva qveynebis kanonmdeblobiT. saqarTvelos ssk-is me-6 muxlis me-2 nawilis
Tanaxmad, Tu saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos azriT, kanoni, romelic am saqmisaTvis unda iqnes gamoyenebuli, ar
Seesabameba an ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias, sasamarTlo
SeaCerebs saqmis ganxilvas am sakiTxze sakonstitucio sa-

67
samarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis miRebamde, ris Semdegac
saqmis ganxilva ganaxldeba (analogiur debulebas Seicavs
`saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis me-7
mux.). aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo valdebulia SeaCeros
saqmis warmoeba. Tu saerTo sasamarTlo miva daskvnamde
kanonis an misi romelime normis arakonstituciurobis Sesaxeb, saerTo sasamarTlos mimarTva sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi gamosayenebeli normis konstituciurobis
Sesaxeb ganixileba ara mxolod mis uflebad, aramed, agreTve, valdebulebad. am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom saerTo iurisdiqciis mqone sasamarTlo faqtobrivad sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebis monawiled iqceva.
aseT pirobebSi saerTo sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili
gamoiyenos konkretul saqmeSi kanoni da wardginebiT unda
mimarTos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos.22 sasamarTlos es
valdebuleba gamomdinareobs sasamarTloebis konstituciuri valdebulebidan, uzrunvelyon uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis dacva, maT Soris kanonis da sasamarTlos winaSe Tanasworoba.
zemoaRniSnulTan erTad mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom
sasamarTlos mier davis gadawyvetisaTvis gamosayenebeli
kanonis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze konstituciuri wardginebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi
mimarTva samosamarTleo diskreciis sferos ganekuTvneba im TvalsazrisiT, rom konstituciuri wardginebis
22 zogierTi mkvlevaris da praqtikosi muSakis azriT, aseTi gageba
zRudavs konstituciis pirdapir moqmedebas, zRudavs saerTo sasamarTlos uflebas uSualod gamoiyenon konstitucia, ukeTu ar arsebobs eWvi, gaurkvevloba normatiuli aqtis arakonstituciurobaSi,
ar arsebobs sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis saWiroeba. (.
. . ,, ~. http://law.edu.ru/magazine/sibvestnik/article.
asp?magNum; .. , http://
www.cfin.ru/press/black/2001-1/index.shtml; .. ,,
: ? ', http://www.sutyajnik.ru/rus/library/articles/borba_za_vlast.html .)

68
aucileblobamde sasamarTlo damoukideblad midis da
ara procesis monawileTa Suamdgomlobis dakmayofilebis gziT. 23 radganac sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi
mimarTva Sedegad iwvevs saerTo sasamarTlos mier gansaxilveli saqmis warmoebis SeCerebas (ssk-is 6.2 mux., 279-e
mux. `e~ qvepunqti), praqtikaSi SeimCneva saqmis ganxilvis
gaWianurebis mizniT konstituciuri wardginebiT mimarTvis Sesaxeb Suamdgomlobis sasamarTlos winaSe dasmis SemTxvevebi. konstituciuri wardginebiT mimarTvis Taobaze
Suamdgomlobis dakmayofilebaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi
sasamarTlo Tavis ganCinebaSi ar aris valdebuli amtkicos gamosayenebeli kanonis konstituciuroba, vinaidan
mxolod sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia daadginos
kanonis konstituciisadmi Sesabamisobis an Seusabamobis
sakiTxi. ukeTu sasamarTlos Camouyalibda rwmena davis
gadasawyvetad gamosayenebeli kanonis arakonstituciurobis Sesaxeb, sakonstitucio wardginebaSi unda aRiniSnos sasamarTlos motivebi. kerZod: konstituciis debulebani, romlebsac konstituciuri wardginebis Semtani
sasamarTlos azriT, ar Seesabameba an arRvevs normatiuli
aqti; mtkicebulebani, romlebic wardginebis Semtani sasamarTlos azriT, adasturebs konstituciuri wardginebis
safuZvlianobas; saqarTvelos konstituciis, `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis, `sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis debulebani, romlebic konstituciuri wardginebis
Semtan sasamarTlos aZlevs konstituciuri wardginebis
Setanis uflebas. moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, konstituciuri sarCelis an wardginebis sxva avtorebisagan
gansxvavebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi konstituciuri wardginebis Semtani sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili uari Tqvas konstituciuri wardginebis ganxilvaze da
moiTxovos sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi saqmis Sewyveta.
23 saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos plenumis 10.07.02w.
#9/189 ganCineba

69
sasamarTlo wardginebebis Seswavla (sadReisod sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi wardgenil iqna 11 konstituciuri
wardgineba, romelTagan dakmayofilda erTi.) specialistebis azriT cxadyofs, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
winaSe umetesad iseTi sakiTxebi iqna dasmuli, razedac
saerTo sasamarTlos unda epasuxa. konstituciur wardginebaTa nawilSi saerTo sasamarTloebi moiTxoven gamosayenebeli normatiuli aqtis ara mxolod konstituciis
normasTan, aramed sxva normatiul aqtebTan (kanonebTan)
mimarTebiT Seusabamod cnobas. zogjer wardginebis avtorebi sadavo aqtis konstituciurobis Semowmebas iTxoven imis gamo, rom bundovania da gaugebaria misi namdvili
arsi maSin, rodesac Tavad sasamarTlo aris mowodebuli
gamoarkvios normis namdvili Sinaarsi da mxolod amis Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli normis arakonstituciurobaze msjeloba.24
,,sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb organuli kanonis 19.2. muxlis Tanaxmad, saerTo sasamarTloebi konstituciur wardginebas Seitanen sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, Tuki konkretuli saqmis ganxilvisas sasamarTlo
daaskvnis, rom arsebobs sakmarisi safuZveli, raTa is kanoni an sxva normatiuli aqti, romelic unda gamoiyenos
saerTo sasamarTlom saqmis gadawyvetisas, mTlianad an
nawilobriv miCneuli iqnas konstituciis Seusabamod. organuli kanonis aRniSnuli Canaweri imperatiulobiT gamoirCeva, kerZod, sasamarTlos ara ubralo varaudi, aramed arakonstituciurobis mtkicebis sakmarisi safuZveli
unda gaaCndes, raTa saqmis ganxilva SeaCeros da mimarTos
sakonstitucio sasamarTlos25.
24 b. zoiZe `sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa wesrigi
saqarTveloSi~, Tb. , 2007w. gv. 188.
25 iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb,
rom aRniSnuli badebs erTgvar uxerxulobas da amcirebs sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi saerTo sasamarTloebis wardginebiT mimarTvis
SemTxvevebs, radgan saerTo sasamarTloebs SesaZloa gauCndes garkveuli ridi imis winaSe, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ar gaiziarebs

70
saerTo sasamarTloebis da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetenciis gamijvnis problemas ukavSirdeba agreTve sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs saerTo
iurisdiqciis sasamarTlosaTvis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo iRebs
gadawyvetilebas mxolod mimarTvaSi miTiTebul saganze
da aqtis mxolod im nawilSi, romlis konstituciurobac
eWvqveS aris dasmuli mimarTvaSi.26 samarTalSemfardebeli, maT Soris, saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi,
konkretuli saqmeebis gadawyvetisas da samarTalgamoyenebiTi praqtikis erTianobis uzrunvelyofisas, ar arian
uflebamosilni miscen normas iseTi mniSvneloba, ganmarteba, romelic scildeba, ewinaaRmdegeba sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos mier ganCinebaSi gamovlenil mniSvnelobas.
saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTlo damoukideblad wyvets
ra gansaxilvel saqmeSi normis Sefardebis sakiTxs, Seicnobs normis arss, anu axdens mis kazualur ganmartebas.
amasTanave, sasamarTlo praqtikaSi uzrunvelyofili unda
iqnes gamosayenebeli normebis konstituciis Sesabamisi
ganmarteba. normatiuli aqtis an misi nawilis konstituciuri ganmarteba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias ganekuTvneba, romelic saqmis gadawyvetis Sedegad
uzrunvelyofs moqmedi samarTlis konstituciuri arsis
gamovlenas. amdenad, saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloemaT mosazrebas gamosayenebeli aqtis arakonstituciurobis Taobaze,
ris gamoc saerTo sasamarTlos sakonstitucio sasamarTlosaTvis
wardginebiT mimarTvis uflebamosileba unda hqondes ubralo varaudis da ara mxolod safuZvliani daskvnis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi.
26 samwuxarod praqtikaSi adgili hqonda calkeul SemTxvevebs, rodesac sakonstitucio sasamarTlo araqvemdebareobis gamo sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebaze uaris Tqmis ganCinebaSi ayalibebs sadavo, aranormatiuli aqtis mimarT Tavis xedvas, riTac rTul mdgomareobaSi ayenebs
SemdgomSi saqmis ganmxilvel saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTlos (ix. mag.
saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 28.01.03w. ganCineba (saqme
#2/2/167-2002), saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos administraciul da
sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis 18.11.04w. ganCineba(saqme #bs-253-219-k04)

71
bi ar arian uflebamosilni miscen normas sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos mier gamovlenili sakonstitucio-samarTlebrivi arsis Seusabamo ganmarteba. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve is garemoeba, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias mikuTvnebuli sakiTxebis ganxilvisas
mas gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawilSi uxdeba ara mxolod konstituciuri, aramed sxva, maT Soris, iseTi normebis ganmarteba, romlebic ar Seadgenen davis sagans. rigi
mkvlevaris mosazrebiT, konstituciuri normis ganmartebis Semcvleli an kanonis konstituciurobis gamomkvlevi
samarTlebrivi poziciebi, romlebzedac sakonstitucio
sasamarTlo amyarebs gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawilSi Camoyalibebul daskvnebs, savaldebuloa yvelasaTvis (sakonstitucio sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi pozicia iuridiul literaturaSi ganimarteba rogorc mniSvnelovani samarTlebrivi daskvna, idea, samarTlebrivi
argumentebis sistema, saerTo samarTlebrivi orientiri,
saboloo daskvnis logikur-samarTlebrivi dasabuTeba,
gadawyvetilebis arsi, konstituciis ganmartebis Sedegad
sasamarTlos mier gamotanili daskvna, sasamarTlos mier
gamovlenili e.w. `kristalizebuli samarTali~, samarTlebrivi principi, romlis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia msgavsi iuridiuli koliziebis jgufis gadasawyvetad). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi pozicia savaldebuloa sxva saqmeebis ganxilvisas, rac mniSvnelovanwilad
aadvilebs sakonstitucio sasamarTlos saqmianobas. maTi
operirebis SesaZleblobebiT sasamarTlo Tavisufldeba, yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi, maTi formulirebis moyvanis aucileblobisagan. miuxedavad imisa, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ar aris normatiulsamarTlebrivi aqti da ar ganixileba precendentad, igi
faqtobrivad warmoadgens aseTs da mis gadawyvetilebas
aqvs kanonis materialur-samarTlebrivi Zala. motivirebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlo asabuTebs Tavis samarTlebriv midgomas gansaxilveli sakiTxisadmi, romelic SemdgomSi aisaxeba saerTo sa-

72
samarTloebis gadawyvetilebebSi. imis gaTvaliswinebiT,
rom administraciuli samarTali sxva araferia, Tu ara
konkretizirebuli sakonstitucio samarTali, administraciuli samarTlis zogadi principebis umravlesoba
swored sakonstitucio debulebebidan gamomdinareobs,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTlosaTvis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
aqvs27.
unda aRiniSnos, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ZalaSi Sedis gadawyvetilebis gamocxadebidan, `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis 23-e muxliT arakonstituciurad
cnobili aqti Zaladakargulad cxaddeba gadawyvetilebis
gamoqveynebis momentidan, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebas ar aqvs ukuqceviTi Zala ganmcxadeblis
mimarTac, rac ar iZleva uflebis srulad aRdgenis SesaZleblobas.28 imis gamo, rom aqtis arakonstituciuroba ar
vrceldeba arakonstituciurad gamocxadebamde aqtiT mowesrigebul samarTalurTierTobebze, erTi da igive urTierToba SesaZloa gansxvavebulad iqnes mowesrigebuli
aqtis arakonstituciurad cnobamde da mis Semdeg. aRniSnulisagan gansxvavebiT, saerTo sasamarTlo uflebamosilia cnos normatiuli aqti baTilad misi gamoqveynebis
dRidan, rac xels uwyobs ara mxolod momavalSi uflebis
darRvevis Tavidan acilebas, aramed, agreTve, ukve darRveuli uflebis aRdgenas.
sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier normatiuli aqtis
27 iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazrebebi sasamarTlo
gadawyvetilebebis sakonstitucio zedamxedvelobis obieqtad miqcevis saWiroebis Taobaze, vinaidan ar aris gamoricxuli saerTo sasamarTlos mier antikonstituciuri gadawyvetilebis miReba (msgavsi
uflebamosilebiT aRWurvilia mag. gfr-is sakonstitucio sasamarTlo).
28 l. CorgolaSvili `konstituciuri kontrolis Teoriisa da praqtikis sadavo sakiTxebi~, Jurn. `adamiani da konstitucia~ 2002, #2, gv. 46.

73
arakonstituciurad cnoba saerTo wesis mixedviT ar niSnavs am aqtis safuZvelze saerTo sasamarTloebis mier
adre gamotanili da aRsrulebuli ganaCenebisa da gadawyvetilebebis gauqmebas. saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis safuZvels
miT ufro ar qmnis gadawyvetilebaSi gamoyenebuli normis
SemdgomSi gansxvavebuli interpretacia. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier arsebuli samarTlebrivi poziciis
Secvla, samarTlebrivi sistemis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove mdgomareobasTan misi misadageba ar niSnavs adre miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas, igi inarCunebs Tavis Zalas,
Tumca momavalSi analogiuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas mas
savaldebulo mniSvneloba aRar eniWeba. amasTanave, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is garemoeba, rom sisxlis samarTlis
saproceso kodeqsi (LIX Tavi) kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli sasamarTlo ganCinebis gauqmebis safuZvlad iTvaliswinebs
saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas, romelmac arakonstituciurad cno kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli ganaCenis an sxva sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis
dadgenisas gamoyenebuli kanoni(e.w. `axlad gamovlenili
garemoeba~). saerTo sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli
gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvis amgvar safuZvels ar icnobs samoqalaqo da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
kanonmdebloba. amdenad igi sadReisod ar iZleva sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebisaTvis ukuqceviTi
Zalis miniWebis SesaZleblobas, vinaidan ar iTvaliswinebs
arakonstituciurad cnobili normatiuli aqtebis safuZvelze saerTo sasamarTloebis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvis meqanizms. amasTanave, miuxedavad
imisa, rom arakonstituciurad cnobili aqtis safuZvelze adre gamotanili saerTo sasamarTloebis ganCinebebi
da gadawyvetilebebi ar eqvemdebareba gauqmebas, `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-20
muxlis Tanaxmad, saerTo sasamarTloebis aseTi gadawyvetilebebi da ganCinebebi, romlebic normis arakonstituciurad cnobamde ar aRsrulebula, ar eqvemdebarebian

74
aRsrulebas da xdeba maTi aRsrulebis SeCereba saproceso kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT.
saerTo sasamarTlos praqtikaze zemoqmedebas axdenen
sakonstitucio sasamarTlos aramxolod is gadawyvetilebebi, romliTac xdeba normatiuli aqtis an misi nawilis
arakonstituciurad cnoba, aramed, agreTve, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos is aqtebi, romliTac norma konstituciurad aris miCneuli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlosaTvis ar
aris savaldebulo saerTo sasamarTloebis ama Tu im normis gamoyenebis praqtika. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom normis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb sakonstitucio sasamarTlos aqtis samotivacio nawilSi normis Sinaarsis analizi
arsebiTad gansxvavdebodes normis im mniSvnelobisagan,
romelsac mas aniWeben saerTo sasamarTloebi an uflebadamcavi organoebi TavianT saqmianobaSi, ris gamoc sakonstitucio sarCelis avtors norma arakonstituciurad
miaCnda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ar gaaCnia saerTo
sasamarTloebis konkretuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis
uflebamosileba, amasTanave, cxadia, rom sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos amgvari daskvna safuZvlad unda daedos saerTo sasamarTloebis da administraciuli organoebis
mier SemdgomSi ama Tu im normis gamoyenebis praqtikis
Secvlas. Tumca moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo mxedvelobaSi iRebs sadavo
normis ara mxolod sityvasityviT mniSvnelobas, aramed
normis arss da misi gamoyenebis praqtikas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetenciis gamijvnisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs sadavo normaSi mocemuli samarTlebrivi (normatiuli) sinamdvilisa da misi
gamoyenebis Sedegad damdgari faqtobriv sinamdviles
Soris gansxvavebis garkvevas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo uflebamosilia konstituciasTan mimarTebiT Seafasos mxolod sadavo normaSi gaTvaliswinebuli danawesis
konstituciuroba. ukeTu normis realur-praqtikuli
ganxorcieleba ar Seesabameba mis Sinaarss, maSin mosarCeleTa uflebebis Selaxvis wyaro normis SinaarsSi ki ar

75
aris saZebneli, aramed mis praqtikul ganxorcielebaSi.
sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ver imsjelebs sadavo normis
gamoyenebis marTlzomierebaze, aRniSnuli saerTo sasamarTlos uflebamosilebis sferos ganekuTvneba.29 sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ver imsjelebs normis gamoyenebis
sisworeze, administraciis, samarTaldamcavi organoebis
mier normaSemfardebeli saqmianobis kanonierebaze.
saerTo wesis mixedviT saerTo sasamarTloebs ar gaaCniaT mizanSewonilobis TvalsazrisiT administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtebis Sefasebis uflebamosileba. literaturaSi diskusiuria sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
mier normatiuli aqtis mizanSewonilobis TvalsazrisiT
Sefasebis SesaZlebloba.30 konstituciuri iusticiis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze aRiarebulia sakonstitucio sasamarTlos uflebamosileba, Seafasos normatiuli
aqtis mizanSewoniloba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mizanSewoniloba uSualod ukavSirdeba misi konstituciurobis
sakiTxs. normis konstituciurobis dadgenis procesSi
sakonstitucio sasamarTlo axdens normis ara mxolod
formalur-samarTlebriv Semowmebas (normaSemoqmedi
organos mier ama Tu im sakiTxis mowesrigebis uflebamosileba, normis miRebis formaluri mxaris dacva), aramed,
agreTve, mis konstituciisadmi Sesabamisobis dadgenas materialur-samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT (normis miznis
legitimuroba, miznis misaRwevad gaTvaliswinebuli farTo arealidan Sesatyvisi saSualebebis gamoyeneba da sxv.).
saerTo sasamarTlosaTvis ucxoa winaswari kontroli,
maSin rodesac dasavleT evropis mTeli rigi sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis saqmianobaSi efeqturad monacvleobs winaswari (prevenciuli) da Semdgomi kontrolis
(zedamxedvelobis) formebi. xSirad prevenciul kont29 ix. saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos #1/1/357, 31.05.06w.
gadawyvetileba; #2/2-389, 26.10.07w. gadawyvetileba.
30 . ,, , ., 2007, . ,, , gv. 191-192.

76
rols savaldebulo xasiaTi aqvs (mag., safrangeTSi). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb kanonmdebloba saqarTveloSi prevenciul kontrols iTvaliswinebs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis mimarT, romlebic ratificirebas
saWiroeben. konstituciuri wardginebis dakmayofileba,
mTliani xelSekrulebis an misi nawilebis arakonstituciurad cnoba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier iwvevs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis an SeTanxmebis ratificirebis
dauSveblobas.
sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetenciis gamijvnis sakiTxi wamoiWreba ara mxolod
normatiul aqtebTan, aramed arCevnebisa da referendumis
Sesaxeb davebTan dakavSirebiT. saerTo sasamarTloebi
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixilaven
davas saarCevno kanonmdeblobis darRvevis Sesaxeb saarCevno procesis yvela stadiaze, rac gamoixateba ukanono
normatiuli an individualuri aqtis gamocemaSi, calkeul uflebamosil pirTa moqmedebaSi (umoqmedebaSi). saerTo sasamarTloebis aRniSnuli uflebamosilebis sakiTxi detalurad aris mowesrigebuli saqarTvelos organul kanonSi ,,saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsis~ normebiT
(77-e da sxv. mux.). sasamarTlo praqtikaSi adgili hqonda
SemTxvevebs, romlebmac naTlad warmoaCines saerTo sasamarTloebisa da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Soris
kompetenciis mkveTri gamijvnis, erTmaneTis kompetenciaSi SeWris, paralelizmis da dublirebis SemTxvevebis
gamoricxvis saWiroebas (saerTo sasamarTloebis da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Soris kompetenciis gamijvnis
problemam gansakuTrebuli aqtualoba SeiZina 20.11.03w.
proporciuli sistemiT Catarebuli arCevnebis Sedegebis
gauqmebis moTxovnasTan dakavSirebiT (sabolood Sedegebi baTilad iqna cnobili sus 25.11.03w. gadawyvetilebiT).
sakonstitucio sasamarTlos uflebamosilebis dakonkretebas miznad isaxavda 27.12.05w. sakonstitucio kanoniT
saqarTvelos konstituciaSi Setanili cvlilebebi, romlis mixedviT ,,sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ixilavs refe-

77
rendumisa da arCevnebis momwesrigebeli normebisa da am
normebis safuZvelze Catarebuli an Casatarebeli arCevnebis (referendumis) konstitucirobasTan dakavSirebul
davas (89-e muxlis ,,d qvepunqti). amdenad, konstituciuri normis ganaxlebuli redaqcia iTvaliswinebs saarCevno
davebTan mimarTebiT kumulaturi davis sagnis arsebobas.
mosarCelem sasamarTlos unda mimarTos erTdroulad
arCevnebisa da referendumis maregulirebeli normebisa
da maT safuZvelze Catarebuli an Casatarebeli arCevnebis (referendumis) konstituciurobis Sesaxeb sarCeliT.
xsenebuli norma zogadi xasiaTis gamo, amomwuravad ver
gansazRvravs sakonstitucio sasamarTlos uflebamosilebasTan dakavSirebul yvela sakiTxs, vinaidan savsebiT
SesaZlebelia arCevnebisa da referendumis maregulirebeli normebi konstituciuri iyos, magram saarCevno procesi mimdinareobdes arsebiTi darRveviT, arCevnebis Tanasworobisa da sayovelTaobis konstituciuri principis
ugulebelyofiT, rac, cxadia, arCevnebis Sedegebis mTlianad gauqmebis safuZvels qmnis.31amdenad, saWiroa konstituciuri debulebis Semdgomi detalizacia sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebis momwesrigebel kanonmdeblobaSi
damatebebis Setanis, sasamarTlo praqtikis meSveobiT kompetenciis gamijvnis kriteriumebis gamomuSavebis gziT.
sazRvargareTis zogierTi qveynis praqtikis mixedviT, saerTo sasamarTloebi unda ganixilavdnen davas calkeul
ubnebsa Tu olqebSi saarCevno kanonmdeblobis darRvevis
Sesaxeb. mTlianad arCevnebis namdvilobisa Tu baTilobis
sakiTxis gadawyveta sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias unda ganekuTvnebodes.
Catarebuli arCevnebis Sedegebis Sejamebis Semdeg
saqarTvelos parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis cnobis sakiTxi sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciis
31 ,,saarCevno uflebebisa da politikuri gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis
dacva sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi. saerTaSoriso konferenciis
masalebi. sared. kolegia j. xecuriani da sxv., gv.21

78
sferos ganekuTvneba.32 saqarTvelos konstituciis 54.1
muxlis, `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis me-19 muxlis Tanaxmad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias Seadgens agreTve
parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis
sakiTxi.33 rac Seexeba adgilobrivi warmomadgenlobiTi
organos _ sakrebulos wevris uflebamosilebis cnobas
da uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetas _ aRniSnulis Sesaxeb sakrebulos gadawyvetileba moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT saerTo sasamarTloSi saCivrdeba.
naklebad problemuria sakonstitucio da saerTo sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciis gamijvna politikuri partiebis
Seqmnisa da saqmianobis dadgenili wesis darRvevis SemTx32 sakasacio palatis 26.11.99w. ganCinebiT saarCevno blokis rwmunebuls uari eTqva sasarCelo gancxadebis warmoebaSi miRebaze, romliTac mosarCele saqarTvelos parlamentis mier parlamentis wevris
uflebamosilebis cnobis Semdeg, csk-os Semajamebeli oqmis im nawilis
baTilad cnoba moiTxova, romelic exeboda xonis saarCevno ubnebSi
arCevnebis baTilad cnobas. sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom gancxadebis materialur-samarTlebrivi moTxovnis arsi, misi sagani uSualo
mizezobriv kavSirSi imyofeba parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis
cnobasTan. palatam miuTiTa, rom `saqarTvelos parlamentis wevrTa
uflebamosilebis cnobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos parlamentis miRebuli dadgenilebiT cnobil iqna parlamentis wevrTa, maT Soris, xonis
saarCevno olqidan arCevnebis meore turis Sedegad arCeuli kandidatis uflebamosileba. palatam aRniSna, rom `saqarTvelos parlamentis
wevris statusis Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-4 muxlis Tanaxmad, parlamentis
wevris uflebamosilebis vada iwyeba parlamentis mier misi uflebamosilebis dadasturebis dRidan. amasTanave, saqarTvelos konstituciis 54-e da `saqarTvelos parlamentis wevris statusis Sesaxeb~ kanonis
me-4 , `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-19
da saqarTvelos parlamentis reglamentis me-14 muxlebis Tanaxmad,
parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis cnobis an vadamde Sewyvetis
sakiTxs wyvets parlamenti. parlamentis wevris uflebamosilebis cnobis sakiTxi, agreTve dava arCevnebis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb, sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi saCivrdeba.
33 ix. mag. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 13.07.06w. gadawyvetileba
saqmeze `v. gelaSvili saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg~, Jurn.:
,,adamiani da kostitucia~, 2006w., #3, gv. 172-191

79
vevaSi, vinaidan `moqalaqeTa politikuri gaerTianebebis
Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis Tanaxmad, mxolod sakonstitucio sasamarTloa uflebamosili Tavisi gadawyvetilebiT
akrZalos politikuri partia (35-e mux.). arc erT sxva saxelmwifo organos, maT Soris, saerTo sasamarTlos, aseTi uflebamosileba ar gaaCnia. kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi saerTo sasamarTlo iRebs gadawyvetilebas arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli) iuridiuli piris
saqmianobis SeCerebis an akrZalvis Sesaxeb (sk-is 33.1 mux.).
saerTo sasamarTloebis da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetenciis gamijvnis problema mraval aspeqts Seicavs, ris gamo am problemis calkeul sakiTxebs damatebiT
qvemoT, sxva sakiTxebis ganxilvisas SevexebiT.

5. saxelisuflo aqti
qvemdebareobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT yuradReba
unda mieqces administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arsebobas, amasTanave aqti unda ekuTvnodes administraciuli
samarTlis da ara sajaro samarTlis sxva dargis sferos.
im SemTxevaSi Tu adgili aqvs konstituciuri normidan
warmoSobil samarTlebriv Sedegs, xolo mxareebi daoben
konstituciiT gansazRvruli ufleba-movaleobebis Sesaxeb, sajaro-samarTlebrivi dava ar ganekuTvneba saerTo
sasamarTloebis kompetencias. ase, mag., adgili aqvs SemTxvevebs, rodesac saqarTvelos prezidentis mier gamocemuli aqti eqceva ara administraciuli, aramed sakonstitucio samarTlis sferoSi, rac gamoricxavs amgvari aqtis
marTlzomierebis Semowmebas administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT. aRniSnulis Sesabamisad gfr-is `administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 40.1 muxli
pirdapir uTiTebs, rom administraciuli sasamarTloebi
ar ganixilaven konstituciur-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis
davebs, kerZod, ar ganixilaven davebs, romlebSic mxared

80
sakonstitucio organo gamodis da davis Sinaarsi konstituciur xasiaTs atarebs.
qvemdebareobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad iuridiul literaturaSi da sasamarTlo praqtikaSi(safrangeTi) iyeneben saxelisuflo aqtis kriteriums, romelic emyareba
saxelisuflo da mmarTvelobis aqtebis urTierTgamijvnas. administraciis mier gamocemul aqtebs Soris ganasxvaveben sajaro xelisuflebis gamoyenebis aqtebs (saxelisuflo aqtebi) da iseT aqtebs, romlebic am elements ar
moicavs (mmarTvelobiTi aqtebi). pirvelebi ar eqvemdebarebian sasamarTlo ganxilvas, xolo meore kategoriis aqtebi sasamarTlos qvemdebarea. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis 22.05.03w. ganCineba
(saqme #3g-ad-440-ks-03), romelSic sasamarTlom ganmarta,
rom riggareSe sesiebis da sxdomebis mowvevis konstituciuri uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis procesSi, sxva
konstituciuri uflebamosilebis msgavsad (mag. kanonis
xelmowera, gamoqveyneba da sxv.), saqarTvelos prezidenti
ar eweva mmarTvelobiT saqmianobas, administrirebas, ris
gamoc igi ar eqceva administraciuli samarTlis mowesrigebis sferoSi. saqarTvelos konstituciiT miniWebuli
uflebamosilebis safuZvelze gamocemuli aqti saqarTvelos parlamentis sagangebo sxdomis mowvevis Sesaxeb
aris Seqmnili saWiroebiT gamowveuli politikuri aqti.
saqarTvelos prezidenti politikur funqciebs asrulebs
farTo diskreciis pirobebSi. zemoaRniSnulTan erTad sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom sasamarTlo ver iqoniebs msjelobas riggareSe sesiis mowvevis Sesaxeb gankargulebis
mizanSewonilobaze. sasamarTlo warmoebis dros mizanSewonilobis Semowmebis daSveba gamoiwvevda xelisuflebis
danawilebis principis darRvevas, erTi xelisuflebis mxridan meoris saqmianobaSi Carevas.34
34 `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2003w. #7, gv. 1769-1773.

81
vinaidan individualur-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamoyenebiT xdeba samarTlis normiT ganxorcielebuli zogadabstraqtuli mowesrigebis konkretizacia da individualizacia, SeuZlebelia individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis arseboba-ararsebobis da Sesabamisad uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis sakiTxis gadawyveta misi
gamocemis samarTlebrivi safuZvlis Semowmebis gareSe.
saqarTvelos prezidenti ar eqceva administraciuli mowesrigebis sferoSi saqarTvelos konstituciiT gansazRvruli Sewyalebis uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas.
Sewyalebis uflebamosileba xorcieldeba farTo diskreciis pirobebSi, aRniSnuli aris misi eqskluziuri ufleba.
amdenad, Sewyalebis brZanebuleba ar ganekuTvneba sask-is
me-2 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul sasamarTlos gansjad administraciul saqmeTa rigs.35 Sewyalebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad udevs Sewyalebis komisiis winadadeba
msjavrdebulis mimarT Sewyalebis gamoyenebis Taobaze,
romelic miiReba marTlmsajulebisa da samarTaldamcavi organoebis azrisa da sxva garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT. amdenad, aseTi xasiaTis saxelmwifo aqti Seicavs iusticiis aqtis elementebs, sadavo aqti ukavSirdeba sasa35 Sewyalebas zogjer `kerZo amnistias~ uwodeben, Tumca Sewyalebis
aqti, amnistiis aqtisagan principulad gansxvavdeba. Sewyalebis aqti
yovelTvis individualurad gansazRvrulia, amnistiis aqtis gamocemis
dros ar xdeba yvela samarTaldamrRvevi pirovnebis, mis mier Cadenili
danaSaulis garemoebebis gaTvaliswineba. Sewyaleba gamoiyeneba im pirTa mimarT, romlebic Tavs cnoben damnaSaved, inanieben Cadenil danaSauls da piradad iTxoven Sewyalebas. saqarTvelos konstituciis 73-e
muxlis 1-li punqtis `o~ qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos prezidenti
Seiwyalebs msjavrdebulT, amdenad, Sewyalebis aqtis gamoyeneba xdeba
im pirTa mimarT, romelTa mimarT arsebobs sasamarTlos mier dadgenili, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gamamtyunebeli ganaCeni. saqarTvelos konstituciiT gansazRvrul uflebamosilebas saqarTvelos prezidenti
axorcielebs saqarTvelos sasamarTloebis mier msjavrdebulTa da im
pirTa mimarT, romlebsac msjavri daades im qveynis sasamarTloebma,
visTanac saqarTvelos dadebuli aqvs xelSekruleba samarTlebrivi
urTierTdaxmarebis Sesaxeb da romlebic sasjels ixdian saqarTvelos
teritoriaze.

82
marTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesul ganaCens, saqmianobis am
procesSi warmoSobili dava ar warmoadgens administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinare davas
da, Sesabamisad, sask-is me-2 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul sasamarTlos gansjad administraciul saqmes. aRniSnulis
sawinaaRmdegod iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia
mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom Sewyalebis uflebis ganxorcielebisas saqme gvaqvs ara sasamarTlo, aramed aRmasrulebel xelisuflebasTan. vinaidan ukanaskneli kanoniT aris SezRuduli, dasaSvebia Sewyalebaze uaris Tqmis
sasamarTlo wesiT gadamowmeba. Tumca gamoiTqmeba eWvi
am kategoriis davebis administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis gziT ganxilvis dasaSvebobaze. Sewyalebaze uaris
Tqmis gadawyvetilebebis kontroli ufro ordinaluri
sasamarTlo sistemis, kerZod, sisxlis samarTlis saqmis
ganmxilveli sasamarTlos kontrolis qvemdebare unda
iyos.36 aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom germaniis federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 23.04.69w., 07.07.01w. da sxv. ganCinebebSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom, gaiziara ra saerTo sasamarTloebis mosazreba Sewyalebis aqtis sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb, ganmarta, rom
Sewyalebis saqmis warmoeba xorcieldeba ganusazRvreli
normatiuli winapirobis safuZvelze, Sewyalebis uflebis
mqone pirs Sewyalebis ufleba upirobod aqvs miniWebuli.
Sewyalebis sakiTxze gfr-is sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
23.04.69w. gadawyvetilebaSi, romelmac gansazRvra momdevno periodis sasamarTlo praqtika Sewyalebis sakiTxis mimarT, aRniSna, rom e.w. Sewyalebis debulebebi mxolod da
mxolod samarTalwarmoebis wesTan dakavSirebul Sidaadministraciul instruqciebs warmoadgenen da ar Seicaven
materialur-samarTlebriv debulebebs. SesaZlebelia
Sewyalebis aqtis miReba raime dasturis, Suamdgomlobis,
im piris Tanxmobis gareSe, romelic SesaZloa Sewyalebuli iqnes am aqtiT. Sewyalebis es Tavisebureba adasturebs
36 W.-R. Schenke ,,Verwaltungsprozessrecht, C.F. Mller Verlag, 2004, .. 30-31.

83
Sewyalebaze uflebis ararsebobas, rac SeuZlebels xdis
am uflebis darRvevas. ar arsebobs konkretuli masStabi
sasamarTlos mier mixedulebis Sesamowmeblad. Sewyalebis aqti yvela SemTxvevaSi niSnavs aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis Carevas sasamarTlo xelisuflebis sferoSi.
Sewyalebis gamoyenebis uflebis, misi istoriulad damkvidrebuli mniSvnelobiT implementaciiT da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organosaTvis gadacemiT ZiriTadma
kanonma moaxdina xelisuflebis danawilebis modificireba da Sewyalebis uflebis matarebels gansakuTrebuli
saxis Zalaufleba mianiWa. gfr-is ZiriTadi kanonis sistemidan da konteqstidan gamomdinareobs, rom saxelmwifo
xelisuflebis mier uflebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis konstituciuri ufleba (19.4m.)
ar vrceldeba Sewyalebis gadawyvetilebebze. Sewyalebis
pozitiuri aqtebi, agreTve gadawyvetilebebi Sewyalebaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb ar eqvemdebarebian sasamarTlo
wesiT gadasinjvas. Sewyalebis uflebis istoriuli ganviTarebis gzis analizis safuZvelze sasamarTlom daaskvna,
rom konstituciis Semqmnelebma gamoricxes Sewyalebaze
uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqtebis sasamarTlo wesiT gadasinjva da Sewyalebis uflebis aramarTlzomieri gamoyeneba
konstituciur organoTa politikuri pasuxismgeblobis
sferos gadaabares (gfr-is sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
am gadawyvetilebaze oTxi mosamarTlis mier gamoTqmul
gansxvavebul azrSi aRiniSna, rom adreuli warmodgena
gansakuTrebuli qarizmatulobiT dajildovebuli piris
sakuTari mixedulebiT suverenuli, iusticiisagan Tavisufali aqtebis gamocemis uflebis Sesaxeb ar Seesabameba
xelisuflebis danawilebis principebze agebul gfr-is
konstitucias, prezidentis ufleba federaciis doneze
ganaxorcielos Sewyaleba (gfr-s konstituciis 60.2 mux.),
aseve miwebis aRmasrulebel organoTa ufleba, romlebsac
Sewyalebis ufleba miniWebuli aqvT miwebis konstituciebiT, ar unda mowydes sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis konstituciur uflebas. SewyalebiT xorcieldeba aRmasrulebe-

84
li organos funqcia. samarTlebriv realobaSi Sewyalebis
saqmeebs, rogorc wesi, amzadeben qvemdgomi moxeleebi.
Sewyalebis gadawyvetileba sasamarTlos mier unda gadamowmdes im kuTxiT, Tu ramdenad pasuxobs igi samarTlianobis minimalur moTxovnebs).37
administraciuli marTlmsajulebis iurisdiqcia ar
moicavs davebs warmoqmnils parlamentSi kanonproeqtis
wardgenis an wardgenaze uaris Tqmis38, kanonis xelmoweris
(zogierT qveynebSi promulgirebis), parlamentis daTxovnis, mobilizaciis da konstituciuri uflebis sxva sakiTxebis Sesaxeb.39
37 Bundesverfassungsgericht, 07.07.01, 23.04.69 Entscheidungen
(http://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/suche.htm/;http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/dfr/
bv025352.html )
38 sakasacio palatis 18.10.2000w. ganCinebiT ar dakmayofilda saparlamento fraqciis kerZo saCivari saolqo sasamarTlos kolegiis
ganCinebaze. saparlamento fraqcia moiTxovda misi sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebas, romliTac fraqcia moiTxovda saqarTvelos parlamentis
13.07.2000w. riggareSe sesiaze miRebuli kanonebis, saproceduro wesebis darRvevis gamo, Zaladakargulad cnobas, parlamentis davalebas
ganixilos fraqciis mier sakanonmdeblo iniciativis wesiT momzadebuli kanonproeqti da daayenos igi kenWisyraze (ix. `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~. 2001w. #2, gv. 85-88).
iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom
warmomadgenlobiT organoSi saproceduro wesebis dacva warmoadgens
mis sakuTar, Sinagan saqmes. xelisuflebis danawilebis TvalsazrsiT
xelisuflebis sakanonmdeblo Stos gaaCnia Tavisi gadawyvetilebebis
TviTkontrolis da Semowmebis instrumentebi, ris gamo sasamarTlo
xelisufleba Tavs unda ikavebdes sakanonmdeblo organos Sida saqmeebSi Carevisagan, raTa, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia, Tavi daaRwios marTlmsajulebis politizacias. am sakiTxSi sasamarTlos aqtivizmsa da
TviTSezRudvas Soris unda moiZebnos oqros Sualedi. ase, mag., israelis uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier SemuSavda standarti, romlis mixedviT sasamarTlo ar ereva knesetis Sida procedurebSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac ziani adgeba konstituciuri wyobis struqturul
safuZvlebs. sasamarTlo mxedvelobaSi iRebs saparlamento cxovrebis meqanizmebisaTvis mosalodneli zianis xarisxs da am zianis konstituciuri wyobis safuZvelze moqmedebis xarisxs (. ,,
. . ,,, gv. 281-183).
39 W.R. Schenke., miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 31.

85
sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba konkretuli sakanonmdeblo aqtisa da parlamentis normatiuli dadgenilebis miReba, gamoqveyneba, amoqmedeba da a.S.
saqarTvelos konstituciiT dadgenil moTxovnebs, ganekuTvneba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos uflebamosilebas
(formaluri kostituciuri kontroli)40. sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos formaluri kontrolis obieqti SeiZleba iyos mxolod is normatiuli aqtebi, romelTa miReba/
gamocemis, xelmoweris, gamoqveynebis da amoqmedebis wesebi dadgenilia saqarTvelos konstituciiT. danarCeni
normatiuli aqtebis mimarT normakontrols saerTo sasamarTloebi ganaxorcieleben. formaluri sakonstitucio
kontrolis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia
saerTo sasamarTlos wardgineba `referendumis Sesaxeb~
15.05.96w. kanonis arakonstituciurad cnobis Taobaze.
Tbilisis saolqo sasamarTlos administraciul da sagadasaxado saqmeTa kolegia erT-erTi sarCelis ganxilvisas
mivida daskvnamde, rom davis gadasawyvetad gamosayenebeli kanoni `referendumis Sesaxeb~ ar Seesabameba saqarTvelos konstituciis 74.3 muxls, romlis Tanaxmad, referendumis daniSvnasa da CatarebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi ganisazRvreba ara kanoniT, aramed organuli kanoniT.
miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, saqarTvelos parlamentis mier
miRebul iqna kanoni da ara organuli kanoni. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos plenumis 03.12.2000w. gadawyvetilebiT
ar dadasturda `referendumis Sesaxeb~ 15.05.96w. kanonis
saqarTvelos konstituciis 74.3 muxlTan Seusabamoba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom `referendumis
Sesaxeb~ 15.05.98w. kanoni, miuxedavad mis saxelwodebaSi
termin `organulis~ ararsebobisa, miRebul iqna organuli kanonis kvorumiT _ parlamentis siiTi Semadgenlobis
naxevarze metiT. amdenad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom am kanonis miRebisas parlaments ar daurRvevia
40 j. xecuriani `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos uflebamosileba~. Jurnal. `adamiani da konstitucia~, 2006w., #3. 27-28.

86
konstituciis 66.2, 74.3 muxlebis moTxovnebi.41miuxedavad
imisa, rom wardgineba ar dakmayofilda, saqarTvelos parlamentma 19.11.02w. saTanado cvlileba Seitana kanonis
saxelwodebaSi, `referendumis Sesaxeb~ kanons organuli
kanoni ewoda.

6. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli


sasamarTlo da saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba
sajaro reglamentaciis sferos Seadgenen xelSekrulebebi, romlebsac saxelmwifos saxeliT deben qveynis prezidenti da mTavroba ucxo saxelmwifoebTan. miuxedavad
imisa, rom calkeuli sakiTxebi wesrigdeba Sida konstituciuri samarTliT, Tavisi bunebiT es urTierTobebi saerTaSoriso samarTals eqvemdebareba. amasTanave, aRniSnuli
urTierTobebi exeba ucxo saxelmwifoebs da organoebs,
romlebic saqarTvelos saxelmwifos iurisdiqciis gareT
imyofebian da Sesabamisad saqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebis iurisdiqcia maTze ar vrceldeba. dadgenili wesiT gamoqveynebuli da ratificirebuli saerTaSoriso
xelSekruleba Seadgens qveynis Sidakanonmdeblobis ganuyofel nawils, romelsac iyeneben administraciuli organoebi da sasamarTlo dawesebulebebi. sakonstitucio
sasamarTlo uflebamosilia ganixilos da gadawyvitos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaTa an SeTanxmebaTa konstituciurobis sakiTxi.42 saerTaSoriso da nacionaluri sa41 Jurn. `adamiani da konstitucia,~ 2002w., #4, gv. 154-158
42 unda aRiniSnos, rom zogierT qveyanaSi konstituciuri kontrolis funqciis ganmaxorcielebeli organo ar ixilavs saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebis konstituciurobis sakiTxs. ase, mag., TurqeTis konstitucia aTanabrebs ra xelSekrulebebs kanonebTan, uTiTebs, rom ar
daiSveba saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlosadmi mimarTva. italiis sakonstitucio sasamarTlo
SesaZleblad Tvlis xelSekrulebebis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb kanonebis

87
marTlis urTierTmoqmedebis uzrunvelyofaSi mniSvnelovan rols asruleben saerTo sasamarTloebi, romlebic
axorcieleben kontrols saxelmwifo organoebis mier saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis Sesrulebaze. saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebas upiratesi Zala aqvs qveynis SidakanonmdeblobasTan SedarebiT. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis ganmarteba, garda saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo dawesebulebebis mier micemuli ganmartebisa, xorcieldeba xelSekrulebis xelmomweri qveynis mTavrobis mier, romelsac upiratesi Zala aqvs am qveynis sasamarTlosaTvis. winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi administraciuli saqmeebis ganmxilveli mosamarTle SeiZenda saerTaSoriso mosamarTlis xarisxs, romelic mas ar gaaCnia. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis ganxilvisas mosamarTle iyenebs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis normebs xelSekrulebis xelmomweri qveynis
mTavrobis mier maTi ganmartebis Sesabamisad, winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos mier ganmartebis Semowmebis,
Secvlis SemTxvevaSi, administraciuli kategoriis saqmis
ganmxilveli mosamarTle iZens saerTaSoriso mosamarTlis xarisxs. administraciuli saqmeebis ganmxilvel mosamarTles ar gaaCnia agreTve saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis
da masTan dakavSirebuli aqtebis namdvilobis dadgenis
kompetencia. sasamarTlo xelisuflebis, iseve rogorc
sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis, saerTo
movaleobaa daicvas saxelmwifos saerTaSoriso-samarTlebrivi valdebulebebi. aqedan gamomdinare, saerTo sasada ara TviT xelSekrulebebis konstituciurobis dadgenas. aRsaniSnavia, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTloebi Zalze frTxilad ekidebian
saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis konstituciurobis sakiTxs. iuridiul literaturaSi aRiniSneba gfr-is sakonstitucio sasamarTlos
aqtiuri roli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis qveynis kanonmdeblobis
nawilad qcevis da maT mier individisaTvis uSualo ufleba-movaleobebis sakiTxebis gansazRvraSi. gfr-is sakonstitucio sasamarTlos erTerT gadawyvetilebaSi (1983w.) aRiniSna, rom sasamarTlo Tavis amocanas
xedavs gfr-is sasamarTloebis mier saerTaSoriso samarTlis zogadi
normebis darRvevis Tavidan acilebaSi.

88
marTlom SeZlebisdagvarad Tavi unda aaridos Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi samarTlis iseT ganmartebas, romelmac
SesaZloa gamoiwvios saxelmwifos mier Tavisi saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis darRveva, kolizia saerTaSoriso
samarTalTan. administraciuli saqmis sasamarTlos mier
saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis ganmartebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi principi unda iyos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebasa
da Sidasaxelmwifoebriv aqtebs Soris Sesabamisobis prezumfcia. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis ganmartebis saqmeSi didia samive xelisuflebis, gansakuTrebiT ki sasamarTlo da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas Soris TanamSromlobis roli. iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom aRmasrulebelma xelisuflebam sasamarTloebs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis normebis ganmartebaSi daxmareba unda aRmouCinos, vinaidan praqtikaSi
sasamarTloebi SesaZloa aRmoCndnen iseTi sirTulis winaSe, rogoricaa kontrahenti saxelmwifos mier saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis keTilsindisieri Sesrulebis sakiTxis dadgena, saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis SemuSavebisas
mxareebis ganzraxva da a.S. aseTi TanamSromlobis saWiroeba dadasturda saerTaSoriso samarTlis institutis mier
milanis rezoluciaSi (07.09.93w.), saerTaSoriso samarTlis mimarT sasamarTloebis rolTan dakavSirebiT.43 aRniSnuli imiT aris ganpirobebuli, rom saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba, aris ra ori saxelmwifo organos erToblivi
Semoqmedebis Sedegi, ar warmoadgens mxolod saqarTvelos saxelmwifos aqts. aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis aqtebi, dakavSirebuli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis xelmowerasTan, ratificirebasTan an denonsaciasTan maTi
wminda SidasamarTlebriv aspeqtSic ki Zalze mWidrod
ukavSirdeba xelSekrulebis saerTaSoriso aspeqts, rac
gamoricxavs davebis administraciuli sasamarTlos mier
43 k. korkelia `sasamarTlos roli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis
gamoyenebaSi~. Jurn. `adamiani da konstitucia~, 1998w. #1, gv. 108-110.

89
ganxilvas. amasTanave, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia qveynis
SidasamarTlebrivi Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare daadginos Tu ramdenad aris saerTaSoriso-samarTlebrivi aqti
saTanado wesiT ratificirebuli da gamoqveynebuli, ramdenad iqca igi aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT qveynis SidasamarTlis ganuyofel nawilad. administraciuli marTlmsajuleba uflebamosilia daadginos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis arseboba-ararsebobis faqti da ara TviT ratifikaciis marTlzomiereba. administraciuli kategoriis saqmis ganxilvisas sasamarTlo uflebamosilia agreTve gadaamowmos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis gamoqveyneba, gamoqveynebis marTlzomiereba.44 saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebis wesebis qveynis SidasamarTlis nawilad
qcevisaTvis xelSekruleba unda gamoqveyndes dadgenili
wesiT. ase, mag. safrangeTis saxelmwifo sabWos araerTgzis aqvs miRebuli gadawyvetileba imis Sesaxeb, rom oficialurad gamouqveynebeli xelSekruleba ar iqceva qveynis samarTlis nawilad. imisaTvis, rom saerTaSoriso samarTlis norma qveynis samarTlis nawilad iqnes gamoyenebuli, igi TviTaRsrulebadi unda iyos, anu misi formulireba uSualo gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas unda iZleodes.
iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba qveynis
SidasasamarTloebis mier am debulebis borotad gamoyenebis, maT mier uflebadamcavi saerTaSoriso aqtebis normaTa TviTaRsrulebadobis cnobaze uaris dauSveblobaze.45 saqarTvelos sasamarTlo praqtikaSic cnobilia agreTve saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis ratifikaciamdel
periodSi warmoSobili samarTalurTierTobis mimarT saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis normis gavrcelebaze uaris
Tqmis SemTxvevebi. saqmeze, romelSic mosarCele organizacia saqarTvelos mier mezobel qveyanasTan dadebuli
44

. ,, . gv. 98

45 . ,, . ., . ,,, 1996.
gv.227.

90
saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis normaze miTiTebiT, romlis ZaliTac xelSekrulebis monawile mxareebi ar iyeneben sabaJo gadasaxadebs da eqvivalenturi qmedebis mqone
begaras saqonlis eqsportsa da importze, moiTxova Semotanili navTobproduqciis sabaJo organos mier saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis darRveviT saqonlis dabegvris Tanxis ukan dabruneba, vinaidan saqonlis sazRvarze Semotanisas saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba saqarTvelos mxridan
dadasturebul iqna saqarTvelos prezidentis 24.06.96w.
brZanebulebiT, dabegvris Semdeg saqarTvelos parlamentis 16.04.97w. dadgenilebiT ganxorcielda SeTanxmebis
ratificireba, raionuli da saapelacio sasamarTloebis
mier sasarCelo moTxovna dakmayofilda, sabaJo organos
mosarCele organizaciis sasargeblod daekisra Tanxis gadaxda. sakasacio palatam daakmayofila sabaJo organos
sakasacio saCivari, mosarCeles uari eTqva moTxovnis dakmayofilebaze. sakasacio palatam miiCnia, rom saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis norma awesebda mxareTa Soris saqonlis eqsportze da importze qveynis SidakanonmdeblobiT
dadgenili reJimisagan gansxvavebul wesebs, ris gamo
saqarTvelos konstituciis 65-e muxlis me-2 punqtis `e~
qvepunqtis Tanaxmad savaldebulo iyo SeTanxmebis ara
saqarTvelos prezidentis mier dadastureba, aramed ratificireba. sasamarTlom ar gaiziara mopasuxis mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom vinaidan SeTanxmebis dadebis Semdeg
ar miRebula arc erTi sakanonmdeblo aqti kanonmdeblobis Sesacvlelad, maSasadame, arc SeTanxmebis ratificirebis saWiroeba arsebobda. aRiniSna, rom saerTaSoriso
SeTanxmebis 1-li muxli adgenda konkretuli xasiaTis debulebas, ris gamoc ar Seqmnila saimplementacio normatiuli aqtis miRebis saWiroeba, e.i. SeTanxmeba ganekuTvneboda e.w. `TviTaRsrulebad~ saerTaSoriso aqtebis rigs,
romlebic damakonkretebeli sakanonmdeblo aqtebis gareSe adgenen moqmed normebs. sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom
qveynis SidasamarTlis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis
normaTa aSkara darRveviT arauflebamosili organos

91
mier xelSekrulebis dadastureba ar CaiTvleba Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi proceduris dasrulebad, qveynis Tanxmobad saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis savaldebulod aRiarebaze. sakasacio palatam yuradReba gaamaxvila imaze, rom
davis sagans warmoadgenda ara saerTaSoriso SeTanxmeba,
misi Sesrulebis marTlzomiereba, aramed misi ZalaSi Sesvlis momenti, romelic ganisazRvreba qveynis SidakanonmdeblobiT da dasturdeba `saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaTa samarTlis Sesaxeb~ konvenciis me-11, me-14 da me-16 muxlebiT. amasTanave, venis konvencia, misi 1-li muxlis Sesabamisad, gamoiyeneba saxelmwifoebs Soris xelSekrulebiT
gansazRvruli urTierTobebis mimarT da ara qveynis Sida
davebis mosagvareblad. sakasacio palatam aRniSna, rom
marTalia, saerTaSoriso samarTlis da saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebis subieqts warmoadgens mTlianobaSi saxelmwifo, rogorc aseTi, da ara misi calkeuli organoebi, xolo konstitucia da sxva Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi kanonebi, ar warmoadgenen saerTaSoriso samarTlis wyaroebs
da amdenad ar gansazRvraven xelSekrulebis moqmedebis
pirobebs, magram naTelia, rom saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba, Tavisi bunebiT, warmoadgens saxelmwifoTa nebis
urTierTSeTanxmebas, xolo konstituciebi da sxva Sidanormatiuli aqtebi, saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis dadebisas saxelmwifo organoebs Soris urTierTobis wesis da
kompetenciis gansazRvriT, uSualod zemoqmedeben saxelmwifos, rogorc saerTaSoriso samarTlis subieqtis,
nebis Camoyalibebaze da gamoxatvaze, saxelmwifos saxelSekrulebo nebis formirebaze. e.i. saboloo jamSi, saxelmwifos Tanxmobis gamoxatvaze iyos SeboWili saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebiT. konstituciiT dadgenili saxelmwifos nebis gamovlenis procesis darRvevam SesaZloa gamoiwvios misi saxelSekrulebo nebis mniSvnelovani mankiereba, saxelmwifos WeSmariti nebis da Tanxmobis gamovlenis
xarvezianoba. amdenad, sakasacio palatam miiCnia, rom
saqarTvelos prezidentis gankargulebiT, romelic ar
warmoadgens normatiul aqts, sakanonmdeblo novaciis Se-

92
momRebi saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis dadastureba ewinaaRmdegeba TviT ratifikaciis, rogorc saxelmwifo interesebis garantis, aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis gakontrolebis saSualebis bunebas. aRniSnulis daSveba SesaZleblobas miscemda aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas sakanonmdeblo novaciebis Semcvleli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis dadebis gziT kanonSemoqmedebiTi funqciis ganxorcielebis saSualebas. sakasacio palatam miiCnia, rom
SeTanxmebis savaldebuloba saqarTvelos parlamentis
mier aRiarebulia parlamentis dadgenilebiT SeTanxmebis
ratifikaciis Sesaxeb da ara ratifikaciamde saqarTvelos
prezidentis mier miRebuli gankargulebiT, qveynis Tanxmoba saratifikacio xelSekrulebis savaldebulod aRiarebaze SeiZleba gamoxatos mxolod saqarTvelos parlamentma, Sesabamisi normatiuli da ara individualuri aqtiT. sakasacio palatam aseve miuTiTa, rom SeTanxmebis
pirveli muxliT saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili
wesebisagan gansxvavebuli wesebis dadgena, maTi ZalaSi
SesvlisaTvis, aucilebels xdida SeTanxmebis teqstis
oficialur gamoqveynebas, vinaidan normatiuli aqtis gamoqveyneba misi ZalaSi Sesvlis aucilebel winapirobas
warmoadgens. miuxedavad amisa, oficialur gamocemaSi
xelSekrulebis teqsti ar gamoqveynebula. saqarTvelos
prezidentis aqtebis oficialur gamocemaSi- `saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebebi da gankargulebebi~ gamoqveynda mxolod saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebuleba SeTanxmebis dadasturebis Sesaxeb, xolo TviT SeTanxmebis teqsti gamoqveynda saqarTvelos parlamentis mier
SeTanxmebis ratifikaciis Taobaze dadgenilebasTan
erTad normatiuli aqtebis oficialur gamocemaSi. sakasacio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom gamouqveynebel normatiul aqts ar SeeZlo warmoeSva ufleba-movaleobebi,
radganac oficialuri gamoqveyneba warmoadgens misi ZalaSi Sesvlis aucilebel winapirobas. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis oficialuri gamoqveynebis Sedegad sakanonmdeblo novacia iqceva qveynis samarTlebrivi sistemis na-

93
wilad da eqvemdebareba Sesrulebas yvela saxelmwifo organos mier.46 saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis ZalaSi Sesvlis
Semdeg xelSekrulebis oficialuri gamoqveynebis saWiroebaze miuTiTa agreTve saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos didi palatis 04.03.02w. gadawyvetilebaSi, Tumca aqve
aRiniSna, rom saqarTvelo asrulebs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas saqarTvelosaTvis misi ZalaSi Sesvlis momentidan da misi Seusrulebloba gamouqveyneblobis motiviT
ar daiSveba.47

7. dava saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs Soris


sasamarTlo praqtikaSi zogjer adgili aqvs davas saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs Soris. saerTod ar aris gamoricxuli saerTo sasamarTlos mier samarTlebrivi davis
ganxilva administraciul organoebs Soris. ase, mag., saxelmwifosa da adgilobrivi TviTmarTvelobis organoTa
Soris davis sasamarTlo wesiT gadawyveta kanonmdeblobiT adgilobrivi TviTmarTvelobis ganxorcielebis erTerT principad aris aRiarebuli (`adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis me-5 muxlis `v~
qvepunqti). amasTanave, samTavrobo dawesebulebebs Soris
samarTlebrivi dava administraciuli wesiT aris gadasawyveti, aseTi sarCelebi ar eqvemdebareba sasamarTlo
uwyebas.48 am wesidan gamonaklis SemTxvevas iTvaliswinebs
szak-is me-18 muxli, romlis Tanaxmad administraciul
organoebs Soris davas samarTlebrivi daxmarebis aRmoCenis Sesaxeb wyvets saerTo zemdgomi administraciuli or46 `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2000w., #1, naw. II, gv. 29-35.
47 `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2002w. #3, gv. 369-381.
48 sus 05.02.04w. (saqme #bs-271-90-ks-03) ganCineba.

94
gano, xolo aseTis ararsebobisas sasamarTlo. `saqarTvelos mTavrobis uflebamosilebisa da saqmianobis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 34-e muxlis Tanaxmad, samarTlebrivi dava
saministroebsa da sxva saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs Soris
wydeba qvemdebareobis wesiT, Tu kanoniT dadgenili ar
aris davis gadawyvetis sxva wesi. samarTlebriv davas saministros struqturul qvedanayofebs Soris, agreTve
saministros mmarTvelobis sferoSi Semaval saxelmwifo
saqveuwyebo dawesebulebebs Soris wyvets ministri. samarTlebriv davas im saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs Soris,
romlebic mmarTvelobis sxvadasxva sferoSi Sedis, wyveten dainteresebuli ministrebi. Tanxmobis miuRwevlobis
SemTxvevaSi gadawyvetilebas iRebs mTavroba. administraciul organos Soris gansjadobasTan dakavSirebul davas
wyvets saerTo zemdgomi administraciuli organo, xolo
aseTis ararsebobisas sasamarTlo. saxelmwifo organoebs Soris kompetenciis Taobaze davas ganixilavs agreTve
sakonstitucio sasamarTlo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo davas ganixilavs mxolod ori pirobis erTdroulad
arsebobis SemTxvevaSi: saxelmwifo organos kompetencia
darRveulia normatiuli aqtiT (da ara mxolod moqmedebiT); normatiuli aqti arRvevs saxelmwifo organos
im kompetenciis farglebs, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia
konstituciiT.49
saerTo sasamarTloSi mosarCeled da mopasuxed gamosvla sadavoa im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac romelime organizacia kanoniT aris aRWurvili uflebamosilebiT garkveuli
funqciis aRsasruleblad, magram ar arsebobs misi procesualuri statusis Sesaxeb raime daTqma. aseT SemTxvevaSi sarCelis wardgenis da sarCelze mopasuxed gamosvlis
49 j. xecuriani. miTiTebuli statia, gv. 34-35

95
SesaZlebloba saWiroebs Rrma, maT Soris, politikur-sa
marTlebriv analizs.50
50 q. niu-iorkis meris da qalaqis saskolo olqis sarCeli
(e.w. municipaluri mosarCeleebi) Statis winaaRmdeg Statis ganaTlebis dafinansebis dadgenili wesis Secvlis moTxovniT dauSveblad iqna cnobili sasamarTloebis mier. uzenaesi sasamarTlos da saapelacio sasamarTlos mosazrebiT
municipaluri da adgilobrivi xelisufleba, maTi Tanamdebobis pirebi ar arian uflebamosilni sadavod gaxadon Statis sakanonmdeblo organos aqtebi, rac am organoebsa da Stats Soris
arsebuli iuridiuli da politikuri urTierTobebis Sedegia.
municipaluri dawesebulebebi - qalaqebi, saskolo olqebi warmoadgenen Statis qvedanayofebs, mis agentebs Seqmnils Statis
mmarTvelobiTi funqciebis realizaciisaTvis. sasamarTloebis
azriT Statis municipalur organoebs da agentebs ar aqvT TavianTi damfuZneblis anu principalis aqtis gasaCivrebis ufleba,
ukeTu ukanaskneli sadavo urTierTobaSi saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organos saxiT gamodis. municipaluri organoebis mier
Statis winaaRmdeg sarCelis aRZvris unaris uaryofa aris xelisuflebis danawilebis Teoriis Sedegi da gamoxatavs sasamarTlos miswrafebas ar Caerios Statis, municipalitetis da mis
qvedanayofs Soris arsebul politikur urTierTobebSi. erTerTi mosamarTlis mier saqmeze gamoTqmul gansxvavebul azrSi
ganaTlebis sistemis analizis safuZvelze gamoiTqva mosazreba
imis Sesaxeb, rom StatSi arsebuli ganaTlebis sistema aris operatiuli mmarTvelobis farTo uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili
avtonomiuri lokaluri organoebis rTuli urTierTSekavSirebis Sedegi, sasamarTlo procesis warmarTvis ufleba aris amgvari regulirebis lokaluri Sedegi. Statis mier ganaTlebis dafinansebis valdebulebis Seusruleblobis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo
wesiT sakiTxis dasmis SesaZleblobis CamorTmeva SeuZlebels
qmnis saskolo olqze dakisrebuli amocanis Sesrulebis SesaZleblobas. saskolo olqebi da ganaTlebis sabWoebi sargebloben mniSvnelovani damoukideblobiT da xelisuflebiT, romlis
mniSvneloba aRiarebis da ara ignorirebis Rirsia(ix. 15.06.95w.
gadawyvetileba saqmeze City of New York et al Appellants v. State of New
York et al Respondents. 86N.Y. 2d 286, 655 N.E. 2d 649, 631 N.Y.S. 2d 553;
http://www.law.cornell.edu/ny/ctap/086_0286.htm#nd32).

96
8. saerTo sasamarTloebis mier normis ganmarteba da
sasamarTlo praqtika
sakonstitucio sasamarTlosagan gansxvavebiT saerTo
sasamarTlos mier normis ganmartebas aqvs ara ganyenebuli, aramed kazualuri xasiaTi. saerTo sasamarTlo normis
ganmartebas iZleva mis warmoebaSi arsebuli konkretuli
saqmis gadawyvetis dros, romelsac savaldebulo Zala
gaaCnia ganxiluli saqmis mimarT. aRniSnuli iseT SemTxvevaTa rigs ganekuTvneba, rodesac normis Semfardebeli
organo ganmartebas iZleva uSualod davis gadasawyvetad
normis gamoyenebis procesSi da ara ganyenebulad, normis
ganmartebis Sesaxeb calke moTxovnis safuZvelze. sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebuli materialuri da procesualuri normebis Sinaarsis axsna mimdinareobs konkretul
saqmeebze marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisas. sasamarTlo praqtikaSi cnobilia sasarCelo moTxovnis saxiT calkeuli normis ganmartebis moTxovnis Camoyalibeba. ase, mag.
sakasacio palatam q. Tbilisis sakrebulos Tavmjdomaris
m.S. sarCelTan dakavSirebiT miuTiTa, rom vinaidan `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~
organuli kanonis 481 muxlis ganmartebis moTxovna mosarCelis pirdapir, calke moTxovnis saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli, sasarCelo moTxovnis es nawili ar ganekuTvneba saerTo sasamarTlos qvemdebare saqmeTa rigs. sasamarTlom
miuTiTa, rom aseTi moTxovnis ganxilva ar gulisxmobs davis ganxilvasa da marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas, rac
`saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis Tanaxmad saerTo sasamarTloebis funqcias Seadgens. sasamarTlo iurisdiqciis mniSvnelovani gafarToeba, sasamarTlo
praqtikis mniSvnelobis zrda, moqalaqeTa da organizaciaTa uflebebis dacvis uzrunvelyofis sferoSi axali
funqciebis Sesruleba ar moicavs aRniSnul uflebamosilebas.51
51 sus 19.10.02w. ganCineba (saqme #3g-ad-68ks-02), `sus gadawyvetilebani
administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2002w. #11, gv. 1865-1869.

97
eWvs ar iwvevs sasamarTlo praqtikis didi mniSvneloba
samarTlis yvela dargSi. kanoni verasodes ver iqneba erTdroulad imdenad zogadi da imdenad zusti, rom daiyvanos
mosamarTlis roli kanonis kerZo SemTxvevisadmi meqanikur gamoyenebamde. samarTlis yvela dargSi mosamarTlem
unda ganmartos zogjer bundovani an winaaRmdegobrivi kanoni, unda miusadagos igi axal pirobebs, romelTa gaTvaliswineba kanonmdebels ar SeeZlo, unda Seavsos xarvezi.
sasamarTlos ara aqvs ufleba uari Tqvas marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaze imis gamo, rom samarTlis norma ar
arsebobs, an igi bundovania. is, rom kanonebi bevr kiTxvaze
pasuxs ar iZlevian an iZlevian bundovan pasuxs, savsebiT
bunebriv movlenad iTvleba. ufro metic, administraciul samarTalSi normis bundovani, zogadi xasiaTi zogjer
diskreciuli uflebamosilebiT subieqtis aRWurvis sakanonmdeblo teqnikis erT-erT saSualebad aRiqmeba.
iuridiul literaturaSi sagangebod aRiniSneba sasamarTlos ganmartebis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba administraciul samarTalSi. administraciuli samarTliT
mocul urTierTobaTa farTo speqtris gamo administraciuli samarTali umetes wilad ar atarebda sakanonmdeblo xasiaTs. xSir SemTxvevebSi kanonmdebeli imdenad zogadi xasiaTis principebs ayalibebda, rom maTi namdvili
Sinaarsis dadgena mosamarTles uxdeboda. zogjer kanonmdebeli awesrigebda mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebs,
ris gamo urTierTobebis umetesi masivi normatiuli reglamentaciis miRma rCeboda. aRniSnulis Sedegad administraciuli samarTlis ganviTarebis procesSi administraciuli samarTlis umniSvnelovanes normebs dasavleTis
qveynebSi sasamarTlo praqtika ayalibebda. aRniSnuls adgili hqonda an maTi mosamarTlis mier normatiuli aqtisadmi mibmiT an mosamarTlis mixedulebiT maTi CamoyalibebiT. administraciuli samarTlis sferoSi sakanonmdeblo
reglamentaciis simcirem mosamarTle samarTlis WeSmarit Semoqmedad aqcia. igi valdebuli iyo, samoqalaqo samarTlis mosamarTlis msgavsad, ganemarta xarvezis mqone

98
aqtebi da, amasTanave, sasamarTlo wesiT daedgina dargis
ZiriTadi principebi. administraciuli kanonmdeblobis
gauqmebis SemTxvevaSi administraciuli samarTali ganagrZobs arsebobas, vinaidan sasamarTlo praqtikas werilobiTi normatiul aqtebze miTiTebis gareSe Camoyalibebuli aqvs administraciuli samarTlis ZiriTadi normebi.
ase, mag., safrangeTSi administraciul samarTals mniSvnelobas matebs is garemoeba, rom igi Seqmnilia saxelmwifo
sabWos anu im organos mier, romelsac gaaCnia samecniero
tradiciebi, damoukidebloba da saxelmwifoebrivi goniereba, igi gabeduli msajulia, rogorc administraciis
mimarT, romlis saqmianobis yvelaze idumal meqanizmebs
kargad icnobs, ise kanonmdeblis mimarTac. kanonisadmi
morCilebis aRiarebis miuxedavad mas kanonis ganmartebis
formiT uxdeba kanonisaTvis iseTi mniSvnelobis miniWeba,
romelsac igi Tvlis savaldebulod. amasTanave, administraciuli samarTali karga xania gascda kanonmdeblobis
debulebebis ganmartebis farglebs.
sakiTxi sasamarTlo praqtikis (fait jurisprudence), rogorc
administraciuli samarTlis wyaros Sesaxeb, diskusiuria.
iuridiul literaturaSi saubaria samarTlis wyaroebis
oficialur da realur sistemebze. oficialurad kontinentaluri samarTlebriv sistemaSi Semavali qveynebis
samarTali werilobiTi samarTalia, igi warmoSobilia kanonmdeblobidan, romelic mosamarTlis monawileobis gareSe iqmneba. sasamarTlo ganmartavs samarTlis normebs,
magram ar qmnis maT.52 marTlmsajuleba SeboWilia kanoniT.
52 xelisuflebis danawilebis principidan gamomdinare, kontinentaluri samarTlis qveynebSi, romelTa ojaxs saqarTveloc ganekuTvneba,
sasamarTlo xelisuflebas ar gaaCnia kanonSemoqmedebiTi funqcia.
anglosaqsuri samarTlis qveynebSi piriqiT, samarTali aris is, rasac
aseTad miiCnevs mosamarTle, marTlmsajuleba ganixileba, rogorc samarTalSemoqmedeba, xolo samarTali rogorc sasamarTlos calkeuli gadawyvetilebebis erToblioba. samosamarTlo samarTlis gansxvavebuli roli ZiriTadad ganpirobebulia kanonmdeblobis SinaarsiT.

99
saqarTvelos konstituciis 84.1. muxlis Tanaxmad, mosamarTle Tavis saqmianobaSi damokidebulia da emorCileba
mxolod konstituciasa da kanons. amdenad, saqarTvelos
ZiriTadi kanonis mixedviT samosamarTlo samarTali ar
ganixileba samarTlis wyarod.
sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis zemoqmedebis farglebi
mkacrad aris gansazRvruli im saqmis farglebiT, romelzedac miRebulia gadawyvetileba. amasTanave, marTlmsajulebaze uaris Tqmis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, Tavad
kanoni avaldebulebs mosamarTles gamoitanos gadawyvetileba kanonis ararsebobis an im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac kanoni aris bundovani an arasruli. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
sasamarTlo dawesebulebebi da gansakuTrebiT uzenaesi
sasamarTlo organo gaazrebulad da xangrZlivad amkvidreben normas, es ukanaskneli ganapirobebs sasamarTlo praqtikas da amdenad igi marTalia ara formalursamarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT, magram realurad iqceva
Sesasruleblad savaldebulod. sasamarTlo praqtikis
mniSvneloba ganizomeba misi xangrZlivobiT, misi damdgeni sasamarTlo dawesebulebis avtoritetiT (samosamarTlo samarTali ierarqiulia), misi gamomwvevi mosazrebebis
mniSvnelobiT da a. S. 53 samosamarTlo samarTali samarTlis Sefardebis da ara samarTalSemoqmedebis aqtia. samosamarTlo samarTali aris ara samarTlis wyaro, aramed
samarTlis Semecnebis wyaro. zusti mecnierebisagan gansxvavebiT, samarTalSi pasuxgaucemeli kiTxva ar arsebobs.
amerikul kanonmdeblobas axasiaTebs regulirebis zusti da detalizebuli stili, risi gavleniT ,,Common Law-is mosamarTleebi gacilebiT
ufro seriozulad udgebian kanonis teqsts, vidre kontinentaluri
evropis mosamarTleebi. kontinentalur evropaSi kanonmdebloba yovlismomcvelia. igi yvelafers aregulirebs, magram zogadad. Sesabamisad, am qveynebis mosamarTleebi ufro kanonis azrTan arian ,,mibmuli,
vidre mis teqstTan.
53 . ,, , ., . ,,, 1973,
gv. 194-197.

100
iurisprudenciaSi problemaa ara pasuxgaucemeli kiTxvebis, aramed erTdroulad mravali gansxvavebuli pasuxis arseboba. samarTalSi arsebobs ara erTaderTi swori
gadawyvetileba, aramed erTdroulad ramdenime swori
gadawyvetileba. maTgan erT-erTi (da ara erTaderTi) swori gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi umTavresia iuridiuli argumentacia, romlis drosac samosamarTlo samarTali asrulebs samarTlis Semecnebis wyaros (magram ara
samarTlis wyaros) funqcias. samosamarTlo samarTlis
ierarqiulobis gamo, gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis da maTi
argumentaciis procesSi did rols asrulebs zemdgomi sasamarTlo instanciebis mier ganviTarebuli Sexedulebebi. mosamarTlis damoukidebloba, upirvelesad, gulisxmobs damoukideblobas normis ganmartebis procesSi. samarTlis zogadabstraqtuli norma iZleva gansxvavebuli
interpretaciis SesaZleblobas. amave dros, marTlmsajuleba unda iyos erTiani. normis erTgvarovani Sefardeba
da interpretacia samarTlebrivi usafrTxoebis erT-erTi moTxovnaa da ayalibebs demokratiuli saxelmwifos
fuZemdeblur princips. samosamarTlo samarTali unda
ganvixiloT, rogorc marTlwesrigis erTianobis miRwevis
saSualeba54.
gamoaqvs ra gadawyvetilebebi normatiuli aqtebiT
mouwesrigebel sakiTxebze, administraciuli saqmeebis
ganmxilveli mosamarTle, samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganmxilvel mosamarTlesTan SedarebiT, ufro naklebad aris SeboWili kanoniT. amasTanave igi ar aris SeboWili Tavisi
adre miRebuli gadawyvetilebebiT, Tumca yuradRebas
aqcevs maT da dasabuTebuli winapirobebis gareSe ar unda
gadauxvios maT (anglosaqsuri mosamarTlisaTvis savaldebulo precendentis wesi kontinentaluri samarTlis
sistemis mosamarTleze ar moqmedebs). aRniSnuli iZleva
gadawyvetilebebis axali problemebisadmi da marTlSeg54 g. xubua, ,,samosamarTlo samarTali: samarTlis wyaro Tu samarTlis Semecnebis wyaro?, Jurn. ,,marTlmsajuleba da kanoni, 2005, #5, gv.
45-51.

101
nebis miRwevebisadmi misadagebis SesaZleblobas. amdenad,
axali saqmeebis ganxilvisas sasamarTlo ar aris SeboWili
im normebiT, romlebic mis mier gamoyenebuli iyo adre
ganxilul saqmeebze. sasamarTlo praqtika SesaZloa Seicvalos, rac Sedegad ar iwvevs sasamarTlo praqtikis Secvlis gamo adre miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis gauqmebas.
amasTanave, administraciuli mosamarTlis mier samarTlis
Seqmna ar aris TviTneburi, sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinos samarTlebrivi usafrTxoebis, ndobis principisa da
marTlmsajulebis erTianobis moTxovnebi. sasamarTlo
Tavis praqtikaSi xelmZRvanelobs moqalaqeTa uflebebis
dacvis, administraciis saWiroebebiT, mocemuli periodis marTlSegnebiT da a. S., Sesabamisad normis ganmartebas dinamiuri xasiaTi eZleva.
iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom
`samosamarTlo samarTlis~ ganviTarebas mZlavr biZgs aZlevs swored sajaro samarTlis imperatiuloba, misi normebis simkacre da simtkice, ris gamo zogi mkvlevaris azriT
`samosamarTlo samarTali~ umetesad sajaro samarTlis
wiaRSi aris Casaxuli.55 aRsaniSnavia, rom kerZo da sajaro
samarTlis dayofa zegavlenas axdens normis ganmartebaze, kerZo samarTalSi gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens
mxareTa neba, ris gamo kerZo samarTlis normebs, rogorc
wesi, dispoziciuri xasiaTi aqvT, samarTalurTierTobebs
ganmarteba eZleva keTilsindisierebis principis safuZvelze. sajaro samarTali emsaxureba saxelmwifo uflebamosilebis dasabuTebas da SezRudvas. amdenad mis normebs
umetesad imperatiuli xasiaTi aqvs da samarTalurTierTobebis ganmarteba xdeba maTi obieqturi SinaarsisdamixedviT, mxareTa nebas, rogorc wesi, ara aqvs arsebiTi
mniSvneloba.56
55 g. gogiaSvili `dinamika da statika samarTalSi~, Jurn. `qarTuli
samarTlis mimoxilva,~ 2006w. #1-2, gv. 112-114.
56 . , . ,, , .
, C.H. Beck, Mnchen, 1995, . ,, 2000, gv. 91.

102
9. gadawyvetilebis kanonierebisa da mizanSewonilobis gamijvna
sasamarTlo wyvets ra samarTlebriv davas, Tavi unda
Seikavos socialur-politikuri an ekonomikuri mizanSewonilobis sakiTxebis ganxilvisagan, rac gamomdinareobs sakonstitucio moTxovnidan sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo organoebis damoukideblobis
Sesaxeb. sasamarTlo organoebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebic administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts amowmeben
kanonierebis TvalsazrisiT, adminstarciuli saCivris
ganxilvisas zemdgomi administraciuli organo amowmebs
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis rogorc kanonTan
Sesabamisobis, ise mizanSewonilobis sakiTxs. rac Seexeba
sasamarTlos, davis gadawyvetisas sasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobs kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebiT da ara mizanSewonilobis mosazrebebiT, ukanasknels ara aqvs prioritetuli
mniSvneloba kanonmdeblobis normatiuli moTxovnebis
dacvasTan. sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba racionaluria
imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdenad racionaluria davis gadasawyvetad gamoyenebuli sakanonmdeblo baza.57 dauSvebelia aqtis kanonierebis miuxedavad misi baTilad cnoba
aramizanSewonilobis gamo. zemoaRniSnuli exeba SemTxvevebs, rodesac gadawyvetilebis miRebisas administracias
zustad aqvs gansazRvruli misi kompetencia. aseT SemTxvevebs adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac moqmedi kanonmdeblobis mixedviT administracia valdebulia miiRos garkveuli gadawyvetileba da mas ar gaaCnia arCevanis gakeTebis
SesaZlebloba. im SemTxvevaSi Tu administracia sakiTxis
gadawyvetisas sargeblobs diskreciuli uflebamosilebiT anu kanonmdebloba aniWebs administracias arCevanis
SesaZleblobas, administraciis gadawyvetileba SeiZleba
57 ix. mag. sus 05.04.02w. #3g/ad-7-k-02 gadawyvetileba, 15.01.04w. #3g-ad181-k-03 ganCineba `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~ 2002w. #6, gv. 709-716, 2004w., #2, gv. 336-344

103
Sefasdes mizanSewonilobis TvalsazrisiT, vinaidan diskreciis farglebSi gadawyvetileba SeiZleba iyos mizanSewonili da mizanSeuwoneli, magram ar iqneba ukanono.
amasTanave, iseve rogorc ar arsebobs absoluturad gansazRvruli kompetencia (administracia gansazRvruli
kompetenciis pirobebSic ki garkveul wilad sargeblobs
arCevanis gamoyenebis TavisuflebiT), aseve ar arsebobs
absoluturi diskreciuli xelisufleba. iuridiul literaturaSi aRiniSneba administraciis SemboWavi sul cota
sami momenti: administraciuli organos uflebamosileba
yovelTvis ukavSirdeba mis kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul
kompetencias; diskreciuli uflebamosilebis pirobebSic
ki gadawyvetilebis miRebis motivebi anu mosazrebebi gadawyvetilebis faqtobrivi an samarTlebrivi mxaris Taobaze yovelTvis materialurad zusti unda iyos; dabolos,
dasaxuli mizani yovelTvis sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo
unda iyos. administraciuli organo diskreciuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi gadawyvetilebas iRebs sajaro
da kerZo interesebis proporciulobis, ndobis safuZvelze. administraciuli organo valdebulia ganaxorcielos
diskreciuli uflebamosileba kanoniT dadgenil vadebSi,
mxolod im mizniT, romlis misaRwevadac miniWebuli aqvs
es uflebamosileba. diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas ar SeiZleba gamoices administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, Tu piris kanoniT daculi uflebebisa
da interesebisaTvis miyenebuli ziani arsebiTad aRemateba im sikeTes, romlis misaRebadac igi gamoica (ase mag., policias ara aqvs ufleba, gamoiyenos cecxlsasroli iaraRi
sazogadoebrivi wesrigis umniSvnelo darRvevis aRsakveTaT im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac es erTaderTi saSualebaa
darRvevis aRsakveTad). diskreciuli uflebamosilebis
ganxorcielebisas gamocemuli aqtiT gaTvaliswinebulma
zomebma ar SeiZleba gamoiwvios piris kanonieri uflebebisa da interesebis dausabuTebeli SezRudva. diskreciuli
uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas organos aqvs arCevis
SesaZlebloba ramodenime marTlzomieri gadawyvetile-

104
bidan, riTac organos eZleva movlenaTa ganviTarebaze
realuri zemoqmedebis ufleba. mmarTvelobiTi organos
mixeduleba dakavSirebulia samarTalTan da ara TviTnebobasTan, igi kanonis miznis misaRwevad xorcieldeba.
TviTnebobis akrZalva administraciul samarTalSi emyareba Tanasworobis konstituciur moTxovnas. Tanasworobis moTxovna mmarTvelobis organosaTvis niSnavs samarTlebrivi normis Tanabari gamoyenebis valdebulebas. ar
daiSveba normis moTxovnis darRvevaSi Tanasworobis moTxovna. Tanasworoba gulisxmobs ori principis gatarebas.
kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principebidan gamomdinare,
saqmis garemoebaTa identurobis SemTxvevaSi dauSvebelia
sxvadasxva piris mimarT gansxvavebuli gadawyvetilebis
miReba, garda kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlis arsebobisas. saqmis garemoebaTa araidenturobis SemTxvevaSi
dauSvebelia sxvadasxva piris mimarT identuri gadawyvetilebis miReba, garda kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlis arsebobisas. amdenad, msgavsi sakiTxebi ar unda wydebodes gansxvavebulad, xolo gansxvavebuli _ erTnairad.
im SemTxvevaSi Tu diskreciuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi miRebul rig gadawyvetilebebSi administraciuli
organo garkveuli wesiT iyenebda am uflebas, is valdebulia momavalSic analogiur situaciaSi gamoiyenos diskreciuli uflebamosileba Sesabamisi wesiT. administraciuli organo uflebamosilia Secvalos es wesi mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi Tu momavalSi organo (Tavisufali mixedulebis farglebSi) apirebs gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis sxva
koncefciis gatarebas. TviTnebobis akrZalvis valdebuleba warmoadgens administraciuli organosadmi wayenebul moTxovnas ixelmZRvanelos Tavis gadawyvetilebebSi
mxolod kompetenturi mosazrebebiT. administraciuli
organo, gansakuTrebiT diskreciuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi, valdebulia miiRos gansaxilveli saqmis
Sesabamisi obieqturi da samarTliani gadawyvetilebebi.
Secdoma, Tundac uneblie, TviTnebobis akrZalvis moTxovnis darRvevaa. amasTanave, administraciuli organos

105
mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba unda iyos ekonomiuri, rac
niSnavs gaRebuli saxsrebis efeqtur gamoyenebas (mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom sakiTxis yvelaze iafi gadawyveta
saboloo jamSi yovelTvis ar aris xelsayreli gaweuli
xarjebis TvalsazrisiT). aRsaniSnavia, rom saxeldobr Tanasworobis principi, samarTlianobis mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, moiTxovs zogjer faqtobrivi uTanasworobis
gaTvaliswinebas. formaluri _ iuridiuli Tanasworobis
zedmiwevniT dacvis pirobebSi iqmneba mdgomareoba, romelsac uwodeben `diskriminacia diferenciaciis ararsebobis gamo~. gadawyvetilebis miRebisas mxedvelobaSi unda
iqnes miRebuli agreTve arsebiTi gansxvavebebi. dauSvebelia arsiT erTnairebis mimarT TviTneburad gansxvavebuli midgoma, amasTanave, arsebiTad gansxvavebulis mimarT
dauSvebelia TviTneburad erTiani midgoma. administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli mosamarTlis samarTalSemoqmedebiTi uflebamosileba SesaZleblobas aZlevs mas kanonierebis cnebaSi Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi normebis
integrirebis mizniT, moaTavsos mizanSewonilobis elementebi.58 sxvagvarad rom iTqvas, ukve Seqmnili samarTlis
Tvalsazrisis mixedviT ar arsebobs kontroli mizanSewonilobaze da diskreciul xelisuflebaze; Sesaqmneli
samarTlis mixedviT mosamarTle axorcielebs kontrols
mizanSewonilobis da diskreciuli xelisuflebis garkveul elementebze, riTac ayalibebs samarTlebriv normebs, romlebic afarToeben gansazRvruli, SeboWili kompetenciis da kanonierebis moqmedebis farglebs.
administraciuli TviTnebobisagan dacvis, diskreciuli
uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis aRkveTis, aRmasrulebel diskreciaze jerovani sasamarTlo kontrolis
dawesebis mizniT, msoflio administraciuli marTlmsajulebis praqtikaSi cnobilia `Sinaarsze orientirebuli~
sasamarTlo kontrolis ganxorcieleba iseTi testebis safuZvelze, rogoricaa aragonivruloba(iracionaluroba,
58 J. vedeli. miTiTebuli naSromi. gv. 210-211.

106
gadawyvetilebis mimRebi organo, romelsac farTo uflebamosileba mieniWa aRmasrulebeli kanonmdeblobiT,
valdebulia gaiTvaliswinos e. w. `nagulisxmevi SezRudvebi~, imoqmedos gonivrulad, keTilsindisierad, im miznis
Sesabamisad, romlis misaRwevadac mieniWa xelisufleba)59,
proporciuloba (proporciulobis testis arsi mdgomareobs uflebis SezRudvis miznisa da saSualebas Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis dadgenaSi. gonivrulobis
testTan SedarebiT igi diskreciuli uflebamosilebisagan bevrad ufro intensiuri dacvis saSualebas iZleva.
proporciulobis tests esadageba administraciuli saqmianobis iseTi principebi, rogoricaa Tanazomierebis,
ekonomiurobis, moqalaqeTa interesebis gaTvaliswinebis
principebi, kanonieri ndobis ufleba). uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos praqtikis mixedviT uflebis SezRudva
59 im farTo diskreciis miuxedavad, romelic did britaneTSi Sinagan
saqmeTa mdivans eniWeba konkretuli pirebis deportaciis sakiTxebis
gadawyvetaSi, sasamarTlo sicocxlis dacvis saWiroebis mosazrebiT,
aRmasrulebeli diskreciis mimarT Cveulebriv gamosayenebel testTan
SedarebiT iyenebs gamkacrebul tests, vinaidan rodesac gasaCivrebuli administraciuli gadawyvetileba riskis qveS ayenebs mosarCelis
sicocxles imis gamo, rom departamentis mier gaica TavSesafris maZieblis deportirebis brZaneba qveyanaSi sadac mosarCelis sicocxles
safrTxe emuqreba, sasamarTlos unda hqondes uflebamosileba dauqvemdebaros administraciuli gadawyvetileba yvelaze mkacr Semowmebas, raTa esoden mniSvnelovani sakiTxis gadawyvetisas aRikveTos
raime Secdomis daSveba. gamkacrebuli testis gamoyenebas adgili aqvs
britaneTSi ojaxuri cxovrebis uflebis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad (e.
lomTaTiZe `gaerTianebul samefoSi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis
diskreciis sasamarTlo kontroli adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciis safuZvelze~, Jur.
`marTlmsajuleba~, 2007w. #1, gv. 158-162). miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, aragonivrulobis safuZvelze warmatebulad warmoebuli saqmeebi britaneTSi, SemdgomSi ganmcxadebelTa gamarjvebiT dasrulda evropis
adamianis uflebaTa sasamarTloSi, romelic kontrols axorcielebs
proporciulobis safuZvelze(ix. mag. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli
sasamarTlos 15.11.96w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze Caxali(CHAHAL) gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg; bensaidi(BENSAID) gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg).

107
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi ar CaiTvleba darRvevad Tu: SezRudva gaTvaliswinebuli iyo kanoniT; SezRudvas hqonda
legitimuri mizani; SezRudva saWiro iyo demokratiul
sazogadoebaSi. evrosasamarTlos saqmianoba myar niadags
qmnis samosamarTlo samarTlisaTvis.

10. sarCelis dasaSveboba


sarCelis uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba yovelTvis ar niSnavs
sarCelis dasaSvebobas (sask-is 262 mux.). Tu yvela dasaSvebi saqme Sesabamisad sasamarTlos uwyebrivad qvemdebarea, piriqiT, uwyebrivad qvemdebare yvela saqme yovelTvis rodi aris dasaSvebi. ase, mag., sarCeli individualur
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis
Sesaxeb uwyebrivad eqvemdebareba sasamarTlos, magram
SesaZloa mosarCelis mier kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli xandazmulobis vadis gacdenis gamo ar iyos dasaSvebi.
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis da dasaSvebobis sakiTxs Semxebloba aqvs materialuri da procesualuri TvalsazrisiT sarCelze uflebasTan. materialuri TvalsazrisiT
sarCelze ufleba aris sarCelis warmdgeni piris ufleba
moTxovnis dakmayofilebaze. procesualuri TvalsazrisiT sarCelze ufleba aris mosarCelis ufleba mimarTos
sasamarTlos sasarCelo gancxadebiT darRveuli uflebis aRdgenis moTxovniT. materialuri TvalsazrisiT sarCelze uflebis ar arseboba Sedegad iwvevs sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebas sarCelis dakmayofilebaze uaris Tqmis
Sesaxeb. procesualuri TvalsazrisiT sarCelze uflebis
ararseboba Sedegad iwvevs warmoebaSi miRebaze uaris Tqmas, sarCelis dauSveblobas, xolo ukeTu aRniSnuli sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxdeba mogvianebiT, gamoiwvevs
saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb ganCinebis gamotanas.
miuxedavad imisa, rom sarCelze ufleba zogadad ar
aris damokidebuli moTxovnis marTebulobaze anu imaze,

108
ekuTvnis Tu ara ufleba mosarCeles, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi sarCelze uflebas
ar aqvs sruliad damoukidebeli mniSvneloba materialuri uflebisagan. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisagan gansxvavebiT, procesualuri ufleba sarCelze uSualod ukavSirdeba sarCelze
uflebas materialuri TvalsazrisiT, vinaidan sarCelis
dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas sasamarTlo sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis etapze wyvets sarCelis Sesabamisobas sask-is 22-25-e muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebuli sarCelis dasaSvebobis moTxovnebTan (uflebadamcavi interesi,
uSualo da pirdapiri ziani, xandazmuloba (dasaSvebobis
ukanaskneli aspeqti dadgenas ar saWiroebs aRiarebiTi
sarCelis aRZvris SemTxvevaSi. mxedvelobaSia agreTve misaRebi is garemoeba, rom dasaSvebobis pirobad igulisxmeba mosarCelis mier procesualuri (22-e da 23-e mux.) da ara
materialuri xandazmulobis vadebis dacva)). dasaSvebobis stadia ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli administraciuli
xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb sarCelebze.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saqme sasamarTlosadmi uwyebrivad
qvemdebarea, amasTanave ar arsebobs sarCelis ama Tu im
formiT(mag. aqtis baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb sarCelis formiT) daSvebis safuZveli, magram SesaZloa piris uflebis
dacva sxva formis sarCeliT, mosarCelis Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, unda moxdes sarCelis transformireba sxva formis
sarCelSi (mag., ara aqtis baTilad cnobis (amkrZalavi sarCeli), aramed qmedebis ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis
Sesaxeb (mavaldebulebel) sarCelSi). mosarCele valdebulia gaarkvios da Sesabamisi forma misces sarCels. zogierTi qveynis kanonmdebloba (mag. gfr-is) pirdapir adgens sasamarTlos valdebulebas daxmareba gauwios mosarCeles
amaSi60. sask-Si Setanili cvlilebis Sesabamisad (sask-is 281
muxli), procesis daCqarebis mizniT, mosamarTles SeuZ60 Kopp/Schenke ,,Verwaltungsgezetzordnung. Kommentar, Verlag C.H. Beck,
Munchen, 2003. art. 86.3, 88, gv. 993-997, 1040-1044.

109
lia daexmaros mxares moTxovnis transformirebaSi. procesualuri uflebebi da materialuri moTxovnebi ar unda
iqnes uaryofili mosarCelis gamoucdelobisa Tu umweobis gamo, aramed mosamarTles SeuZlia xeli Seuwyos moTxovnis transformirebas. amasTanave, administraciuli
samarTalwarmoebis inkviziciuri xasiaTi sasamarTlos
ar aniWebs uflebamosilebas Secvalos sasarCelo gancxadebis Sinaarsi mosarCelis Tanxmobis gareSe, sasamarTlo
ver gascdeba sasarCelo moTxovnis farglebs, Tumca, sasamarTlo ar aris SeboWili sasarCelo gancxadebis formaluri SinaarsiT (sask-is 281 muxli). im SemTxvevaSi Tu
mosarCele sarCelisaTvis sxva, sask-is 22-25-e muxlebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli sarCelis formis micemis Tanaxma ar
aris, sarCeli dauSveblad unda iqnes cnobili da saqmis
warmoeba unda Sewydes. amasTanave sarCelis dauSveblad
cnobis Sesaxeb ganCinebaSi mosarCeles unda ganemartos
sarCelis ra forma unda mieces moTxovnas.
dasaSvebobis sakiTxs Seicavs sask-is 22-25-e muxlebi.
sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad
cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb (sask-is
22-e mux.) da sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze (sask-is 23-e mux.) damokidebulia
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arsebobaze. amasTaneve, individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqts ar aqvs uflebis administraciuli sasamarTlos gziT
dacvis uzrunvelyofis winapirobis funqcia. aqti warmoadgens sarCelis swori formis gansazRvris aucilebel
winapirobas, saxeldobr, amaSi vlindeba aqtis saprocesosamarTlebrivi mniSvneloba.61 is administraciul-samarTlebrivi RonisZieba, romelic sask-is 22-e muxlis Tanaxmad Setanili sarCelis sagania, obieqturad unda akmayofilebdes administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis niSnebs.
61 z. adeiSvili, q. vardiaSvili, l. izoria, n. kalandaZe, n. sxirtlaZe,
p. turava, d. qitoSvili `zogadi administraciuli samarTlis saxelmZRvanelo~, Tb. 2005w., gamomc. `bona kauza~, gv. 110-111

110
urTierTobis administraciuli aqtis meSveobiT mowesrigebis sakiTxi ganekuTvneba sarCelis dasabuTebis da ara
administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi sarCelis dasaSvebobis sferos. aRniSnuli exeba agreTve iseT SemTxvevebs,
rodesac xelisuflebis matarebels administraciuli
aqtis gamocemis ufleba ar hqonda imis gamo, rom samarTalurTierToba kerZo samarTliT iyo mowesrigebuli.62
aqtis arsebobas, aqtis gamocemaze uaris Tqmas, ukavSirdeba agreTve administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasaSveboba. amgvari saxis sarCeli
uwyebrivad eqvemdebareba sasamarTlos Tu pirs sarCelis
sasamarTloSi aRZvramde mimarTuli aqvs administraciuli organosaTvis administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis moTxovniT.
normatiuli aqtis sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SemTxvevaSi sarCelis dasaSvebobis gasarkvevad sasamarTlom unda
daadginos misi ZalaSi yofnis faqti. vinaidan normatiuli
aqtis oficialur organoSi gamoqveyneba warmoadgens misi
ZalaSi Sesvlis aucilebel winapirobas, unda dadgindes
administraciuli normatiul-samarTlebrivi aqtis oficialur (da ara romelime sxva) gamocemaSi gamoqveyneba.
amdenad, administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebze sarCelis aRZvra dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, ukeTu
mosarCeles ZaluZs daadasturos, rom misi ufleba dairRva aqtis gamocemiT, an mis gamocemaze uaris TqmiT an administraciuli organos umoqmedobiT.63 sarCelis aRZvris
uflebis dadasturebis moTxovna miznad isaxavs nebismieri
piris mier sarCelis aRZvris SesaZleblobis aRkveTas, iseTi piris sarCelis daSvebas, romlis sasicocxlo interesebis sfero miRebuli zomebis Sedegad dairRva. amasTanave, piris uflebis darRvevis dasabuTebis moTxovna ar
unda iyos Zalze mkacri, mosarCelis uflebis darRveva
62 Kopp/Schenke, ,,Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung. Kommentar, 13. Auflage, Verlag
C.H. Beck, Munchen, gv. 139-149
63 Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung 42.2 art.

111
saboloo jamSi cdeba sarCelis dasaSvebobis farglebs da
ufro metad sarCelis safuZvlianobas, dasabuTebas ganekuTvneba. sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas
sasamarTlom Tavi unda Seikavos iseT sakiTxebze msjelobisagan, romlebic arsebiTi ganxilvis etapzea gadasawyveti, gansakuTrebiT moTxovnis kanonierebaze. sarCelis
dasaSvebad cnobis Sesaxeb ganCinebis miReba niSnavs, rom
sasamarTlo iwyebs mosarCelis moTxovnis marTlzomierebis Semowmebis process da ara moTxovnis kanonierebis
dadgenas, ukanaskneli scildeba ganmwesrigebeli sxdomis
farglebs da sarCelis arsebiTi ganxilvis Sedegad dgindeba64.
rac Seexeba aRiarebiT sarCels (sask-is 25-e mux.), aRiarebiTi sarCeli ar SeiZleba aRiZras, Tu mosarCeles SeuZlia aRZras sarCeli sask-is 22-24-e muxlebis safuZvelze.
moqmedi procesualuri kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis etapze sask-is
22--25-e muxlebiT dadgenili moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT wyvets sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxs. Tu dasaS64 mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom moqmedi saproceso kanonmdeblobiT
sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili, daudginos mosarCeles xarvezi im
motiviT, rom sarCelSi ar iyo miTiTebuli is samarTlebrivi normebi,
romlebzedac mosarCele amyarebs Tavis sasarCelo moTxovnas. ssk-is
178.1. muxlis ,,T qvepunqti, marTalia, sarCelis erT-erT komponentad iTvaliswinebs samarTlebriv safuZvlebs, romlebzedac mosarCEle amyarebs Tavis moTxovnebs, magram ssk-is 185-e muxlis mixedviT,
samarTlebrivi garemoebis miuTiTebloba ar warmoadgens sarCelze
xarvezis dadgenis safuZvels. Amdenad, mosarCeles ar evaleba sadavo samarTalurTierTobis iuridiuli kvalifikacia. misarCelis sasarCelo
gancxadebidan gamomdinare, mosamarTle valdebulia, moZebnos norma,
romelic iTvaliswinebs im samarTlebriv Sedegs, romelsac mosarCele
Tavisi sarCEliT iTxovs. Semdgom unda gairkves is garemoebebi, romlebic kanonis mier gansazRvrulia am samarTlebrivi Sedegis dadgenis
winapirobad. amisaTvis unda dadgindes gansaxilveli moTxovnis safuZvlisaTvis aucilebeli faqtobrivi winapirobani anu kanoniT dadgenili normis Semadgenlobis niSnebi. davis faqtobrivi garemoebis kanoniT dadgenili normis Semadgenel niSnebTan Sesabamisobis Semowmebas
ewodeba iuridiuli kvalifikacia.

112
vebobis sakiTxis gadawyveta saeWvoa an mosamarTle miiCnevs, rom sarCeli dauSveblad unda iqnes cnobili, sasamarTlo sarCelis miRebidan ori kviris vadaSi niSnavs ganmwesrigebel sxdomas. mxareTaTvis sasamarTlo uwyebebis
kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT Cabarebis SemTxvevaSi,
mxareTa ganmwesrigebel sxdomaze gamoucxadebloba ar
warmoadgens sasamarTlosaTvis sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxis ganxilvis damabrkolebel garemoebas. im SemTxvevaSi Tu sasamarTlo miva im daskvnamde, rom SecdomiT miiRo warmoebaSi sarCeli, sarCeli ar akmayofilebs sask-is
22-25-e muxlebiT dadgenil dasaSvebobis moTxovnas, sarCeli ar aris uwyebrivad sasamarTlos qvemdebare da maSasadame ar aris dasaSvebi, sasamarTlo sarCelis warmoebaSi
miRebis Sesaxeb Tavdapirveli ganCinebis gauqmebis gareSe
ganmwesrigebel sxdomaze miRebuli ganCinebiT Sewyvets
saqmis warmoebas. ganCineba sarCelis dauSveblad cnobis
da saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb saCivrdeba kerZo
saCivriT zemdgom sasamarTloSi. saapelacio sasamarTlo
kerZo saCivris dakmayofilebisa da ganCinebis gauqmebis
SemTxvevaSi saqmes gansaxilvelad ubrunebs gansjad sasamarTlos. umarTebuloa sarCelis dauSveblad cnoba iseTi safuZvliT, romelic warmoadgens sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebaze uaris Tqmis (mag. baJis gadauxdeloba) da ara
daSvebaze uaris Tqmis safuZvels. sasamarTlo ganCinebiT
Sewyvets saqmis warmoebas, Tu igi ar akmayofilebs sask-is
22-25-e muxlebiT dadgenili dasaSvebobis moTxovnebs. sasamarTlo aRniSnuli safuZvliT wyvets saqmis warmoebas
procesis nebismier stadiaze. ganCineba saqmis warmoebis
Sewyvetis Sesaxeb saCivrdeba kerZo saCivriT zemdgom sasamarTloSi. sarCelis daSveba kerZo saCivriT ar saCivrdeba.
saqmis saapelacio wesiT ganxilvisas dauSveblobis motiviT saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis safuZvlebis gamovlenisas
sasamarTlo iRebs saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb ganCinebas, romelic saCivrdeba kerZo saCivriT. saqmis sakasacio wesiT ganxilvisas dauSveblobis motiviT saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis safuZvlebis gamovlenisas sasamarTlos

113
aqvs ufleba da ara valdebuleba miiRos saqmis warmoebis
Sewyvetis Sesaxeb ganCineba, romelic ar saCivrdeba.
dasaSvebobis sakiTxs exeba agreTve sask-is
22-e muxlis me-2 nawili, romlis Tanaxmad, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar
aris dadgenili, sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti an misi nawili pirdapir da uSualo
(individualur) zians ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess an ukanonod zRudavs mis uflebas. sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu sadavod gamxdari aqti mniSvnelovanwilad aris marTlsawinaaRmdego da mosarCeles amis
Sedegad Selaxuli aqvs ufleba. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis(22-e mux.), agreTve, aqtis gamocemis Taobaze (23-e mux.), administraciuli organos qmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze (24-e mux.) sarCelis, agreTve
aRiarebiTi F(25-e muxli.) sarCelis aRZvris ufleba ar warmoadgens sayovelTao uflebas, sarCelis aRZvris ufleba
aqvs mxolod dainteresebul mxares. sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu sasamarTlo sask-is 32-e-331 muxlebis safuZvelze
daadgens piris uflebis an interesis darRvevas.
sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dainteresebuli mxare gamoiyenebs szak-iT dadgenil administraciuli gasaCivrebis uflebas, garda im SemTxvevisa,
rodesac administraciuli organos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaze administraciuli saCivari ar daiSveba.
saCivris, rogorc sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapirobis
sakiTxze am wignis farglebSi ukve gvqonda saubari. sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxi aseve ganxilulia sarCelis calkeul saxeebTan mimarTebaSi wignis me-5 TavSi.

114
11. administraciuli saCivari, rogorc sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapiroba
mraval qveyanaSi sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba
(gare kontroli) daiSveba sadavo sakiTxis administraciuli wesiT gasaCivrebis Semdeg, specialuri kanonmdeblobiT ganisazRvreba gadawyvetilebis marTlzomierebis Sidauwyebrivi Semowmebis farglebi (rogorc wesi,
administraciuli Semowmeba Semoifargleba erTi an ori
instanciiT). administraciuli saCivris gareSe sasamarTlosaTvis uSualo mimarTvis ufleba aRiarebulia im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac administraciuli aqti gamocemulia
organos mier, romelsac ar gaaCnia zemdgomi organo, agreTve, TviTmmarTvelobis organos mier eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis farglebSi, kolegiuri an
damoukidebeli organos mier an kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul sxva SemTxvevebSi.
adre moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT pirs SeeZlo administraciuli organosaTvis administraciuli saCivris warudgenlad pirdapir miemarTa sasamarTlosaTvis Tavis
uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavad. zemdgom administraciul organoSi gasaCivrebis gareSe sasamarTlosadmi
mimarTvis SesaZlebloba mniSvnelovanwilad iyo ganpirobebuli mosaxleobaSi mmarTvelobiTi aparatis dabali avtoritetiT, imiT, rom administraciuli organos gadawyvetileba mraval SemTxvevaSi ganpirobebuli iyo zemdgomi
organos poziciiT.
sarCelis aRZvramde administraciuli gasaCivrebis savaldebulo wesis SemoReba, erTi mxriv, daabrkolebs sasamarTloSi usafuZvlo sarCelebis Setanas, xolo, meore
mxriv, waaxalisebs pirs sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvamde gamoiyenos szak-iT miniWebuli uflebebi da administrcaiul organos aiZulebs Seasrulos szak-iT gansazRvruli
procedurebi da wesebi. Tanamedrove socialur-ekonomikuri cxovrebis sirTulis, sasamarTlo proceduris xangrZlivobis gaTvaliswinebiT gasaCivrebis administrcai-

115
uli wesi iZleva administrcaiul sferoSi prevenciuli
zomebis miRebis, qvemdgomi administrcaiuli organos
saqmianobis marTlzomierebis mniSvnelovani danaxarjebis gareSe dadgenis, administrcaiul organoTa sistemis
TviTkontrolis saSualebas. sarCelis aRZvramde administraciuli gasaCivrebis savaldebulo etapis SemoReba
ar laxavs saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxliT aRiarebul uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavad sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas, vinaidan aRniSnuli wesi ar
gamoricxavs uflebis sasamarTlo wesiT dacvas, pirs potenciurad unarCundeba aseTi ufleba, misi realizacia
xdeba administraciuli warmoebis amowurvis Semdeg, rac
SesaZleblobas aZlevs administraciul organos gamoasworos daSvebuli Secdoma, amasTan, administraciul
proceduras aniWebs subsidarul xasiaTs, xels uwyobs davebis operatiul gadawyvetas, sasamarTloTa gantvirTvas. evropuli sasamarTlos praqtikiT dasturdeba, rom
sasamarTlo ganxilvisas ufleba, romlis kerZo aspeqts
warmoadgens sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba, ar aris
absoluturi xasiaTis da eqvemdebareba impliciturad dasaSveb SezRudvebs, vinaidan sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis
ufleba saxelmwifos mier unda mowesrigdes, romelic am
dros garkveuli mixedulebiT sargeblobs65. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebze sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis pirobad administrcaiuli proceduris savaldebulo
gavlis SemoReba, sasamarTlos gareSe winaswari gadawyvetis
wesi, ar zRudavs sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas im
odenobiT, rom uflebis arsi kargavdes azrs. amgvari SezRudva Seesabameba konvenciis me-6 muxlis pirvel punqts, vinaidan kanonzomieri mizniskenaa mimarTuli da daculia gamoyenebuli saSualebebis da miRwevis miznis Tanazomiereba.
Sidaadministraciuli gasaCivrebis stadias bevri saer65 ix., evrosasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi fogarti (Focarti) gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg; cironisi (Tsironis) saberZneTis winaarmdeg; iatczilari (Agtzilar) da sxvebi saberZneTis winaarmdeg.

116
To aqvs sasamarTlo warmoebasTan, ris gamoc mas zogjer
kvazisasamarTlo procedurasac ki uwodeben. amavdroulad, administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba aris administraciuli warmoebisagan xarisxobrivad gansxvavebuli
saqmianobis forma, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli sajaroobis,
Tanasworobis, sasamarTlos damoukideblobis da sxv.
principebiT. administraciuli organoebisagan gansxvavebiT, sasamarTlo wyvets ra mxolod samarTlis sakiTxebs,
ar exeba socialur-politikuri, ekonomikuri mizanSewonilobis sakiTxebs (am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
saCivris ufleba sarCelis uflebaze ufro farToa).
sask-Si 28.12.2007 wlis kanoniT Setanili cvlilebis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo ar miiRebs sarCels administraciuli
organos mimarT, Tu mosarCelem szak-iT dadgenili wesiT
ar gamoiyena administraciuli saCivris erTjeradad wardgenis SesaZlebloba. sask-is me-2 muxlis 5-e nawiliT gansazRvruli es debuleba administraciul saCivars aZlevs
administraciuli sarCelis dasaSvebobis aucilebeli winapirobis statuss. administraciuli saCivris cnebidan
gamomdinare66 administraciuli wesiT gasaCivrebis moTxovna exeba szak-is 22-e 24-e muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebul
sarCelebs., Tumca sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis pirobad
administraciuli saCivris Setana ar unda vrceldebodes
realaqtze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi faqtobrivad gamoiricxeba sask-is 24-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli qmedebis
ganxorcielebis Taobaze sarCelis aRZvris SesaZlebloba
66 szak-is me-2 muxlis ,,i qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, ,,administraciuli saCivari aris dainteresebuli mxaris mier uflebamosil administraciul
organoSi am kodeqsiT dadgenili wesiT wardgenili werilobiTi moTxovna darRveuli uflebis aRdgenis mizniT imave an qvemdgomi organos mier gamocemuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad
gamocxadebis, Secvlis an axali administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis an administraciuli organos mier iseTi moqmedebis ganxorcielebis an iseTi moqmedebis ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb, romelic ar gulisxmobs individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemas.

117
da igi yovelTvis administraciul saCivarTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli aqtis baTilad cnobis gamocxadebis moTxovniT sarCelis saxes miiRebs. administraciuli saCivari
ar warmoadgens sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis pirobas administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan
da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebul davebze, radganac kanondebloba ar iTvaliswinebs aseT davebze administraciuli
saCivris Setanis SesaZleblobas (administraciul xelSekrulebaze administraciuli saCivris Setana dauSvebelia
im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac xelSekruleba individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis nacvlad
ideba. vinaidan administraciuli organos mier dadebuli
xelSekrulebis baTilad gamocxadebas samoqalaqo kodeqsi (szak-is 70-e muxli) awesrigebs, amasTanave administraciuli xelSekruleba, romelic zRudavs mesame piris
uflebebs an akisrebs mas raime valdebulebas, ZalaSi Sedis mxolod mesame piris werilobiTi Tanxmobis wardgenis
Semdeg). administraciuli saCivris Setana ar daiSveba agreTve damoukidebeli organos mier gamocemuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis mimarT
(szak-is 161-e muxli), im organoebis mimarT, romlebsac ar
gaaCniaT zemdgomi organo (TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, kontrolis palata da sxv. centraluri organoebi). amdenad, am organoebis mimarT aRZruli sarCelebis warmoebaSi miRebis pirobad ver iqneba miCneuli administraciuli
gasaCivrebis wesis dacva. administraciuli gasaCivreba ar
warmoadgens sarCelis aRZvris savaldebulo winapirobas
agreTve im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac kanondebloba iTvaliswinebs sasamarTloSi sarCelis aRZvras administraciuli
gasaCivrebis wesis daucvelad (ase, mag., sagadasaxado kodeqsis XIX Tavis Tanaxmad, gadasaxadis gadamxdels/sagadasaxado agents an sxva valdebul pirs aqvs davis gadawyvetis formis arCevis ufleba. kerZod, mas SeuZlia administraciuli proceduris gavlis gareSe uSualod mimarTos
sasamarTlos an airCios finansTa saministros sistemaSi
davis ganxilvis wesi. administraciul organoSi davis ga-

118
dawyvetis nebismier etapze miRebuli gadawyvetileba pirs
SeuZlia gaasaCivros sasamarTloSi). administraciuli
gasaCivrebis etapis gavlas ar saWiroebs, agreTve, sask-is
25-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli aRiarebiTi sarCelis aRZvra, garda aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelisa. (aqtis
ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelze ar unda vrceldebodes
agreTve 25.2. muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli piroba).
sarCelis aRZvramde sadavo sakiTxis administraciuli
wesiT savaldebulo gasaCivrebis wesis SemoReba iwvevs administraciuli kategoriis davebis garkveul Tavmoyras
dedaqalaqSi. dedaqalaqis sasamarTloebSi administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis koncentraciis tendenciis
Sesustebas xels Seuwyobda administraciuli saCivris
ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis arsebuli wesis Secvla. sadReisod moqmedi wesi savaldebulod iTvaliswinebs zemdgomi
Tanamdebobis piris an organos mier saqmis ganxilvas anu
gamoricxulia administraciuli saCivris ganxilvaSi im
piris monawileoba, romelic gasaCivrebuli aqtis momzadebaSi an gamocemaSi moinawileobda. saCivris operatiuli ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis, saCivarze administraciuli warmoebis efeqturobisa da ekonomiurobis TvalsazrisiT rig qveynebSi (mag., gfr-Si) saCivars pirvel etapze
ganixilavs aqtis gamomcemi Tanamdebobis piri da mxolod
saCivris dakmayofilebaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi saCivari gansaxilvelad qvemdebareobiT egzavneba zemdgom administraciul organos. administraciuli saCivris ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis amgvari wesis SemoReba Seamsubuqebda
xsenebul tendencias.

12. Sualeduri aqti
calke gasaCivrebas ar eqvemdebareba administraciuli

warmoebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli administraciuli organos gadawyvtileba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, Tu

119
es pirdapir aris gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT an Sesabamisi
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisagan damoukideblad arRvevs piris uflebas an kanonier interess (mag.,
mravalsafexuriani administraciuli aqtis miRebisas,
rodesac aqtis gamocema mmarTvelobis mravali subieqtis
Tanxmobazea damokidebuli, damoukideblad ar gasaCivrdeba erT-erTi uwyebis uari, maSinac ki, rodesac is individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamomcemi organos mier gamocemaze uaris Tqmis mizezi xdeba.
gasaCivrebas eqvemdebareba mTlianad nebarTvis gacemaze
uaris Tqmis aqti. ar daiSveba, magaliTad, saministros generaluri inspeqciis daskvnis gasaCivreba sajaro mosamsaxuris mier samsaxurebrivi uflebamosilebis borotad
gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. gasaCivrebas eqvemdebareba daskvnis
safuZvelze gamocemuli brZaneba mosamsaxuris dakavebuli Tanamdebobidan gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb). mmarTvelobiTi aparatis operatiulobis uzrunvelyofis mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, amgvari gadawyvetilebis gasaCivreba
dasaSvebia mxolod administraciuli warmoebis Sedegad
gamocemul administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtTan erTad.
administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad moiazreba administraciuli organos mier gamocemuli an dadasturebuli
dokumenti, romelsac SeiZleba mohyves samarTlebrivi
Sedegi, magram ara sxva administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemiT, aramed swored administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis gareSe.
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve is garemoeba, rom administraciuli organos zogadi valdebuleba _ gadaugzavnos gancxadeba uflebamosil organos ar vrceldeba sasamarTloebze. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu administraciul organoSi Semosul gancxadebaSi dasmuli sakiTxi sasamarTlos
gansjadia, an SeuZlebelia uflebamosili administraciuli organos dadgena, administraciuli organo, romelsac mimarTa pirma gancxadebiT, ar aris uflebamosili gadaugzavnos gancxadeba gansjad sasamarTlos, vinaidan,
kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo saqmis ganxilvas

120
Seudgeba im piris gancxadebiT, romelic mimarTavs sasamarTlos Tavisi uflebis an kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli
interesis dasacavad(ssk-is 2.1 mux.). xsenebul SemTxvevaSi
administraciuli organo valdebulia daubrunos ganmcxadebels gancxadeba Sesabamisi dasabuTebiT(szak-is me80-e muxli).
sasamarTlos uflebis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare,
ikrZaleba sadavo samarTalurTierTobis monawileTa SeTanxmeba davis SemTxTevaSi sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis
dauSveblobis Sesaxeb. sasamarTlo dacvis ufleba adamianis ganuyofel uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa rigs ganekuTvneba, igi yvela sxva uflebis da Tavisuflebebis
realizaciis savaldebulo garantiaa.67 marTlmsajuleba
unda pasuxobdes samarTlianobis moTxovnebs da uzrunvelyofdes uflebebSi efeqtur aRdgenas. sasamarTlo
dacva unda iyos sruli, rac gulisxmobs aramxolod yvelas SesaZleblobas mimarTos sasamarTlos, aramed sasamarTlos valdebulebas, gamoitanos samarTliani da dasabuTebuli gadawyvetileba. ukanaskneli moTxovna miznad
isaxavs mxaris mier gasaCivrebis uflebis ganxorcielebis
SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofas, ganpirobebulia mxaris
interesiT, icodes gamotanili gadawyvetilebis safuZvlebi, meore mxriv, sazogadoebis interesiT, icodes misi
saxeliT gamotanili gadawyvetilebis motivacia.

13. dainteresebuli mxaris cnebis arsi


dainteresebuli mxaris cnebis mniSvneloba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom igi ukavSirdeba piris uflebas miiRos mo67 universaluri sasamarTlo dacvis ufleba dasturdeba adamianis
uflebaTa dacvis sasamarTlos 21.02.75w. gadawyvetilebiT saqmeze
,,golderi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg, 27.02.80w. gadawyvetilebiT ,,deveeri belgiis winaaRmdeg da sxv.

121
nawileoba administraciul warmoebaSi da gamovides mxared sasamarTloSi. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
e.i. normatiuli da individualuri administraciuli aqti,
agreTve uari aqtis gamocemaze, administraciuli organos
qmedeba pirdapir da uSualo gavlenas unda axdendes piris
uflebaze an interesebze, anu sarCelis Semtans sarCelSi
dasmuli sakiTxebisadmi uSualo uflebadamcavi interesi unda hqondes. kanonmdebels mxedvelobaSi aqvs im piris
ufleba da interesebi, romelic mimarTavs sasamarTlos
maTi dacvis moTxovniT anu mosarCele. Tumca aRniSnuli
ar niSnavs imas, rom sasamarTlo icavs mxolod mosarCelis
uflebebsa da interesebs, sasamarTlo mowodebulia Tanabarwilad daicvas agreTve mopasuxis ufleba da misi kanonieri interesi.
zogadad interesi, samarTlebrivi warmodgenebis ganviTarebis kvaldakval, Tavis asaxvas hpovebs moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis an sajaro interesebis
formaSi. interesi Seadgens nebismieri uflebis faseul,
miznobriv da Sinaarsobriv winapirobas, uflebis praqtikulad SesagrZnob, misi normatiuli asaxvis da ganviTarebis impulss. interesisaTvis uflebis formis miniWeba
aris pirovnebis samarTlebrivi statusis regulirebis
sakanonmdeblo procesebis klasikuri xerxi. administraciul sferoSi interesis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi veqtori
ukavSirdeba kanonieri interesis saxiT mis samarTlebriv
aRiarebas, kanonier interesTa nawilis SemdgomSi uflebis
xarisxSi ayvaniT. ufleba aris kanoniT garantirebuli SesaZlebloba, romlis realizacia damokidebulia samarTlis subieqtis nebaze. ieringi Tavis naSromSi ,,brZola
uflebisaTvis (1872w.) aRniSnavda, rom ufleba sxva araferia, Tu ara samarTlebrivad daculi interesi68. samarTlis Sefardebis procesSi mosamarTlem unda gansazRvros
kanoniT daculi interesebi da am TvalsazrisiT ganaxor68 rudolf fon ieringi ,,brZola uflebisaTvis, Tb., 2000w., gv.33, 3637

122
cielos kanonis mizani (,,interesebis iurisprudencia).
kanoni Cveulebriv eswrafvis ara erTi, aramed ramdenime
miznis realizacias. kanons aseve safuZvlad udevs gansxvavebuli interesebi. normis miznis garkveva moiTxovs
swored am interesebis analizs (,,teleologiuri iurisprudencia).
interesis kategoria ar aris sakmarisad gamokvleuli
araTu iuridiul mecnierebaSi, aramed agreTve filosofiaSi, fsiqologiaSi da politikur ekonomiaSi. literaturaSi davas iwvevs sakiTxi TviT interesis bunebis anu
imis Sesaxeb, aris Tu ara interesi subieqtis fsiqologiuri ganwyobis gamomxatveli ,,subieqturi movlena, Tu igi
Tavisi bunebiT aris obieqturi anu warmoadgens adamianis arsebobis erTgvar obieqtur pirobas. Gavrcelebulia
agreTve mesame mimarTuleba, romelic interess ixilavs
rogorc obieqturi da subieqturi momentebis garkveul
Tanafardobas. interesi Tavisi bunebiT aris obieqturi.
calkeuli pirebis, jgufebis, koleqtivebis, sazogadoebis
interesi ganpirobebulia cxovrebis pirobebiT, maT Soris
gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvT cxovrebis materialur pirobebs. amasTanave, interesis xasiaTze zemoqmedebas axdens agreTve sxva faqtorebic, rogoricaa: erovnuli Taviseburebebi, ideologia, politika, samarTali, morali,
Cveulebebi. individualur interesebTan mimarTebaSi moqmedebs: individualuri, profesiuli, asakobrivi, ojaxuri da sxva pirobebi da garemoebebi. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis pirobebi warmoSoben am pirobebis Sesabamis moTxovnilebebs, romlebic adamianis gonebis mier maTi aRqmis
meSveobiT iZenen ama Tu im gacnobierebuli miswrafebebis
formas, ukanaskneli ganapirobebs adamianis qcevis mizanmimarTul da nebelobiT xasiaTs. amdenad, moTxovnileba
Seadgens interesis Sinaarss. moTxovnilebasa da interss
Soris aris uryevi kavSiri, amasTanave moTxovnileba da interesi erTi da igive ar aris. moTxovnileba aris garkveuli obieqturi aucilebloba, xolo interesi aris adamianis cnobierebiT aRqmuli moTxovnileba, aucilebloba,

123
romelsac gacnobierebuli miswrafebis forma aqvs miRebuli. interesi socialuri kategoriaa, igi moTxovnilebis gansakuTrebuli saxe _ socialuri moTxovnilebaa, amdenad individis yvela moTxovnileba (mag.fiziologiuri)
ar warmoadgens interess, interesi aris socialuri moTxovnileba. Tu moTxovnilebis kategoria yvela cocxali
arsebis mimarT gamoiyeneba, interesis kategoriis gamoyeneba xdeba mxolod sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mimarT.
ufleba ar moicavs interess, vinaidan igi ar warmoadgens
samarTlebriv kategorias. interesi socialuri movlenaa,
romlis dacvasac emsaxureba ufleba, ukanaskneli warmoadgens interesis realizaciis specifikur formas. mcirewlovanebis, agreTve moSlili fsiqikis mqone adamianebis interesebis gacnobiereba da nebelobiTi moqmedebebi
miiReba ara interesebis matareblis, aramed sxva pirebis
mier.
gacnobierebuli miswrafebis anu interesis formirebis
procesis sirTule, misi damokidebuleba mravali obieqturi da subieqturi xasiaTis garemoebebze xsnis imas Tu
ratom ar Seesabameba yovelTvis zustad subieqtis interesi obieqtur moTxovnilebebs. adamianebi upiratesad
aRiqvamen TavianTi yoveldRiuri yofa-cxovrebis uaxles
interesebs, aseTi interesi aRiqmeva yofiTi cnobierebis
farglebSi maSin, rodesac ZiriTadi interesebis gaazreba
garkveul ganyenebul azrovnebas saWiroebs. piri zogjer
xelmZRvanelobs uaxloesi interesiT Tavisi ZiriTadi interesis sazianod. interesi aris gacnobierebuli miswrafebis formis mqone moTxovnileba, romelic gamovlinebas
poulobs survilebSi, zraxvebSi da sabolood im urTierTobebSi, romlebsac amyareben pirebi erTmaneTTan TavianTi saqmianobis procesSi. interesis realizaciis procesi
damokidebulia ara mxolod subieqtis interesis gaazrebaze, aramed agreTve subieqtis individualur Tvisebebze
_ nebis, disciplinirebis, sxva fsiqikur niSnebze, pirovnebis socialur poziciaze. amis Sedegad sxvadasxva piris
mier aRqmuli erTtipiuri interesi gvevlineba sxvadasxva

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simZlavris mamoZravebel motivad. iuridiuli interesis
arsebobisaTvis ar kmara mis Sesaxeb mosarCelis gancxadeba. interesis arseboba obieqtur monacemebze unda iyos
damyarebuli. aseT monacemebs, upirveles yovlisa, warmoadgenen sarCelis aRZvris sababis faqtebi (uflebis
darRveva, darRvevis saSiSroeba), romlebzedac mosarCelem unda miuTiTos sasamarTlos mier sarCelis safuZvlis
gamokvlevis dawyebamde. mxedvelobaSi aris misaRebi is garemoeba, rom procesualuri kanonmdebloba dasaSvebobis
sakiTxis gadawyvetisas iTxovs saxeldobr mosarCelis da
ara mopasuxis interesis dadasturebas, miuxedavad imisa,
rom ukanasknels SesaZloa gaaCndes mosarCelis sarCelis
daSvebis interesi. ase, mag., fizikuri piris mier im administraciuli organos mimarT zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb
sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac mosarCelisaTvis ziani ar miuyenebia. aseT mopasuxes SesaZloa gaaCndes interesi usafuZvlo moTxovnis mimarT sasamarTlos
arsebiT pasuxze. miuxedavad amisa, sarCelis dasaSvebobis
stadiaze kanonmdebeli iTxovs mosarCelis iuridiuli interesis arsebobis garkvevas, aseTis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi sarCeli ar aris dasaSvebi.69 sasamarTlo organoebisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs `arasaTanado mosarCelis~ da
`aradainteresebuli piris~ cnebebis gamijvnas. arasaTanado mosarCele dainteresebuli piria, SecdomiT fiqrobs
ra, rom ufleba, romlis dasacavadac man mimarTa sasamarTlos mas ekuTvnis, igi Tavisi materialuri interesis dasacavad gamodis. dainteresebis armqone (arauflebamosili)
piri gamodis ara Tavisi, aramed sxvisi uflebis an kanoniT
daculi interesis dasacavad. SecdomiT fiqrobs ra, rom
aris saamisod uflebamosili, igi gamodis sxvisi uflebe69 mxareTa procesualuri Tanasworobis, mopasuxis interesebis
Tanabari dacvis mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba saqmeze arsebiTi gadawyvetilebis gamotanis saWiroebaze procesisadmi Tundac erT-erTi mxaris interesis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi(ix. mag., . ,, , . , 1949.
gv. 78-79).

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bis dasacavad, dainteresebuli piris saxeliT Seaqvs sarCeli (ssk-is 275-e mux. `b~ qvepunqti). amdenad, arasaTanado
mosarCele aris procesualuri samarTalurTierTobis
monawile, xolo dainteresebis armqone pirs aseTi niSani ar gaaCnia. aradainteresebuli mosarCelis sarCeli ar
unda iqnes daSvebuli, xolo SecdomiT daSvebis SemTxvevaSi saqmis warmoeba unda Sewydes.
mosarCelis interess iuridiuli mniSvneloba aqvs im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasamarTlos waredgina samarTlebrivi
dava, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sarCeli warmoebaSi ar miiReba. iuridiuli interesis cnebas ukavSireben Cveulebriv im
davebis gadasawyvetad sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis dauSveblobas, romlebsac ar gaaCniaT praqtikuli samarTlebrivi xasiaTi, magaliTad, Teoriuli dava. sasamarTlo valdebulia gadawyvitos dava realurad arsebuli uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis Sesaxeb.
procesis aRZvris safuZvels warmoadgens ara nebismieri, aramed iuridiuli daintereseba, ris gamo arsebobs
iuridiuli da faqtobrivi interesis gamijvnis saWiroeba. zogadsociologiuri TvalsazrisiT procesis mimarT
faqtobriv da iuridiul interess Soris sxvaoba ar arsebobs im TvalsazrisiT, rom orive kmayofildeba samarTlebrivi saSualebiT. procesualuri TvalsazrisiT es
interesebi gansxvavebulia, iuridiuli interesi qmnis
procesSi Cabmis safuZvels, xolo faqtiurs aseTi Tviseba ar aqvs. iuridiuli interesis arsi imaSi mdgomareobs,
rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba zemoqmedebas moaxdens
piris ufleba-movaleobebze, xolo faqtobrivi daintereseba aseT Sedegebs ar iwvevs. ase, mag., administraciuli
organosgan saxelfaso davalianebis anazRaurebis saqmeSi
udavod dainteresebulia sajaro mosamsaxuris ojaxis yvela wevri, vinaidan xelfasi ojaxis interesebSi ganikargeba. magram amgvari daintereseba ar aniWebs ojaxis wevrebs
uflebas aRZran sarCeli, monawileoba miiRon mis ganxilvaSi. aseTi SesaZlebloba aqvs Tavad sajaro mosamsaxures,
vinaidan sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uSualod zemoqme-

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debs mis uflebebze. im SemTxvevaSi Tu sasamarTlo ganixilavs administraciuli organos sarCels ojaxis mier dakavebuli sacxovrebeli farTiT sargeblobis Sewyvetaze
da gamosaxlebaze, procesisadmi iuridiuli interesi da
masSi monawileobis ufleba Tanabrad gaaCnia ojaxis yvela
wevrs, vinaidan sasamarTlos mier gadasawyvetia sakiTxi
saerTo uflebis Sesaxeb.
iuridiuli (procesualuri) interesis dakmayofileba ar aris TviTmizani, igi materialur-samarTlebrivi
interesis dakmayofilebas emsaxureba. materialur-samarTlebriv da iuridiul interess Soris uryevi kavSiri
arsebobs, vinaidan iuridiuli interesi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba arsebobdes, ukeTu saxezea materialursamarTlebrivi interesi (sasamarTlo dacvis sagani). sasamarTlo dacvis sagnis ararseboba usagnos xdis process,
igi kargavs Tavis azrs. procesualuri samarTlis dargi
meorad xasiaTs atarebs materialuri samarTlis dargTan
mimarTebaSi. ukanasknelis gareSe procesualur uflebas
ar eqneboda raime socialuri Rirebuleba. amasTanave, aRniSnuli ar niSnavs imas, rom materialuri uflebis ar arsebobis SemTxvevaSi subieqtis procesualur uflebas ar
gaaCnia raime Rirebuleba. procesualuri uflebis arsi
materialuri uflebis gamovlenaSi mdgomareobs. am mizans emsaxureba mTeli mtkicebiTi saqmianoba, agreTve sasamarTlos mier materialuri samarTlis normebis ganmarteba. amdenad, procesualur interess da procesualur
uflebas damoukidebeli mniSvneloba aqvs imisdamiuxedavad gaaCnia Tu ara mosarCeles materialuri ufleba an kanoniT daculi interesi.
interesis cneba abstraqtulia, rTulia misi mkveTri
gansazRvra. amasTanave, vinaidan iuridiuli interesi sarCelis dasaSvebobis erT-erTi pirobaTagania, iuridiuli
interesis garkveuli Sinaarsis gareSe yovlismomcvel kategoriad gadaqcevas Sedegad mosdevs kanonierebis darRveva. interesis cnebis normatiul axsnas garkveul wilad

127
iZleva zak-is terminTa ganmarteba (2.1 mux. `b~ qvepunqti),
romlis mixedviT dainteresebuli mxare aris nebismieri
fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, administraciuli organo,
romlebTan dakavSirebiTac gamocemulia an unda gamoices
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, agreTve romlis
kanonier interesebze pirdapir da uSualo gavlenas axdens administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti an realaqti.
sasamarTlo dauSvebs sarCels gansaxilvelad mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasamarTlo ganxilvis sagans warmoadgens
samarTlebrivi da ara romelime sxva (vTqvaT Teoriuli)
dava. dava samarTlebrivia ukeTu sasamarTlos winaSe ismeba sakiTxi uflebis an kanonieri interesis arsebobis
Sesaxeb. rac Seexeba aseTi uflebis arsebobis, interesis
kanoniT daculobis sakiTxs, sasamarTlos mier igi wydeba
saqmeze arsebiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebisas. dasaSvebobis
stadiaze sakmarisia interesis rogorc aseTis arseboba,
interesis arsebobis varaudi savsebiT sakmarisia dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. dasaSvebobis stadiaze ar
wydeba moTxovnis kanonierebis sakiTxi, amitom sasamarTlos ar aqvs ufleba uari Tqvas sarCelis dasaSvebobaze
interesis arakanonierebis, sarCelis uperspeqtivobis
gamo. amasTanave, dasaSvebobis sakiTxis dadebiTad gadawyvetisaTvis interesi unda iyos konkretuli, legitimuri
da pativsadebi. piri keTilsindisierad unda iyenebdes
sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas. dauSvebelia uflebis gamoyeneba kanonsawinaaRmdego miznis misaRwevad
an martooden im mizniT, rom ziani miadges sxvas, es mxaris
zneobrivi valdebulebacaa. samarTalSi sazogadod moqmed keTilsindisierebis varaudze dayrdnobiT samarTlis
subieqtis uflebrivi xedvac keTilsindisierebaze aigeba.
interesis xasiaTi gvevlineba sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis ZiriTad kriteriumebad, romelsac iyenebs
samarTlebrivi regulirebis sagnis Teoria: kerZo pirs
gaaCnia Tavisi interesi, romlis misaRwevad igi moqmedebs,
sajaro dawesebulebas Tavisi interesi ar aqvs, is icavs sa-

128
erTo interess.70
uflebis formiT interesis aRWurvas Semoaqvs sicxade
mis uzrunvelyofaSi da dacvaSi, ufleba SesaZleblobas
aZlevs dainteresebul pirs mimarTos saxelmwifo organoebs da sasamarTlos Tavisi uflebis dasacavad. Tumca dasacavi interesis arsis TvalsazrisiT is yovelTvis
rodi aris samarTlebrivi regulirebis erTaderTi saSualeba. samarTlis TeoriaSi ufleba da kanonieri interesi
samarTlebrivi regulirebis sxvadasxva saSualebad aris
70 sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis damatebiT kriteriumad
saxeldeba agreTve samarTlebrivi regulirebis meTodis Teoria, romlisTvisac gadamwyvetia ara is, Tu risi regulireba xdeba, aramed is,
Tu rogoraa igi regulirebuli. vinaidan regulirebis sagani ganapirobebs regulirebis saxeobas, samarTlebrivi regulirebis meTodi
sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis damatebiT, samarTlebrivi regulirebis sagnisagan nawarmoeb kriteriumad unda iqnes miCneuli. kerZo
da sajaro samarTlis dargis gamijvnis ZiriTad kriteriumad regulirebis meTodis aRiarebas mniSvnelovani negatiuri Sedegi mosdevs, aseT
SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo, regulirebadi urTierTobebis bunebis gauTvaliswineblad, xSirad cdilobs kerZo urTierTobebi moawesrigos
saxelisuflebo daqvemdebarebis meTodiT, xolo sajaro urTierTobebis mimarT gamoiyenos Tanasworobis meTodi. ase, mag. sabWoTa periodSi
kerZosamarTlebrivi sawyisebi praqtikulad Secvlili iyo sajarosamarTlebrivi principebiT, ris gamo savsebiT gamarTlebuli iyo kerZo samarTlis arsebobis sakiTxis dasma (r. davidi ,,Tanamedroveobis
ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi sistemebi,~ Tb., gamomc. `ganaTleba~, 1993w.,
gv. 197-198). saxelmwifo efuZneba sajaro da kerZo interesebis winaaRmdegobas, rac iwvevs samarTlis sajaro da kerZo samarTlis dargebad
gayofis saWiroebas. kerZosamarTlebrivi regulirebis sajarosamarTlebrivTan aRrevis, regulirebis am ori tipis regulirebis ,,axal~
xarisxSi ayvanis SemTxvevaSi uciloblad dominirebul adgils ikavebs
sajaro samarTlebrivi regulireba. socialuri wyobileba, romelic
efuZneba mxolod sajaro-samarTlebriv an kerZo-samarTlebriv sawyisebs, ar qmnis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis formirebis pirobebs, adamianis piradi Tavisufleba SesaZlebelia mxolod sajaro da kerZo
samarTlis iseTi Tanafardobis pirobebSi, rodesac arsebobs saerTo
sikeTisaTvis aucilebeli da savaldebulo saxelisuflo uflebamosilebis minimumi, xolo danarCeni - kerZo uflebebis sferos ganekuTvneba (,, . , .
2, ., 2002., . ,,, . 24-26).

129
miCneuli. ase, magaliTad, samarTalurTierTobis regulirebis ama Tu im saxeobaSi subieqtis dainteresebis xasiaTis, masStabis gamosavlenad kanonmdebeli zog SemTxvevaSi iyenebs iseT cnebebs, rogoricaa ,,moqalaqis kanonieri
interesi, ,,dainteresebuli moqalaqe, ,,sazogadoebrivi
interesi, ,,sajaro interesi, ,,mosaxleobis, sazogadoebrivi azris gaTvaliswineba, ,,arsebuli da momavali Taobebis moTxovnileba da sxv. normebi uflebebis Sesaxeb
Seadgenen piris samarTlebriv statuss da amasTanave asruleben interesis dacvis funqcias. am TvalsazrisiT uflebas sajaro da kerZo interesebTan mimarTebaSi, uzrunvelmyofi mniSvneloba aqvs, interesi SeiZleba ganxiluli
iqnes uflebis miznad da funqciad da piriqiT, ufleba interesidan aris nawarmoebi, amasTanave mas damoukidebeli
socialur-samarTlebrivi Rirebuleba gaaCnia.
socialuri konfliqtebi mmarTvelobis sferoSi ganpirobebulia ara mxolod apriorulad antagonisturi,
urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebiT, rodesac erT-erTis
dakmayofileba SesaZlebelia meoris xarjze, risi Tavidan
acilebac samarTlebrivi saSualebebiT ar aris SesaZlebeli, aramed agreTve subieqturi xasiaTis mizeziT, romelic ukavSirdeba sxvadasxva jgufebis interesTa araswor
gamovlenas (Semecnebis Secdoma) an sxvadasxva interesTa
jgufebis interesebis kanonmdeblobaSi araadekvatur
asaxvas (normis Secdoma). interesis TviTganviTarebis Sinagani procesebis dasruleba kanonmdeblobaSi interesis
asaxvis aucilebeli pirobaTagania, arastruqturirebuli
interesi aseT asaxvas ar saWiroebs. interesis realizacia
xdeba kanonSemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis meSveobiT, romlis
saSualebiTac xdeba interesis legitimacia da agreTve
konkretuli samarTalurTierTobebis subieqtebis mier
uflebis realizaciis meSveobiT. piris uflebis aRiarebisaTvis ar aris savaldebulo uflebisSemcav samarTlebriv
normaSi mkveTrad gansazRvruli moTxovnis arseboba an
sityvasityviT raimeze uflebis aRniSvna. principuli
mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom norma, kanonmdeblis obieqtu-

130
ri nebis Sesabamisad, emsaxureba ara mxolod sazogadoebis, aramed individumis interesebs. samarTlebriv davaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs im piris individualur
interess, romelic uTiTebs normaze. amasTanave, zogjer
ar aris advili im samarTlebrivi normebis gamorCeva, romlebic miznad isaxaven individumis interesis xelSewyobas.
mraval samarTlebriv sferoSi, mag. samSeneblo sferos
momwesrigebel kanonmdeblobaSi, kanonmdeblobis erTi
gadakiTxviT xSirad rTulia gadaWriT imis Tqma, Seicavs
Tu ara norma uflebas. samarTlebriv praqtikaSi mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli sasamarTloebis kazuistika.
sasamarTloebi, rogorc wesi, maqsimalur yuradRebas iCenen uflebis aRiarebis sakiTxSi. 71
samarTals, rac ar unda srulyofili iyos igi, ar ZaluZs uklebriv yvela interesis dakmayofileba maTi
nairsaxeobebis, mudmivad axali moTxovnilebebis da maTi
Sesabamisi interesebis mudmivi warmoqmnis gamo. amdenad,
kanonmdebloba yovelTvis iTvaliswinebs mxolod iseT
uflebebs, romlebic mimarTuli arian ZiriTadi, sazogadoebis yvela wevrisaTvis saerTo, garkveuli jgufebisaTvis tipiuri interesebis dasakmayofileblad. iseTi
pativsadebi interesis warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi, romelic
ar aris uzrunvelyofili uflebiT, kanoni iTvaliswinebs
maT uSualo samarTlebriv dacvas. samarTlis sxvadasxva
dargSi materialuri uflebis da interesis dacvas Soris
sxvadasxva Tanafardoba arsebobs. ase, mag., administraciul samarTalSi, regulirebadi samarTalurTierTobis
farTo speqtris gamo, samoqalaqo samarTalTan SedarebiT, interesebis uSualo dacvas ufro farTo adgili aqvs
daTmobili. samoqalaqo samarTalSi TiTqmis yvela tipiuri interesi gaSualedebulia uflebebSi.
sazogadoebis ganviTarebis kvaldakval warmoiSoba samarTlis normebiT mouwesrigebeli socialurad mniSvne71 .. ,, . , , ,
. ,,, . 2001, gv. 216-217

131
lovani interesebi, romelTa dacvis uzrunvelsayofad
dainteresebuli piri ar aris aRWurvili Sesabamisi uflebiT. sasamarTlos uwevs saqmis gadawyveta kanonmdeblobis
saerTo sawyisebze, principebze dayrdnobiT, aseT SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs samarTlis mier interesis dacvas. zogierTi interesis asaxva materialur uflebaSi saerTod
SeuZlebelia, ase, mag. mosarCelis interesi aRiarebiT
sarCelSi samarTaldarRvevis ararsebobis Sesaxeb mdgomareobs valdebulebis ararsebobis aRiarebaSi, valdebulebis ararseboba ar uTanabrdeba uflebis arsebobas.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom mosarCelis interesi aRiarebiT sarCelSi garkveuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba.
aRiarebiTi gadawyvetilebis mimarT iuridiuli interesi
mdgomareobs gansazRvruli samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis dadgenaSi. gadawyvetilebis miznis Sesabamisad sarCelis dasaSvebad cnobisaTvis saxeze unda iyos erTgvari
gaurkvevlobis arseboba. mosarCelis samarTlebriv sferos unda emuqrebodes garkveuli saSiSroeba, romlis Tavidan acileba SesaZlebelia mxolod sasamarTlosmieri
deklaraciiT sadavo samarTalurTierTobis arsebobis an
ararsebobis Taobaze. aRiarebiTi sarCelis sababia samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis gaurkvevlobis gamomwvevi faqtebi,
romelTa aRkveTa SesaZlebelia sasamarTlos aRiarebis
gziT. am faqtebis mier gamowveuli iuridiuli moTxovnileba aRiarebaze _ aris aRiarebis iuridiuli interesi.
ukeTu mopasuxes aRiarebiT sarCelze ar miucia sarCelis
aRZvris sababi, ar arsebobs gaurkvevloba mosarCelis samarTlebriv mdgomareobaSi, romlis aRsakveTadac aRiZra
aRiarebiTi sarCeli, ar arsebobs saTanado davis sagani
da mxareTa obieqturi interesi. aRiarebiT sarCelSi iuridiuli interesi mimarTulia garkveuli samarTalurTierTobis arsebobis an ararsebobis dadasturebaze, rac
mosarCelis samarTlebriv mdgomareobas mopasuxis mimarT
aniWebs gansazRvrulobis, udavobis xarisxs. saxeldobr,
interesi da ara uflebis dacva udevs safuZvlad negatiur aRiarebiT sarCels, romliTac mosarCele moiTxovs

132
samarTalurTierTobis arsebobis dadgenas, sadavo samarTalurTierTobaSi misi valdebulebis ararsebobas. rac
Seexeba dadebiT aRiarebiT sarCels, SesaZloa masSi dasmuli iqnes agreTve sakiTxi darRveuli uflebis aRdgenis
Sesaxeb.72 negatiuri aRiarebiTi sarCelis dakmayofilebiT xdeba mosarCelis kanonieri interesis dacva, aseTi
sarCelis dakmayofilebaze uaris TqmiT sasamarTlo icavs
mopasuxis, uflebamosili subieqtis uflebas.
sarCelis miznis miRweva (darRveuli an sadavod qceuli
uflebis (interesis) kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli saSualebebiT dacva) SesaZloa mxolod im pirobiT, Tu mosarCele Tavisi moTxovnis dasasabuTeblad warmoadgens iuridiuli faqtebis garkveul wyebas, romliTac dasturdeba
rogorc TviT uflebis an interesis arseboba, aseve misi
darRveva an sadavod qceva.73 saqmeSi mosarCelis uflebadamcavi interesis gamokveTis saWiroebaze araerTgzis aRiniSna mTel rig saqmeebze sakasacio palatis ganCinebebSi.74 interesis arsebobis sakiTxs wyvets mxolod
sasamarTlo,75 sasamarTlo ver daeyrdnoba mxolod mosarCelis mosazrebas, interesis arsebobis sakiTxis mosarCelisaTvis mindoba aqcevs mas `mosamarTled Tavis saqmeSi~.
72
iuridiul literaturaSi urTierTsawinaaRmdego mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli. zogi avtoris azriT yovelgvar aRiarebiT sarCelSi
sasamarTlos dacvis sagani aris ufleba. aRniSnulis sawinaaRmdegod
gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom aRiarebiT sarCelSi sasamarTlos dacvis sagani SeiZleba iyos ara ufleba, aramed uflebis gansazRvris interesi.
73

. . ,,. , . 2000., . ,,, gv . 28-29.

74 ix. mag. sus 22.09.05w. (saqme #bs-433-24 (k-05)), 08.05.06w. (saqme #bs-1345920 (k-05)) ganCinebebi
75 arsebobs sagamonakliso SemTxvevebic, kerZod, szak-is 37.2 muxlis
Tanaxmad, piris gancxadebaSi sajaro informaciis gacemis Sesaxeb ar
aris aucilebeli sajaro informaciis moTxovnis motivis an miznis miTiTeba. Sesabamisad sajaro informaciis gacemis moTxovniT piris mier
sarCelis aRZvris SemTxvevaSi mosarCele ar aris valdebuli amtkicos
informaciis gacemis interesis arseboba. aseT SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs
interesis arsebobis prezumfcias.

133
mosarCeles unda gaaCndes davis mis sasargeblod gadawyvetis mimarT mniSvnelovani iuridiuli interesi. dauSvebelia sasamarTlo xelisuflebis gamoyeneba inscenirebuli
davebis gadasawyvetad. davam aseTi xasiaTi SesaZloa SeiZinos sasamarTlo procesis msvlelobisas, kanonmdeblobis Secvlis an saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebis Secvlis
SemTxvevaSi.76fizikuri pirebis, organizaciebis da saxelm76 am safuZvliT saqmis ganxilvaze uaris Tqmas zogjer Tan sdevs
sasamarTlos mZafri kritika. qrestomatiulia am TvalsazrisiT aSS-is
umaRlesi sasamarTlos 1974w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze De Funis v. Odegard,
romelSic mosarCele asaCivrebda iuridiul fakultetze Caricxvaze
uaris Tqmas imis gamo, rom mosarCele moklebuli iyo SesaZleblobas
esargebla rasobrivi da erovnuli umciresobebisaTvis dawesebuli SeRavaTebiT, rac mosarCelis azriT arRvevda Tanasworobis Sesaxeb konstituciur normas. aSS-s umaRlesi sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilvisas mosarCele ukve ramodenime weli swavlobda iuridiul fakultetze,
ris gamoc sasamarTlom, saqmis abstraqtul-inscenirebuli xasiaTis
gamo, uari Tqva `ukudiskriminaciis~ Sesaxeb saqmis arsebiT ganxilvaze.
radganac inscenirebuloba obieqturi mizeziT saqmis sasamarTlo instanciebSi xangrZlivi ganxilviT iyo gamowveuli, qveynis iuridiulma
sazogadoebam sasamarTlos pozicia miiCnia rTuli sakiTxisagan Tavis
daRwevad, Tumca inscenirebulobaze miTiTeba samarTlebrivi TvalsazirisiT dauZlevel da pativsadeb motivad iqna miCneuli.
principuli procesualuri debuleba iqna Camoyalibebuli aSS umaRlesi sasamarTlos 1923w. gadawyvetilebaSi saqmeze Massachusett v. Mellon da Frothingam v. Mellon. mniSvnelovani samarTlebrivi interesis
ararsebobaze miTiTebiT aSS umaRlesma sasamarTlom uari ganacxada
rigiTi gadasaxadis gadamxdelis sarCelis ganxilvaze, romelic ar
eTanxmeboda bavSvTa sikvdilianobis Sesamcireblad StatebisaTvis
federaluri subsidiebis gamoyofas. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom calke
aRebul gadasaxadis gadamxdels ar aqvs sasamarTlo xelisuflebisagan mxardaWeris ufleba, vinaidan finansTa saministros kompetencias
mikuTvnebuli sakiTxisadmi mosarCelis uSualo interesi aris mwiri
da gaurkveveli. federaluri fondebidan momavalSi gansaxorcielebeli subsidiebis zemoqmedeba gadasaxadis gadamxdelze, sasamarTlos
azriT, Znelad aRsaqmeli da saeWvoa. XX saukunis meore naxevarSi sasamarTlo uflebaunarianobis doqtrina mniSvnelovnad iqna gadasinjuli. saqmeSi Flast v. Cohen aSS umaRlesma sasamarTlom, e. uerrenis
TavmjdomareobiT, aRiara gadasaxadis gadamxdelis sakmao piradi interesi, raTa mas daesva sasamarTlos winaSe saeklesio skolebisaTvis
wignebis SesaZenad federaluri saxsrebis xarjvis marTlzomierebis

134
wifos uflebebis da interesebis Sesaxeb davebis gadawyvetis procesualur formas warmoadgens sasarCelo forma. iq sadac ar aris dava uflebis an interesis Sesaxeb, ar
arsebobs sarCeli da procesis sasarCelo forma. uflebis
an kanonieri interesis Sesaxeb davis arseboba gulisxmobs
urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebis mqone modave subieqtebis anu mxareebis arsebobas. urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebis mqone subieqtebis arseboba gulisxmobs mesame,
miukerZoebeli piris arsebobas, romelic mowodebulia
gansajos modave mxareebi. aseT subieqts warmoadgens sasamarTlo (procesis sasarCelo formisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia is, rom dacvis Sesaxeb moTxovnaze pasuxis gamcemi
organo ar aris romelime mxaresTan dakavSirebuli raime
urTierTobebiT (procesualuris garda), amitom obieqturad damoukidebelia maTgan da ar aris piradad, pirdapir
an arapirdapir dainteresebuli saqmis bediT. winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iqneboda saubari saCivarze, pretenziaze, gancxadebaze da ara sarCelze, rogorc aseTze.
SemTxTveviTi araa, rom dainteresebuli piris Txovnas
saqmis gadasinjvis Sesaxeb, wardgenils zemdgom sasamarTlo instanciaSi, romelic garkveul urTierTobebSi
imyofeba qvemdgomTan, ewodeba ara saapelacio, sakasacio
sarCeli, aramed saCivari, xolo gadawyvetilebis baTilad
cnobis an axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo mimarTvassakiTxi. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom principSi konstituciis me-3 muxli
gulisxmobs mosarCelis pirad dainteresebas procesis Sedegisadmi.
amasTanave, sasamarTlom yuradReba gaamaxvila im garemoebaze, rom sasamarTlo xelisuflebisagan mxardaWeris uflebis aRiareba moiTxovs
mxolod statussa da im moTxovnas Soris, romelsac aqvs sasamarTlos
mxardaWeris pretenzia, logikuri kavSiris demonstrirebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom USemdgomSi aSS-s umaRlesi sasamarTlos saqmianobaSi aRiniSna
sawinaaRmdego xasiaTis tendencia, rac ukavSirdeba sasamarTloSi konservatiuli ganwyobilebebis ganmtkicebas, sasamarTlo xelisuflebis
viwro doqtrinalur ganmartebas (. ,, :
, ., 1985, . ,,, gv. 75-77; . ,,
, ., 2007, . ,, , gv. 80-81).NDA

135
gancxadeba). modave mxareTa da mesame, damoukidebeli organos arseboba gulisxmobs modave mxareTa Tanasworobas
da SejibrebiTobas.
sasamarTlo dacvis garantiis realizacia xdeba piris
konkretuli piradi uflebis (kanonieri interesis) darRvevis SemTxvevaSi. mosarCelem unda daamtkicos misi uflebebis darRvevis faqti, davaSi misi uflebadamcavi interesi, mtkicebis tvirTi aseT SemTxvevaSi mosarCeles ekisreba. amdenad, saproceso kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs
moqalaqeTa uflebebis dacvis mizniT e.w. `populiaruli~
sarCelebis aRZvris SesaZleblobas. vinaidan amgvari sarCelebi umetesad normatiul aqtebs Seexeba, maTi Tavidan
acilebis mizniT zogierTi qveynis (safrangeTi) kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs sarCelis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebisaTvis SefardebiTi Zalis
miniWebas (autorite relative), anu sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT
sarCelis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi normatiuli aqti
Sewyvets Tavis moqmedebas mxolod konkretuli piris,
mosarCelis mimarT.
samarTalwarmoebaSi sakuTari saxeliT monawileoba
sxva piris _ sadavo uflebis an valdebulebis matareblis
interesebSi calkeul SemTxvevebSia dasaSvebi. am SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs gamonakliss individualizmis principidan, romelic warmoadgens Tanamedrove samarTlebrivi
regulirebis safuZvels (adamianis bunebis individualuri Teoriis Tanaxmad, zrdasruli individumis interesebs
Seesabameba maqsimaluri Tavisufleba da pasuxismgebloba
miznis arCevaSi, mis misaRwevad gamoyenebul saSualebebSi
da qcevaSi, vinaidan individma nebismier sxva pirze ukeTesad icis Tavisi sakuTari interesebi da uflebamosilia
miiRos optimaluri gadawyvetileba mis aRsasruleblad.
individualizmis principi icavs adamians saxelmwifos metismeti aqtiurobisagan. ukanaskneli valdebulia uzrunvelyos marTlwesrigi, daicvas individualuri interesebi, uzrunvelyos valdebulebebis Sesruleba).
asociaciis saqmianobis mizani da sagani ganixileba pi-

136
radad asociaciis kuTvnil uflebad, romelic eqvemdebareba sasarCelo wesiT dacvas. asociaciis ufleba sarCelze izRudeba misi saqmianobis miznebiT da, regionaluri
asociaciis SemTxvevaSi, garkveuli teritoriiT.
zogjer piradi da sazogado interesi emTxveva erTmaneTs, rac ganapirobebs moqalaqis da sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis rig procesualur uflebebs. ase, mag. bunebrivi garemos dacva Seadgens imavdroulad pirad da sajaro interess jansaR garemoze. jansaR garemoze moqalaqis
uflebis darRveva imavdroulad aris sajaro ekologiuri interesis, marTlwesrigis darRveva, rac ganapirobebs
piris uflebas moiTxovos garemos dacva negatiuri zemoqmedebisagan, zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb mis sarCelze
uflebas. sajaro ekologiuri interesis, rogorc samarTlebrivi sikeTis, sakanonmdeblo aRiareba asaxvas poulobs
saproceso samarTalSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi ar arsebobs sasamarTlo dacvis SesaZleblobis SezRudvis piroba, ar aris
gamoricxuli sasamarTloSi sarCelebis aRZvra koleqtiuri subieqtebis mier. saqarTvelos parlamentis mier
09.02.2000w. ratificirebuli `garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan
dakavSirebiT informaciis xelmisawvdomobis, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobisa da am
sferoSi marTlmsajulebis sakiTxebze xelmisawvdomobis
Sesaxeb~ orhusis 1998wlis konvenciis Tanaxmad, arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, romlis saqmianobis ZiriTad sagans
warmoadgens garemosdacviTi saqmianoba, ufleba miecaT
Sesabamisad gancxadeba an sarCeli waradginon saxelmwifo
administraciul organoebsa an sasamarTloSi.77
77 17.05.03w. asociacia `mwvane alternativam~ sarCeli aRZra mopasuxeebis: garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministrosa da
baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis milsadenis kompaniis mimarT, romliTac moiTxova saministros mier 30.11.02w. navTobkompaniaze gacemuli navTobis
transportirebis ekologiuri nebarTvis baTilad cnoba. asociacia
Tavis saproceso uflebaunarianobas asabuTebda orhusis konvenciis
2.5 muxlze miTiTebiT, romlis mixedviTac, ekologiuri arasamTavrobo organizacia miiCneva `dainteresebul sazogadoebad~. asociaciis

137
xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac davis sagans warmoadgens
mravali piris erTgvarovani ufleba-movaleobebi78. procesualuri Tanamonawileobis tradiciuli instituti
ver uzrunvelyofs problemis adekvatur gadawyvetas,
rodesac saubaria ara 2-3 an Tundac 10, aramed ramdenime
aTeul pirze. procesualuri TanamonawileobiT ar aris
moculi mravalaTasiani mosarCeleebi da mopasuxeebi,
gansakuTrebuli normatiuli daTqmebis gareSe amgvari
mier damatebiTi moTxovnis Sesrulebis Semdeg, Tbilisis saolqo sasamarTlom 24.06.03w. ganCinebiT saqme miiRo warmoebaSi. asociaciis procesualuri uflebamosileba arc sakasacio instanciaSi dasmula eWvis
qveS (ssus 24.11.04w. ganCineba). orhusis konvenciis 2.5. muxlis Tanaxmad, `dainteresebuli sazogadoeba~ niSnavs sazogadoebas, romelsac
exeba an SesaZloa Seexos garemosdacviTi gadawyvetilebebis miReba
an romelic dainteresebulia garemos dacvis sferoSi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi monawileobiT; dainteresebul subieqtebad
ganixilebian agreTve arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, romlebic xels
uwyoben garemos dacvas da pasuxoben erovnuli kanonmdeblobis yvela
moTxovnas.
78 rigi qveynebis (aSS, inglisi, safrangeTi, gfr) kanonmdebloba
iTvaliswinebs mravali erTgvarovani saqmeebidan pirveli sasamarTlowarmoebisaTvis da mis Sedegad miRebuli gadawyvetilebisaTvis preiudiciuli mniSvnelobis miniWeba (e.w. `modaluri~(inglisi),
`tipiuri~(gfr) warmoeba). unda aRiniSnos, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi ar gamoiricxeba mravalricxovani (Tumca gamartivebuli) individualuri
procesebis Catarebis saWiroeba. ase mag., gfr-is kanonmdeblobiT, im
SemTxvevaSi Tu administraciuli gadawyvetilebis kanoniereba 20-ze
meti warmoebis sagania, sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs ganaxorcielos Tavdapirvelad erTi an ramdenime warmoeba (Musterverfahren) da SeaCeros
warmoeba sxva saqmeebze. ganxorcielebul warmoebaze gadawyvetilebis
kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia SeCerebul warmoebaze gamartivebuli wesiT ganixilos saqme da gamoitanos
ganCineba ukeTu saqmes ar gaaCnia faqtobrivi an samarTlebrivi xasiaTis mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba tipiuri warmoebis dros ganxiluli
saqmisagan. sasamarTlo uflebamosilia gamoiyenos tipiur warmoebaSi
gamoyenebuli mtkicebulebani (`Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung, Art. 93). administraciuli sasamarTlowarmoebis es wesi gamoricxavs erTgvarovani
saqmeebis mimarT gansxvavebuli gadawyvetilebebis gamotanas da xels
uwyobs mravalricxovan erTgvarovan saqmeebze samarTalwarmoebis
daCqarebas.

138
saqmeebis efeqturi ganxilva SeuZlebeli iqneba. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT organizacias SeiZleba mieniWos misi
wevrebis koleqtiuri an individualuri interesebis dacvis ufleba. es SesaZloa iyos mudmivmoqmedi organizacia
an konkretuli saqmis sawarmoeblad Seqmnili gaerTianeba.
am SemTxvevaSi gamoiricxeba mxareTa simravliT gamowveuli sirTuleebi. sakiTxis amgvari gadawyveta saWiroebs
organizaciis sxva pirTa interesebis dasacavad procesSi
monawileobis uflebis sakanonmdeblo reglamentacias.
aseTi ufleba saqarTveloSi miniWebuli aqvs profkavSirebs, kerZod, `profesiuli kavSirebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis
me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad, profesiul kavSirs ufleba aqvs
profkavSiris wevrebis SromiTi uflebebis dasacavad, kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, waradginos sarCeli, Seitanos
gancxadeba da gamovides sasamarTloSi an SromiTi davis
ganmxilvel sxva organoebSi. veteranTa interesebis warmomadgenlobis ufleba gaaCnia veteranTa sazogadoebriv
gaerTianebebs (`veteranTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 22-e mux.). momxmarebelTa sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebi uflebamosilni
arian waradginon sarCeli sasamarTloSi momxmarebelTa
uflebebis dasacavad (`momxmarebelTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis
34-e mux.).
sazogadoebrivi interesebis dacvis ufleba SeiZleba
mieniWos agreTve saxelmwifo organos (aseTi uflebiT
inglisSi sargeblobs mag. generaluri atornei, skandinaviur qveynebSi _ ombudsmeni). saqarTveloSi aseTi ufleba kanonmdeblobiT miniWebuli aqvs antimonopoliur
samsaxurs, romlis saqmianobis momwesrigebeli debulebis Tanaxmad, samsaxuri uflebamosilia Seitanos sarCeli sasamarTloSi reklamis momxmarebelTa gansazRvruli
wris sasargeblod, reklamis gamcemTa, mwarmoebelTa da
gamavrcelebelTa mier reklamis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT da arasaTanado reklamasTan dakavSirebul xelSekrulebaTa baTilad
cnobis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT samedicino
momsaxurebis gamwevs ufleba aqvs sasamarTloSi gaasaCiv-

139
ros qmeduunaro an gacnobierebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis unarsmoklebuli pacientis naTesavis an kanonieri
warmomadgenlis gadawyvetileba, Tu igi ewinaaRmdegeba
pacientis janmrTelobis interesebs (`pacientTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 25-e mux.).
interesis sakiTxs ukavSirdeba procesualuri uflebis gankargvis sakiTxi (materialuri uflebisagan gansxvavebiT procesualuri uflebis gasxviseba ar daiSveba, igi
SeiZleba ganxorcieldes an ar ganxorcieldes. procesualuri uflebis gankargvas adgili aqvs im TvalsazrisiT,
rom piri uars acxadebs uflebis ganxorcielebaze). saqmis
morigebiT damTavreba, uari sarCelze, sarCelis cnoba saganmkargulebo uflebamosilebaTa rigs ganekuTvneba,
romlis Sedegad dainteresebuli mxare mTlianad an nawilobriv uars ambobs Tavis procesualur uflebebze. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi sasamarTlo uflebamosilia Seamowmos administraciuli organos saganmkarguleblo moqmedebis marTlzomiereba, vinaidan am moqmedebebis Sedegad uqmdeba administraciuli organos procesualuri ufleba. mxaris mier uflebis gankargvas, nebis
da interesis Tanafardobas Semxebloba aqvs procesis dispoziciurobis principTan. zogadad dispoziciuroba yvela uflebis maxasiaTebelia, igi zustad imiT gansxvavdeba
valdebulebisagan, rom gulisxmobs misi ganxorcielebis
an ganuxorcieleblobis SesaZleblobas. aseTi arCevanis
ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi saxezea ara ufleba, aramed valdebuleba. procesualuri uflebebis dispoziciuri xasiaTi ar gamomdinareobs samarTalwarmoebis dispoziciurobis principidan. amdenad unda ganvasxvavoT procesualuri (da zogadad yvelanairi) uflebis dispoziciuroba
da procesualuri samarTlis dispoziciurobis principi.
ukanaskneli gulisxmobs procesualur normaSi ganmtkicebul dainteresebuli piris SesaZleblobas (uflebas)
moaxdinon zemoqmedeba procesis msvlelobaze. amdenad,
dispoziciurobis principi damaxasiaTebelia ara mxolod
samoqalaqo, aramed administraciuli procesisaTvis, vi-

140
naidan samarTalwarmoebis am saxeobisTvisac dainteresebuli piris nebaze aris damokidebuli procesis aRZvra da
mimdinareoba. interesis dakmayofilebis saSualeba aris
neba. interesi ganpirobebulia nebiT, rac zRvars avlebs
dispoziciurobis principis gamoyenebas. misi gamoyeneba
xdeba iq, sadac saubaria piradi interesis dacvaze. amdenad,
administraciuli organos monawileoba administraciul
samarTalwarmoebaSi ver iqneba agebuli srulad dispoziciurobis principze. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi moqmedebs interesis primati nebaze. administraciuli
organos interesebis dacva ar aris mTlianad damokidebuli nebaze. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac administraciuli organos neba ewinaaRmdegeba mis interesebs, darRveulia nebis
da interesis erTianoba, nebisaTvis da ara interesisaTvis
upiratesobis miniWeba utoldeba mxaris, sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg moqmedebas. amdenad, ukeTu sxvadasxva mizezTa gamo administraciuli organo asrulebs saganmkarguleblo moqmedebebs, romelic ar Seesabameba sajaro interesebs, sasamarTlo moqmedebs administraciuli organos nebis winaaRmdeg, magram misi interesebis Sesabamisad,
sasamarTlo aseT gankargvas ar daamtkicebs. sasamarTlos
amgvari sajaro-samarTlebrivi uflebamosileba esadageba administraciuli davebis specifikas da ganpirobebulia kanonierebis principis uzrunvelyofis imperativiT,
sajaro da kerZo interesebis proporciulobiT. morigebis Sinaarsi unda Seesabamebodes materialur samarTals,
mxareebs ar aqvT ufleba moaxdinon davis likvidacia iseT
pirobebze SeTanxmebiT, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba moqmed
kanonmdeblobas, ar daiSveba kanoniT zustad gansazRvruli samarTalurTierTobis morigebiT Secvla. ar daiSveba
agreTve iseTi morigebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis damtkiceba,
romlis ZaliTac valdebuleba daekisreba pirs, romelic
ar monawileobda saqmeSi. kanonsawinaaRmdegoa mxaris warmomadgenlis mier morigebis Sesaxeb SeTaxmebis damtkiceba, romelsac ar gaaCnia uflebamosileba mis damtkicebaze
(warmomadgenlis ufleba saqmis morigebiT damTavrebaze,

141
sarCelis cnobaze an uaris Tqmaze specialurad unda iyos
aRniSnuli mindobilobaSi).
gansxvavebulia morigebis materialur-samarTlebrivi
zemoqmedeba. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mxareebi adastureben materialuri samarTalurTierTobis arsebobas, SeTanxmebas morigebis Sesaxeb ar Seaqvs raime cvlileba masSi. Tu morigebas safuZvlad udevs garigeba, mas SeuZlia
Secvalos samarTalurTierToba. morigebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba unda iyos cxadi da gasagebi, misi Sinaarsi mxareTa ufleba-movaleobebs unda esadagebodes. dauSvebelia
morigebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis damtkiceba, romlis Sinaarsi aris momavalSi ufleba-movaleobebis warmomqmneli nebelobiTi qmedebis ganxorcielebis dapireba, vinaidan aseTi morigeba ver iqneba iZulebiT aRsrulebuli. morigebis
Sesaxeb SeTanxmebiT unda dadasturdes arsebuli (an morigebis Sedegad warmoSobili) ufleba-movaleobani, magram
ara is ufleba-movaleobani, romlebic SesaZloa momavalSi warmoiSvas. morigebis kanonierebis Semowmeba gulisxmobs saqmis garemoebebis garkveulwilad gamokvlevas. aRniSnuli ar niSnavs saqmis gamokvlevas sruli moculobiT.
morigebis damtkicebisas minimumamde aris dayvanili mtkicebiTi saqmianoba, vinaidan morigebis damtkicebiT sasamarTlo ar wyvets davas arsebiTad. morigeba mtkicdeba
ara gadawyvetilebiT, aramed ganCinebiT.

14 . gansjadoba
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis dadebiTad gadawyvetis Semdeg dgeba sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb Tu konkretulad romelma
sasamarTlom unda ganixilos da gadawyvitos saqme. qvemdebareobisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis meSveobiTac ganisazRvreba uflebamosileba sxvadasxva iuridiul organoTa
Soris, gansjadoba aseve gansazRvravs uflebamosilebas,
magram mxolod sasamarTloebs Soris. gansjadoba niSnavs

142
sasamarTloTa Soris saqmeebis ganawilebis wess, anu im
konkretuli sasamarTlos dadgenas, romelmac unda gadawyvitos mocemuli saqme. gansjadobas mniSvneloba aqvs
agreTve samarTalwarmoebis wesis gamoyenebis sakiTxisaTvis. saerTo sasamarTloebis qvemdebare administraciuli
kategoriis saqmeebi gadawydeba saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos, saapelacio sasamarTloebis, raionuli sasamarTloebis da magistrati mosamarTleebis mier. Tu saqmis
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis darRveva Sedegad iwvevs ssk-is
272-e muxlis safuZvelze saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetas, saqmis ama Tu im sasamarTlosadmi aragansjadobis SemTvevaSi,
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobisagan gansxvavebiT, sasamarTlo,
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesebis mixedviT,
valdebulia gansjadobis darRveviT wardgenili sarCeli
gadaugzavnos gansjad sasamarTlos da amis Sesaxeb acnobos mosarCeles (sask-is 26-e mux.). amdenad, Secdoma sasamarTlos SerCevaSi TavisTavad ar niSnavs sarCelze uflebis dakargvas. jura novit curia-s principidan gamomdinare
(sasamarTlosaTvis cnobilia samarTlebrivi principebi),
mosarCelis da mopasuxis samarTlebriv Sexedulebebs saqmis gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ar aqvs mniSvnloba. dauSvebelia, magaliTad, sajaro-samarTlebrivi
davis miCneva kerZo-samarTlebriv davad imis gamo, rom
mosarCele Tavis sajaro-samarTlebriv moTxovnas kerZo
samarTlis normebis moSveliebiT asabuTebs (magaliTad,
sagadasaxado organosagan gadasaxadis ukan dabrunebis
moTxovna usafuZvlo gamdidrebis normis moSveliebiT).
dauSvebelia agreTve aragansjadi sasamarTlos gansjad
sasamarTlod miCneva mxareTa moTxovnis safuZvelze.
gansjadobis dadgenili wesebi sajaro sferoSi uflebebis dacvis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes garantias warmoadgens.
saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis me-2 punqtis Tanaxmad, ,,yoveli piri unda gansajos mxolod im sasamarTlom,
romlis iurisdiqciasac eqvemdebareba misi saqme.
,,adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvencia kanonier sasamarTloze adamia-

143
nis uflebas samarTliani sasamarTlos ZiriTadi uflebis
Semadgenel nawilad moiazrebs(me-6 mux.).
`adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis~ me-8
muxli aRiarebs adamianis uflebas: `efeqturad iqnes aRdgenili uflebebSi kompetenturi nacionaluri sasamarTloebis mier~. igive ufleba aRiarebulia agreTve `samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb~ saerTaSoriso
paqtis me-14 muxliT. sasamarTlos kompetenciis gansazRvra, gansjadobis sakiTxebis gadawyveta sakanonmdeblo aqtis doneze wydeba. saqmeTa gansjadoba unda ganisazRvros
kanoniT, romelic normatiuli formiT (saerTo wesis saxiT) gansazRvravs Tu konkretulad romeli sasamarTlos
qvemdebarea esa Tu is saqme, raTa Tavidan iqnes acdenili
gaurkvevloba am sakiTxSi, romelic winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi samarTalSemfardebeli organos an Tanamdebobis piris
diskreciuli uflebis gamoyenebiT aRikveTeba.
kanonieri sasamarTlos ufleba saxelmwifosagan moiTxovs sasamarTlos gansjadobis zust gansazRvras.79 aRniSnulis Sesabamisad, saerTo sasamarTloebis sistema,
sasamarTloTa gvareobiTi (sagnobrivi), teritoriuli da
instanciuri iurisdiqcia gansazRvrulia `saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos organuli kanoniT, saproceso kodeqsebiT. saarCevno davebis gansjadobas gansazRvravs agreTve saqarTvelos organuli kanoni `saarCevno kodeqsi. mosamarTleTa piradi iurisdiqcia ganisazRvreba ,,saerTo sasamarTloebSi saqmeTa ganawilebisa
da uflebamosilebis sxva mosamarTlisaTvis dakisrebis
wesis Sesaxeb kanoniT.80 saerTo sasamarTloebis sistema
79 l. izoria, k. korkelia, k. kublaSvili, g. xubua ,,saqarTvelos
konstituciis
komentari.
adamianis
ZiriTadi
uflebani
da
Tavisuflebani. gamomc. ,,meridiani, Tb. 2005w. gv. 373.
80 miTiTebuli kanonis Tanaxmad mosamarTleTa Soris saqmeebi nawildeba rigiTobis wesiT. rigiTobis wesi gulisxmobs mosamarTleTa Soris saqmeebis ganawilebas saqmeTa Semosvlis rigisa da mosamarTleTa
rigiTobis mixedviT (mux. 4). masalebi mosamarTleTa Soris nawildeba
sasamarTloSi saqmis Semosvlis mixedviT. Semosvlis rigiT yoveli

144
da organizacia dadgenilia `saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanoniT, romelic adgens, rom `marTlmsajuleba aris sasamarTlo xelisuflebis ganxorcielebis
erT-erTi forma da mas samoqalaqo, administraciul da
sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis meSveobiT saerTo sasamarTloebi axorcieleben~(1.2 mux). amave kanoniT ganisazRvreba mosamarTleTa specializaciis, mosamarTlis sxva
kolegiis(palatis) SemadgenlobaSi monawileobis miRebis
wesi (151, 20-e mux.). amave kanonis me-16 muxli uTiTebs, rom
sasamarTlos gansjadoba, aseve magistrati mosamarTlis
gansjadoba kanoniT, anu saproceso kanonmdeblobiT ganisazRvreba.
sasamarTlo valdebulia Tavisi iniciativiT Seamowmos saqmis gansjadoba sarCelis dasaSvebobis stadiaze.
sask-is 26-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Tanaxmad, sarCeli unda
waredginos im sasamarTlos, romelic uflebamosilia ganixilos da gadawyvitos administraciuli saqme. mosamarTles, romelsac ar gaaCnia saqmis ganxilvis iurisdiqcia,
araTu uflebamosilia, aramed valdebulicaa ganacxados
amis Sesaxeb, maSinac ki, rodesac gansjadobis sakiTxs arc
erTi mxare ar ayenebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo saqmes
arsebiTi ganxilvisaTvis gadaugzavnis gansjad sasamarTlos. warmoebis sawyis etapze gansjadobis sakiTxze yuradRebis gamaxvileba miznad isaxavs samarTalwarmoebis wesi,
romlis Tanaxmad aragansjadi sasamarTlo iqceva gansjadad ukeTu mopasuxe gansjadobis sakiTxebze pretenziis
warudgenlad monawileobas iRebs sasamarTlo ganxilvaSi
(Cumi Tanxmoba).81 aRniSnulis Sesabamisad dadgenilia, rom
momdevno saqme gadaecema rigiTobiT momdevno mosamarTles (mux. 8).
mosamarTlesTan saqmeTa dagrovebis gamo an sxva mizeziT saqmis ganxilvis SeuZleblobis SemTxvevaSi mosamarTleTa datvirTvis gaTvaliswinebiT saqmeebs gadaanawilebs Sesabamisi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare
an sasamarTlos davalebiT misi moadgile an/da Sesabamisi palatis an
kolegiis Tavmjdomare.
81 zogierTi qveynis kanonmdebloba (mag. Sveicaria) aseTad ar miiCnevs mopasuxis umoqmedobas, mis mier morigebis mizniT molaparakebis

145
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobisagan gansxvavebiT, romelsac
sasamarTlo Tavisi iniciativiT amowmebs saqmis ganxilvis nebismier stadiaze, pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos
gansjadobas saapelacio sasamarTlo Seamowmebs mxolod
mopasuxis moTxovniT (ssk-is 377.5mux.). aseTi moTxovna
dasaSvebia, Tu igi saqmis pirvel instanciaSi ganxilvisas
iyo wamoyenebuli mopasuxis mier an Tu arsebobs sapatio
mizezi, ris gamoc aseTi moTxovna ver iqna wina instanciaSi wamoyenebuli. pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi saqmis
ganxilvisas mopasuxis mier gansjadobasTan dakavSirebuli pretenziis dakmayofilebaze uari kerZo saCivriT ar
saCivrdeba. gansjadobaze pretenziis uaryofis Sedegad
mopasuxis mier davis arsebiT sakiTxze mosazrebebis warmodgena, saqmis ganxilvaSi monawileobis miReba ar gamoricxavs mxaris mier zemdgom instanciebSi sasamarTlo
kompetenciis gadamowmebis sakiTxis dasmis SesaZleblobas. ssk-is 404.3 muxlis Tanaxmad sakasacio sasamarTlom
unda Seamowmos eqvemdebareba Tu ara saqme sasamarTlos
uwyebrivad da aqvs Tu ara mas mocemul konkretul saqmeze saerTaSoriso kompetencia. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos teritoriul da sagnobriv gansjadobas sakasacio sasamarTlo Seamowmebs mxolod mopasuxis moTxovniT.
aseTi moTxovna dasaSvebia, Tu igi saqmis saapelacio sasamarTloSi ganxilvisas iyo wamoyenebuli mopasuxis mier an
warmarTvas, formaluri(mag. procesualuri vadis gagrZelebis, sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb) Suamdgomlobis dayenebas ( ..
,, , ., 2- ., ., 2004,
. ,,, gv. 110). saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis
wesebis Tanaxmad aragansjadi sasamarTlo SeiZleba gansjadi gaxdes
Tu mopasuxe winaaRmdegi ar aris, rom saqme ganixilos aragansjadma
sasamarTlom da Tanaxmaa monawileoba miiRos saqmis ganxilvaSi. gansjadobis aseTi SecvlisaTvis saWiroa, rom mopasuxe warmodgenili
iyos advokatiT, an mxares sasamarTlos mier unda mieces ganmarteba
sasamarTlos aragansjadobisa da misi Sedegebis, agreTve imis Sesaxeb,
rom mas ufleba aqvs wamoayenos Sesagebeli aragansjadobis winaaRmdeg.
sasamarTlos mier mopasuxisaTvis aseTi ganmartebis Sesaxeb unda aRiniSnos sasamarTlos oqmSi (ssk-is 21-e mux.)

146
Tu arsebobs sapatio mizezi, ris gamoc aseTi moTxovna ver
iqna wamoyenebuli mopasuxis mier saapelacio sasamarTloSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi, uwyebrivi qvemdebareobisagan gansxvavebiT, gansjadobis sakiTxis Semowmebas sasamarTlo ar axdens. xsenebuli wesi exeba mxaris iniciativiT gansjadobis
sakiTxis dayenebas. amasTanave, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesi, romlis Tanaxmad sasamarTlo valdebulia sarCeli gadaugzavnos gansjad sasamarTlos da dasaSvebia sasamarTloebs Soris gansjadobis sakiTxze dava,
gansjadobis sakiTxis sirTulis gaTvaliswinebiT, SesaZleblobas aZlevs sasamarTlos mxarisagan damoukideblad daayenos gansjadobis sakiTxi sadavo samarTalurTierTobis kvlevis Semdgom etapebze, maT Soris zemdgom
instanciebSi ganxilvis procesSic82.
administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gansjadobis
82 gansjadobis sakiTxis sirTulis gamo saqmis gansjadobis sakiTxis
garkveva sarCelis dasaSvebobis stadiaze xSirad ver xerxdeba. sasamarTlo praqtikaSi aris araerTi SemTxveva, rodesac saqmis aragansjadi sasamarTlos mier ganxilvis dadgena xdeba bolo instanciis
mier saqmis ganxilvisas. adamianis uflebebis evropuli sasamarTlos
10.02.95w. gadawyvetilebaSi, saqmeze `alene da ribemoni safrangeTis
winaaRmdeg~, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom safrangeTis adminitsraciul
mosamarTleebs dasWirdaT xuTi weli da rva Tve gansjadobis sakiTxis
gasarkvevad da imis dasadgenad, rom isini ar iyvnen uflebamosilni
ganexilaT mocemuli saqme. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom zianis anazRaurebis saqmeebSi administraciuli da saerTo iurisdiqciis gamijvna
Zalze rTul da saCoTiro problemas warmoadgens, ris gamo mosarCelis advokatebis mimarT pretenzia aragansjad sasamarTloSi sarCelis
wardgenis Sesaxeb ar iqna gaziarebuli evropuli sasamarTlos mier. (ix.
), .2, . 85-93, . ,,,
() , GOLPI, , INTERIGHTS, .,2000).
safrangeTis sasamarTlo praqtikaSi cnobilia SemTxveva, rodesac administraciuli iusticiis kompetencia erT-erT saqmeze Svidi wlis
Semdeg dadginda, manamde saqmem saerTo da administraciuli sasamarTloebis yvela instancia ganvlo (. ,,
~. . ,,. gv. 396-397). miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, kompetenturi sasamarTlos dadgenaSi ZiriTadad sirTuleebi ar aRiniSneba,
franguli sasamarTlo sistema uzrunvelyofs kompetenciis Sesaxeb
davebis droul gadaWras.

147
sakiTxs eniWeba ara dispoziciuri, aramed imperatiuli
xasiaTi, gansjadoba ganixileba sajaro wesrigis (ordre
public) Semadgenel nawilad. sadReisod gansjadobis sakiTxze pretenziis gamoTqmis gareSe mopasuxis saqmis
ganxilvaSi Cabma, mxareebs Soris SeTanxmeba83 sasamarTlos gansjadobaze(prorogacia) an romelime sasamarTlos
iurisdiqciis gamoricxva (derogacia) administraciul
samarTalwarmoebaSi ar warmoadgens gansjadobis imperatiuli wesis darRvevis aRmomfxvrel garemoebas.
imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom gansjadobis sakiTxi gulisxmobs saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebs Soris
kompetenciis gamijvnas, xolo saerTo iurisdiqciis da
specialuri iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebs Soris dgeba
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis da ara gansjadobis sakiTxi,
kanonmdeblis miTiTeba imis Sesaxeb, rom aragansjad sasamarTloSi sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo
sarCels gadaugzavnis gansjad sasamarTlos (sask-is 26.2
mux.) gulisxmobs iseT viTarebas, rodesac gansjadi sasamarTlo aris saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTlo. ukeTu
sadavo sakiTxi ganekuTvneba specialuri iurisdiqciis
- sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias, sasamarTlom unda ixelmZRvanelos ssk-is 187-e muxliT, romlis
Tanaxmad mosamarTle valdebulia ganCinebaSi miuTiTos
Tu romel sasamarTlos unda mimarTos mosamarTlem. yvela samarTlebriv sistemaSi sagnobrivi da teritoriuli
gansjadoba aris sasamarTlo kompetenciis damaxasiaTebeli mTavari institutebi. administraciuli kanonmdebloba (sask-is me-2, me-5, me-6 mux., saarCevno kodeqsis77-e, 771
mux., `saqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebis mosamarTleTa
83 zogadad iTvleba, rom gansjadobis sakiTxze SeTanxmeba Seicavs
gauTviTcnobierebeli an ekonomikurad susti mxarisaTvis interesebis
Selaxvis saSiSroebas, ris gamo zogierTi qveynis kanonmdebloba pirdapir krZalavs aseT SeTanxmebas. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba aseT miTiTebas ar Seicavs, amasTanave werilobiTi SeTanxmeba gansjadobis Sesaxeb samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi daiSveba Tu ar aris
dadgenili erTmniSvnelovnad gansjadi sasamarTlo.

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disciplinuri pasuxismgeblobisa da disciplinuri samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 62-e muxli) gansazRvravs
sasamarTlosadmi administraciuli saqmeebis sagnobriv
da instanciur gansjadobas. gvareobiT (sagnobriv) gansjadobad iTvleba im sasamarTlosadmi saqmeebis gansjadoba, romlebic sasamarTlo sistemis sxvadasxva rgolebs ganekuTvnebian. teritoriuli (sagnobrivi) gansjadoba aris
teritoriis mixedviT saqmis sasamarTlosadmi gansjadoba, romelzedac vrceldeba mocemuli sasamarTlos saqmianoba. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom sask-is 26-e muxlis me-3
nawili zogadad uSvebs sasamarTloebs Soris davas, rac
niSnavs imas, rom administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisagan gansxvavebiT (ssk-is 24-e
mux.), davis mxolod iurisdiqciuli organos mier ganxilvis imperatiuli danawesidan gamomdinare, sasamarTloebs
Soris daiSveba ara mxolod sagnobriv gansjadobasTan dakavSirebuli dava (gansjadobasTan dakavSirebuli davebis
ZiriTadi nawili swored am saxis gansjadobas exeba), aramed agreTve instanciur da teritoriul gansjadobasTan
dakavSirebuli dava. amasTanave, xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom sasamarTloebs Soris daSvebulia dava gansjadobis da ara qvemdebareobis Sesaxeb. gansjadobis Sesaxeb
davis monawileTa Tanabrobis principidan gamomdinare,
aragansjad sasamarTloSi sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi
administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi dadgenili wesi imis
Sesaxeb, rom sasamarTlo gadaugzavnis sarCels gansjad
sasamarTlos (sask-is 26-e mux. me-2 naw.) exeba ara mxolod
administraciuli, aramed samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganmxilvel mosamarTleebs, sasamarTloebs Soris dava saqmis sagnobriv gansjadobaze mxolod aseTi daSvebis pirobebSia
SesaZlebeli. dava gansjadobis Taobaze SesaZlebelia
warmoiSvas mxolod sasamarTloebs da ara sasamarTlosa
da mxares Soris.

teritoriuli gansjadoba. administraciuli saqmeebis


teritoriuli gansjadoba wesrigdeba samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobiT, kerZod, sask-is me-15-24-e muxle-

149
biT. administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba calke ar awesrigebs administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis teritoriul gansjadobas. unda aRiniSnos, rom administraciuli
kategoriis saqmeebze teritoriuli gansjadoba mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli administraciuli organoebis
teritoriul gansjadobaze. ukanasknelis zogad wesebs
Soris, rogorc wesi, uTiTeben Semdegs:
konkretul teritoriaze uZravi qonebis an samarTalurTierTobasTan
dakavSirebiT
gadawyvetilebas
iRebs is administraciuli organo, romlis teritoriul
sazRvrebSi mdebareobs es uZravi qoneba an arsebobs samarTlebrivi urTierToba;
iuridiuli pirisaTvis an individualuri mewarmisaTvis
raime uflebis miniWeba an raime valdebulebis dakisreba
ganekuTvneba im administraciuli organos kompetencias,
romlis teritoriaze mocemuli iuridiuli piri an individualuri mewarme saqmianobs an apirebs saqmianobis warmarTvas;
sakiTxebis gadawyveta, romelic fizikur pirs exeba,
ganekuTvneba im administraciuli organos kompetencias,
romlis teritoriazec registrirebulia mocemuli piri
an romlis teritoriazec igi mudmivad an umetesad cxovrobs;
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gadawyvetileba ganekuTvneba ori an
meti administraciuli organos kompetencias, uflebamosilad CaiTvleba is organo, romelsac mimarTa pirma an
romlis iniciativiTac unda gadawydes mocemuli sakiTxi;
uSualo saSiSroebis an zianis warmoqmnis safrTxis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, gadaudebeli sakiTxebis gadawyveta
ekisreba im administraciul organos, romlis teritoriazec Seiqmna am garemoebebiT gamowveuli moqmedebebis ganxorcielebis an gadawyvetilebis miRebis saWiroeba, xolo
aseTis SeuZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, im administraciul
organos, romlis moqmedebis teritoria emijneba am teritorias, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.
aRniSnulis Sesaxeb dauyovnebliv unda ecnobos ufleba-

150
mosil administraciul organos;
Tu administraciuli warmoebis msvlelobisas gansjadobis ganmsazRvreli garemoebebi Seicvala, maSin adre
gansjad administraciul organos, uflebamosili organos Tanxmobis safuZvelze, warmoebis operatiulobis
mosazrebidan gamomdinare da mxareebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeuZlia, daasrulos dawyebuli administraciuli warmoeba;
kanonmdeblobiT teritoriuli gansjadobis gansxvavebuli wesis gansazRvris SemTxvevaSi, moqmedebs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesi;
administraciuli organos Soris gansjadobasTan dakavSirebul davas wyvets saerTo zemdgomi administraciuli organo, xolo aseTis ararsebobisas sasamarTlo.
administraciuli organos saqmeTa sagnobrivi gansjadoba
ganisazRvreba im kanonebiT, romlebic awesrigeben am saqmeebis garemoebebs.
administraciuli organoebis teritoriuli gansjadobis sakiTxebs ganekuTvneba saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kanonmdeblobis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad,
Tu gancxadebiT moTxovnili sakiTxis gadawyveta miekuTvneba sxva administraciuli organos uflebamosilebas, administraciuli organo valdebulia kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul vadaSi gadaugzavnos gancxadeba da masze TandarTuli sabuTebi uflebamosil administraciul
organos. Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili, uflebamosili saxelmwifo organosaTvis gancxadebis gadagzavnisas dauSvebelia raime mosazrebis wardgena gancxadebaSi
dasmuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetis Sesaxeb. gancxadebisa da
masze darTuli sabuTebis uflebamosil administraciul
organoSi gadagzavnis Sesaxeb, Sesabamisi dasabuTebiT,
dadgenil vadaSi, werilobiT ecnobeba ganmcxadebels. Tu
gancxadebaSi aRniSnuli sakiTxi sasamarTlos gansjadia
an SeuZlebelia uflebamosili administraciuli organos
dadgena, administraciuli organo gancxadebas Sesabamisi
dasabuTebiT daubrunebs ganmcxadebels dadgenil vadaSi.

151
gancxadebis wardgenisaTvis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili
vada daculad CaiTvleba im SemTxvevaSic, Tu pirma kanoniT dadgenil vadaSi gancxadeba waradgina arauflebamosil administraciul organoSi.
rac Seexeba administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa teritoriul gansjadobas, zogadi wesis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos mier im administraciuli kategoriis davebis ganxilva, romlebic uZrav qonebas an adgilTan mibmul uflebas
an samarTalurTierTobas exeba, Seadgens im sasamarTlos
kompetencias, romlis moqmedebis sferoSic imyofeba mocemuli qoneba an mocemuli adgili. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Taobaze Sedis im administraciuli
sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi, romlis moqmedebis sferoSic
aqvs adgilsamyofeli miTiTebul organos. aRniSnuli exeba
agreTve administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis
moTxovnis Taobaze sarCelebs. sarCelis saTanado kavSiri
teritoriasTan unda dadgindes sarCelis wardgenis momentisaTvis. garemoebebis Semdgomi Secvla (mag., mopasuxis
mier adgilmdebareobis Secvla), gansjadobis Seucvlelobis principis Tanaxmad (perpertuatio fori), ar iwvevs gansjadobis Secvlas. teritoriuli gansjadobis arsi mdgomareobs principSi, romlis mixedviT mosarCele mimarTavs mopasuxis sasamarTlos. saxelmwifos sazRvargareT mdebare
diplomatiuri da sakonsulo warmomadgenlobebis mimarT
sarCelebi ganxilul unda iqnes im sasamarTloSi, romlis
moqmedebis arealSic mdebareobs mTavroba. amdenad, saerTo wesis mixedviT, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili, teritoriuli iurisdiqcia ekuTvnis im sasamarTlos,
romlis moqmedebis teritoriazec ganlagebulia administraciuli organo(administraciis centralizmis Sedegad
aRniSnuli wesi xSir SemTxvevaSi iwvevs administraciul
saqmeTa koncentracias dedaqalaqSi, rac ganapirobebs
zogierTi qveynis kanonmdeblobaSi(safrangeTi, germania)
am wesisagan mravalricxovani gamonaklisebis gaTvaliswinebas. ase, mag., gfr-is kanonmdeblobiT im SemTxvevaSi,

152
Tu administraciuli aqti gamoica im administraciuli
organos mier, romlis kompetencia vrceldeba ramdenime
an yvela sasamarTlos moqmedebis sferoze, administraciul sarCels ganixilavs is sasamarTlo, romlis moqmedebis sferoSi cxovrobs an mocemul SemTxvevaSi imyofeba mosarCele.84 amgvari midgoma Cveni qveynis sasamarTlo
praqtikiT ar iqna gaziarebuli85, teritoriuli gansjadoba CvenSi umTavresad wydeba mopasuxis adgilmdebareobis
mixedviT. amasTanave, administraciuli marTlmsajulebis adgilze xelmisawvdomobas ramdenime mopasuxis (centraluri da adgilobrivi administraciuli organos)
SemTxvevaSi uzrunvelyofs ssk-is 16-e muxlis safuZvelze teritoriuli gansjadobis gadawyveta erT-erTi mopasuxis adgilmdebareobis mixedviT. sus administraciul
da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis 24.05.06w. ganCinebiT
aRiniSna, rom im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqme ramdenime sasamarTlos gansjadia, sasamarTlos arCevis uflebamosileba ekuTvnis mosarCeles. aRniSnuli exeba im SemTxvevas,
rodesac Tanamopasuxeebi arian sxvadasxva teritoriaze
mdebare administraciuli organoebi(ase, mag., erT-erT
saqmeSi mosarCele mopasuxeebad asaxelebda saqarTvelos
iusticiis saministros sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pirs
da aWaris a/r Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministros) an erTiani sistemis zeda da qveda rgolis
struqturebi. ase, mag., foTis macxovreblis sarCelze mopasuxeebis Semosavlebis samsaxuris da foTis saolqo
sagadasaxado inspeqciis mimarT, sarCeli SesaZloa wardgenil iqnas foTis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi. teritoriul
84 Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung, art. 52.
85 saqarTvelos sasamarTlo praqtikaSi cnobilia SemTxveva, rodesac
avtonomiuri erTeulis sasamarTlo saqarTvelos prezidentis aqtis
baTilad cnobis moTxovniT sarCelze Tavis teritoriul gansjadobas
asabuTebda imiT, rom saqarTvelos prezidenti aris mTeli qveynis, maT
Soris, im regionis saxelmwifo meTauri, romlis moqmedebis sferosac Seadgenda regionaluri sasamarTlos kompetencias. aseTi midgoma
uaryofil iqna sakasacio palatis mier.

153
gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT analogiuri davis gadawyvetisas sakasacio palatam ssk-is me-20 muxlze miTiTebiT
aRniSna, rom Tu saqme ramdenime sasamarTlos gansjadia,
sasamarTlos arCevis ufleba ekuTvnis mosarCeles.86 amdenad, teritoriuli gansjadobis variantebs administraciul marTlmsajulebaSi ganapirobebs sarCelis wardgena
ramdenime mopasuxisaTvis, romlebsac adgilmdebareoba
sxvadasxva teritoriebze aqvT an ramdenime sasarCelo
gancxadebis gaerTianeba. ar daiSveba mopasuxis moTxovniT an sasamarTlos iniciativiT mosarCelis mier arCeuli sasamarTlos Secvla sxva sasamarTloTi. sasamarTlos
ar gaaCnia uflebamosileba Caerios mosarCelis mier aRniSnuli uflebis realizaciaSi.87 Sesabamisad mosarClis
arCeviT gansjadobis damdgeni norma (ssk-is me-20 mux.),
gansakuTrebuli gansjadobis wesTan erTad (ssk-is me-16
mux.), romlis Tanaxmad sarCeli ramdenime mopasuxis mimarT sasamarTlos waredgineba erT-erTi mopasuxis sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT, uzrunvelyofs mosarCelis
interesebis dacvas, kerZod, mosarCelis uflebas waradginos sarCeli Tvisi sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasamarTlo Tvlis, rom mosarCelem
saTanado mopasuxe ar daasaxela, dauSvebelia sarCelis
gansjadobiT gadagzavna im sasamarTlosaTvis, romlis
moqmedebis teritoriazec mdebareobs sasamarTlos azriT saTanado mopasuxe. sasamarTlo sakuTari iniciativiT arasaTanado mxares ver Secvlis. administraciuli
kategoriis saqmeze sasamarTloebs Soris gansjadobaze
davis dasaSveboba ar aTavisuflebs sasamarTlos ssk-is
85-e muxlis moTxovnebis dacvisagan, romlis Tanaxmad Tu
sasamarTlo daadgens, rom sarCeli aRZrulia ara im pi86 ix. sus administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis
15.11.06w. #bs-788-754 (g-06); 12.02.07w., #bs-84-79 (g-06); 12.02.07w. #bs-10831032(g-06) ganCinebebi
87 sus administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis 10.10.07w.,
#bs-786-748 (g-07) ganCineba; 06.02.2008w., #bs-989-947 (k-07)

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ris winaaRmdeg, romelmac pasuxi unda agos sarCelze, mas
SeuZlia mosarCelis TanxmobiT da ara Tavisi iniciativiT
Secvalos Tavdapirveli mopasuxe saTanado mopasuxiT. Tu
mosarCele ar aris Tanaxma Tavdapirveli mopasuxis saTanado mopasuxiT Secvlaze, sasamarTlo valdebulia ganixilos saqme da uari uTxras mosarCeles sarCelis dakmayofilebaze88. teritoriul gansjadobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs valdebulebis Sesrulebis davalebis
(moqmedebis ganxorcielebis an administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis) Sesaxeb sarCelebTan dakavSirebiT, vinaidan am kategoriis saqmeebze bevri ram damokidebulia xelisuflebis organos adgilmdebareobaze. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom teritoriul gansjadobasTan
dakavSirebiT dava daiSveba mxolod administraciuli an
mxolod samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT saqmis ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs Soris. teritoriul gansjadobaze dava SeuZlebelia samoqalaqo da administraciuli
samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs
Soris, maT Soris dasaSvebia dava mxolod sagnobriv gansjadobaze. 89
teritoriul gansjadobaze zemoqmedebas axdens administraciuli organoebis kompetenciebis cvalebadoba.
mravalmxrivi reformebis gatarebis pirobebSi administraciuli organoebis kompetencia garkveuli dinamiurobiT
xasiaTdeba. administraciul organoebs Soris kompetenciis gadanawileba xSir SemTxvevaSi zemoqmedebs sasamarTlos teritoriul gansjadobaze. sarCelis aRZvris Semdeg
normatiuli aqtiT administraciuli organos uflebamosilebis Sekvecis (mopasuxe administraciuli organos ama
Tu im funqciis (mag., aqtis gamocemis), romlis Sesaxebac
mimdinareobs dava, sxva organoebisaTvis gadacemis) an moqmedebis sivrcis farglebis Secvlis(TviTmmarTvelobis
organos teritoriis sazRvrebis Secvlis Sedegad sadavo
88 sus 07.06.06w., #bs-354-338 (g-06)
89 sus 20.10.06w. #bs-864-827 (g-06).

155
miwis nakveTis sxva administraciul-teritoriuli erTeulis uflebamosilebis farglebSi moqceva) SemTxvevaSi
sasamarTlo valdebulia saproceso uflebamonacvleobis (sssk-is 92-e mux.) wesebis dacviT samarTlebrivi urTierTobidan gasuli mxare Secvalos uflebamonacvliT.
saqmis ganxilvis procesSi mxaris uflebamonacvlis Secvlis Sedegad teritoriuli gansjadobis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sarCeli Tavdapirvelad
gansjad sasamarTloSi iqna wardgenili, xolo sask-is 26-e
muxli iTvaliswinebs sarCelis gansjad sasamarTloSi gadagzavnas mxolod aragansjad sasamarTloSi sarCelis
wardgenis SemTxvevaSi, uflebamonacvlis Secvlis Sedegad saqmis sxva sasamarTlos gansjadobis miuxedavad, sasamarTlom gansjadobis wesebis dacviT Tavis warmoebaSi
miRebuli saqme unda ganixilos da arsebiTad gadawyvitos
(ssk-is 22-e mux.). mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is garemoeba, rom
uflebamonacvleobis sakiTxi wydeba saqmis warmoebaSi
miRebis Semdeg mopasuxe administraciuli organos kompetenciis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi. erTi organos meorisaTvis kompetenciis gadacema sarCelis aRZvramde iwvevs ara
uflebamonacvleobis, aramed arasaTanado mopasuxeobis
sakiTxis ganxilvas. ase, mag., im SemTxvevaSi, Tu soflis
meurneobis ministris brZanebiT indmewarmes CamoerTva
licenzia alkoholuri sasmelis warmoebaze da brZanebis
gauqmebis moTxovniT indmewarmis mier sasamarTloSi sarCelis aRZvramde, kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad, alkoholuri sasmelis warmoebaze licenziis
gacema soflis meurneobis saministrodan gadaeca ekonomikis saministros, miuxedavad imisa, rom sadavo aqti gamoica soflis meurneobis ministris mier, sarCelze saTanado mopasuxed iqneba sarCelis aRZvris momentSi amgvari
aqtis (licenziis gacema-gauqmeba) gamocemaze uflebamosili piri, gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi ekonomikis saministro. aRniSnuli ganpirobebulia imiT, rom erTi organodan
meore organosaTvis kompetenciis gadacema imavdroulad
gulisxmobs garkveuli uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili or-

156
ganosaTvis uflebamonacvleobis cnobasac. saproceso
uflebamonacvleobis safuZvelia uflebamonacvleoba
materialur samarTalSi, ama Tu im kompetenciis sxva organosaTvis gadacemiT. sadavo aqtis mimRebi organo gadis
gamocemuli aqtiT gamowveuli samarTalurTierTobidan
da mis nacvlad Semodis organo, romelsac mieniWa uflebamosileba aseTi aqtis gamocemaze. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg, aRsrulebis
stadiaze uflebamonacvleobis warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi,
gadawyvetilebis gamomtan sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs mxareTa TxovniT ganmartos uflebamonacvleobis sakiTxi.
teritoriul gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia agreTve is garemoeba, rom afxazeTis sasamarTloebisaTvis SemuSavebulma araordinalurma statusma mas
gansakuTrebuli gansjadoba mianiWa. afxazeTSi saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis srul aRdgenamde kanonmdeblobiT
ganisazRvra afxazeTis a.r. sasamarTloTa gansjadoba.
ssk-is 439-e muxliT dadgenilia, rom afxazeTis avtonomiur respublikaSi saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis srulad
aRdgenamde iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa darRveuli
da sadavo uflebebis, agreTve kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli interesebis dacvas axorcieleben afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis sasamarTloebi maTi samoqmedo
teritoriis mixedviT, procesualuri kanonmdeblobiT
dadgenili (ssk-is III Tavis) moTxovnaTa dacviT, Tu mopasuxec iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piria.
vinaidan saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad gancxadebas sarCelis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gadawyvets sarCelis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo(ssk-is 193-e mux.), sarCelis
winaswari uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gancxadebis aragansjad
sasamarTloSi wardgenis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom gancxadebis misTvis Cabarebis dResve gancxadebis ganxilvis vadebSi (gancxadebis Setanis dResve (ssk-is 193-e mux.)), unda
miiRos ganCineba gancxadebis gansjad sasamarTloSi gadagzavnis Taobaze. amdenad, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesi imis Sesaxeb, rom aragansjad sasamarTloSi

157
sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo sarCels gadaugzavnis gansjad sasamarTlos (sask-is 26-e mux.), farTod unda ganimartos.

instanciuri gansjadoba. rig samarTlebriv sistemebSi


(germania, espaneTi) gamoyofen funqcionalur gansjadobas (funktionelle Zustndigkeit, competencia funcional), klasifikaciis kriteriumad gamoyofen warmoebis im saxeebs, romlis ganxorcielebis uflebamosilebac sasamarTlo organos gaaCnia. amdenad, ganasxvaveben pirveli instanciis
funqciis ganmaxorcielebel sasamarTloebs, saapelacio
sasamarTloebs, sakasacio sasamarTlos. zemdgomi instanciebis kompetenciis optimizacia, maTi gaTavisufleba
ucxo funqciebis Sesrulebis movaleobisgan aZlevs sasamarTlo instanciebs SesaZleblobas yuradReba gaamaxvilon maT funqcionalur movaleobebze, aamaRlon marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis xarisxi.
vinaidan administraciuli kategoriis zogierTi saqme, misi mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, sxvadasxva qveynis
kanonmdeblobiT (germania, safrangeTi) pirveli instanciiT ixileba zeda instanciis (saapelacio, sakasacio)90
sasamarTloebis mier, administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTloebisaTvis aqtualobas inarCunebs sasamarTloTa Soris instanciuri gansjadoba. administraciuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganxilvis daCqarebis
mizniT, zogierTi qveynis kanonmdebloba(gfr), mxareTa
werilobiTi Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, iTvaliswinebs pirveli instanciis gadawyvetilebaze, saapelacio instanciis
gamotovebiT, sakasacio saCivris Setanis SesaZleblobas.
sakasacio sasamarTlos mier sakasacio saCivris dauSveb90 samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi sasamarTlo xelisuflebaSi `vertikalze~, `zemdgom~ da `qvemdgom~ sasamarTloebze saubari SesaZlebelia mxolod sasamarTloebis instanciuri urTierTkavSiris gamo,
romelsac procesualuri xasiaTi ar aqvs da ar gulisxmobs (ufro sworad gamoricxavs) sasamarTloebs Soris ufros-umcrosis tipis msgavs
damokidebulebas.

158
lad cnobis SemTxvevaSi mxares aRudgeba pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis saapelacio wesiT
gasaCivrebis vada, romelic aTvlas iwyebs sakasacio saCivris dauSveblad cnobis Sesaxeb mxarisaTvis ganCinebis
Cabarebis momentidan.91
sasamarTloebis instanciur gansjadobaze davebs CvenSi adgili hqonda adrindel periodSi, rodesac kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebda zeda instanciebis, kerZod, saolqo
sasamarTloebis kolegiebisa da uzenaesi sasamarTlos
sakasacio palatis mier pirveli instanciiT saqmeTa garkveuli kategoriis ganxilvas. amJamad saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos sadisciplino palata pirveli instanciis wesiT axdens mosamarTleTa sadisciplino kolegiis
gadawyvetilebebis gadasinjvas, rogorc faqtobrivi, ise
samarTlebrivi da dakisrebuli saxdelis samarTlianobis TvalsazrisiT. ,,advokatis Sesaxeb kanonis 35-e muxlis Tanaxmad, advokatisaTvis disciplinuri saxdelis
dadebis Sesaxeb eTikis komisiis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba pirveli instanciis wesiT saCivrdeba advokatis
mier uzenaes sasamarTloSi. ssip restituciis da kompensaciis komisiis gadawyvetilebebi `yofil samxreT oseTis
avtonomiur olqSi konfliqtis Sedegad saqarTvelos teritoriaze dazaralebulTa qonebrivi restituciisa da
kompensaciis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT dadgenili procedurebis
darRvevis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gasaCivrdes saqarTvelos
uzenaes sasamarTloSi.
sasamarTlo dawesebulebebis iurisdiqciiT aRmWurveli norma sajaro normaTa rigs ganekuTvneba da nakarnaxevia aramxolod mxareTa interesebiT, aramed sajaro mosazrebebiT. ar daiSveba mxareTa SeTanxmeba sagnobriv (dargobriv) gansjadobaze anu dauSvebelia mxareTa SeTanxmeba
administraciuli kategoriis davis samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesebis mixedviT ganxilvis Taobaze. moqmedi kanonmdebloba ar uSvebs agreTve, mxareTa SeTanxme91 Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung, Art. 134

159
bas instanciur gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT. amasTanave,
ssk-is 21-e muxlis safuZvelze ar aris gamoricxuli administraciuli xelSekrulebis mxareTa SeTanxmeba teritoriul gansjadobaze (gansakuTrebuli teritoriuli
gansjadobis garda) im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar aris dadgenili
erTmniSvnelovnad gansjadi sasamarTlo.
administraciuli saqmeebis specifikidan gamomdinare
administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebs zogierT qveynebSi
administraciuli iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi (gfr, safrangeTi, belgia, italia, saberZneTi da sxv.) ganixilaven.
moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad saqarTveloSi administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebs ganixilaven ara administraciuli, aramed saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi,
kerZod, raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlos mosamarTle
erTpirovnulad an kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi
raionuli sasamarTlo kolegiurad, 3 mosamarTlis SemadgenlobiT. raionul (saqalaqo) sasamarTlos SemadgenlobaSi SeiZleba Sediodes magistrati mosamarTle, romelic
ganixilavs mis kompetencias mikuTvnebul saqmeebs raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlos samoqmedo teritoriaze arsebul administraciul-teritoriul erTeulebSi. `saerTo
sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis me-16 muxlis
Tanaxmad, raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlos gansjadoba,
aseve magistrati mosamarTlis gansjadoba ganisazRvreba
kanoniT. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad,
raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlo pirveli instanciiT ganixilavs sasamarTlosadmi uwyebrivad daqvemdebarebul
administraciul saqmeebs, garda im saqmeebisa, romlebic
kanonmdeblobiT magistrat mosamarTleTa gansjad administraciul saqmeebs ganekuTvneba. raionuli (saqalaqo)
sasamarTlo pirveli instanciiT ganixilavs aseve administraciul saqmeebs im administraciul-teritoriul erTeulSi, sadac ar moqmedebs magistrati mosamarTle(sask-is
me-5 mux.). magistrati mosamarTleebis gansaxilvel saqmeTa CamonaTvali mocemulia sask-is me-6 muxlSi, romlis
Tanaxmad magistrati mosamarTleebi pirveli instanciiT

160
ganixilaven saqmeebs: soflis, Temis, dabisa da qalaqis,
romelic Sedis raionis SemadgenlobaSi, warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmasrulebeli organoebis adminitsraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis kanonierebis Taobaze; administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis Taobaze gamotanili individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis kanonierebis Sesaxeb; saxelmwifo socialuri dacvis sakiTxis
Taobaze; sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT warmoSobili davis
Taobaze; sajaro samsaxurSi SromiTi urTierTobidan warmoSobil davasTan dakavSirebiT; mewarmis saqmianobis Semowmebis Sesaxeb makontrolebeli organos Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze brZanebis gamocemis Taobaze; Sesabamisi
fsiqiatriuli dawesebulebis administraciis mimarTvis
safuZvelze aranebayoflobiTi fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis mizniT piris stacionarSi moTavsebis Sesaxeb (sask-is
me-6 mux.). magistrat mosamarTleTa gansjadi samoqalaqo
saqmeebis CamonaTvali mocemulia ssk-is me-14 muxlSi. administraciuli saproceso da samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi mocemuli CamonaTvali aris amomwuravi
da misi ganvrcoba ar daiSveba. magistrat mosamarTleTa
gansjad saqmeebze sarCelebi Seitaneba magistrati mosamarTlis samoqmedo teritoriis mixedviT, xolo im administraciul-teritoriul erTeulSi, sadac ar moqmedebs
magistrati mosamarTle - raonul (saqalaqo) sasamarTloSi.
magistrati mosamarTlis institutis amoqmedeba kidev
ufro aqtualurs gaxdis saqmeTa gansjadobis sakiTxs.
samoqalaqo da administraciuli kategoriis davebis ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs Soris arsebul sagnobrivi gansjadobis davebs daemateba davebi gansjadobaze administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis ganmxilveli magistrati
mosamarTleebisa da amave kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilvel
raionuli(saqalaqo) sasamarTlos Soris. vinaidan aseTi
davebi erTiani sasamarTlo sistemis erTi sasamarTlo
Stos SigniT aris moqceuli, procesualuri ekonomiisa da

161
gansjadobaze davebis sirTulis Tavidan acilebis mizniT,
zogierTi mkvlevaris azriT, magistrati mosamarTlisaTvis savaldebulo unda iyos raionuli sasamarTlos ganCineba gansjadobis Taobaze, rac faqtobrivad gamoricxavs
magistrat mosamarTlesa da raionuli sasamarTlos Soris
davas gansjadobis sakiTxze.92

sagnobrivi gansjadoba. Tu sasamarTlos uwyebrivi


qvemdebareobis darRvevas yovelTvis mosdevs Sedegad gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba (ssk-is 394-e muxlis ,,g qvepunqtis Tanaxmad gadawyvetilebis gamotana saqmeze, romelic
sasamarTlos uwyebrivad ar eqvemdebareba, warmoadgens
sakasacio saCivris absolutur safuZvels), gansjadobis
darRveviT administraciuli saqmis ganxilva TavisTavad,
ukve TviT gansjadobis wesis darRveviT gadawyvetilebis
gamotanis faqtis gamo, adasturebs saqmis uxeSi procesualuri darRvevebiT ganxilvas, vinaidan gansjadobis wesebis darRveva adasturebs gansxvavebul principebze agebuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT saqmis ganxilvas. aRniSnuli savaldebulod iwvevs gansjadobis wesebis darRveviT
ganxilul saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu momCivani saCivris safuZvlad
uTiTebs saqmis dadgenili saproceso wesebis darRvevas.
kerZo samarTalSi gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens
mxareTa neba, ris gamo kerZo samarTals, rogorc wesi,
aqvs dispoziciuri xasiaTi. sajaro samarTali emsaxureba saxelmwifo uflebamosilebebis dasabuTebas da gansazRvras, ris gamo sajaro samarTlis normebi upiratesad
imperatiuli xasiaTisaa, samarTalurTierTobebi maTi
obieqturi arsobrivi SinaarsisdamixedviT ganimarteba.
mxareTa nebas, rogorc wesi, ar aqvs arsebiTi mniSvneloba.
sajaro da kerZo samarTlis normebs Soris zRvari rig Sem92 s. maWavariani `uwyebrivi qvemdebareobisa da gansjadobis problema saqarTvelos saproceso kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad~, Jurn. `marTlmsajuleba~, gv. 207.

162
TxvevebSi ar aris mkveTri, samarTlis am or sferos Soris
Warbobs naxevartonalobebi.
administraciuli kategoriis saqmis ganxilvisas sasamarTlom unda ixelmZRvanelos materialuri normebis realizaciis Sesabamisi procesualuri, kerZod ki administraciul-procesualuri normebiT.93 davas iwvevs sakiTxi
imis Sesaxeb, iZleva Tu ara safuZvels aragansjadi sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilvis SemTxvevaSi ukanono Semadgenlobad miCnevis SesaZleblobas, warmoadgens Tu ara
aragansjadi sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilva ssk-is 394-e
muxlis ,,a qvepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebul sakasacio saCivris absolutur safuZvels (arakanonieri SemadgenlobiT
saqmis ganxilva).94 gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio palatebis mier ramdenimejer mieTiTa, rom ,,saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb organuli kanonis 30-e da 20-e
muxlebiT ganisazRvreba Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos,
agreTve saapelacio sasamarTloebis palatebis Semadgenlobis formirebis wesi, palatis mosamarTleTa sxva palataSi monawileobis wesi. aRniSnuli wesis darRveviT samo93 sakasacio sasamarTlo Tavis erT-erT ganCinebaSi (`sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2001w. #4, gv.
241-245) miuTiTa, rom administraciuli kategoriis saqmis ganxilvisas
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesebis moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdegod saapelacio palata Semoifargla mxolod samoqalaqo saproceso
normebiT. saqmis mxolod dispoziciur sawyisebze ganxilvis Sedegad
saapelacio sasamarTlo sakasacio wesiT gasaCivrebul ganCinebaSi
uTiTebs, rom mtkicebulebebs sasamarTlos warudgenen mxareebi, sskis 102-e da 103-e muxlebis Tanaxmad, TiToeul mxares unda daemtkicebina garemoebebi, romelzedac igi amyarebs Tavis moTxovnebs da Sesagebels, maSin, rodesac administraciuli davis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo,
ssk-is me-4, me-19 muxlebis Tanaxmad ar aris SezRuduli mxareTa mier
warmodgenili argumentebiTa da mtkicebulebebiT da saqmis garemoebebs ikvlevs Tavisi iniciativiT, administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi
mxaris mier warmodgenil mtkicebulebaTa paralelurad, sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia damoukideblad Seagrovos faqtobrivi garemoebebi da
mtkicebulebebi.
94 sus gadawyvetileba 09.06.05w. #bs-615-201-09; 29.06.05w. #bs-664-251

163
qalaqo saqmeTa palatis mier misadmi aragansjadi saqmis
ganxilva iwvevs saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos arakanonier Semadgenlobas, rac ssk-is 394-e muxlis ,,a qvepunqtis
Tanaxmad warmoadgens sakasacio saCivris absolutur safuZvels. samoqalaqo da administraciul saqmeTa ganmxilveli palatebis uflebamosilebis sferos esoden, TiTqmis
dapirispirebis xarisxSi ayvanilma gamijvnam, kerZo da sajaro samarTals Soris `Cinuri kedlis~ agebam, maTi erTmaneTis antipodebad miCnevam, rigi praqtikosi da mecnier
muSakis kritikuli damokidebuleba gamoiwvia. aRniSnul
sakiTxTan mimarTebiT sasamarTlo praqtikis srulyofis
mizniT gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom sasamarTlos arakanonieri Semadgenloba esaa Semadgenlobis Sinagani Tviseba, igi aseTad darCeba nebismier SemTxvevaSi,
miuxedavad imisa, ganixilavs saqmeebs gansjadobisa da saqveuwyebobis wesebis dacviT Tu ara.95 sajaro da kerZo samarTlis ganviTareba erTimeoris xelSewyobaSi vlindeba
da ara dapirispirebaSi. aq arsebul wesrigs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. gansakuTrebiT Seuwynarebelia sajaro samarTlis agresia kerZo urTierTobebSi. saxelmwifo,
romelic ver uzrunvelyofs am sferoSi dabalansebuli
urTierTobis Camoyalibebas, ver ganviTardeba.96 aRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom ukeTu saapelacio saCivari ar emyareba gansjadobis an sxva procesualuri wesebis darRvevas, gansjadobis wesebis darRveva
ar warmoadgens gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis
safuZvels.
sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebareobisa da sasamarTlos gansjadobis cnebaTa araerTgvarovani gamoyenebis
da maTi arsobrivad aRrevis gamo adgili aqvs gansjadobis
95 T. liluaSvili ,,administraciuli saqmeebis sasamarTlo saqveuwyeboba (uwyebrivi qvemdebareoba) da gansjadoba, Jurn. `marTlmsajuleba~, gv. 32-33.
96 b. zoiZe `sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa wesrigi
saqarTveloSi~, Tb. 2007w. gv. 39.

164
davebis farglebis metismetad ganvrcobas, samoqalaqo da
administraciuli procesis sagnobrivi gansjadobis sakiTxis faqtobrivad gadazrdas uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis
sakiTxSi, rac praqtikaSi iwvevs saqmis ama Tu im kategoriisadmi kuTvnilebaze msjelobas, gansjadobis gadamowmebas sasamarTlos iniciativiT saqmis ganxilvis yvela etapze, yvela instanciaSi, amis Taobaze mxareTa moTxovnis arsebobis miuxedavad, ris Sedegadac adgili aqvs marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis Seferxebas. aRniSnuls emateba
gansjadobis Sesaxeb davebis zrdis mkveTrad gamoxatuli
dinamika.97 sask-is me-2 muxli exeba ara mxolod uwyebriv
qvemdebareobas, aramed gansjadobis sakiTxsac. CamonaTvalis meSveobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba davis sagnis administraciuli saqmeebis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos kompetenciisadmi kuTvnilebis dadgena. amasTanave is garemoeba, rom
esa Tu is dava ar aris moculi me-2 muxlis pirveli nawilis
CamonaTvaliT, TavisTavad ar gamoricxavs davis sasamarTlosadmi uwyebriv qvemdebareobas, vinaidan administraciuli da samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganmxilveli sasamarTloebi
ar qmnian erTmaneTisagan izolirebul, calke sasamarTlo
sistemebs. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom administraciul
saqmeebs ganixilavenF saqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebi
(sask-is 1.1 mux.), amasTanave `saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi moqmedebs
erTiani sasamarTlo sistema, administraciuli da samoqalaqo saqmeebis kolegiebsa da palatebs Soris saqmeTa
ganawilebis sakiTxi swored rom gansjadobis da ara sasamarTlo qvemdebareobis kuTxiT unda ixilebodes. SesaZloa dava ar iyos administraciuli, magram iyos samoqalaqo
wesiT gansjadi. amdenad, is garemoeba, rom dava ar aris mo97 ase, mag., Tu 2001 wels uzenaesi sasamarTlos administraciul da
sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis mier ganxilul iqna sasamarTloebs
Soris gansjadobis Sesaxeb 21 dava, 2004 wels _ 96, 2006 wels am kategoriis saqmeTa odenobam 133 miaRwia. aRniSnuls emateba saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvisas zemdgomi sasamarTlo instanciebis mier gansjadobis
sakiTxis sakuTari iniciativiT ganxilva-gadawyveta.

165
culi 2.1 muxliT, ar unda iwvevdes, yvela SemTxvevaSi, im
samarTlebriv Sedegs, romelic mosdevs uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis darRvevas. davis sask-is 2.1 muxlSi mocemuli CamonaTvaliT gauTvaliswinebloba ar iZleva sasamarTlos
iniciativiT yvela instanciaSi, saqmis ganxilvis nebismier
stadiaze, administraciuli sasamarTlos uflebamosilebaze msjelobis SesaZleblobas. aseTi daSvebulad unda
iqnes miCneuli mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos azriT dava ar aris moculi arc administraciuli da arc samoqalaqo kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTlos kompetenciiT(sask-is me-2 da ssk-is 11-e
mux.), rodesac davis sagani ar eqvemdebareba sasamarTlos
Tavisi bunebiT, arsebiTi maxasiaTeblebiT (interesis, aqtis ararseboba da sxv.). amasTanave, sasamarTlos uwyebriv
qvemdebareobas udavod exeba sask-is me-2 muxlis me-4 nawili, romlis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia administraciuli organos sarCeli im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romlis gadawyveta mis uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba. vinaidan normis
saTauri mis Sinaarss unda esadagebodes, sask-is me-2 muxlis saTaurSi (`sasamarTlos gansjadi administraciuli
saqmeebi~) gansjadobasTan erTad unda aisaxos agreTve
uwyebrivi qvemdebareobis sakiTxic.
gansjadobis gamijvnis arsis gansazRvrisas zogadad
aRniSnaven, rom administraciuli sasamarTlo principSi valdebulia gamoiyenos administraciuli samarTlis normebi, da piriqiT, administraciuli samarTali
aris administraciuli sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebuli
samarTali(aRniSnulis Sesabamisad, sask-is me-2 muxlis
me-3 nawili zogadad uTiTebs, rom am kodeqsiT dadgenili
wesiT saerTo sasamarTloSi ganixileba dava im samarTlebriv urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic gamomdinareobs administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan). am mosazrebaze yalibdeba davis sagnis procesualur
kompetenciasTan urTierTkavSiris principi98. amdenad,
98

zogadi tendenciis mixedviT, administraciuli marTlmsajuleb-

166
administraciuli sasamarTlos kompetenciis dadgenisaTvis Seswavlil unda iqnes administraciuli samarTlis gamoyenebis saWiroebis sakiTxebi. Tumca am principis mimarT
arsebobs araerTi gamonaklisi da specifiuri Tavisebureba. administraciuli iusticiis qvemdebarea sajaro xelisuflebis mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobisadmi gankuTvnili
davebi.
sajaro xelisuflebas ganekuTvnebian: saxelmwifo
mmarTvelobis, adgilobrivi TviTmarTvelobis organoebi, sajaro-samarTlebrivi dawesebulebebi, agreTve,
kerZo-samarTlebrivi organizaciebi da fizikuri pirebi,
romlebic sajaro samsaxuris funqciebs asruleben. rac
Seexeba mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobis sferos, masSi ar Sedis
iurisdiqciuli kontrolisagan Tavisufali sfero, mag.
is ganviTarebis Tavdapirvel etapze, administraciuli da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis gamojvnas politikuri buneba hqonda. ase, mag. safrangeTSi aseTi gamijvna aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sasamarTlo
xelisuflebisagan dacvis mizniT iyo ganpirobebuli. administraciuli
kategoriis saqmeebis ganmxilveli organoebis WeSmaritad sasamarTlo
organoebad gadaqcevis kvaldakval politikuri mosazrebebi xelisuflebis danawilebis wminda teqnikuri mosazrebebiT Seicvala. administraciuli iusticiis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove periodSi problema
mdgomareobs ara imdenad sasamarTlos winaSe warmomdgari piris garantiebis uzrunvelmyofi sasamarTlos dadgenaSi (am TvalsazrisiT administraciuli saqmeebis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo arafriT Camouvardeba saerTo sasamarTlos), aramed imaSi, rom ganisazRvros Tu romeli
sasamarTlo aris teqnikurad ufro kompetenturi ama Tu im xasiaTis
sadavo problemis gadaWraSi. Tavdapirvelad administraciuli samarTali gamoiyeneboda garkveuli sasamarTlo saqmeebis mimarT maTi TviT
administraciuli sasamarTloebisadmi qvemdebareobis faqtis gamo.
SemdgomSi administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis ganmxilveli mosamarTlis qvemdebareoba umetesad sabuTdeba imiT, rom gadasawyveti
dava administraciuli samarTlis gamoyenebas saWiroebs. qvemdebareobis orive gageba xasiaTdeba Serwymis tendenciiT. administraciuli Tu
samoqalaqo kategoriis saqmeebis ganmxilveli mosamarTle miiCneva
kompetenturad iuridiuli TvalsazrisiT imitom, rom aRiarebulia
kompetenturad sayofacxovrebo TvalsazrisiT, gaaCnia saWiro codna
problemis gadasawyvetad(. ,, .
., . ,,, gv.74)

167
sakanonmdeblo saqmianoba.
SesaZloa adgili hqondes iseT SemTxvevas, rodesac kompetenturi sasamarTlo organo saqmis ganxilvisas Sexvdeba iseT sakiTxs, romelic scildeba misi gansjadobis
farglebs. amgvari problemis gadawyvetisas sasamarTlom
unda ixelmZRvanelos ori principiT. pirveli aRiarebs
sasamarTlo kompetenciis sisrules (moqmedi sasamarTlo uflebamosili sasamarTlo), saqmis warmoebaSi mimReb sasamarTlos ZaluZs gaerkves saqmis ganxilvis dros
wamoWril yvela sakiTxSi. amasTanave, es principi winaaRmdegobaSi modis funqciebis gamijvnis principTan, romlis
Tanaxmad samoqalaqo davebis gadamwyveti sasamarTlo ar
aris uflebamosili Caerios administraciis saqmianobaSi
da, piriqiT, administraciuli davebis gadamwyveti sasamarTlo ar unda ereodes samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebis sakiTxebSi. xsenebuli ori principis SeTavseba
iwvevs kompromisuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebas, romlebic qmnian preiudiciuli sakiTxebis Teoriis safuZvels.99
saqmeTa garkveul kategoriebze daiSveba sasamarTlos absoluturi kompetencia, preiudiciis sakiTxi ar wamoiWreba. aRniSnuli exeba SemTxvevebs, rodesac davis gadawyveta
saWiroebs kanonis an kanonqvemdebare aqtis ganmartebas.
administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas kerZosamarTlebrivi kanonebis gamoyenebis saWiroeba ar qmnis preiudiciuli
sakiTxis wamoWris safuZvels.100 marTlmsajulebis nebismieri ganStoebis sasamarTlo dawesebuleba uflebamosilia ganmartos kanoni an kanonqvemdebare aqti, maTi regulirebis sagnis da gamomcemi organos miuxedavad. saerTo
wesis mixedviT mTavari sakiTxis gadamwyvet mosamarTles
aqvs ufleba gadawyvitos sakiTxTa mTeli erToblioba,
mTavari sakiTxis gadamwyveti wyvets agreTve kerZo sak99 .
1988., gv. 385.

,, ., . ,,,

100 . ,, . ., . ,,, 1973


., gv. 107.

168
iTxebsac. amasTanave, zogierT qveyanaSi (safrangeTi) daiSveba am wesisagan gamonaklisi, rodesac imperatiuli
xasiaTis gansakuTrebuli mizezebi moiTxoven iurisdiqciis dayofis dacvas. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac wamoWrili
sakiTxi SeiZleba gadaiWres mTlianad saqmis ganmxilveli
mosamarTlis mier, adgili aqvs winaswar sakiTxs, xolo
preiudiciul sakiTxs adgili aqvs im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
saqmis ganmxilveli mosamarTle valdebulia gadados saqmis ganxilva sxva mosamarTlis mier gadawyvetilebis miRebamde. iTvleba, rom preiudiciuli sakiTxi dgeba maSin,
rodesac wamoWrili siZnele sakmaod seriozulia da saqmis
dedaazrs exeba. preiudiciuli sakiTxebi warmoiSoba or
tipiur SemTxvevaSi: individualuri aqtis ganmartebisa
da mmarTvelobis aqtebis kanonierebis gansazRvris dros.
sakiTxi individualuri aqtis ganmartebis Sesaxeb SesaZloa daisvas ara mxolod administraciuli kategoriis,
aramed agreTve samoqalaqo kategoriis saqmis ganxilvisas. administraciuli davebis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi Seamowmos kerZosamarTlebrivi aqtebis Sinaarsi da gamoikvlios
kerZosamarTlebrivi urTierTobebi. ase, mag., igi uflebamosilia ganmartos xelSekrulebis Sinaarsi an dokumenti
sakuTrebis uflebis Sesaxeb. samoqalaqo davebis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo saqmis ganxilvisas SesaZloa waawydes individualuri administraciuli aqtebis ganmartebis saWiroebas.
rac Seexeba administraciuli aqtis kanonierebas, davas
ar iwvevs, rom samoqalaqo kategoriis davebis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili cnos romelime
administraciuli aqti baTilad, aseTi sakiTxis wamoWris
SemTxvevaSi saqme unda gadaeces administraciuli iurisdiqciis sasamarTlos. amasTanave, aqtis ararad miCnevis
iurisdiqciiT, zogi avtoris azriT, sargeblobs ara mxolod administraciuli, aramed agreTve samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganmxilveli mosamarTle. ukanasknelma, nebismieri
organosa da moqalaqis msgavsad, ar unda miiRos mxedve-

169
lobaSi arara aqti, mosamarTlem ar unda gamoacxados igi
ararad, sakmarisia aqtis ararad konstantireba.101
sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebis ganmxilveli mosamarTlis
misiis bunebidan gamomdinare iTvleba, rom igi principSi
flobs srul iurisdiqcias yvela im sakiTxis mimarT, romelic ukavSirdeba sasjelis gamoyenebas. ase, mag., safrangeTSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganmxilvel mosamarTles
reglamentaciuli zogadi xasiaTis Semcveli debulebebis
aqtebis mimarT gaaCnia ara mxolod ganmartebis, aramed,
agreTve, kanonierebis dadgenis ufleba, ukeTu aRniSnuli
safuZvlad edeba devnas an gamoiyeneba dacvis saSualebad. sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganmxilveli mosamarTlis iurisdiqcia izRudeba arareglamentaciuli aqtebis
mimarT, Tumca sasamarTlo praqtika sisxlis samarTlis
ganmxilveli mosamarTlis uflebamosilebasTan mimarTebaSi gadaWriT xels uwyobs mareglamentirebeli da individualuri aqtebis asimilacias, ukeTu maTi kanonierebis
Semowmeba Sedegad iwvevs sisxlis samarTlis sanqciebis
gamoyenebas.102
administraciul da sisxlis samarTalwarmoebas Soris
101 J. vedeli. miTiTebuli naSromi. gv. 91, 112-113.
102 sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganmxilveli mosamarTlis mier kanonqvemdebare da administraciuli aqtebis marTlzomierebis Sefasebis
uflebamosilebasTan dakavSirebiT iuridiul literaturaSi aRiniSneba urTierTsawinaaRmdego praqtika safrangeTis konfliqtebis tribunalsa da sakasacio sasamarTlos sisxlis samarTlis palatas Soris.
konfliqtebis tribunali Tvlis, rom mosamarTles sisxlis samarTlis
saqmeze ZaluZs Seafasos individualuri aqtis kanoniereba mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu amis Taobaze pirdapir miTiTebas Seicavs kanoni. rac
Seexeba sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa sakasacio sasamarTlos, igi uflebamosilad Tvlis Tavs sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi iqonios msjeloba
nebismieri individualuri aqtis kanonierebaze. sakasacio sasamarTlos
sisxlis samarTlis palata ar misdevs konfliqtebis tribunalis sasamarTlo praqtikas, ris gamoc ukanasknels sayveduroben imaSi, rom mas
ar gaaCnia samarTlebrivi argumentebi da materialuri mtkicebulebebi Tavisi sasamarTlo praqtikisadmi pativiscemis dasamkvidreblad (g.
brebani, miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 385; J. vedeli, miTiTebuli naSromi,
gv. 114,115).

170
iurisdiqciuli problemebi zogjer CvenSic iCens Tavs,
rodesac administraciuli organos mier Sedgenili aqtis
miuxedavad, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxis
gadawyvetisas Sesabamisi organo akeTebs administraciuli aqtis sawinaaRmdego daskvnas. kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli
sasamarTlos ganaCeniT da sagadasaxado Semowmebis aqtiT
erTi da igive sakiTxis Sedegobrivad sxvadasxvagvarad mowesrigeba iurisdiqciul problemebs qmnis sisxlis samarTlis da administraciul saqmeTa ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs Soris. erT-erT saqmeze Catarebuli Semowmebis Sedegad
Sedgenili aqtiT Sps-s daericxa gadasaxdelad 22347 lari.
kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli sasamarTlos ganaCeniT Sps-s direqtors gadasaxadis gadaxdis Tavis aridebisaTvis daekisra 5172 laris anazRaureba. ganaCenis kanonier ZalaSi
Sesvlis Semdgom Sps-s direqtorma sarCeli aRZra sagadasaxado inspeqciis winaaRmdeg da moiTxova sagadasaxado
inspeqciis aqtis baTilad cnoba. saapelacio sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebiT sagadasaxado moTxovna 5172 laris nawilSi ucvlelad darCa, danarCen nawilSi sagadasaxado
moTxovna baTilad iqna cnobili, vinaidan moTxovnis es nawili aRemateboda preiudiciuli mniSvnelobis mqone sasamarTlo ganaCeniT dadgenil Tanxas. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos didi palatis 24.09.07w. gadawyvetilebiT
(saqme #bs-335-317(k-07)) sagadasaxado inspeqciis sakasacio
saCivari ar dakmayofilda. ganCinebaSi aRiniSna, rom sasamarTlo, romelic mis uwyebrivad qvemdebare da gansjad
saqmes ixilavs, flobs am saqmis ganxilvis absolutur kompetencias, maT Soris, saqmis ganxilvis procesSi SeuZlia
gamoiyenos da ganmartos nebismieri normatiuli da individualuri samarTlebrivi aqti _ rogorc sakanonmdeblo da kanonqvemdebare normatiuli, ise individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi an kerZo samarTlebrivi
aqti, maTi regulirebis sagnis miuxedavad. imavdroulad
saerTo sasamarTloebs SigniT calkeuli kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTloebis kompetenciaTa damoukideblobidan gamomdinare, administraciul saqmeTa gan-

171
mxilvel sasamarTlos ekrZaleba rogorc sisxlis samarTlis, ise samoqalaqo saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTlos
kompetenciaSi Careva, maTi gansjadi saqmeebis ganxilva da
piriqiT. dava aqtis kanonierebis Sesaxeb administraciuli samarTalwarmoebiT gansjad saqmeTa kategorias ganekuTvneba. aRniSnuli niSnavs imas, rom rogorc sisxlis
samarTlis, ise samoqalaqo saqmeTa ganmxilveli sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili ganixilos da gadawyvitos dava
aqtis kanonierebis Sesaxeb, baTilad, Zaladakargulad,
ararad gamoacxados aseTi aqti. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos didma palatam miuTiTa, rom administraciuli
aqtis safuZvelze sisxlis samarTlis saqmis aRZvris miuxedavad saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdebloba administaraciuli aqtiT dadgenil garemoebebs sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi ar aniWebs preiudiciul
mniSvnelobas, administraciuli aqtiT dadgenil faqtebs
sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi ar aqvs pirdapiri moqmedebis Zala. aseT SemTxvevaSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo, Tumca pirdapir ar ixilavs aqtis
kanonierebis sakiTxs, magram sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze
braldebis sisworis Semowmebisas, romelic, Tavis mxriv,
swored aRniSnul aqts efuZneba, imavdroulad, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis faqtobriv
dasabuTebaSi iWreba da am aqtiT erTxel ukve dadgenili
faqtebis siswores xelaxla amowmebs. sisxlis samarTlis
saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos aseTi farTo procesualuri kompetencia SeiZleba aixsnas sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis funqciiT, romelic yvelaze xelSesaxebia pirovnebis fundamenturi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis mimarT.
miuxedavad imisa, rom sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganmxilvel sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia baTilad cnos administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, igi flobs srul iurisdiqcias
danaSaulis faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenisa da sasjelis gamoyenebis sakiTxze. am mizniT mas aqvs kompetencia,
Seamowmos aqtiT dadgenili garemoebebi aqtis kanonierebis sakiTxis ganxilvis gareSe da daadginos am aqtiT dad-

172
genilisagan gansxvavebuli faqtebi, aseve moaxdinos aqtis
araraobis konstantireba. sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom
samoqalaqo da administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi ganaCeniT dadgenil yvela faqts ara aqvs preiudiciuli Zala,
ganaCenis daskvnebs preiudiciuli mniSvneloba aqvs mxolod ori sakiTxis mimarT: hqonda Tu ara adgili qmedebas
da Sesrulebulia Tu ara igi mocemuli piris mier(ssk-is
106-e mux). ganaCeniT dadgenili sxva faqti, maT Soris faqti imis Taobaze, Tu ra odenobis ziani gamoiwvia moqmedebam, preiudiciuli Zalis mqone ar aris da aseTi faqtis dadasturebis movaleobisagan sasamarTlo ar Tavisufldeba. gamonaklisia SemTxveva, rodesac odenoba konkretuli
danaSaulis Semadgenlobis makvalificirebeli niSania da
qmedebis dadgenis sakiTxi odenobis dadgenis gareSe ver
gadawydeba. didi palatis mier yuradReba gamaxvilda agreTve im garemoebaze, rom preiudiciuloba zogjer bralis dadgenas ukavSideba. ase, mag. gadasaxadisaTvis Tavis aridebis danaSaulis SemadgenlobisaTvis aucilebel
elements warmoadgens ganzraxvis arseboba, maSin rodesac
sagadasaxado pasuxismgebloba dgeba rogorc ganzrax, ise
gaufrTxileblobiT Tavis aridebis SemTxvevaSi. aRiniSna, agreTve, rom saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdebloba ar Seicavs sisxlis samarTlis saqmis
ganmxilveli sasamarTlos mier administraciuli aqtis
kanonierebis Semowmebis mizniT administraciul saqmeTa ganmxilvel sasamarTloSi administraciuli davis wamowyebisa da am davis dasrulebamde sisxlis samarTlis
saqmeze warmoebis SeCerebis SesaZleblobas. aseTi davis
aRZvra mTlianad gadasaxadis gadamxdelzea damokidebuli. sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze ganaCenis dadgomamde
administraciul saqmeze gadawyvetilebis gamotanis SemTxvevaSi, aseT gadawyvetilebas sisxlis samarTlis saqmis
mimarT preiudiciuli Zala eqneba.
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom administraciuli kategoriis saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlosaTvis preiudiciuli mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondes sisxlis samarTlis

173
saqmeze gamotanil, kanonier ZalaSi Sesul ganaCens, romliTac arsebiTad aris gadawyvetili danaSaulis Cadenis
an sarCelis sakiTxi. sxva sasamarTlo dadgenilebebi ar
aTavisufleben mxares mtkicebis tvirTisagan. preiudicia aris ganaCenis sisworis prezumfciis gamovlineba. rac
Seexeba administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi im faqtebis
preiudiciul mniSvnelobas, romlebic dadgenilia ara ganaCeniT, aramed sagamoZiebo organoebis aqtebiT. sakasacio palatis zogierT ganCinebaSi aRiniSna, rom faqtebs,
romlebic dadgenilia ara ganaCeniT, aramed sagamoZiebo
organoebis aqtebiT, ar aqvs preiudiciuli Zala da isini
administraciuli saqmis ganxilvis dros dadgenili unda
iqnes saerTo wesiT. 27.12.07w. kanoniT saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad damtkicebas ar saWiroebs sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze gamotanili, kanonier
ZalaSi Sesuli aramxolod ganaCeniT, aramed saerTod, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli saboloo Semajamebeli gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili faqtebi. Semajamebeli gadawyvetileba
gulisxmobs gadawyvetilebas, romelic amTavrebs sisxlis
samarTlis procesis amaTuim stadias (sisxlis samarTlis
saproceso kodeqsis 44.10. mux.). amdenad, sasamarTlo ganaCenTan erTad preiudiciuli mniSvneloba eniWeba kanonier ZalaSi Sesul sagamoZiebo organoebis Semajamebel
aqtebs.
e.w. `kombinirebuli sarCelebis~ wardgenis SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos sasamarTlo praqtikaSi, uflebamosili
sasamarTlos dadgenis mizniT, gansazRvraven ZiriTad,
Tavdapirvel da mis Tanamdev moTxovnas. uflebamosili
sasamarTlos dadgena, procesis ekonomiurobis mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, ZiriTadi moTxovnis mixedviT xdeba.
calkeul SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs erT-erTi moTxovnis
nawilSi saqmis warmoebis SeCerebas (ssk-is 279-e muxlis
`d~ qvepunqti) meore davis gadawyvetamde, ris Sedegadac
gansxvavebuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixileba dava
danarCen nawilSi. Tu arsebobs erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime sasarCelo moTxovna, romelTagan erT-erTi

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ar ganekuTvneba magistrati mosamarTlis gansjad saqmes,
saqmes ganixilavs raionuli(saqalaqo) sasamarTlos sxva
mosamarTle. aRniSnuli exeba rogorc administraciuli,
aseve samoqalaqo kategoriis saqmeebs.
administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebze daSvebulia saproceso kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT Segebebuli
sarCelis wardgena. administraciuli kategoriis saqmis
ganxilvis procesSi Segebebuli sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi mniSvneloba ara aqvs teritoriuli gansjadobis
wesebs(Segebebuli sarCelis samarTlebrivi bunebidan gamomdinare igi SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes mxolod ZiriTadi
sarCelis ganxilvis adgilis mixedviT), Tumca dauSveblad
unda iqnes miCneuli sasamarTlos sagnobrivi gansjadobis
darRveva anu Segebebuli sarCeli, ZiriTadi sarCelis msgavsad, administraciul kategoriaTa rigs unda ganekuTvnebodes, vinaidan administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
wesiT ver iqneba ganxiluli kerZo-samarTlebrivi dava. administraciuli da samoqalaqo kategoriis saqmeebisaTvis
kanonmdeblobiT dadgenilia Segebebuli sarCelis daSvebis erTnairi pirobebi(Segebebuli sarCelis moTxovna mimarTuli unda iyos pirvandeli moTxovnis CasaTvlelad;
Segebebuli sarCelis wardgena mTlianad an nawilobriv
unda gamoricxavdes pirvandeli sarCelis dakmayofilebis
SesaZleblobas; Segebebul da pirvandel sarCels Soris
unda arsebobdes urTierTkavSiri da maTi erTad ganxilvis
Sedegad aRZruli dava ufro swrafad da sworad gadawydeba). Segebebuli sarCeli, procesis ekonomiurobis Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, aZlevs mopasuxes (da ara procesis sxva monawileebs) saSualebas imave samarTalwarmoebaSi, romelSic is mopasuxed gamodis, moaxdinos damoukidebeli Segebebuli moTxovnis realizeba. Segebebuli sarCeli aZlevs mopasuxes SesaZleblobas waradginos moTxovna
Tavdapirveli mosarCelis mimarT mopasuxis adgilsamyofel teritoriaze mdebare sasamarTloSi. igi gamoricxavs
urTierTsawinaaRmdego gadawyvetilebis miRebis SesaZleblobas. amasTanave erT procesSi ramdenime sasarCelo

175
moTxovnis gaerTianeba qmnis garkveul sirTuleebs - zrdis gamosakvlev sakiTxTa wres, iwvevs sasamarTlo sxdomis gadadebas, Tavdapirveli moTxovnis ganxilvis tempis
Semcirebas. ar daiSveba Segebebuli sarCelisa da mesame
piris sarCelis gaigiveba. mesame piris sarCeli, Segebebuli sarCelis msgavsad, aris ukve mimdinare procesSi aRZruli sarCeli. amasTanave, Segebebuli sarCelisagan gansxvavebiT, mesame piris mier aRZruli sarCeli aris im piris
sarCeli, romlis mimarTac raime moTxovna wardgenili ar
yofila. aseTi sarCelis mizania mesame piris sasargeblod
davis sagnis an sadavo uflebis mikuTvneba. rac Seexeba Segebebul sarCels, misi mizani SeiZleba iyos an Tavdapirveli sarCelisagan dacva anda urTierTdakavSirebuli
moTxovnebis erToblivi ganxilva. Tavdapirvel sarCelze warmoebis Sewyveta an SeCereba avtomaturad ar iwvevs
imave Sedegebs Segebebuli sarCelis mimarT. amasTanave,
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Tavdapirvel sarCelze gadawyvetilebas preiudiciuli mniSvneloba aqvs Segebebul sarCelze gamosatani gadawyvetilebisaTvis (mag., moTxovnis
CaTvla) maTi procesualuri bedi urTierTdakavSirebulia. zogierTi qveynis kanonmdeblobiT administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gaTvaliswinebulia Segebebuli
sarCelis daSvebis damatebiTi pirobebi. ase, mag. gfr-is
kanonmdeblobiT administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi
ikrZaleba Segebebuli sarCelis wardgena zogierTi saxis
administraciuli sarCelebis, kerZod im sarCelebis mimarT, romliTac mosarCele administraciuli organosagan moiTxovs aqtis gauqmebas, agreTve administraciuli
organosaTvis aqtis gamocemis davalebas (analogiuri
SezRudvebi gaTvaliswinebulia sask-Si 28.12.2007 Setanili cvlilebiT. Segebebuli sarCelis wardgenis amgvari
SezRudva miznad isaxavs administraciuli organosaTvis
im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT sarCelis aRZvris gamoricxvas, romlis gadawyvetac mis uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba. saproceso kanonmdebloba dauSveblad miiCnevs mxolod SecilebiT da mavaldebulebel sarCelze Segebebuli

176
sarCelis aRZvras). amasTanave, Segebebuli sarCeli dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, ukeTu Segebebuli sarCelis
wardgenisas daculia sasamarTlos teritoriuli gansjadobis moTxovnebi, uZravi qonebis adgilmdebareobis
an konkretul teritoriasTan mibmuli uflebis an samarTalurTierTobis gansjadobasTan.103 Segebebuli sarCeli
ar xsnis sagnobrivi gansjadobis sakiTxs safrangeTis sasamarTlo praqtikis mixedviTac. ase, mag., kerZo piris avtomanqanis administraciis avtomanqanasTan Sejaxebis SemTxvevaSi administraciul mosamarTles, romelic ixilavs
kerZo piris mier wardgenil sarCels zianis anazRaurebis
Sesaxeb, ar aqvs ufleba gamoitanos gadawyvetileba zianis
anazRaurebis Sesaxeb kerZo pirisaTvis wardgenil Segebebul sarCelze.104
sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis praqtikuli mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare arsebobs moTxovnileba gamijvnis
kriteriumebSi, romelTa mixedviT praqtikaSi SesaZlebeli xdeba gamijvnis ganxorcieleba. kanonmdeblis miTiTeba
imis Sesaxeb, rom saerTo sasamarTloSi administraciuli
samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixileba dava im samarTlebriv
urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic administraci103 Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung, Art 89, 52.1. kanonmdeblis mier Segebebuli
sarCelis wardgenis SezRudva ganapiroba warmodgenam imis Sesaxeb, rom
Segebebuli sarCelis arsi ewinaaRmdegeba subordinaciuli urTierTobebis bunebas, rameTu administraciul organos yovelTvis SeuZlia
moaxdinos regulacia administraciuli aqtis meSveobiT. iuridiul
literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom mosarCelesa
da Segebebuli sarCelis avtors Soris ar arsebobs subordinaciuli
damokidebuleba, ris gamo Segebebuli sarCeli daSvebul unda iqnas am
saxis sarCelebis ganxilvisas. garda amisa, sasamarTlo praqtikam gfrSi karga xania dasaSvebad miiCnia saxelmwifos sarCelebi moqalaqeebis mimarT, vinaidan gamocemuli administraciuli aqti unda iTvaliswinebdes misi gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobas, administraciul organos
ar gaaCnia sadavo sakiTxis gadawyvetis SesaZlebloba sasamarTlo davis periodSi. (Kopp/Schenke ,,Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung. Kommentar, 13 Auflage, Verlag C.H. Beck, Mnchen, gv. 1045).
104 ix. J. vedeli, miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 87.

177
uli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinareobs, asaxavs
gansjadobis garegan niSans. samarTalurTierTobis kuTvnilebis garegani niSani exeba sadavo samarTalurTierTobis maregulirebeli normebis mdebareobas: im SemTxvevaSi Tu samarTalurTierToba regulirdeba samoqalaqo
kodeqsis an sxva kerZo-samarTlebrivi wyaros normebiT,
dava samoqalaqo kategoriisaa. ukeTu urTierTobis maregulirebeli norma moculia zogadi administraciuli
kodeqsiT an sajaro samarTlis sxva wyaroTi, dava administraciul kategorias ganekuTvneba. amasTanave, xSirad
samarTlis wyaros normebi awesrigeben sxvadasxva dargobrivi kuTvnilebis urTierTobebs, normatiul formebs
(kanoni, brZanebuleba, dadgenileba) kompleqsuri xasiaTi
aqvT, maTSi asaxulia sxvadasxva dargobrivi mimarTulebis
normebi, mraval sakanonmdeblo aqts dargTaSorisi xasiaTi aqvs da Seicavs rogorc samoqalaqo, aseve administraciuli, procesualuri da sxva dargis normebs. samarTlis
zogierT wyaros saerTod ar gaaCniaT mkveTrad gamoxatuli dargobrivi kuTvnileba an kompleqsuri xasiaTi aqvs.
amdenad, sadavo samarTalurTierTobis xasiaTis gansazRvrisaTvis ar aris sakmarisi xsenebuli garegani niSani,
dargobrivi gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyveta saWiroebs
sadavo samarTalurTierTobis elementebis analizs. ama
Tu im kanonis an sakanonmdeblo aqtis samarTlis garkveuli dargisaTvis mikuTvnebis sakiTxi ver gadawydeba da arc
unda gadawydes misTvis am dargis Sesabamisi saxelwodebis
micemiT, aramed yuradReba unda mieqces maT imanentur bunebas da samarTlis saTanado dargTan Tu sferosTan arsebul Tvisobriv-siRrmiseuli kavSiris arsebobas. kvlevis
sagnis sirTulis gamo verc erTi qveynis kanonmdebloba
ver axdens sakanonmdeblo doneze mis amomwuravad gansazRvras da misi dadgena sasamarTlo praqtikis gziT xdeba. iuridiul literaturaSi umetesad ganasxvaveben gamijvnis sam kriteriums: interesTa Teoria, subordinaciis
Teoria, subieqtebis Teoria.
interesTa Teoria gamijvnis amosaval wertilad isaxavs

178
calkeuli samarTlebrivi debulebebis mimarTulebebs.
aRniSnuli kriteriumebis mixedviT sajaro samarTals
ganekuTvnebian normatiuli debulebebi, romlebic emsaxurebian sazogadoebriv interess, xolo individualuri
interesebis momsaxure debulebebi kerZo samarTals ganekuTvnebian. interesis Teorias safuZvlad udevs romaeli iuristis ulpianes (170-228) gamonaTqvami: Publicum ius
est quod ad statum rei Romana spectat, privatum quod ad sinqulorum
utilitatem sajaro samarTalia is, rac dakavSirebulia romis saxelmwifosTan, misi interesebis dacvasTan. kerZo
samarTalia is, rac mimarTulia erTeuli individis saWiroebisaken.105 interesTa Teoria gansazRvravs interesTa
105 unda aRiniSnos, rom `samoqalaqo da komerciul saqmeebze iurisdiqciisa da gadawyvetilebaTa aRsrulebis Sesaxeb~ evrosabWos qveynebis 27.01.68w. briuselis konvenciis, 16.09.88w. luganos konvenciis, evrosabWos 22.12.2000w. #44/2001 reglamentis Sesabamisad maTi moqmedeba ar
vrceldeba gadasaxadebis da mosakreblebis, agreTve administraciuli
samarTalurTierTobebTan dakavSirebul davebze. reglamentis da
konvenciis moqmedebis sferos gansazRvra gulisxmobs samoqalaqo da
savaWro saqmeebis sajaro-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis saqmeebisagan gamijvnas. briuselis konvenciasTan iseTi qveynebis mierTebiT, rogoricaa
gaerTianebuli samefo, irlandia, kerZo da sajaro samarTlis sferos
demarkaciis saWiroeba am qveynebsac gauCndaT (kontinentaluri samarTlebrivi sistemis qveynebisagan gansxvavebiT, anglo-saqsuri samarTlebrivi sistemis qveynebisaTvis cnobilia mxolod samoqalaqo da
sisxlis samarTlis sferos gamijvna, sxva mxriv kerZo da sajaro samarTals Soris sxvaobas raime praqtikuli mniSvneloba bolo dromde ar
gaaCnda). briuselis konvenciasTan am qveynebis mierTebis gamo, kerZo
da sajaro samarTals Soris zRvaris gavlebis gaadvilebis mizniT konvenciis 1-el muxls daemata sajaro-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis saqmeTa miaxloebuli pirobiTi CamonaTvali, romelic SemdgomSi reglamentSic
iqna asaxuli.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom sajaro da kerZo samarTals Soris gansxvaveba ar vrceldeboda romis samarTlebriv sistemaze. sajaro da kerZo
samarTals Tanmimdevrulad ar ganasxvavebda agreTve Sua saukuneebis
samarTalic. absolutizmis dros saxelmwifo ar iyo samarTliT SeboWili. samarTali ZiriTadad aregulirebda urTierTobas kerZo pirebs
Soris. saxelmwifo moqmedebda mefis nebis Sesabamisad, xolo sasamarTlo wyvetda mxolod kerZo pirebs Soris warmoSobil davebs. safrangeTis revoluciis Semdgom periodSi Camoyalibebuli administraciuli

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saxeebs, romlebic calkeuli samarTlebrivi normebiT
(principebiT) aris uzrunvelyofili da miuTiTeben konkretuli interesis mimarTulebaze. aRniSnuli Teoria
pirvel rigSi miznad isaxavs sajaro interesis gamovlenas.
sajaro samarTali emsaxureba saxelmwifo (sajaro) interesebs, kerZo samarTali kerZo interesebs aregulirebs.
sajaro samarTali aris samarTlebrivi normebis sistema,
romlebic awesrigeben sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs saxelmwifo funqciebis, misi organoebis da momsamsaxurebis
safuZvlebis dasadgenad. saxelmwifo organoebis da organizaciebis saqmianoba mkacr samarTlebriv standarts
aris daqvemdebarebuli, mosaxleobis keTildReobisaken,
pirovnebis uflebebis da Tavisuflebis, sazogadoebrivi
wesrigis da usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofiskenaa mimarTuli. kerZo samarTali, subieqtTa samarTlebrivi statusis
gansazRvriT, upirveles yovlisa, iZleva kerZo interesebis realizebis da amis Sedegad SezRudul pirTa wris an
iusticia amowmebda saxelmwifo moxeleTa saqmianobis kanonierebas.
administraciuli iusticiis formirebam safuZveli Cauyara sajaro da
kerZo samarTlis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnis process. XIX saukunis kontinenturi evropis samarTali (amerikuli da inglisuri samarTlisagan
gansxvavebiT) daiyo sajaro da kerZo samarTlad. aseT dayofas safuZvlad daedo samarTlisa da politikis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnisa da
politikurad neitraluri samarTlis sistemis Camoyalibebis liberaluri ideologia(g. xubua `samarTlis Teoria~, Tb., 2004w., gamomc.
`meridiani~, gv. 206-211). mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve is garemoeba,
rom sajaro da kerZo samarTliT regulirebadi urTierTobebi mudmiv
dinamikaSi imyofeba, amJamad sajaro samarTlisadmi mikuTvnebuli adamianTa saqmianobis calkeuli sferoebi adre kerZo samarTliT iyo regulirebuli da piriqiT (kerZo samarTlis sajaroSi da piriqiT gadazrdis magaliTia sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis iseTi instituti rogoricaa
sarwmunoeba, kerZo sferoSi aRmocenebuli sarwmunoeba SemdgomSi
saxelmwifos samsaxurSi iyo Cayenebuli, sajaro-samarTlebrivi statusi SeiZina da calke saeklesio samarTlis dargad Camoyalibda. me-20
saukuneSi konfesiebis Tanasworobis aRiarebiT eklesia iuridiulad
gamoeyo saxelmwifos da kerZo samarTlis sferoSi gadainacvla). kerZo
da sajaro samarTals Soris zRvari sakmaod pirobiTia da sazogadoebis ekonomikuri, politikuri da misi ganviTarebis konkretul etapze
sxva moTxovnilebebiT da interesebiT aris ganpirobebuli.

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organizaciebis interesebis zemoqmedebis SesaZleblobas.
unda aRiniSnos, rom interesis Teoriis Tanaxmad yovelTvis ar xerxdeba kerZo da sajaro samarTlis sferoebis
mkveTri gamijvna, vinaidan mravali samarTlebrivi debuleba TavisTavSi moicavs rogorc sazogadoebriv, sajaro,
aseve kerZo interesebs. saerTod, sajaro interesi sxva
araferia, Tu ara kerZo interesebis jami. sajaro da kerZo interesebs xSirad erTi mimarTuleba aqvT, xolo zogjer maT Soris damokidebuleba erTgvari winaaRmdegobiT,
urTierTdapirispirebiT xasiaTdeba. interesTa Teoria
exeba sajaro (administraciuli) da kerZo (samoqalaqo) samarTlis gamijvnis zogad aspeqtebs da ver uzrunvelyofs
am samarTlebrivi warmonaqmnebis ramdenadme srul da
mkveTr gamijvnas, vinaidan umravlesi samarTlebrivi normebi erTdroulad rogorc sajaro, aseve kerZo interesebs aregulireben.
subordinaciis (xelisuflebrivi daqvemdebarebis) Teoria gamijvnas axdens samarTalurTierTobis monawileTa
urTierTdamokidebulebis xasiaTisdamixedviT. sajaro
samarTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia saxelisuflo-daqvemdebarebiTi urTierTobebi, xolo kerZo samarTals monawileTa urTierTobebis Tanasworoba udevs safuZvlad.
amdenad, sajaro samarTlisaTvis tipiuria calmxrivi, sayovelTaod savaldebulo regulireba (kanoniT, kanonqvemdebare an administraciuli aqtiT), xolo kerZo samarTlisaTvis - saxelSekrulebo mowesrigeba. xsenebuli Teoria
gamomdinareobs me-19 saukuneSi farTod gavrcelebuli
warmodgenebisagan, romelTa mixedviTac mmarTveloba Semoifargleba moqalaqeTa da sazogadoebis usafrTxoebis
uzrunvelyofiT da amdenad mxolod Carevis funqcia gaaCnia. sajaro samarTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia urTierTobebis calmxrivi regulireba kanonis, administraciuli
aqtis meSveobiT. kerZo samarTlisaTvis tipiuria xelSekruleba dadebuli samarTlis subieqtTa nebis safuZvelze. aRniSnuli Teoria asaxavs saxelmwifos (saxelisuflo
mmarTvelobis saqmianobis), misi SezRudvis, organizaciis

181
da iZulebis arsenaliT, upiratesobas, subordinaciis
TeoriaSi aisaxeba administraciul-samarTlebrivi regulirebis Taviseburebani, administraciuli saqmianoba gulisxmobs erTi nebis dominirebas meoreze, igi uSualod
ukavSirdeba xelisuflebas. mmarTvelobiTi administraciuli kavSirebis sistemaSi subieqtebi Tanasworni ar arian, maT gansxvavebuli socialuri funqciebi akisria. aRniSnuli kanonmdeblis mier obieqtur aucileblobad aRiqmeba. administraciuli kanonmdebloba iuridiulad aformebs saxelisuflo urTierTobebis ufleba-movaleobaTa
asimetrias, rac xSirad ukavSirdeba erTi mxaris daqvemdebarebas meorisadmi. daqvemdebareba SeiZleba iyos struqturuli (,,ufrosi-qveSevrdomis tipis kavSiri) an funqcionaluri (,,inspeqtori-Sesamowmebelis tipis kavSiri).
iuridiul uTanasworobas ganapirobebs agreTve subieqtTa funqciebis da amocanebis sxvaoba. administraciuli
ierarqiis erTi donis Tanamdebobis pirebsac gansxvavebuli uflebamosilebebi aqvs (ase, mag. gansxvavdeba sanitaruli zedamxedvelobis da sagadasaxado organos inspeqciebis uflebamosilebani). administraciuli kanonmdebloba
ganamtkicebs subieqtTa iuridiul uTanasworobas, administraciuli xelisuflebis matarebelTa uflebas arasasamarTlo wesiT zemoqmedeba moaxdinon moqalaqeebze da
organizaciebze. dauSvebelia administraciuli organos
sarCeli im sakiTxTan dakavirebiT, romlis gadawyveta administraciuli organos uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba
(miuxedavad amisa sasamarTlo praqtikaSi jer kidev xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac, magaliTad, sagadasaxado organoebi gadasaxadis gadamxdelisagan gadasaxadis Tanxis
dakisrebas moiTxoven sasamarTloebSi sarCelis wardgenis gziT da ara sagadasaxado kodeqsiT sagadasaxado organoebisaTvis miniWebuli uflebamosilebis gamocemiT).
amasTanave, saxelisuflo urTierTobebis administraciul-samarTlebrivi regulireba uzrunvelyofs administrirebis sferoSi demokratiuli sawyisebis danergvas.
administraciuli kanonmdebloba ganamtkicebs ra aRmas-

182
rulebeli xelisuflebis formirebis da misi saqmianobis
kontrolis demokratiul sawyisebs, mmarTvelobis organizaciis racionalur formebs, fizikur pirTa da kerZo
organizaciebis uflebebs, administraciul organoebTan
davebis ganxilvis da gadawyvetis procedurebs, kanonmdebeli saxelisuflo urTierTobebs civilizebul xasiaTs
aniWebs, xels uwyobs maTSi kanonierebis, samarTlianobis,
demokratiis sawyisebis ganviTarebas.
subordinaciis Teoriis mniSvnelovan naklad miiCneven imas, rom igi saerTod gamoricxavs sajaro saxelSekrulebo samarTals.106 subordinaciis Teorias safuZveli
gamoacala safrangeTis, germaniisa da im qveynebis kanonmdeblobam, sadac administraciuli xelSekruleba samarTlebrivi normebiT mowesrigda.107 imis gamo, rom kerZo samarTali srulad ar gamoricxavs urTierTdaqvemdebarebis urTierTobebs (mag. kerZo sazogadoebis partniori
valdebulia daemorCilos sazogadoebis wesdebis debulebebs, meurveobis da mzrunvelobis urTierTobebSi pirs
SeiZleba SeezRudos garkveuli uflebebi da sxv.), xolo
sajaro samarTali iTvaliswinebs saxelSekrulebo anu Tanasworuflebian urTierTobebs, mocemuli Teoria xSirad
uZluria srulyofilad gamijnos mmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis sferoSi warmoqmnili samarTalurTierTobebis buneba. amasTanave, subordinaciis Teoria daqvemdebarebis Tvalsazrisis Wrilidan ver xsnis socialurkulturuli, saganmanaTleblo, komunalur sferoebSi e.w.
pozitiuri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis arss.
subieqtebis Teoria (gansakuTrebuli uflebebis Teoria, samarTlebrivi normebis fardobiTobis da dasaSvebobis Teoria) gamijvnas axdens im subieqtebisdamixedviT,
106 l. Wanturia `Sesavali saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis zogad
nawilSi~, Tb. 1997w., gamomc. `samarTali~, gv. 43-44
107 m. kopaleiSvili `administraciuli garigeba~, Tb. 2003w., ISBN,
gv.24.

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romlebzedac mimarTulni arian calkeuli samarTlebrivi debulebebi.
subieqturobis Teoria formaluria da saxeldobr
formalurobis gamo SedarebiT mkveTria da aqtiurad gamoiyeneba gamijvnis kriteriumad. umetesad amiT iyo ganpirobebuli kanonmdeblis survili administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebisadmi miekuTvna yvela is samarTalurTierToba, romelSic erT-erT mxares administraciuli
organo warmoadgenda, rasac Sedegad mosdevda administraciuli marTlmsajulebis gadatvirTva, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT administraciuli organoebis monawileobiT Tavisi arsiT kerZo samarTlebrivi
urTierTobebis ganxilva. subieqtebis Teoria moklebulia samarTalurTierTobis gaanalizebis, misi arsis wvdomis unars. sasamarTlo praqtikaSi TandaTan damkvidrda rig ganCinebebSi gatarebuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb,
rom kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piri SesaZloa axorcielebdes sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs. gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs sadavo samarTalurTierTobis xasiaTs da ara subieqtur Semadgenlobas. saxelmwifo
organoebisa da sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piris kerZosamarTlebrivi urTierTobebi sxva pirebTan, sk-is 8.2
muxlis Tanaxmad, wesrigdeba samoqalaqo kanonebiT, Tuki
es urTierTobebi saxelmwifoebrivi an sazogadoebrivi
interesebidan gamomdinare, ar unda mowesrigdes sajaro
samarTliT, riTac kidev ufro gaizarda samarTlebriv
urTierTobaTa subieqtebis kriteriumis mixedviT klasifikaciis krizisi. administraciul kanonmdeblobaSi
Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad (administraciuli garigebis nacvlad SemoRebul iqna administraciuli xelSekrulebis cneba) samarTalurTierTobaSi administraciuli
organos monawileoba ar warmoadgens administraciuli
saqmeebis gansjadobis mTavar faqtors. adrindeli kanonmdebloba administraciul garigebad miiCnevda administraciuli organos monawileobiT dadebul nebismier
garigebas, kerZod, administraciuli organos mier fizi-

184
kur an iuridiul pirTan, agreTve sxva administraciul
organosTan dadebul samoqalaqo-samarTlebriv garigebas. kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili cvlileba-damatebebis Sedegad SemoRebul iqna administraciuli xelSekrulebis
cneba, romelic aris administraciuli organos mier sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis mizniT fizikur an
iuridiul pirTan, agreTve sxva administraciul organosTan dadebuli samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba.
amasTanave, administraciuli saproceso kodeqsiT ganisazRvra, rom administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebuli davebi
ganixileba saerTo sasamarTloebis mier administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT. administraciuli organos
mier kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis dadebasTan,
SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebuli davebi
ganixileba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT (sask-is
251 muxli), amdenad, gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas
kanonmdebelma upiratesoba mianiWa sadavo samarTalurTierTobebis bunebas da ara monawileebs. davis sajarosamarTlebrivi xasiaTis dasadgenad sakmarisi ar aris is,
rom davis erT-erTi mxare sajaro samarTlis subieqtia,
vinaidan SesaZlebelia sajaro samarTlis subieqtis mxared gamosvla kerZo-samarTlebriv urTierTobebSic (mag.
administraciuli organos mier kompiuterebis Sesyidva,
Senobis daqiraveba).
subieqtebis Teoriis modificirebis mizniT ganviTarda
e.w. `specialuri samarTlis~ Teoria, romlis Tanaxmad sajaro samarTali, kerZo samarTlisagan gansxvavebiT, specialuri samarTalia, xolo kerZo samarTali _ zogadi samarTali. im SemTxvevaSi Tu urTierTobis monawile subieqti aris saxelmwofos, sajaro xelisuflebis warmomadgeneli da urTierToba sajaro-samarTlebriv regulirebas
moiTxovs, saxezea sajaro-samarTlebrivi urTierToba.108
108 l. Wanturia `Sesavali saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis zogad
nawilSi~, gamomc. `samarTali~, 1997w., gv. 46-47; W.-R. Schenke ,,Verwaltung-

185
aRniSnulis Sesabamisad, sask-is 2.3 muxli uTiTebs, rom
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT gansaxilveli
dava aris dava im samarTlebriv urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic gamomdinareobs administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan.
xsenebuli Teoriebidan arcerTi ar aris praqtikaSi
srulad realizebuli, Tumca TiToeuli maTgani Seicavs
racionalur sawyiss. sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gansjadobis kriteriumebi yvela qveyanaSi cvalebadia da bevr
davas warmoSobs. kerZo da sajaro samarTlis gamijvnis
sirTulem warmoSva mosazreba gamijvnis kriteriumebis
erTgvari krizisis Sesaxeb.109 amasTanave problemis konstruqciuli, optimaluri gadawyveta mdgomareobs ara
TiToeuli am Teoriis uaryofaSi, aramed piriqiT, maT sinTezSi.110 administraciuli samarTlis kerZo samarTlisagan ufro konkretuli gamijvnis mcdelobebi SesaZlebelia administraciuli samarTlis iseTi niSnebis moSveliebiT, rogoricaa administraciuli samarTlis mier sajaro
interesebis da saxelmwifo funqciebis da amocanebis realizacia; saxelmwifos da misi struqturuli qvedanayofebis organizaciis da funqcionirebis regulireba; saxelisuflo zemoqmedebis resursebis gamoyeneba; specifiuri
(,,mmarTvelobiTi) normebis gamoyeneba; saxelmwifo organos pasuxismgeblobis dadgena mosamsaxuris mier samsaxurebrivi saqmianobis ganxorcielebisas da sxv.111 sajaro da
kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis Teoriebs damatebiT uTiTeben
agreTve koncefcias, romelic yuradRebas amaxvilebs dinamikis da statikis balanss. kerZo samarTalSi dinamiurosprozessrecht, C.F. Mller Verlag, 2004, gv. 34-36.
109 . ,, . ., . ,,.
1988. gv. 79-85.
110 . ,, : , ., . ,,Wolters Kluwer, gv. 41.
111 . , . , . ` ~ .,
- `~ gv. 59-63.

186
bis balansi aRemateba statikurobas, maSin rodesac sajaro samarTalSi piriqiT, statikuroba da absoluturi gansazRvruloba mniSvnelovnad uswrebs dinamiurobas. kerZo
samarTals, sajaro samarTalTan SedarebiT, meti resursi
aqvs, raTa moergos Secvlil sazogadoebriv da samarTlebriv urTierTobebs. diskreciuli normebi, forsmaJoris da Secvlili garemoebebis misadagebis instituciebi,
grZelvadiani kontraqtebis darRvevis prezumfcia iZleva sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis gareSe problemis daZlevis SesaZleblobas. sajaro samarTlis arsenali Secvlil
urTierTobebTan morgebis sakiTxsa da kanonieri interesebis dacvas Soris warmoSobil winaaRmdegobaTa TvalsazrisiT, gacilebiT mwiri da problemuria. 112
unda aRiniSnos, rom kerZo da sajaro samarTlis gamijvna dogmatur sakiTxTa rigs ganekuTvneba, romelsac
mxolod konkretuli marTlwesrigisaTvis aqvs mniSvneloba, ar arsebobs universaluri gamijvnis wesebi. sxvadasxva qveynis administraciuli iusticiis organoebis
kompetencia Sedgeba kanonebiT da sasamarTlo praqtikiT,
istoriuli metamorfozebiT damkvidrebuli saerTo da
sagamonakliso wesebisagan, sagamonakliso wesebi zogjer
afarToeben administraciuli iusticiis kompetencias
(ase, mag. mmarTvelobis organoebis mier aRZruli sarCelebi sazogadoebriv samuSaoebSi CarTuli kerZo mewarmeebis
mimarT, saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi myofi qonebiT sargeblobasTan dakavSirebuli davebi safrangeTis kanonmdeblobiT administraciuli iusticiis sasamarTlo organoebis
kompetencias ganekuTvneba), xolo ufro metad afarToeben saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetencias(ase, mag., samoqalaqo mdgomareobis aqtebis registraciasTan, qonebis
eqspropriaciasTan, janyis Sedegad miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebasTan, arapirdapiri gadasaxadebis gadaxdasTan,
saxelmwifo sagzao qonebisaTvis zianis anazRaurebasTan
112 g. gogiaSvili `dinamika da statika samarTalSi~, Jurn. `qarTuli
samarTlis mimoxilva~, 2006w. #1-2, gv. 112-114.

187
dakavSirebuli davebi, safrangeTSi Camoyalibebuli sasamarTlo praqtikis mixedviT, saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetencias ganekuTvneba. sazogadoebis interesebSi kerZo
sakuTrebis CamorTmevis SemTxvevaSi zianis odenobis Sesaxeb dava gfr-Si ganixileba ara administraciuli, aramed
saerTo sasamarTloebis mier).113

15. sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvna adamianis


uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos mier
sajaro da kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis sakiTxi aqtualuria ara mxolod erovnuli sasamarTloebisaTvis, aramed
agreTve adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlosaTvis.
konvenciis me-6 muxliT garantirebulia individis ufleba
damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli sasamarTlos mier saqmis samarTliani da sajaro, gonivrul vadebSi ganxilvaze
samoqalaqo uflebebisa da movaleobebis gansazRvrisas
Tu sisxlissamarTlebrivi braldebis wayenebis SemTxvevaSi. amdenad, me-6 muxlis 1-li punqti vrceldeba rogorc
samoqalaqo, ise sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganxilvaze.
adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.1 muxlze
damyarebuli moTxovnebi evrosasamarTlosagan moiTxovs
imis dadgenas, aqvs Tu ara adgili davas `samoqalaqo uflebaTa da movaleobaTa~ Taobaze. konvencia ar Seicavs imis
gansazRvras Tu ra unda iqnes gagebuli samoqalaqo ufleba-movaleobebSi, am cnebis mniSvnelobas naTels hfens evrosasamarTlos xangrZlivi praqtika. ukanaskneli 20 wlis
ganmavlobaSi am cnebis ganvrcobiTi ganmartebis Sedegad
gafarTovda 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebis areali. evropuli sasamarTlos precendentuli samarTlis Tanaxmad, cneba
113 ,, , . , . ,,,
1988 , gv. 390-399;
. ,, , . .
,,, 1973. gv. 105-107.

188
`samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi~ ar ganimarteba
mxolod da mxolod mopasuxe saxelmwifos erovnuli samarTlis mixedviT, evrosasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebSi
araerTgzis aris gamoTqmuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom
aRniSnuli cneba konvenciis me-6 muxlis 1-li punqtis Tanaxmad `avtonomiuria~, damoukidebelia. sakiTxisadmi sxvagvar midgomas evrosasamarTlos azriT SeuZlia gamoiwvios konvenciis amocanebisa da miznebisadmi SeuTavsebeli
Sedegi.114 `samoqalaqo uflebaTa da movaleobaTa~ cnebis
avtonomiurobis Sesaxeb daskvnis miuxedavad, evrosasamarTlo ar uaryofs agreTve mocemul konteqstSi mopasuxe-saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobis mniSvnelobas. amasTanave,
konvenciis TvalsazrisiT uflebis samoqalaqod miCneva
sabolood damokidebulia ara Sidakanonmdeblobis iuridiul kvalifikaciaze, aramed imaze, Tu ra materialuri
Sinaarsia Cadebuli masSi am kanonmdeblobiT da ra Sedegs
ukavSirebs mas igi. Tavisi sakontrolo funqciis Sesrulebisas evrosasamarTlo mxedvelobaSi iRebs rogorc
konvenciis, aseve monawile-saxelmwifoebis samarTlebrivi sistemebis amocanebs da miznebs.115
evrosasamarTlo Tavis gadawyvetilebebSi uTiTebs,
rom 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebisaTvis ar aris savaldebulo,
rom davis orive mxare iyos kerZo piri. 6.1 muxlis formulireba ufro farToa. dava samoqalaqo xasiaTis uflebamovaleobebis Sesaxeb moicavs nebismier samarTalwarmoebas, romlis Sedegs ganmsazRvreli xasiaTi aqvs kerZo
ufleba-movaleobebisaTvis.116 zedsarTavi `samoqalaqo~
ar gulisxmobs 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebas yvela im sakiTxze,
romelic ar aris moculi terminiT `sisxlissamarTlebri114 ix. mag. evrosasamarTlos 12.07.01w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze `ferraccini italiis winaaRmdeg~, 18.07.87w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze `baraoni portugaliis winaaRmdeg~.
115 evrosasamarTlos 28.06.76w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze `kionigi germaniis federaciuli respublikis winaaRmdeg~.
116 evrosasamarTlos 16.07.71w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze `ringeizeni
avstriis winaaRmdeg~.

189
vi~. 6.1 muxli moqmedebs mxolod samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis ufleba-movaleobebis Sesaxeb davebis
mimarT da `nebismieri sisxlissamarTlebrivi braldebis
safuZvlianobis gamokvlevisas~.117 samoqalaqo uflebebi
da movaleobebi, romlebzedac uTiTebs 6.1 muxli, moicavs uflebebisa da movaleobebis Sesaxeb ara yovelgvar
davas, aramed iseTs, romlis kvalificireba `samoqalaqo~
uflebad daiSveba. amasTanave, normis teqsti ar Seicavs
im mniSvnelobaTa CamonaTvals, romelsac moicavs termini `samoqalaqo~. gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs TviT uflebis xasiaTs, romelic iqca davis mizezad. `samoqalaqo~
uflebis `arasamoqalaqo~ uflebisagan gasamijnavad evrosasamarTlo iyenebs iseT kriteriumebs, rogoricaa: sazogadoebis interesebis moTxovnilebebsa da pirovnebis
ZiriTadi uflebebis dacvis aucilebel pirobebs Soris
samarTliani Tanafardobis daculoba, ganxilvis ZiriTad
sakiTxad piris materialuri interesis, `demokratiul
sazogadoebaSi moqalaqeTa Cveulebrivi movaleobebis~,
organos diskreciuli uflebamosilebebis arseboba.
amasTanave, konvenciis dinamiuri ganmarteba mimdinareobs Tanamedrove pirobebis WrilSi, evrosasamarTlo uflebamosilia gaafarTovos konvenciis 6.1 muxlis moqmedebis sfero. konvenciis miRebis Semdeg mraval sferoSi
pirsa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierToba mniSvnelovanwilad gafarTovda, saxelmwifos regulireba mniSvnelovnad ereva kerZosamarTlebriv urTierTobebSi. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT evrosasamarTlo rig SemTxvevaSi
mivida daskvnamde, rom ganxilva, romelic erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT sajaro sferos ganekuTvneboda, SesaZloa
daeqvemdebaros konvenciis me-6 muxlis gamoyenebas `samoqalaqo~ aspeqtiT, ukeTu ganxilvis Sedegs mniSvneloba
aqvs samoqalaqo uflebebisa da valdebulebebisaTvis (aseTebs evrosasamarTlos precendentuli praqtikis mixed117 evrosasamarTlos 23.06.81w. gadawyvetileba saqmeze `lekonti, van
leveni da de meieri belgiis winaaRmdeg~

190
viT ganekuTvneba miwaTmowyobis, profesiuli saqmianobis
da licenziis Sesaxeb administraciuli nebarTvis gacemis,
eqspropriaciis, mSeneblobis nebarTvis, Sromis anazRaurebis da socialuri uzrunvelyofis, pensiis daniSvnis sakiTxebi, sakuTrebis gamoyenebisa da gankargvasTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebi118). saxelmwifos mzardi Care118 ix. mag., evrosasamarTlos 16.07.71w. gadawyvetileba `ringaizeni
avstriis winaaRmdeg~, 28.06.78w. `kionigi germaniis federaciuli respublikis winaaRmdeg~, 23.09.82w. gadawyvetileba `sporrongi da lionnroti SvedeTis winaaRmdeg~, 29.05.86w. gadawyvetileba `doimelandi
germaniis winaaRmdeg~. konvenciis 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebis sferos gafarToebas exeba agreTve evrosasamarTlos 08.06.76w. gadawyvetileba
`engeli da sxvebi niderlandebis winaaRmdeg~, 21.02.75w. gadawyvetileba
`golderi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg~. aRsaniSnavia, rom evrosasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebze, romlebSic ganvrcobiTad ganimarteboda 6.1 muxlis moqmedebis sfero, mosamarTleebis mier gamoiTqva
araerTi gansxvavebuli azri, romlebSic mosamarTleebi gamoTqvamen
eWvs 6.1 muxlis moqmedebis sferos gafarToebaze. ase, mag., xuTi mosamarTlis erTobliv gansxvavebul azrSi, gamoTqmuls saqmeze `sporrongi da lonnroti SvedeTis winaaRmdeg~ aRiniSna, rom sazogadoebriv
interesebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis Sedegad kerZo uflebebis darRveva yovelTvis ar unda iwvevdes 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebas, winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi es gamoiwyvevda samTavrobo da administraciuli moqmedebebis sasamarTlo gadasinjvis SeuzRudav garantiebs. mosamarTleTa
azriT, qmedebebi sajaro da administraciuli samarTlis sferoSi,
romelSic dominirebs sazogadoebrivi interesis da politikis mosazrebebi, 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebis sferos farglebs miRma imyofeba. `doimelandi gfr-is winaaRmdeg~ saqmeze gamotanil gadawyvetilebaSi eqvsma
mosamarTlem gamoTqva erToblivi gansxvavebuli azri, romelSic eWvi
Seitana socialuri dazRvevis sakiTxis konvenciis 6.1 muxlis sferoSi
Seyvanis marTlzomierebaSi. aRiniSna, rom gadawyvetilebaSi moyvanili
mosazrebebi, romliTac sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom socialuri dazRvevis sakiTxSi kerZo samarTlis niSnebi sajaro-samarTlebriv niSnebze
dominireben, ar iyo damajerebeli, rasac SeuZlia warmoSvas monawilesaxelmwifoebis gaurkvevloba nakisr valdebulebaTa mimarT. 6.1 muxlSi samoqalaqo ufleba-movaleobebis damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis
dadgenis mizniT gansxvavebuli azris avtorebi mimarTaven konvenciis
mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis analizs, romlis Sedegad askvnian, rom
zedsarTavi `samoqalaqo~ konvenciis 6.1 muxlis proeqtSi aRebuli iyo
im dros proeqtis saxiT arsebul geo-s `samoqalaqo da politokuri
uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis~ proeqtis eqvivalenturi

191
va piris yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, uflebis `samoqalaqod~
miCnevamde, evrosasamarTlosagan moiTxovs sajaro da
kerZo samarTlis gamijvnis dadgenas.119 evrosasamarTlos
araerT gadawyvetilebaSi aris aRniSnuli, rom piris ufleba-movaleobebs yovelTvis ar aqvs samoqalaqo buneba.
politikuri ufleba-movaleobani, iseTi rogoricaa, magaliTad, saarCevno registraciis, arCevnebze kandidatad
gamosvlis ufleba, aris politikuri da ara samoqalaqo
da Sesabamisad am uflebis mimarT ar aris dasaSvebi konvenciis 6.1 muxlis gamoyeneba, amasTanave, dava ar iZens `samoqalaqo~ xasiaTs damatebiTi materialuri xasiaTis moTxovnis, kerZod, saarCevno kampaniaze daxarjuli Tanxebis
anazRaurebis sakiTxis dasmis gamo.120 ar daiSveba agreTve
misi gamoyeneba administraciisa da im Tanamdebobis pirs
Soris davaSi, romelic monawileobs saxelisuflo uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebaSi.121 gansjadobis sakiTxis
muxlidan. saerTaSoriso paqtis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis analizis
Sedegad mosamarTleebma gamoTqves mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom saerTaSoriso paqtis frangul teqstSi SemzRudavi terminis `samoqalaqo
xasiaTis~ SemoReba miznad isaxavda misi moqmedebis sferodan zogierTi kategoriis davis amoricxvas, romelic exeboda fizikur pirebsa
da mTavrobebs Soris marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas. gamoiTqva
mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom evoluciuri ganmarteba ar iZleva axali
cnebebis SemoRebis SesaZleblobas, saxelmwifo socialuri dazRvevis
sakiTxze 6.1 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli garantiebis gasavrceleblad
saWiroa xelSemkvreli saxelmwifoebis politikuri gadawyvetilebis
miReba. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom doimelandis saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetilebiT gamowveuli samarTlebrivi ganviTareba da uflebebSi Tanasworobis principi sadReisod iZleva socialuri dazRvevis sferoSi
6.1 muxlis gamoyenebis dasaSvebobis wesad miCnevis SesaZleblobas.
119 ix. mag. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos 12.07.01w. gadawyvetileba `ferraccini italiis winaaRmdeg,~ 29.05.86w. gadawyvetileba `doimelandi germaniis winaaRmdeg~.
120 ix. mag. evrosasamarTlos 21.10.97 w. gadawyvetileba `pier-bloSi
safrangeTis winaaRmdeg~; 25.01.200w. gadawyvetileba ,,Cerepkovi ruseTis federaciis winaaRmdeg.
121 ix. mag., evropuli sasamarTlos didi palatis 08.11.99w. dadgenileba `pellegreni safrangeTis winaaRmdeg~

192
dasadgenad evrosasamarTlo arkvevs ganmcxadeblis samsaxurebrivi movaleobebis xasiaTs, raTa daadginos, moicavs
Tu ara ganmcxadeblis samsaxuri pirdapir an arapirdapir
monawileobas sajaro xelisuflebis ganxorcielebaSi an
sajaro movaleobebis SesrulebaSi saerTo saxelmwifo an
uflebasubieqturobiT aRWurvili sxva saxelmwifo warmonaqmnebis interesebis dacvas. samsaxurSi miRebis, samsaxuris gavlis, saxelmwifo mosamsaxuris mier samsaxuris
gavlis Sewyvetis sakiTxebze davebi saerTo wesis mixedviT
ar ganekuTvneba 6.1 muxlis moqmedebis sferos.122 amasTanave, es norma vrceldeba im SemTxvevebze, rodesac sadavo
moTxovna exeba `wminda qonebriv~ uflebas(xelfasis an
pensiis gadaxda), gansakuTrebiT Tu aseTi ufleba pirma kanonierad SeiZina mosamsaxuris SromiTi saqmianobis
dasrulebis Semdeg.123 konvenciis 6.1 muxlis miznebSi samoqalaqo uflebebze davis safuZvels ar qmnis agreTve
ucxoelis gasaxleba.124 sajaro xelisuflebis prerogativis sakiTxs ganekuTvneba agreTve gadasaxadebis gadaxdis sakiTxebi, gadasaxadis gadamxdels da sagadasaxado
organoebs Soris urTierTobebSi evropuli sasamarTlos
azriT sajaro elementi dominirebs. konvenciis miRebis
Semdeg demokratiuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli cvlilebebi ar Sexebia pirebis da kompaniebis
valdebulebas gadaixadon gadasaxadebi, cvlilebebs ar
gamouwveviaT saxelmwifos Semdgomi Careva piradi cxovrebis `samoqalaqo~ sferoSi. evrosasamarTlo miiCnevs,
rom konvenciis #1 oqmis 1-li muxli, romelic sakuTrebas
122 ase, mag., evropuli sasamarTlos erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi
sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom mosamarTlis Tanamdebobidan gadayenebis
Sesaxeb dava ar exeba konvenciis me-6 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul `samoqalaqo~ ufleba-movaleobebs(ix. evropuli sasamarTlos 08.12.01w. gadawyvetileba `g. pitkeviCi ruseTis federaciis winaaRmdeg~).
123 ,, ,
2004, ,,., gv. 340-341.
124 evrosasamarTlos didi palatis gadawyvetileba saqmeze `maauia
safrangeTis winaaRmdeg~

193
Seexeba, unarCunebs saxelmwifos uflebas SemoiRos iseTi
kanonebi, romlebsac isini saWirod CaTvlian gadasaxadebis gadaxdis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, evrosasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom sagadasaxado davebi, miuxedavad im materialuri zemoqmedebisa, romlebsac
isini axdenen gadasaxadebis gadamxdelebze, samoqalaqo
ufleba-movaleobebis sferoTi ar aris moculi125, rac gamoricxavs konvenciis me-6 muxlis 1-li punqtis gamoyenebas sagadasaxado davebSi.126
125 konvenciuri organoebis precendentuli samarTali, romliTac gamoiricxeba konvenciis 6.1 muxlis gamoyeneba, dadasturda mag.
evrosasamarTlos 12.07.01w. gadawyvetilebiT saqmeze - `ferraccini
italiis winaaRmdeg~. aRniSnul saqmeze gansxvavebul azrze darCenili
mosamarTleebis (6) mier gamoiTqva mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom konvenciis Semqmnelebs ar hqondaT mmarTvelobis sferoSi warmoSobili
davebis konvenciis 6.1 muxlidan samudamod amoricxvis ganzraxva, aRiniSna mocemuli normiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis farglebis gafarToebis aucilebloba. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom evrosasamarTlos
precendentul samarTalze dayrdnobiT ar arsebobs `samoqalaqo~ da
`arasamoqalaqo~ efleba-movaleobebs Soris mkveTri da damajerebeli
zRvaris gavlebis SesaZlebloba, gamoiTqva mosazreba konvenciis 6.1
muxlis yvela im saqmeebze gavrcelebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb, romelSic
dgas sajaro xelisuflebis mier kerZo piris samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis gansazRvris sakiTxi. aseTi midgoma , mosamrTleebis azriT, bolos
mouRebda 6.1 muxlis gamoyenebis sferos gaurkvevlobas, Seamcirebda
`samoqalaqos~ cnebis Sinaarsis damoukidebel mniSvnelobas da moicavda yvela danarCen, arasisxlissamarTlebriv saqmes. gansxvavebul azrSi xazi gaesva im garemoebas, rom konvenciis me-6 muxli, upirveles
yovlisa, warmoadgens procesualur garantias, romelic uzrunvelyofs sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas da samarTlian sasamarTlo
gadawyvetilebas gonivrul vadaSi. konvenciis miRebis Semdeg adgili
aqvs mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs. Tu konvenciis miRebis periodSi rigi
samarTlebrivi sistemis mimarT arsebobda sagadasaxado sakiTxebze
miRebuli administraciuli gadawyvetilebebis sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobis eWvi, sadReisod xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoebSi
sagadasaxado davebi wydeba Cveulebrivi sasamarTlo warmoebis wesiT.
amdenad, zogierTi mosamarTle ar daeTanxma sagadasaxado davebis
monawileTa mimarT konvenciis 6.1 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli procesualuri garantiebis miniWebaze uaris Tqmas.
126

unda aRiniSnos, rom adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciisa-

194
16. administraciuli xelSekrulebis gamijvna kerZosamarTlebrivi xelSekrulebisagan
administraciul xelSekrulebebTan dakavSirebuli davebis gadawyveta, rogorc wesi, saWiroebs Semdegi sakiTxebis garkvevas: administraciuli xelSekrulebis arsebobis
dadgena, xelSekrulebis saxeobis (sajaro-samarTlebrivi,
kerZo-samarTlebrivi) dadgena, samarTlebrivi normebisadmi xelSekrulebis Sesabamisobis dadgena.

individualur
administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqtsa da administraciul xelSekrulebas Soris ZiriTadi
gansxvaveba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom pirveli calmxrivad
gamovlenil nebas gulisxmobs, igi ar aris sxvaTa nebaze
damokidebuli, xolo administraciuli xelSekrulebis
Sinaarsi mxareTa ormxrivad gamovlenil nebas Seicavs.
amasTanave, administraciuli organo administraciuli
xelSekrulebis dadebisas ar sargeblobs kerZo pirebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nebis avtonomiis uflebiT, vinaidan
administraciuli organos mier administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebas ganapirobebs mis mier sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba. amdenad, xelSekrulebis dadebisas administraciuli organo SezRudulia kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli uflebamosilebis farglebiT. administraciuli xelSekrulebis arsebobis dadgena zogierT
SemTxvevaSi rTuldeba imis gamo, rom administraciuli
aqtebis gamocema xSirad xdeba aqtis adresatis Suamdgomlobis, molaparakebis safuZvelze, rigi administraciuli
aqtis gamocema, saerTod, SeuZlebelia dainteresebuli pirebis monawileobis gareSe. magaliTad, saxelmwifo
samsaxurSi daniSvna, studentis Caricxva universitetSi
SeuZlebelia dainteresebuli piris survilis, misi nebis
gareSe. miuxedavad aRniSnulisa saxezea, saxeldobr, adgan gansxvavebiT, adamianis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb amerikuli konvenciis me-8 muxli moicavs samoqalaqo, SromiTi, sagadasaxado da sxva
samarTalurTierTobebidan warmoSobil davebs.

195
ministraciuli aqti da ara xelSekruleba. Suamdgomloba
kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli administraciuli gadawyvetilebis gamocemis Sesaxeb, magaliTad, saxelmwifo mosamsaxuris Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis, universitetSi studentis
Caricxvis Sesaxeb, ar warmoadgens xelSekrulebis dadebis
winadadebas. Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze mmarTvelobis
organos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba aris ara aseTi
winadadebis miReba, aramed kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli
administraciuli aqtis gamocema. saqarTveloSi administraciuli marTlmsajulebis ganviTarebis sawyis etapze
erT-erT problemur sakiTxad gamoikveTa sasamarTloebis mier calmxrivi administraciuli garigebis cnebis
qveS iseTi mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebebis Tavmoyvra, romlebic TavianTi bunebiT individualur administraciulsamarTlebriv aqtebs warmoadgenen. aRniSnuli mniSvnelovanwilad iyo ganpirobebuli administraciuli garigebis
cnebis sakanonmdeblo definiciiT (administraciuli garigeba-administraciuli organos mier fizikur an iuridiul pirTan, agreTve sxva administraciul organosTan
dadebuli samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi garigeba), romelic iZleoda misi ganvrcobiTi ganmartebis SesaZleblobas. sakanonmdeblo novaciis meSveobiT administraciuli
xelSekrulebis cnebis SemoRebis, sasamarTlo praqtikis
koreqtirebis Sedegad127 ganisazRvra, rom administraciuli organos RonisZiebis Sefasebisas upiratesoba unda
mieniWos misi saqmianobis administraciul formas da samarTlis im normis xasiaTs, romelic administraciul organos qmedebis uflebamosilebiT aRWuravs da ara imas, samarTlis romel sferoSi iCens Tavs samarTlebrivi Sedegi.
administraciul samarTalSi calmxrivi nebis gamovlenis
formaa individualuri administraciuli-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema. administraciuli organos saqmianobis
127 sus didi palatis 07.10.05w. (#bs-713-300(k-05)); 06.12.05w. (#bs-1230805(k-05)) ganCinebebi. `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva
kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2005w. #9, gv.79-94, 133-142.

196
formis swor kvalifikacias saproceso-samarTlebrivi
mniSvneloba aqvs, aRniSnuli sarCelis swori formis gansazRvris pirobaTagania. amasTan, mniSvnelovania ara administraciuli organos Sinagani, aramed gamoxatuli neba,
nebis gamoxatvis forma, e.i. Tu administraciuli RonisZieba ganxorcieldeba individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis formiT, miuxedavad mowesrigebuli
urTierTobis samarTlebrivi xasiaTisa, is unda Sefasdes,
rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti.
xelSekrulebis arsebobis dadgenis Semdeg dgeba xelSekrulebis saxeobis (sajaro-samarTlebrivi, kerZo-samarTlebrivi) dadgenis sakiTxi. maTi gamijvnis mniSvneloba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan
dakavSirebuli davebi ganixileba saerTo sasamarTloebis
mier administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT, xolo
administraciuli organos mier kerZosamarTlebriv xelSekrulebasTan dakavSirebuli davebi ganixileba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT(sask-is 251 mux., szak-is
65.2, 651 mux.). saxelmwifos aqvs SesaZlebloba gamoiyenos
saqmianobis kerZo-samarTlebrivi formebi da Sesabamisad
dados kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebebi. administraciuli organo uflebamosilia kanonieri interesebis dasakmayofileblad isargeblos kerZo samarTlis
saSualebebiT, ukeTu aRniSnuli misi SexedulebiT ufro
misaRebia da ar ewinaaRmdegeba sajaro-samarTlebriv
normebs an samarTlis principebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom
anglosaqsuri samarTlebrivi doqtrina ar cnobs saxelSekrulebo reJimis dualizms(saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebis regulirebis kerZosamarTlebrivi da sajarosamarTlebrivi regulirebis damoukidebel arsebobas) da
ar cnobs administraciuli xelSekrulebebis arsebobas.
sajaro-samarTlebriv xelSekrulebebs didi yuradReba
eqceva kontinentaluri samarTlis ojaxis qveynebis administraciul kanonmdeblobaSi. amasTanave, Tu germanul

197
samarTalSi `sajaro-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis~ da
`administraciuli xelSekrulebis~ cnebebi gamoiyeneba
rogorc Tanabari mniSvnelobis mqone, sxva, dasavleTevropuli qveynebis (italia, safrangeTi, Sveicaria da sxv.)
kanonmdeblobaSi administraciuli xelSekruleba ganixileba sajaro-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis erT-erT
nairsaxeobad (sajaro-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis sxva
saxeobas warmoadgenen, magaliTad, sakonstitucio, saerTaSoriso samarTlis xelSekrulebebi).
sajaro an kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebisadmi mikuTvneba mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebulia xelSekrulebis saganze da mizanze. saxeldobr, xelSekrulebis sagnis
da miznis analizi iZleva xelSekrulebis samarTlebrivi
bunebis garkvevis SesaZleblobas. administraciuli xelSekrulebis samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebisagan gamijvnisaTvis Cveulebisamebr Semdeg kriteriumebs iSvelieben: xelSekrulebis dadeba administraciuli
kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze (mag. ,,saxelmwifo qonebis
privatizaciis Sesaxeb kanonis safuZvelze saxelmwifo
qonebis Sesyidva sajaro kanonmdeblobiT reglamentirebuli procedurebis Semdeg sabolood saTanado administraciuli organosa da kerZo pirs Soris dadebuli administraciuli xelSekrulebiT formdeba); xelSekrulebis
dadebis Sedegad administraciuli organosaTvis administraciuli aqtis gamocemis an qmedebis ganxorcielebis movaleobis warmoqmna; xelSekrulebis dadebis Sedegad moqalaqeebis sajaro-samarTlebrivi ufleba-movaleobebiT
aRWurva.128 frangulma sasamarTlo praqtikam administraciuli xelSekrulebis samoqalaqo xelSekrulebisagan gamijvnis ori materialuri kriteriumi SeimuSava: ,,sajaro
samsaxuris miznebi da ,,saerTo samarTlis CarCoebidan ga128 ,, ~ . . . ,
. , . 2003 . ~,~ . 149; e. qardava. ,,administraciuli
xelSekruleba (qarTul-germanuli SedarebiT-samarTlebrivi analizi). disertaciis avtoreferati. Tb. 2006w., gv. 29-30.

198
mavali xelSekrulebis pirobebi. erT-erTi kriteriumis
arseboba sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom xelSekruleba CaiTvalos administraciul xelSekrulebad. pirobebad, romlebic ver Tavsdebian saerTo samarTlis CarCoebSi, SeiZleba
CaiTvalos xelSekrulebis is punqtebi, romlebic gansxvavebulia Tavisi bunebiT da ar SeiZleba Caiweros analogiur samoqalaqo samarTlebriv xelSekrulebaSi. mag. xelSekrulebis calmxrivi Sewyvetis ufleba, instruqciebis
micemis uflebamosileba da a.S.
xelSekrulebaTa gamijvnis erT-erTi damatebiTi kriteriumi exeba saxelSekrulebo urTierTobaTa subieqtur
Semadgenlobas. aseT kriteriums bunebrivs uwodeben im gagebiT, rom kontraqtis administraciulad miCnevisaTvis
pirvel aucilebel, Tumca arasakmaris, pirobas warmoadgens Tundac erTi administraciuli organos monawileoba kontraqtis monawileTa Soris. sajaro-samarTlebrivi
da kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis gamijvnisaTvis
arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba ara xelSekrulebis monawileTa statuss, aramed xelSekrulebis mizans, romelic
misi Sinaarsidan dgindeba. ucxo qveynebis kanonmdebloba
(mag. safrangeTi, germania) ar gamoricxavs kerZo pirebs
Soris sajaro-samarTlebrivi miznis mqone (koordinaciuli) administraciuli xelSekrulebis da, piriqiT,
administraciul organoebs Soris kerZo-samarTlebrivi
xelSekrulebis dadebas. administraciul xelSekrulebas
adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac is administraciuli samarTlis normebis Sesrulebas emsaxureba da individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemas an sxva
mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis ganxorcielebas iTvaliswinebs. administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT (szak-is me-2 mux.)
administraciuli xelSekrulebis savaldebulo niSans
xelSekrulebis sajaro-samarTlebrivi miznis (amocanis)
garda Seadgens agreTve xelSekrulebis mxaris statusi,

199
kerZod, xelSekrulebis erT-erT mxared savaldebulod
unda iyos administraciuli organo.
administraciul da samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebebis farglebis gamijvnis kriteriumebis saxiT
iuridiul literaturaSi damatebiT uTiTeben agreTve iseT kriteriumebs, rogoricaa: kanonmdeblis neba(ama
Tu im qveynis kanonmdeblis mier administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebis ganmarteba, rogorc garigebaTa gamijvnis erT-erTi saSualeba. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblis mier Tavdapirveli administraciuli garigebis
cnebis SemoRebiT, garigebaTa gamijvnis problema Teoriuli msjelobis sagnad iyo qceuli); saxelisuflebo
uflebamosileba(xelSekrulebis monawile mxareTa Tanasworuflebianoba garkveulad dakavSirebulia erT-erTi
an orive mxaris saxelisuflebo uflebamosilebasTan. mag.
sakontraqto (profesiuli) samxedro samsaxuri); organizaciuli xasiaTi(administraciuli organos saqmianobis
mizania sazogadoebrivad mniSvnelovani Sedegis miRweva,
sajaro-samarTlebrivi interesis ganxorcieleba, ramdenadac saxelmwifo Tavisi institutebis saxiT mowodebulia gamoxatos, daicvas mTeli sociumis yvela wevris
saerTo interesi. bunebrivia, administraciul garigebaSi
kerZo miznebic arsebobs, Tu erT-erTi mxare kerZo piria,
magram xelSekrulebis administraciul-samarTlebrivi
statusisaTvis ganmsazRvrelia is, rom administraciuli
organo moqmedebs(yovel SemTxvevaSi unda imoqmedos) saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi interesebidan gamomdinare); administraciuli xelSekrulebis sagani (nebis gamovlenis
Sedegad warmoSobili da administraciul-samarTlebrivi
normebiT mowesrigebuli sajaro-samarTlebrivi urTierToba, administraciuli xelSekrulebiT xdeba sajarosamarTlebrivi urTierTobebis regulireba). amgvarad,
xelSekrulebis sagnis specifiurobis gaTvaliswinebiT
administraciulia xelSekruleba Tu: gamomdinareobs

200
sajaro-samarTlebrivi normebidan; zustadaa gansazRvruli moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT; Seicavs valdebulebas administraciuli aqtis gamocemis an sxva sajaro moqmedebis
Sesrulebis Sesaxeb; awesrigebs kerZo pirTa sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebebsa da valdebulebebs kanonis safuZvelze; misi dadebisas gamoyenebulia administraciuli
(saxelSekrulebo) samarTlis normebi; davis SemTxvevaSi
saqme unda ganixilos administraciulma sasamarTlom administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT.129
xelSekrulebis arsebobis, kerZod, administraciuli
xelSekrulebis arsebobis dadgenis Semdeg dgeba xelSekrulebis samarTlebrivi normebisadmi Sesabamisobis sakiTxi. ase, mag., dauSvebelia xelSekrulebis dadebiT gadasaxadebis an mosakreblebis gadaxdisagan gaTavsufleba.130

129
28.

m. kopaleiSvili `administraciuli garigeba~, Tb., 2003w., gv. 20-

130 erT-erT saqmeze sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom sagadasaxado


kodeqsis mixedviT akrZalulia arasagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT iseTi sakiTxebis daregulireba, romlebic dakavSirebulia gadasaxadebiT
dabegvrasTan. samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic
uSvebs movaleobebis dakisrebas mesame pirebze da agreTve pirdapir iTvaliswinebs movaleobebis Sesrulebis SesaZleblobas warmomadgenlis
(mag. davaleba, komisia da sxv.) mier, sagadasaxado samarTali gamoricxavs movaleobebis dakisrebas mesame pirebze. mxareebs ara aqvT ufleba
moawesrigon TavianTi sagadasaxado valdebulebebi garigebis (sagadasaxado daTqmis) saSualebiT. sagadasaxado valdebulebis warmoSobis, Secvlisa da Sewyvetis, agreTve misi Sesrulebis wesi da pirobebi
regulirdeba mxolod sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT(sus 11.05.06w.
gadawyvetileba, saqme #bs-1319-895(k-05)).

201
17. realaqtTan dakavSirebuli gansjadobis davebi
gansjadobis sakiTxze davas iwvevs agreTve faqtiuri
moqmedeba, am SemTxvevaSi gamijvnis sirTules ganapirobebs is, rom faqtiur moqmedebebs ar gaaCniaT garkveuli
samarTlebrivi forma. ase, mag. avtotransportis moZraobaSi monawileoba TavisTavad sajaro da kerZo samarTlis
sferoebze dayofis mimarT indiferentulia, avtotransportiT moZraoba ar aris arc sajaro-samarTlebrivi da
arc kerZo-samarTlebrivi moqmedeba. miuxedavad amisa
iqmneba samarTlebrivi kvalifikaciis micemis saWiroeba,
im SemTxvevaSi Tu transportis moZraobaSi monawileoba
sajaro-samarTlebrivia, moZraobis wesebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi adgili eqneba samsaxurebrivi movaleobis darRvevas da Sesabamisad SesaZlebeli iqneba sarCelis wardgena
samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Semsrulebeli piris mier zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb. kerZo-samarTlebrivi kvalifikaciis SemTxvevaSi moZraobis monawile Tavad agebs pasuxs
Tavisi moqmedebebisaTvis. sasamarTlo praqtikis ganzogadebis Sedegad iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia
mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom sajaro-samarTlebrivad miiCneva transportis moZraobaSi monawileoba mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu moZraobaSi monawileobas miznad hqonda
saxelmwifo amocanis Sesruleba da ukeTu mizansa da zianis gamomwvev qmedebas Soris arsebobs iseTi mWidro Sida
da gare kavSiri, ris Sedegadac moqmedeba saxelmwifo amocanebis sferosadmi gankuTvnilad miiCneva.131 zemoaRniSnuli daskvna gakeTebulia germaniis administraciuli
sasamarTloebis praqtikis ganzogadebis Sedegad, romelic esadageba saqarTveloSi am sakiTxze Camoyalibebul
praqtikas. ase, mag., zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb sarCelis
ganxilvisas sasamarTlos mier dadgenilad iqna cnobili,
131 . , . ,, ,
. , C.H. Beck, Mnchen, 1995, . ,,. 2000, gv. 93-96.

202
rom prokuraturis kuTvnili avtomanqanis mZRolma prokuraturis TanamSromelTan erTad samsaxurebriv saqmesTan dakavSirebiT mgzavrobisas daarRvia moZraobis wesebi da avtoavariis Sedegad fizikur pirs miayena sxeulis
mZime xarisxis dazianeba. administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT sarCelis ganxilvis Sedegad Tbilisis
saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiam
05.07.05w. gadawyvetilebiT genprokuratura cno saTanado mopasuxed da daakisra mkurnalobaze daxarjuli Tanxebis anazRaureba. zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb davebTan
dakavSirebiT mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve is garemoeba, rom sask-is 2.1. muxlis Tanaxmad, dava administraciulsamarTlebrivad miiCneva ukeTu zianis anazRaurebis moTxovna mimarTulia administraciuli organos mimarT, davis sagans unda warmoadgendes administraciuli organos
valdebuleba zianis anazRaurebis Taobaze.
gansjadobis gansazRvris saWiroeba warmoiqmneba agreTve sasamarTlos winaSe iseTi faqtiuri moqmedebis
Sedegad, rogoricaa xmauris, sunis da sxv. mavne zemoqmedebisagan dacvis sakiTxis dasmis SemTxvevaSi. sk-is 175-e
muxlis safuZvelze, amgvari zemoqmedebisagan dacvis moTxovnas SesaZloa hqondes kerZo-samarTlebrivi an sajarosamarTlebrivi moTxovnis saxe. administraciul da sxva
kategoriis saqmeTa palatis 21.04.05w. gadawyvetilebiT
nawilobriv dakmayofilda fizikur pirTa sasarCelo moTxovna - q. Tbilisis merias, saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa
da bunebrivi resursebis saministros, ss `Tboeleqtrocentrals~ solidarulad daekisraT fizikuri pirebis
sasargeblod janmrTelobisaTvis vnebiT miyenebuli moraluri zianis anazRaureba. ss `Tboeleqtrocentrals~,
mdgomareobis Secvlamde, yovelTviurad kompensaciis
saxiT Tanxis gadaxda daekisra. sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom Tboeleqtrosadguris teritoriaze ganlagebuli transformatorebis muSaobiT warmoqmnili xmauri
mosarCeleTa binebSi aWarbebs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil
dasaSveb dones. sk-is 175-e, 413-e muxlebze, `atmosferuli

203
haeris dacvis Sesaxeb~ kanonis, sanitaruli kodeqsis, `garemos dacvis Sesaxeb~ kanonis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb kanonis Sesabamis muxlebze, kanonqvemdebare
aqtebis Sesaxeb aqtebze miTiTebiT sakasacio palatam, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT saqmis ganxilvis Sedegad, kompensaciis moTxovna safuZvlianad miiCnia,
vinaidan zemoqmedeba aRemateboda dasaSveb normebze zRvrul farglebs. fizikuri pirebi ganicdidnen maTi sacxovrebeli saxlebis siaxloves ganlagebuli transformatorebis eqspluataciis Sedegad warmoqmnili xmauris mavne
zemoqmedebas, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organoebi valdebulni iyvnen uzrunveleyoT garemos dacvis da ekologiuri usafrTxoebis RonisZiebaTa gatareba.132
faqtiur moqmedebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba agreTve sajaro mosamsaxuris gamonaTqvamebi, romlebic xelyofen
sxva pirTa pativs da Rirsebas. germaniaSi damkvidrebuli
sasamarTlo praqtikis mixedviT aseTi gamonaTqvamebis
uaryofis moTxovnas SesaZloa hqondes rogorc kerZo-samarTlebrivi, aseve sajaro-samarTlebrivi xasiaTi. im SemTxvevaSi Tu sajaro mosamsaxure gamoTqvams mosazrebas,
rogorc kerZo piri, aseTi gamonaTqvamebis uaryofis moTxovnas kerZo-samarTlebrivi xasiaTi aqvs. im SemTxvevaSi
Tu sajaro mosamsaxuris gamonaTqvami gakeTebulia samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis dros, gamonaTqvami
ukavSirdeba mis mier samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebas, ganekuTvneba sajaro saqmianibis sferos, aseT SemTxvevaSi dava administraciuli kategoriis saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos qvemdebarea. mniSvneloba aqvs agreTve
administraciis saqmianobis romel sferos ukavSirdeba
mosamsaxuris gamonaTqvami. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mosamsaxuris mier azri gamoTqmulia administraciis kerZo-samarTlebriv saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT, uaryofis moTxovnas
kerZo-samarTlebrivi, xolo administraciuli organos
132 `sus gadawyvetilebani administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2005 #5, gv. 107-123.

204
saqmianobasTan dakavSirebul gamonaTqvams sajaro-samarTlebrivi xasiaTi eqneba, ris gamo dava administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixileba.133 gansjadobis
sakiTxis xsenebulma wesebma ver hpova jer-jerobiT asaxva
saqarTvelos sasamarTlo praqtikaSi, romelSic pativis,
Rirsebis da saqmiani reputaciis Semlaxveli cnobebis gavrcelebasTan dakavSirebuli dava, rogorc wesi, kerZosamarTlebrivi kategoriis davad miiCneva.

18. sasamarTlos roli gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi


sajaro da kerZo samarTals Soris sazRvris gavlebas
axdenen ara zemoaRniSnuli Teoriebi, romlebsac damxmare mniSvneloba aqvs, aramed sasamarTloebi, romlebsac am
TeoriebiT gansazRvrul kriteriumebs iyeneben calkeul
SemTxvevebTan mimarTebaSi. Teoriuli msjeloba davis
samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi Tu administraciul-samarTlebrivi kuTvnilebis Taobaze ufro martivia, vidre konkretuli davis gansjadi sasamarTlos arCeva (mravalricxovani sasamarTlo sistemis mqone qveynebSi sakiTxi saqmis
gansjadobis Sesaxeb zogjer davis arsebiTad gadawyvetaze ufro rTulia). darwmunebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sasamarTlos aqtebi gansjadobis gamijvnis yvelaze mniSvnelovan wyaros qmnis. gamijvnis zusti kriteriumebis
sakanonmdeblo wesiT amomwuravi dadgenis, administraciuli samarTlis kodifikaciis sirTuleebma ganapirobes
sasamarTlo praqtikis mniSvneloba, misi gansakuTrebuli
roli gansjadobis sakiTxis mowesrigebaSi, administraciuli samarTlis ganviTarebaSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom administraciuli samarTali aris samarTali, Seqmnili upira133 . , . , miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 99-101.

205
tesad mosamarTleTa mier. sasamarTlo praqtikam gadamwyveti roli Seasrula administraciuli samarTlis Seqmnasa da ganviTarebaSi iseT tradiciulad kontinentaluri
samarTlis qveynebSic ki, rogoricaa germania, safrangeTi,
romlebic samarTlis ZiriTad wyarod kanonsa da sxva werilobiT normebs aRiareben.134 sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis mniSvneloba zogjer scilddeba procesis monawileTa
farglebs, vinaidan novacia Seaqvs moqmed samarTalSi.
kanoni ver iqneba yovelTvis iseTi zogadi da zusti, rom
zedmiwevniT ergebodes yvela SemTxvevas da mosamarTlis
roli mxolod kerZo SemTxTevisaTvis misi meqanikuri gamoyenebiT ganisazRvrebodes. mosamarTle kanonis ganmartebiT iyenebs mas iseT axal pirobebSi, romlis gaTvaliswinebac ver SeZlo kanonmdebelma. aRniSnuli saqmis ganmxilveli mosamarTlis Sexedulebazea damokidebuli da
problemis warmatebuli gadawyveta, rogorc wesi, xdeba
saSualeba SemdegSi msgavsi saqmeebis gadawyvetisas.135
samoqalaqo da administraciul saqmeTa gamijvnis kriteriumebis saxiT safrangeTis sasamarTlo praqtikam Camoayaliba Semdegi cnebebi: saxelmwifo debitoris cneba
(kerZo samarTlis normebis gamoyenebis dauSvebloba saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg), mbrZanebluri aqtis cneba (administracia gamoscems mbrZaneblur da mmarTvelobiT aqtebs, ukanaskneli samoqalaqo samarTlis gansjadia), saja134 ,, ~ . . . , .
, . 2003 . ~,~ . 22. g. gogiaSvili. ,,sajaro samarTali,
kerZo samarTali da sasamarTlo praqtika. Jurn. ,,qarTuli samarTlis
mimoxilva, 6/203-4, gv. 496.
135 sadavo sakiTxis amaTuim gadawyvetas xSirad ganapirobebs samosamarTlo filosofia, romelic warmoadgens mosamarTlis gamocdilebis
da msoflmxedvelobis nayofs. amasTanave, mosamarTles Segnebuli unda
hqondes, rom moqmedebs samarTlebrivi sistemis farglebSi, romelsac sakuTari cxovreba aqvs da rom gadawyvetileba unda esadagebodes
sistemis organul zrdas, mis fundamentalur Rirebulebebs, aviTarebdes mas monacvleobis Tanamedrove moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisobis da
momavlis perspeqtivebis farglebSi (. . ,,C , ,,,, . 1999, gv. 88,212,220).

206
ro mmarTvelobis cneba (administraciuli da samoqalaqo
sferoebis gamijvnis wesebi adminitsraciis mier kerZo
seqtoris marTvaSi ar gamoiyeneba, vinaidan administracia
iyenebs iseTive meTodebs, rogorc kerZo pirebi. administraciuli da samoqalaqo funqciebis gamijvnis wesebi gamoiyeneba sajaro mmarTvelobis dros gamoyenebul wesebze), sajaro samsaxuris cneba (gansjadobis sakiTxze erTerTi yvelaze mniSvnelovania konfliqtebis tribunalis
08.02.1873w. ganCineba a. blankos saqmeze, romliTac sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom administraciuli samarTali aris
sajaro samarTali. ukanaskneli gansazRvravs administraciuli sasamarTlos iurisdiqciis kriteriumebs, misi gansjadia yvela dava, romelic moculia sajaro samsaxuris
saqmianobiT da, piriqiT, am saqmianobis miRma administracia SeiZleba gansajos samoqalaqo sasamarTlom), sajarosamarTlebrivi urTierTobebis da sajaro-samarTlebrivi
normebis cneba (administraciuli sasamarTlos iurisdiqcia savaldebuloa iq, sadac gansaxilveli urTierTobebi
aris sajaro-samarTlebrivi da reglamentirebulia sajaro samarTlis normebiT)136.
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, saqmis gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi prioriteti eniWeba administraciul da sxva kategoriis
saqmeTa sakasacio palatas, romelic sask-is 26-e muxlis
safuZvelze uflebamosilia gadawyvitos gansjadobis Sesaxeb dava ara mxolod administraciuli da samoqalaqo,
aramed agreTve administraciul da sisxlis samarTlis kategoriis saqmeTa ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs Soris (mag.
reabilitaciis Sedegad zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb sasamarTloebs Soris dava).137
136 J. vedeli. miTiTebuli naSromi, gv. 218.
137 ix. sus administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis
29.12.06w. #bs-960-916(g-06), 13.09.06w. #bs-411-395(g-06), 22.05.03w. #3g/ad-311k-02, 22.05.03w. #3g-ad-425-k-02, 21.05.03w. #3g-ad-285-k-02 ganCinebebi

207
sasamarTloebi sarCelis elementebis, samarTalurTierTobebis calkeuli komponentebis Sedegad gansazRvraven gansaxilveli saqmeebis gansjadobas. sasamarTloebs
Soris davis SemTxvevaSi, davas gansjadobis Sesaxeb wyvets
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos, rogorc marTlmsajulebis organoebis
ierarqiis saTaveSi mdgari organos statusi bunebrivad
aqcevs mas gansjadobis problemis regulatorad. sakasacio sasamarTlo am misias asrulebs sakasacio wesiT gasaCivrebuli davebis ganxilvis dros. ama Tu im davis ganxilvisas sakasacio palata msjelobs ssk-is 404-e muxliT dadgenili wesiT mxaris mier dasmuli teritoriuli da sagnobrivi gansjadobis sakiTxzec(gansjadobis sajaro-samarTlebrivi xasiaTis gamo praqtikaSi SeimCneva sasamarTlos iniciativiT gansjadobis Sesaxeb davebis gadawyvetis
tendencia). kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyvetis damatebiT procedurebs. administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesi iTvaliswinebs gansjadobis sakiTxze qvemdgom sasamarTloebs Soris uTanxmoebis gadawyvetas, sasamarTloebs Soris davis gadawyveta
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos administraciul da
sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis eqskluziur kompetencias Seadgens. amdenad, administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba,
samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisagan gansxvavebiT, uSvebs
sasamarTloebs Soris davas gansjadobis sakiTxze. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac arc samoqalaqo da arc administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganmxilveli sasamarTlo
ar Tvlis Tavs kompetenturad ganixilos esa Tu is dava,
saqmis umoZraod datoveba Sedegad iwvevs marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaze uaris Tqmas. aRniSnulis Tavidan
acilebis mizniT, ukeTu sasamarTlo Tvlis Tavs arakompetenturad, igi valdebulia gadaugzavnos saqme gansjad
sasamarTlos. sask-is 26.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, aragansjad sasamarTloSi sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo
sarCels gadaugzavnis gansjad sasamarTlos da amis Sesaxeb acnobebs mosarCeles. sarCeli gansjad sasamarTlos

208
unda gadaegzavnos dasabuTebuli ganCinebiT.138
sakasacio sasamarTlo ixilavs davas gansjadobis Sesaxeb sasamarTloebs Soris davis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi,
anu iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sasamarTlo ar eTanxmeba im
sasamarTlos mosazrebas gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT,
romelmac gadaugzavna mas saqme. sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili gadaugzavnos sakasacio sasamarTlos saqme
gansjadobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad, gansjadobis sakiTxze sxva sasamarTlosTan davis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi.
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sakasacio sasamarTlo ar ixilavs
gansjadobis sakiTxs sasamarTloebs Soris gansjadobis
sakiTxze davis ar arsebobis gamo,139 vinaidan ar arsebobs
sask-is 26.3 muxliT dadgenili sakasacio sasamarTlos
iurisdiqciuli piroba _ sasamarTloTa Soris gansjadobis Sesaxeb dava. gansjadobis Sesaxeb sasamarTloebs Soris
warmoqmnili davebis gadawyvetasTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio sasamarTlos kompetencia gulisxmobs ori sasamarTlos msjelobis samarTlebrivi Sefasebis Sedegad gansjadi sasamarTlos dadgenas. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve
is garemoeba, rom sask-is 26-e muxli saubrobs sarCelis da
ara kerZo saCivris, agreTve axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo gancxadebis, an romelime sxva procesualuri dokumentis gansjadobaze. sasamarTlo praqtikaSi cnobilia
SemTxvevebi, rodesac Tavad saqmis ganmxilvel sasamarTlos eWvi mis warmoebaSi myofi saqmis gansjadobaSi ar Separvia. miuxedavad amisa, davas gansjadobaze iwyeben zemdgomi sasamarTloebi qvemdgomi instanciis mier raime procesualur sakiTxze miRebul ganCinebaze Setanili kerZo
saCivris gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT. sakasacio palata
138 sus erT-erTi ganCinebiT dauSveblad iqna miCneuli sarCelis
saqmis masalebTan erTad gansjadobiT gadagzavna ara ganCinebiT, aramed
TandarTuli mimarTviT, sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom gansjadobiT
sxva sasamarTlosaTvis gadacema sasamarTlom unda daasabuTos motivirebuli ganCinebiT.
139 ix. mag. sus 11.10.06w. #bs-738-699(g-06) ganCineba

209
dasaSvebad miiCnevs davas kerZo saCivris gansjadobasTan
dakavSirebiT. cxadia, rom kerZo saCivris gansjadobasTan
dakavSirebiT sakasacio palatis mier gamoTqmuli mosazreba zemoqmedebas axdens ara mxolod kerZo saCivris, aramed mTlianad saqmis gansjadobaze. dauSvebelia saqme ganekuTvnebodes romelime erT kategorias, xolo am saqmis
ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT miRebul ganCinebaze Setanili
kerZo saCivari sxva kategoriis saqmes ganekuTvnebodes da
samarTalwarmoebis gansxvavebuli wesiT ixilebodes.
vinaidan kerZo saCivris gansjadobis sakiTxi undagadawydes imisda mixedviT, Tu romeli samarTalwarmoebiT
gansaxilvel saqmes ganekuTvneba Tavad sarCeli. amasTanave, radganac kerZo saCivari sarCelidan gamomdinare da
masze damokidebuli saproceso institutia, sask-is 26-e
muxlSi miTiTeba sarCelis gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT
davis dasaSvebobaze, ar gamoricxavs kerZo saCivarTan dakavSirebiT davis dasaSvebobas. amasTan, ar daiSveba axlad
aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo an baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb
gancxadebis gansjadobaze dava saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis sakiTxis gadawyvetamde. ssk-is 424-e muxlis Tanaxmad,
romelic gansazRvravs saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb gancxadebis gansjadobis sakiTxs, gancxadeba gadawyvetilebis baTilad cnobis an axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa
gamo saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb Setanil unda iqnes gadawyvetilebis gamomtan sasamarTloSi. gancxadeba
gadawyvetilebis gamomtani sasamarTlos gansjadia im SemTxvevaSic, Tu arsebobs zemdgomi sasamarTlos ganCineba
am gadawyvetilebis ucvlelad datovebis Sesaxeb. saqmis
warmoebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb gancxadebis gansjadobaze
sasamarTloebs Soris davis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi, davis
gadawyveta faqtobrivad sarCelis gansjadobis sakiTxis
gadawyvetas gauTanabrdeboda, romlis Taobazec miRebulia sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba,
risi uflebac ssk-is 429-e da 430-e muxlis Tanaxmad sasamarTlos ar aqvs gancxadebis dasaSvebad da safuZvlianad

210
miCnevisa da saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebis sakiTxis gadawyvetamde140.
sasamarTlo kompetenciis damadasturebeli faqtebis ukmarisobis SemTxvevaSi mosamarTle uflebamosilia
mosTxovos mxareebs saWiro mtkicebulebebis warmodgena.
gansjadobis sasamarTlowarmoebis inkviziciuri modelis
Sesabamisad gansjadobis dadgenisaTvis mniSvnelobis mqone faqtebis Sekreba sasamarTlosac evaleba. gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetis mizniT sakasacio sasamarTlosaTvis gamogzavnili saqmis masalebi unda Seicavdnen
saqmis monacemebs gansjadobis davis gadasawyvetad, rac
sakasacio sasamarTlos aZlevs SesaZleblobas saqmis masalebze dayrdnobiT, zepiri mosmenis gareSe, gadawyvitos
saqmis gansjadobis sakiTxi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu davis sagani ar aris sakmarisad dazustebuli, saqmis masalebi ar
iZleva gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetis saSualebas,
sakasacio palatas SeuZlia daubrunos saqme gansjadobis
sakiTxis gadasawyvetad saqmis gamomgzavn sasamarTlos
SesabamisimiTiTebiT. principSi ar aris gamoricxuli,
procesualuri analogiis gamoyenebiT, sakasacio palatis
mier, davis sagnis dazustebis mizniT, sxdomis Catareba,
mxareTa davis arsis garkvevisaTvis saqmis monawile mxareebis mosmena (aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom sadReisod sasamarTloebs Soris gansjadobis sakiTxze yvela dava sakasacio palatas zepiri mosmenis gareSe aqvs gadawyvetili).
sakasacio palatis ganCineba, romliTac wydeba sasamarTloebs Soris dava, savaldebuloa sasamarTloebisaTvis. sakasacio sasamarTlos administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeTa palatis mier gansaxilveli saqmis gansjadobis gansazRvris Semdgom sasamarTloebs Soris davis
warmoSoba gansjadobaze ar daiSveba.
praqtikaSi diskusias iwvevs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, unda
gaauqmos Tu ara sakasacio palatam erT-erTi im sasamarT140 ix. sus 23.12.05w. #bs-1297-874 (g-05); 03.07.05w. #bs-1611-1185 (g-05)
ganCinebebi.

211
los ganCinebaTagani, romlis mosazreba gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio sasamarTlom ar gaiziara.
vinaidan gansjadobis sakiTxze sasamarTloebs Soris SeiZleba adgili hqondes, saxeldobr, davas uflebamosilebis
Taobaze da ara interesTa konfliqts, gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetas qveda instanciis sasamarTlosaTvis
konkretul saqmeze sasamarTlo organos kompetenciis
sakiTxze erTgvari konsultaciis xasiaTi aqvs. damkvidrebuli praqtikis mixedviT sakasacio sasamarTlo uqvemdebarebs saqmes samoqalaqo an administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganmxilvel saerTo sasamarTlos qveda
instanciis sasamarTloebis mier gansjadobis sakiTxze
miRebuli ganCinebis gauqmebis gareSe.

19. gansjadobis sakiTxebis gadawyveta sazRvargareTis qveynebSi
zemod ukve aRiniSna, rom saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, sasamarTloebs
Soris gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT davas wyvets
sakasacio sasamarTlo, saxeldobr, administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis gansaxilveli administraciul da sxva
kategoriis saqmeTa palata. sazRvargareTis rig qveynebSi
davas gansjadobis Sesaxeb wyvets samoqalaqo saqmeebis
ganmxilveli sakasacio sasamarTlo (mag. italia, belgia).
am qveynebSi adminitsraciuli marTlmsajulebis ganmaxorcielebeli organoebi - saxelmwifo sabWoebi gansjadobis sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi eqvemdebarebian sakasacio
sasamarTlos. ase, mag., belgiis saxelmwifo sabWos gadawyvetilebebi sabolooa, ar eqvemdebareba gasaCivrebas da
SeiZleba gauqmdes sakasacio sasamarTlos mier saerTo sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciis sferoSi saxelmwifo sabWos
Carevis SemTxvevaSi. 17.02.94w. belgiis konstituciis 158-e
muxlis Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTlos gamoaqvs gadawy-

212
vetileba kompetenciebs Soris davebis Taobaze, kanoniT
dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad. italiis saxelmwifo sabWos gadawyvetilebaze sakasacio saCivris Setana daiSveba
mxolod gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT (italiis
konstiticiis 111-e muxli). italiis umaRles sakasacio
sasamarTlos ekisreba sasamarTloebis mier maTi kompetenciis farglebis dacvis, kompetenciis da uflebamosilebis Sesaxeb davebis gadawyvetis movaleoba. saCivrebi,
romlebic Seexeba kompetenciis sakiTxebs, ganixileba sakasacio sasamarTlos palatebis gaerTianebul sxdomaze.141
safrangeTSi, adreul periodSi, piriqiT, saxelmwifo sabWo iZleoda daskvnebs gansjadobis sakiTxebze. SemdgomSi,
administraciuli marTlmsajulebis evoluciis kvaldakval, safrangeTis marTlmsajulebis or ganStoebaze er141 italiis sasamarTlo sistemis mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom sajaro administraciasTan dakavSirebuli davebi SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes rogorc administraciuli tribunalis
(administraciuli iusticiis specialuri organoebis), aseve saerTo
iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis mier. sasamarTlo dacva daiSveba sajaro administraciis nebismieri aqtis mimarT, miuxedavad aqtis kategoriisa da gasaCivrebis wesisa. saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi
ganixilaven davebs, romlebic Seexeba uflebis darRvevas. amasTanave,
saerTo sasamarTlos mosamarTlis uflebamosileba SezRudulia, igi
moklebulia SesaZleblobas baTilad cnos an Secvalos sajaro administraciis aqti. mas SeuZlia mxolod miiRos gadawyvetileba mocemul konkretul SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo ganxilvis Sedegad ukanonod
cnobili aqtis gamoyenebis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb da sajaro administraciis Sesabamis organoze miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisrebis Sesaxeb. rac Seexeba administraciuli iusticiis
organoebs, isini, rogorc wesi, axorcieleben kanonieri interesebis
dacvis iurisdiqcias. saerTo iurisdiqciis organoebisagan gansxvavebiT administraciuli iurisdiqciis organoebi uflebamosilni arian
baTilad cnon sadavo aqti, mosTxovon sajaro administracias garkveuli aqtis miReba. italiaSi ganasxvaveben administraciuli iusticiis
Cveulebriv da specialur organoebs. pirvels ganekuTvnebian saolqo
administraciuli tribunalebi, xolo administraciuli iusticiis
specialur organoebs ganekuTvneba saangariSo palata, centraluri
sagadasaxado komisia da Sesabamisi komisiebi, sajaro wyalsargeblobis
umaRlesi da saolqo tribunalebi.

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Tiani, zemdgomi, damoukidebeli sasamarTlo organo - konfliqtebis tribunali Camoyalibda, romelic ganixilavs
davebs gansjadobis Sesaxeb142. tribunali kompleqtdeba
paritetuli warmomadgenlobis sawyisebze. kerZod, mis
SemadgenlobaSi Sedian sakasacio sasamarTlos da saxelmwifo sabWos oTx-oTxi wevri, tribunalSi saTaTbiro xmis
uflebiT Sedian agreTve prokuraturis warmomadgenlebi (mTavrobis komisrebi). yoveli ori saqmidan erT-erTi
ewereba samoqalaqo (sakasacio sasamarTlos), xolo meore - administraciuli (saxelmwifo sabWos) sasamarTlos
wevrs, romelic momxseneblis saxiT gamodis. tribunalis vice-Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebeli rigrigobiT sami wlis vadiT airCeva sakasacio sasamarTlos
da saxelmwifo sabWos wevrTa ricxvidan. xmebis gayofis
SemTxvevaSi imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sasamarTloSi ar
daiSveba Tavmjdomaris xmisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba,
Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Sesasruleblad iwveven iusticiis ministrs. konfliqtebis tribunali ar aris uflebamosili ganixilos konfliqtebi, romelic ganekuTvneba
marTlmsajulebis or damoukidebel StoSi Camoyalibebuli praqtikis winaaRmdegobebs, rodesac erTi da igive
norma gansxvavebulad ganimarteba administraciuli da
saerTo sasamarTloebis mier. marTlmsajulebis sferos
ganekuTvneba sasamarTlos mier ara mxolod saqmis arsebiTi gadawyveta, aramed agreTve yvela danarCeni stadia,
maT Soris, gansjadobis sakiTxis gadawyveta. davis mxare
ar unda aRiWurvos marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis
uflebamosilebiT, vinaidan `aravin SeiZleba iyos sakuTar
saqmeSi piruTvneli Semfasebeli da msajuli~(nemo judex in
re sud). Znelia gadaafaso qveynis mTeli sasamarTlo sistemis normaluri funqcionirebisaTvis gansjadobis Sesaxeb
davebis gadawyvetis mniSvneloba. kompetenciis ganawile142 Tavdapirvelad 1848 wels dafuZnebulma konfliqtebis tribunalma Sewyvita Tavisi arseboba 1852 wels. 24.05.1872w. kanoniT gansjadobis davebis gadamwyveti konfliqtebis tribunali aRdgenil iqna.

214
basTan dakavSirebuli davebis gadaWrisas konkretuli
SemTxvevisaTvis samarTalwarmoebis wesis swori SerCevis
mizniT, sasamarTlos uxdeba konfliqtis safuZvelSi arsebuli konceftualur problemebSi garkveva, rac gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs am sasamarTlos formirebis meqanizms. vfiqrob, rom CvenSi gansjadobis sakiTxis
gadawyveta, samoqalaqo da administraciuli kategoriis
ganmxilveli palatis wevrebisagan Tanabar, paritetul
sawyisebze dakompleqtebulma palatam unda gadawyvitos.
xmebis gayofis SemTxvevaSi gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetaSi monawileobas uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare unda iRebdes. gansjadobaze davis gadawyvetis amgvari wesis SemoReba SesaZleblobas miscems davis yvela
sajaro-samarTlebrivi da kerZo-samarTlebrivi aspeqtis
Seswavlas, aamaRlebs gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetis xarisxs, safuZvels gamoaclis samoqalaqo marTlmsajulebis warmomadgenlebis erTgvar ukmayofilebas,
gamowveuls gansjadobis sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi monawileobis miRebis SeuZleblobiT.
sasamarTloebs Soris iurisdiqciuli konfliqtebis
paritetul sawyisebze dakompleqtebuli sasamarTlo
organos mier gadaWras iTvaliswinebs agreTve TurqeTis
respublikis kanonmdebloba, romlis konstituciis 158-e
muxlis Tanaxmad, uTanxmoebaTa mowesrigebis sasamarTlos uflebamosilebaSi Sedis samoqalaqo, administraciul da samxedro sasamarTlo instanciebs Soris, maT saqmianobebTan da gadawyvetilebebTan dakavSirebiT warmoqmnili uTanxmoebis gadaWra da mogvareba. uTanxmoebaTa
mowesrigebis sasamarTlos struqtura, wevrTa funqciebi
da arCevis wesi ganisazRvreba kanoniT. am sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares niSnavs sakonstitucio sasamarTlo, sakuTar
wevrTa Semadgenlobidan. iurisdiqciuli konfliqtebis
sasamarTlos 3 wevri airCeva uzenaesi sakasacio sasamarTlos seqciis wevrTagan, 3 _ saxelmwifo sabWos seqciis
wevrTagan. erTis mxriv sisxlis da samoqalaqo saqmeebis
ganmxilvel sasamarTloebs, agreTve administraciul sa-

215
samarTloebs da meores mxriv samxedro sasamarTloebs Soris uTanxmoebis ganxilvisas sasamarTlos SemadgenlobaSi
damatebiT Sedis umaRlesi samxedro sakasacio sasamarTlos ori wevri. samxedro sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis gansjadoba ganixileba sasamarTlos gansxvavebuli
SemadgenlobiT, sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi monawileobas iRebs
sakasacio sasamarTlos ori wevri, saxelmwifo sabWos ori
wevri da samxedro sakasacio sasamarTlos ori wevri. 143
saberZneTSi administraciuli davebis ganmxilvel adminsitarciul sasamarTloebs (pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebi, administraciuli saapelacio sasamarTloebi, saxelmwifos generaluri komisariati) saTaveSi udgas
saxelmwifo sabWo. sxva sakiTxebTan erTad(sayovelTao
arCevnebis kanonierebaze saCivrebis ganxilva, kontroli
referendumis kanonierebaze da sxv., gansaxilveli davebis
umetesoba konstituciur xasiaTs atarebs) davebs saerTo
iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebsa da administraciul sasamarTloebs Soris ixilavs qveynis umaRlesi sasamarTlo
instancia _ specialuri uzenaesi sasamarTlo, romlis
SemadgenlobaSi Sedis sami uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare, kerZod, saxelmwifo sabWos Tavmjdomare, uzenaesi sasamarTlos (areopagis) Tavmjdomare, sakontrolo
saxazino palatis Tavmjdomare, agreTve, oTxi kerZo saxelmwifo mrCeveli da kenWisyriT ori wliT arCeuli oTxi
uzenaesi sasamarTlos(areopagis) mosamarTle.144
germaniis administraciuli sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciis kompetencias ganekuTvneba sajaro-samarTlebrivi
davebi, Tu isini sxva sasamarTloebis (safinanso, socialuri) iuridiqciis gansjadi ar aris. gfr-Si sasamarTlo gansjadobis (Zustndigkeit der Gerichte) Taobaze sakiT143 `TurqeTis respublikis konstitucia~, Tb., 2000w., gamomc. `azri~,
gv.90; ,, , 3- . ,
. . . , ., 2003., gv. 794-797.
144 ,, , ., 2002., . ,,
, gv. 92-112, 260.

216
xebis gadawyveta koncentrirebulia pirveli instanciis
sasamarTloSi, romlis gadawyvetilebas saqmis gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT, ,,sasamarTloebis mowyobis Sesaxeb
gfr-is kanonis mixedviT, savaldebulo Zala aqvs zemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlosaTvis.145gansjadobasTan dakavSirebuli davis mowesrigebis amgvari wesi racionalurobiT gamoirCeva CvenSi SemoRebul sistemasTan SedarebiT,
romliTac daSvebulia sasamarTloebs Soris dava saqmis
ganxilvis yvela etapze. gansjadobis sakiTxis gadaWris
germanuli modelis mixedviT zemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlo, romelic ixilavs saCivars saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis Sedegad gamotanil gadawyvetilebebTan dakavSirebiT,
ar amowmebs saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos gansjadobas.
sasamarTlo Tavisi iniciativiT, mosarCelis gancxadebis
gareSe, saqmes gansjadobiT gansaxilvelad gadascems sxva
sasamarTlos, rac mxares icavs misi saqmis aragansjadi sasamarTlos mier ganxilvisagan. sasamarTlo valdebulia
saqmis ganxilvis adreul stadiaze gaarkvios davis gansjadobis sakiTxi da mxareTa mosazrebebis mosmenis Semdeg
miiRos Sesabamisi gadawyvetileba. sasamarTlo uflebamosilia zepiri mosmenis gareSe miiRos dasabuTebuli ganCineba gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT. sarCelis gansjad
sasamarTloSi Setanis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos winaswar
SeuZlia saqmis gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT ganCinebis
gamotana. sasamarTlo valdebulia winaswar gamoitanos
ganCineba, Tu erT-erTi mxare ar eTanxmeba sasamarTlos
gansjadobas. ukeTu sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom gansaxilveli saqme ar ganekuTvneba mis gansjadobas, sasamarTlo saqmes ugzavnis gansjad sasamarTlos, sarCelis dasaSvebobis
sxva kriteriumebis Semowmebis gareSe, dauSvebelia sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebaze uaris Tqma aragansjadobis motiviT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sagnobrivi gansjadobis wesebis sa145 F. Bauer, W.Gruzsky `Zivilprozessrecht~. Bielefeld. 2000w., gv. 53-56; Othmar
Jauernig `Zivilprozessrecht~. Mnchen. 2003w., gv. 11-12, Gerichtverfassungsgesetz, Art. 17 ,,a.

217
fuZvelze sasamarTlo miva daskvnamde, rom mas ar gaaCnia
saqmis ganxilvis kompetencia, es dadgenileba savaldebuloa im sasamarTlosaTvis, romelSic igi iqneba gadagzavnili.146 gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT miRebul ganCinebaze mxares aqvs kerZo saCivris Setanis ufleba, xolo Tu
kerZo saCivris ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila kerZo saCivris avtoris moTxovna, mxare uflebamosilia gamoiTxovos sarCeli. mxareebs ufleba aqvT kerZo
saCivriT federaciis uzenaes sasamarTloSi gaasaCivron
miwis umaRlesi sasamarTlos ganCinebebi saqmis gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT, ukeTu ukanaskneli pirveli instanciis wesiT ganixilavs saqmes. miwis umaRlesi sasamarTlos
mier gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT miRebul ganCinebebze
kerZo saCivris Setana mxolod im SemTxvevaSia dasaSvebi,
Tu amas iTvaliswinebs gansjadobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli ganCineba. kerZo saCivari dasaSvebia, Tu
sakiTxs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs an Tu ganCineba ewinaaRmdegeba federaciis uzenaesi administraciuli
sasamarTlos an uzenaesi sasamarTloebis gaerTianebuli
senatis gadawyvetilebebs. kerZo saCivriT gasaCivrebul
ganCinebis debulebas, romelSic pirdapir aris miTiTebuli federaciis uzenaes sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba, federaciis uzenaesi sasamarTlosaTvis savaldebulo Zala aqvs. gansjadobasTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli procesualuri aqtis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg,
igi savaldebulo Zalas iZens sxva sasamarTlosaTvis. yvela sajaro-samarTlebriv davaze administraciuli sasamarTloebis iurisdiqcia garkveulwilad izRudeba. ase,
magaliTad, sakonstitucio-samarTlebriv davebs sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ganixilavs; davebs sajaro-samarTlebrivi kompensaciebis Sesaxeb - saerTo sasamarTloebi
samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT; sajaro administraciis calkeuli sferoebisaTvis arsebobs sasamarTlo
sistemis sxva ganStobebebi, kerZod, socialuri iurisdiq146 Deutsche Zivilprozessordnung,Art. 11.

218
cia socialuri dazRvevis sferoSi da safinanso iurisdiqcia sagadasaxado sakiTxebze.147
germaniis saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi ganixilaven yvela samoqalaqo-samarTlebriv da sisxlis-samarTlebriv davebs, romlebic administraciuli organos,
administraciuli sasamarTlos an sxva specialur sasamarTlos mier ganxilvas ar eqvemdebareba. germaniis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebiT ganisazRvra SemTxvevebi, rodesac dava SesaZloa administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinareobdes da sajaro-samarTlebriv
xasiaTs atarebdes, magram `sasamarTloebis mowyobis
Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-13 muxlis Tanaxmad, gansakuTrebuli
kompetenciis saxiT samoqalaqo-samarTlebriv davis kategorias ganekuTvneba (zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnebi
SromiTi valdebulebis darRvevis gamo da saxelmwifos
regresuli moTxovnebi, dava qonebis CamorTmevis kompetenciis odenobasTan dakavSirebiT). amasTanave, dava ar
miiCneva samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivad mxolod imis gamo,
rom masSi kerZo pirebi monawileoben, calkeul SemTxvevebSi kerZo samarTlis subieqtebs Soris urTierTobac
SeiZleba iyos sajaro-samarTlebrivi. magaliTad, dava
damqiravebelsa da muSas Soris sadazRvevo Senatanis
odenobasTan dakavSirebiT(saqarTvelos administraciuli kanonmdebloba aseT midgomas ar iziarebs da administraciuli xelSekrulebis erT-erT savaldebulo monawiled (mxared) administraciul organos asaxelebs (szakis 65-e mux.)). germaniis sasamarTlo praqtikiT dadasturda, rom moTxovnis gadasvla kerZo samarTlis subieqtidan
sajaro samarTlis subieqtze, an piriqiT, zegavlenas ar
axdens samarTlebrivi urTierTobis xasiaTze, moTxovnis
samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi buneba ar icvleba moTxovnis
administraciuli organosaTvis gadacemis SemTxvevaSi.
konfliqtis gadaWris prerogativis sakiTxi ukavSirdeba iurisdiqcias (juris dictio), davis gadawyvetis saxelisuf147 o. melqaZe, b. dvali, `sasamarTlo xelisufleba sazRvargareTis
qveynebSi~, Tb. ,,merani-3 2000w. gv. 90-92.

219
lebo uflebamosilebas. iurisdiqciuli funqcia _ mosamarTlis ZiriTadi funqciaa, igi ucilobladaa dakavSirebuli mesame xelisuflebis funqcionirebasTan. amasTanave, administraciis kontrolis sferoSi iurisdiqciuli
funqciiT specialuri kanonis safuZvelze SesaZloa aRiWurvos kvazisasamarTlo dawesebuleba da garkveuli administraciuli organoebi, romelTaTvisac es funqcia damatebiT (araZiriTad) funqcias warmoadgens. administraciuli davebis ganmxilveli organoebis buneba ganapirobebs iurisdiqciuli kontrolis konkretuli sistemebis
gamijvnis sakiTxs. administraciuli urTierTobebidan
warmoSobili saqmeebis iurisdiqciisdamixedviT ganasxvaveben erTiani iurisdiqciis sistemas, romelSic administraciuli organoebis aqtebze kontrols axorcieleben
saerTo sasamarTloebi (aSS, didi britaneTi, avstralia,
axali zelandia, dania, norvegia da sxv.) da mravlobiTi
iurisdiqciis sistemas. ukanasknelisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia saerTo da specializebuli iurisdiqciis sistemebis arseboba, administraciuli kategoriis mcire nawilis
ganxilva saerTo sasamarTloebis mier(safrangeTi, germania, italia, SvedeTi, saberZneTi, TurqeTi da sxv.).
erTiani iurisdiqciis sistemas Seesabameba iurisdiqciuli kontrolis anglosaqsuri modeli, xolo mravlobiTi iurisdiqciis sistemas _ kontinentaluri modeli.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom xsenebuli Sesabamisoba ar aris
sruli, kerZod, erTiani iurisdiqciis cneba ufro farToa da ar amoiwureba mxolod iurisdiqciuli kontrolis anglosaqsuri modeliT. erTiani iurisdiqciis sistema damkvidrebulia aramxolod anglosaqsur sistemaSi,
aramed agreTve kontinentaluri evropis, arabeTis rig
qveynebSi. Tavad anglosaqsuri modeli warmoadgens erTiani iurisdiqciis sistemis modificirebas, romlisTvisac
damaxasiaTebelia saerTo sasamarTloebTan erTad administraciuli iurisdiqciis kvazisasamarTloebis organoTa arseboba. erTiani iurisdiqciis sistemis farglebSi
ganasxvaveben iurisdiqciuli kontrolis oTx ZiriTad mo-

220
dels: saerTo sasamarTloebis eqskluziuri iurisdiqciis
models; anglosaqsur models; saerTo sasamarTloebSi
specializirebuli administraciuli marTlmsajulebis
models; saerTo sasamarTloebSi organizaciuli specializaciis models.
saerTo sasamarTloebis eqskluziuri iurisdiqciis
modeli aris administraciuli iurisdiqciis kvazisasamarTlo organoebis monawileobis gareSe, mxolod da
mxolod saerTo sasamarTloebis mier ganxorcielebuli
sasamarTlo kontroli. saerTo sasamarTloebis sistemis
SigniT ar arsebobs raime specializacia. kontrolis sasamarTlo procedurebi efuZneba imave principebs, rolebic
gamoiyeneba sasamarTlo procesebSi kerZo pirebis monawileobiT (dania, norvegia, malta, maroko da sxv.).
anglosaqsuri modeli (didi britaneTi, aSS, avstralia,
axali zelandia, filipinebi da sxv.) xasiaTdeba imiT, rom
saerTo sasamarTloebTan erTad iqmneba administraciuli
iurisdiqciis organoebi administraciuli tribunalebis
saxiT. administraciuli tribunalebi warmoadgenen ara
sasamarTlo, aramed kvazisasamarTlo organoebs, romlebic Tavisi arsiT aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgenen da kanonis ZaliT miniWebuli
aqvT uflebamosileba da valdebuleba gansazRvruli sakiTxebis ganxilvisas imoqmedon sasamarTlo wesiT. sasamarTlo uflebamosilebis gamoyeneba im organoebis mier,
romlebic ar ganekuTvnebian sasamarTlo xelisuflebas,
uwodeben kvazisasamarTlo uflebamosilebas148. saerTo
148 aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaSi dakavebuli adgilis, saqmianobis
sasamarTlo formis gamoyenebis xarisxis, Semadgenlobis mixedviT pirobiTad ganasxvaveben administraciuli tribunalis oTx saxeobas.
pirvels ganekuTvneba sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis aqtiT, saministroebis da uwyebebis struqturis gareT Seqmnili mudmivmoqmedi tribunalebi, romlebic aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo organoebis gadakveTaze mdebare avtonomiur organoebs warmoadgenen. tribunalebis
meore saxeobas Seadgenen kanonis safuZvelze Seqmnili tribunalebi,
romlis uflebamosilebas SeTavsebiT axorcieleben sasamarTlo Cino-

221
samarTlis qveynebSi administraciuli tribunalebis formirebam savsebiT cxadad gamokveTa erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kanonzomiereba. ama Tu im qveyanaSi administraciuli
tribunalebis qselis ganviTarebis kvaldakval izRudeba
administraciaze saerTo sasamarTloebis uSualo kontrolis funqcia. saerTo sasamarTloebi administraciaze
kontrols aseT pirobebSi axorcieleben gaSualedebuli
wesiT _ administraciuli tribunalebis gadawyvetilebebze kontrolis meSveobiT149.
erTiani iurisdiqciis modeli specializebuli administraciuli sasamarTloebiT (iaponia), _ xasiaTdeba
imiT, rom kontroli xorcieldeba saerTo iurisdiqciis
sasamarTlos mier, magram administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesis mixedviT. amgvari sistema moqmedebs iaponiaSi, romelmac sasamarTlo sistemis Sesaxeb axali kanonis
miRebiT uari Tqva 1947 wlamde arsebul administraciuli
sasamarTloebis da saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis
momcvel dualistur sasamarTlo sistemaze. miuxedavad
vnikebi _ sxvadasxva donis sasamarTloebis mosamarTleebi. aseT organoebs sasamarTlo tribunalebs uwodeben. mesame saxeobas ganekuTvnebian kanonis Sesabamisad Seqmnili tribunalebi, romlis uflebamosilebas
axorcielebs administraciis Tanamdebobis piri. ukanaskneli asrulebs
ara mxolod sasamarTlo, aramed agreTve administraciul funqciebs. am
kategoriis tribunalebs saerTo samarTlis qveynebSi uwodeben aRmasrulebel an administraciul tribunalebs. meoTxe saxeobas Seadgenen
kanonis safuZvelze Seqmnili e.w. Sereuli tribunalebi, romlebic ar
ganekuTvnebian arc erT zemoT dasaxelebul kategorias (aseTia, mag.,
tribunalebi, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi Sedian rogorc profesionali mosamarTleebi, aseve administraciuli mosamsaxureebi.). administraciuli kategoriis saqmeebis tribunalebis mier ganxilvas Tavisi
upiratesobebi aqvs, kerZod: sadavo sakiTxebs ixilaven Sesabamisi dargis specialistebi; procedura naklebi formalurobiT gamoirCeva; ar
aris dadgenili sasamarTlo baJi; gadawyvetilebebi operatiulad gamoitaneba; mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba sasamarTloebis datvirTva. tribunalebi ar arian SezRudulni TavianTi gadawvetilebiT, rac abrkolebs
maT saqmianobaSi erTiani praqtikis danergvas.
149 ` ~, . . , . a,
20003. . gv. 184-189.

222
sasamarTlo sistemis unificirebisa, gansxvaveba samoqalaqo da administraciul samarTalwarmoebas Soris SenarCunda da samarTalwarmoebis es ori saxeoba regulirdeba ori sxvadasxva procesualuri kanoniT, samoqalaqo
davebis ganxilvis wesis Sesaxeb aqtiT (1960w.) da adminsitraciuli davebis ganxilvis wesis Sesaxeb aqtiT (1962w.).
saerTo sasamarTloebis SigniT organizaciuli specializaciis modeli xasiaTdeba administraciuli davebis
ganmxilveli struqturebis gamoyofiT saerTo iurisdiqciis uzenaes sasamarTloSi (espaneTi, angola, madagaskari,
meqsika, niderlandebi da sxv.). es modeli emyareba xelisuflebis danawilebis erT-erT yvelaze mkacr interpretacias, romelic sasamarTlo xelisuflebis monopolias
acxadebs samarTalwarmoebaze. amgvari sistemis formireba asaxavs uaxles tendencias, romlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli iurisdiqcia ar ganixileba saerTo sasamarTloebisaTvis gansakuTrebul specialur iurisdiqciad,
mas mieniWeba saerTo iurisdiqciis mniSvneloba, romelic
iyofa samoqalaqo, sisxlissamarTlebriv, administraciul, kanonikur, saerTaSoriso iurisdiqciis Stoebad,
ukanasknelT Tavis mxriv saerTo iurisdiqciasTan erTad
SesaZloa gaaCndeT specialuri iurisdiqcia. aRniSnuli
modeli dasaSvebad Tvlis ara mxolod saerTo administraciuli iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis Seqmnas saerTo sasamarTloSi palatebis SeqmniT, aramed agreTve specialuri
administraciuli iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis Seqmnas150.
150 specialuri iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebi unda ganvasxvavoT sagangebo sasamarTloebisagan, romlebsac, marTalia, formaluri niSnebiT bevri saerTo aqvT specialuri iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebTan,
magram, amasTanave, principulad gansxvavdebian sagangebo da aseve
saerTo iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebisagan. sagangebo sasamarTloebi
iqmnebian avtoritaruli reJimebis pirobebSi, mimdinare politikuri
problemebis gadawyvetis mizniT, romelTa gadawyvetisaTvis raime
mizezTa gamo ver xerxdeba saxelmwifoSi arsebuli sasamarTlo sistemebis gamoyeneba. sagangebo sasamarTloebis saqmianoba xorcieldeba
xelisuflebis danawilebis principis darRveviT, maT saqmianobas Tan
sdevs adamianis uflebebis darRveva, marTlmsajulebis fuZemdeblur

223
aseT sasamarTloebs espaneTSi ganekuTvneba, magaliTad,
administraciul-ekonomikuri sasamarTloebi.
saqarTvelos sasamarTlo sistema zemoT xsenebulTagan mesame models_saerTo sasamarTloebis sistemaSi
specializebuli administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
arsebobas iTvaliswinebs. erTiani sasamarTlo sistemis
arsebobis miuxedavad, sasamarTlo sistemis SigniT sxvadasxva instanciebSi Seqmnilia administraciuli davebis
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganmxilveli
kolegiebi da palatebi.
rac Seexeba mravlobiTi iurisdiqciis sistemas, mis
farglebSi aseve gamoyofen iurisdiqciuli kontrolis
ramdenime models. iurisdiqciuli kontrolis dualisturi modeli xasiaTdeba imiT, rom kanonmdebloba davebs
kerZo pirebs Soris miakuTvnebs saerTo sasamarTloebis
sferos, xolo davebs kerZo pirebsa da administraciul
organoebs Soris, miakuTvnebs administraciuli organoeprincipebze (sasamarTlo damoukidebloba, sajarooba da sxv.) uaris
Tqma. amdenad, sagangebo sasamarTloebi Tavisi arsiT ar warmoadgenen
sasamarTloebs am institutis im gagebiT da mniSvnelobiT, romelmac
asaxva hpova rig saerTaSoriso-samarTlebriv dokumentebSi da, upirveles yovlisa, `adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis
konvenciis~ me-6 muxlSi. saqarTvelos konstituciiT sagangebo da specialuri sasamarTloebis Seqmna dauSvebelia(83.4 mux.)
sxvadasxva qveynis sasamarTlo sistemebis Sedarebisas ikveTeba specialuri sasamarTloebis saxeobebis da maTi kompetenciis sakiTxebisadmi erTiani midgomis ararseboba. iuridiul literaturaSi
gamoyofen specialuri iurisdiqciis sasamarTloebis arsebobis ramdenime ZiriTad mizezs: sasamarTloebis calke sistemaSi gamoiyofa
qvemdebareobis personaluri principis mixedviT (perebis sasamarTlo
feodalur inglisSi, iuvenaluri sasamarTloebi safrangeTSi); sasamarTlo sistemaSi adre arsebuli organoebis CarTva, romlebic manamde sasamarTloebs ar warmoadgendnen (administraciuli sasamarTloebi safrangeTSi, saarbitraJo sasamarTloebi ruseTSi); calkeul
saqmeTa kategoriebis Taviseburebebis, specializaciis gaTvaliswinebis, ganxilvis gansakuTrebuli wesis dadgenis aucilebloba (SromiTi,
socialuri davebis ganmxilveli sasamarTloebi gfr-Si, satransporto
sasamarTloebi aSS-Si).

224
bis an tribunalebis kompetencias. amasTanave, administraciuli saqmeebis garkveuli kategoriebi gamonaklisis saxiT SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes saerTo sasamarTlos
mier, rac iurisdiqciuli kontrolis ganxorcielebisas
warmoSobs ori iurisdiqciis: saerTo sasamarTlos da administraciulis paralelizms. klasikur magaliTs am mimarTebiT warmoadgens safrangeTi. frangul models ganekuTvneba agreTve italia, saberZneTi, luqsemburgi da
sxv.
sxvadasxva ganStoebad sasamarTlo xelisuflebis danawilebis modeli anu germanuli modeli gansxvavdeba
imiT, rom yvela administraciuli dava mxolod saerTo
an specialuri iurisdiqciis administraciuli sasamarTloebis gamgeobas ganekuTvneba. es sasamarTloebi saerTo
sasamarTlosTan erTad mwyobr sasamarTlo sistemas qmnian. administraciul sasamarTloebs saTaveSi uzenaesi administraciuli sasamarTlo udgas, agreTve specialuri
administraciuli iurisdiqciis (safinanso, Sromis, socialuri sakiTxebis) uzenaesi sasamarTloebi. iurisdiqciuli kontrolis mocemuli modeli germaniis garda gavrcelebulia SvedeTSi, fineTSi, indoneziaSi (1947 wlamde
iaponiaSi).
saboloo jamSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom iurisdiqciuli
kontrolis da misi specializebuli institutis administraciuli iusticiis organizaciis konkretuli formebi
ZiriTadSi ganpirobebulia ama Tu im qveynis samarTlebrivi tradiciebiT, dominirebuli doqtrinaluri debulebebiT, xelisuflebis danawilebis principebis interpretaciis da maTi urTierTmoqmedebis saSualebebis interpretaciis sxvaobiT.

225
Tavi III
mxareebi administraciul procesSi
1. mosarCele da mopasuxe
mxareebis instututs administraciul procesSi udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs. swored uSualod mxareebis nebazea
damokidebuli administraciuli procesis dawyeba, misi
mimdinareoba da dasruleba. administraciuli procesi
mTlianad agebulia mxareebis aqtiurobaze, maT monawileobasa da maT mier procesis warmarTvis nebaze.
administraciuli procesis monawile pirTa mimarT gamoiyeneba rogorc saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis Sesabamisi normebi, aseve saqarTvelos
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Sesatyvisi normebi procesSi monawile mxareTa Sesaxeb. mxareebis instituti mowesrigebulia saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso
kodeqsis me-6 TavSi. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-14 muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciul procesSi monawile pirTa wre unda ganisazRvros saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 79-e muxlis Sesabamisad. kerZod,
administraciul procesSi mxare SeiZleba iyos fizikuri
da iuridiuli pirebi, aseve organizaciebi, romlebic ar
arian iuridiuli pirebi. saqarTvelos administraciuli
saproceso kodeqsis me-14 muxlis Tanaxmad, garda zemoaRniSnuli pirebisa, administraciuli procesis monawilea
is administraciuli organo, romelmac gamosca administraciul-samarTlbrivi aqti an ganaxorciela iuridiuli
mniSvnelobis qmedeba.
administraciul procesSi mosarCelisa da mopasuxis
dadgena, maTi saproceso uflebaunrianobisa da qmedunarianobis dazusteba sarCelis dasaSvebobis etapze xdeba.
sarCelis dasaSvebobis etaze ganixileba swored saTanado
mosarCelisa da mopasuxis Sesaxeb sakiTxi, rasac uaRresad
didi procesualuri datvirTva aqvs.

226
mosarCele aris piri, romelmac aRZra sarCeli Tavisi darRveuli an sadavo uflebis dasacavad. mosarCeled
ver CaiTvleba piri, romelmac sarCeli Seitana mesame piris uflebisa da interesis dasacavad. am SemTxvevaSi igi
CaiTvleba arasaTanado mosarCeled. sarCelis dasaSvebobis etapze sasamarTlos mier im faqtis aRmoCena, rom sarCeli Semoitana arasaTanado mosarCelem, warmoadgens administraciuli sarCelis ganxilvaze uaris Tqmis safuZvels. Tu administraciuli saqmis ganxivis dros sasamarTlo daadgens, rom sarCeli aRZrulia ara im piris mier,
romelsac moTxovnis ufleba aqvs, igi ganCinebiT Sewyvets
saqmes administraciuli procesis nebismier stadiaze. administraciuli procesis es wesi gansxvavdeba samoqalaqo
procesisagan konkretul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi. kerZod,
samoqalaqo procesSi mosarCelis TanxmobiT, sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs arasaTanado mosarCele Secvalos saTanado mosarCeliT saqmis ganxilvis Seuwyvetlad. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arasaTanado mosarCele uars ityvis Seicvalos
saTanado mosarCeliT, sasamarTlo saTanado mosarCeles
Caabams procesSi mesame pirad aucilebeli mowvevis wesiT.
mopasuxe aris piri, romelmac mosarCelis mtkicebiT
daarRvia an sadavo gaxada misi ufleba. mopasuxes asaxelebs mosarCele. mopasuxis saproceso uflebaunarianobisa da qmedunarianobis gadamowmebac sarCelis dasaSvebobis etapze xdeba. saqmis ganxilvis dros SeiZleba
sasamarTlom daadginos, rom mosarCelis mier mopasuxed
dasaxelebuli piri arasaTanado mopasuxea. am SemTxvevaSi
sasamarTlo uflebamosilia mosarCelis TanxmobiT arasaTanado mosarCele Secvalos saTanado mosarCeliT.
mosarCelec da mopasuxec SeiZleba iyvnen rogorc fizikuri, aseve iuridiuli pirebi da organizaciebi, romlebic
ar arian iuridiuli pirebi (sssk-is 79-e muxli). administraciul procesSi monawile fizikuri piri SeiZleba iyos
rogorc saqarTvelos moqalaqe, ise ucxoeli da moqalaqeobis armqone pirebi, romlebic sargebloben saproceso
uflebaunarianobiT unariT hqondeT saproceso ufle-

227
bebi da movaleobebi. fizikuri pirebis saproceso uflebaunarianoba warmoiSoba dabadebisTanave da wydeba piris
gardacvalebiT. garda saproceso uflebaunarianobisa,
maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia aseve saproceso qmedunarianoba, rac faqtiurad identuria zogadi qmedunarianobis Sinaarsisa. kerZod, saproceso qmedunarianoba gulisxmobs
piris unars, Tavisi moqmedebiT ganaxorcielos sasamarTloSi saproceso uflebebi da Seasrulos saproceso movaleobebi, agreTve daavalos saqmis warmoeba Tavis warmomadenels. fizikur pirTa saproceso qmedunarianoba iwyeba
18 wlis asakidan, xolo iuridiul pirTa saproceso qmedunarianoba - iuridiuli piris registraciis momentidan.
administraciuli procesis mxare SeiZleba iyos nebismieri iuridiuli piri, romelsac gaaCnia saproceso uflebaunarianoba da saproceso qmedunarianoba. ar aqvs
mniSvneloba iuridiuli piri kerZo samarTlisaa Tu sajaro samarTlis.
administraciuli procesis damaxasiaTebeli niSani isaa,
rom mxare administraciul procesSi aucileblad unda
iyos administraciuli organo. kerZod, administraciuli organo, romelmac gamosca gasaCivrebuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti an ganaxorciela iuridiuli
mniSvnelobis qmedeba. administraciuli organo, rogorc
administraciuli procesis mxare, SeiZleba iyos, rogorc
mosarCele, aseve mopasuxe.
administraciul procesSi saproceso uflebaunarianobasa da qmedunarianobas udidesi mniSveloba eniWeba. im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu procesis msvlelobisas erT-erTi mxare
gardaicvleba da misi uflebebi da samarTlebrivi interesi imdenad subieqturia, rom SeuZlebelia maTi gadacema
sxva pirebisTvis, kerZod, memkvidreTaTvis, maSin administraciuli procesi wydeba da sasamarTlo gamoitans gadawyvetilebas xarjebis anazRaurebasTan dakavSirebiT.
yvela sxva danarCen SemTxvevaSi, gardacvlili mxaris uflebamonacvle xdeba misi memkvidre da administraciuli
procesi grZeldeba Cveulebriv reJimSi. iuridiuli pi-

228
ris likvidaciis SemTxvevaSi, mis adgils administraciul
procesSi ikavens likvidatori an misi uflebamonacvle.

2. warmomadgeneli administraciul procesSi
administraciuli procesis mxareebi sargebloben uflebiT, sasamarTloSi awarmoon TavianTi uflebebis dacva warmomadgenlis meSveobiT. warmomadgeneli es aris
piri, romelic marwmuneblis saxeliT da misi interesebis
Sesabamisad asrulebs sasamarTloSi yvela im saproceso
moqmedebas, rac gaTvaliswinebulia kanoniT da marwmuneblis mier gacemuli mindobilobiT.
7-dan 18 wlamde pirTa, aseve qmeduunarod cnobil moqalaqeTa uflebebs sasamarTloSi icaven maTi kanonieri
warmomadgenlebi. kerZod, mSoblebi, mSvileblebi da meurveebi. administraciuli procesisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
wess warmoadgens is, rom qmeduunaro piris mier Setanili
sarCeli gansaxilvelad ar daiSveba. kerZod, sasamarTlo
sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmebis stadiaze ganCinebiT
Sewyvets saqmis warmoebas, Tu aRmoCnda, rom sarCeli Setanilia qmeduunaro piris mier. aqve SeiZleba paraleli
gavavloT saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 182-e muxlTan, romlis Tanaxmadac administraciuli
organo ar ganixilavs administraciul saCivars, Tu igi
Seitana qmeduunaro pirma.
warmomadgenlobis instituts administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-15 muxli awesrigebs. aRniSnuli muxlis
Sinaarsi exeba adinistraciuli organoebis mier warmomadgenlis daniSvnis sakiTxebs. rogorc viciT, administraciul organoebs miekuTvnebian saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi mmrTvelobisa da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi
(agreTve nebismieri piri, romelic axorcielebs sajarosamarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs). isini warmoadgenen administraciuli procesis aucilebel da mniSvnelovan mxa-

229
res konkretul SemTxvevaSi. administraciuli organoebi
sasamarTloSi TavianT uflebebsa da interesebs icaven
maTi xelmZRvaneli pirebi an is pirebi, romlebsac kanonmdeblobiT miniWebuli aqvT warmomadgenlis ufleba. zemoaRniSnul pirebs administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas
sasamarTloSi warmomadgenlobis damadasturebeli raime
dokumenti ar sWirdebaT. kerZod, nebismieri saministro,
romelic administraciul procesSi mxared monawileobs,
SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos misi xelmZRvanelis, ministris saxiT. ministrs am uflebis gansaxorcieleblad sasamarTloSi raime damadasturebeli dokumentis wardgena
ar sWirdeba. saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso
kodeqsis me-15 muxlis meore nawili administraciuli
organoebis warmodgenis SesaZleblobas iTvaliswinebs
maTSi momuSave Tanamdebobis pirisa Tu saxelmwifo moxelis saxiT. kerZod, maTac SeiZleba mieniWoT, konkretul
SemTxvevaSi, administraciuli organos warmodgena. am
SemTxvevaSi administraciuli organos warmomadgeneli
valdebulia sasamarTlos warudginos administraciuli
organos beWdiT damowmebuli mindobiloba. mindobiloba unda Seicavdes im uflebaTa amomwurav CamonaTvals,
rac konkretul SemTxvevaSi eniWeba warmomadgenels administraciuli organosagan, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 98-e muxlis Tanaxmad. warmomadgenels
ar SeiZleba mieniWos ufleba saqme gansaxilvelad gadasces kerZo arbitraJs, mTlianad an nawilobriv uari Tqvas
sasarCelo moTxovnaze, cnos sarCeli, Secvalos sasarCelo moTxovna, morigdes, gaasaCivros sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba.TiToeuli am moqmedebis SesrulebisaTvis specialurad unda iqnas aRniSnuli marwmuneblis mier gacemul mindobilobaSi. administraciul organoebs eniWebaT
ufleba administraciul procesSi sakuTari saproceso
uflebebisa da samarTlebrivi interesebis dasacavad sasamarTloSi saqme awarmoon warmomadgenlis an advokatis
meSveobiT.

230
3. administraciuli procesis mxareTa saproceso
uflebebi da movaleobebi
administraciuli procesis mxareebi sargebloben saproceso uflebebiT da ekisrebaT saproceso valdebulebebi. administraciuli procesis mxareebi sargebloben
Tanabari uflebebiTa da movaleobebiT. ar SeiZleba, saqmis ganxilvisas, mosarCeles ufro meti ufleba mieniWos,
vidre mopasuxes da piriqiT. administraciuli procesis
monawile nebismieri piris upirvelesi uflebaa, iqneba es
mosarCele, mopasuxe, mesame piri Tu administraciuli organo, yavdes warmomadeneli. administraciuli procesis
mxareebs ufleba aqvT gaecnon saqmis masalebs, gaakeTon
amonawerebi am masalebidan, gadaiRon aslebi, ganacxadon
acilebani, waradginon mtkicebulebani, monawileoba miiRon mtkicebulebaTa gamokvlevaSi, SekiTxvebi dausvan
mowmeebs, eqspertebs, specialistebs, ganacxadon sasamarTlos winaSe Suamdgomlebebi, miscen sasamarTlos zepiri da werilobiTi axsna-ganmartebani, waradginon TavianTi daskvnebi da gamoTqvan mosazrebani, uaryon meore
mxaris Suamdgomlobebi, daskvnebi da mosazrebani, gaasaCivros sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani da ganCinebani.
garda saproceso uflebebisa, mxareebs ekisrebaT saproceso valdebulebebic. am valdebulebebSi igulisxmeba
sasamarTlos sxdomaze daniSnul dros mosvla, sasamarTlos miTiTebebis Sesruleba, sasamarTloSi wesrigis dacva, sasamarTlosadmi pativiscemis gamoCena da sxva.

4. mesame pirebi administraciul procesSi


mesame pirebis intituti administraciuli procesis
mniSvnelovani institutia. igi warmoadgens administraciul procesSi subieqtivizmis damkvidrebis Sedegs. mesame pirebis institutma farTo gamoyeneba pova administra-

231
ciul-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis mraval sferoSi.
administraciuli samarTlis gansakuTrebuli nawilis sxvadasxva dargSi SeimCneva am institutis daniSnulebis da
misi farTod gamoyenebis tendencia.
rogorc viciT, sajaro samarTali emsaxureba, upiratesad, administraciuli organos obieqturi uflebebis
realizebasa da dacvas. administraciul procesSi xdeba kerZo da sajaro interesTa urTierTWidili. umetes
SemTxvevaSi administraciul procesSi xdeba kerZo, subieqtur interesebTan Sejaxeba, romlebic mesame pirebs
ekuTvnis. aqedan gamomdinare, administraciuli samarTlis normebiT SemuSavda subieqturi sajaro uflebis151
cneba, romelic uflebas aZlevs mesame pirebs moaxdinon
TavianTi kerZo, subieqturi interesebis dacva da realizeba administraciuli procesis farglebSi.
imisaTvis, rom gaverkveT mesame pirebis institutis SinaarsSi, unda ganvsazRvroT subieqturi sajaro-samarTlebrivi ufleba. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom subieqturi
sajaro-samarTlebrivi uflebebi aramxolod mesame pirTaTvisaa gansazRvruli, aramed administraciuli procesis TiToeuli monawile sargeblobs am uflebiT. igi, upiratesad, konstituciuri safuZvlis mqone principia da
erTnairad moqmedebs yvela subieqtis mimarT.
subieqturi sajaro-samarTlebrivi ufleba aris pirisadmi sajaro samarTlis normiT miniWebuli ufleba, sakuTari interesebis dasacavad mimarTos saxelmwifosa da
sasamarTlos. saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxli da
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi qmnian pirisadmi miniWebuli am mniSvnelovani uflebis procesualurad realizebis safuZvels.
151 subieqturi uflebis cneba germanul samarTalSi emsaxureba
Recht-is, rogorc samarTlisa da rogorc uflebis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnas. qarTul samarTalSi ufleba yovelTvis gulisxmobs piris subieqtur uflebas. miuxedavad amisa, qarTul saxelmZRvaneloSi mainc
gvxvdeba `subieqturi uflebis~ cnebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi.

232
subieqturi sajaro-samarTlebrivi ufleba uSualod
unda exebodes konkretuli piris interess, mis subieqtur
uflebas unda warmoadgendes. misi warmoSobis safuZveli
SeiZleba iyos rogorc kanoni da adaminis ZiriTadi konstituciuri uflebebi, aseve samosamarTlo samarTali.
zemoaRniSnuli urTierTobis procesualur instruments warmoadgens mesame pirebis instituti administraciul procesSi, romlis meSveobiTac xdeba subieqturi
uflebis dacva sasamarTloSi.
mesame pirebis instituti aris specifikuri procesualuri saSualeba administraciuli procesisa, romelic
moqmedebs im pirTa mimarT, romlebic ar warmoadgenen mxareebs administraciuli procesisa, Tumca SeiZleba sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT ganesazRvroT garkveuli uflebebi da movaleobebi.
imisaTvis, rom kargad SeviswavloT ama Tu im samarTlebrivi institutis buneba, aucilebelia warmodgena viqonioT im obieqtur garemoebebze, ramac xeli Seuwyo am
samarTlebrivi institutis SemuSavebasa da damkvidrebas.
am mxriv sainteresoa mesame pirTa institutis damkvidrebis mizezebze saubari da am problemis gansazRvra istoriuli TvalsazrisiT. upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos,
rom saqarTvelos magaliTze am sakiTxis gansazRvra SeuZlebelia im martivi mizezis gamo, rom administraciuli
saproceso kodeqsi da Tavad administraciuli procesi
saqarTveloSi mxolod 1999 wlidan arsebobs. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis ararsebobis pirobebSi, Tavad
administraciuli wesiT sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis
SeuZleblobis dros, ra Tqma unda, mesame pirebze saubari
zedmetic ki iyo. ukve administraciuli saproceso kanonmdeblobis amoqmedebis Semdgom dRis wesrigSi dadga am
samarTlebrivi instititis ganmartebisa da misi Sinaarsis
sworad warmoCenis sakiTxi. aqedan gamomdinare, sainteresod migvaCnia mesame pirebis institutis warmoSobisa da
misi administraciul procesSi damkvidrebis sakiTxebis
evropuli kanonmdeblobisa da iuridiuli literaturis

233
monacemebze dayrdnobiT gansazRvra.
germanul iuridiul literaturaSi administraciul
procesSi mesame pirebis institutis warmoSobis upirveles mizezad mesame pirebis dacva saxeldeba, romelTa interesebic sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT
SeiZleba Seilaxos. pirvelad badenis 1864 wlis saaRsrulebo kanonis 48-e muxlSi moxda mesame pirTa institutis Sinaarsis formulireba. Semdgom ki samosamarTleo
samarTlis, sasamarTlo praqtikis ganviTarebiT Camoyalibda da Seivso rigi xarvezebisa. pirveli sasamarTlo
gadawyvetileba, romelic mesame pirTa saqmeSi Cabmis precendents iTvaliswinebs 1876 wliT TariRdeba da igi miRebulia prusiis umaRlesi sasamarTlos mier.
Tavdapirvelad administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa
mowvevis erTaderT mizezad im pirTa interesebis dacva
saxeldeboda, romelTac SeiZleba garkveuli SezRudvebi
dawesebodaT sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis Sedegad. garda am Zireuli mizezisa, literaturaSi saubrobdnen aseve
im samarTlebrivi Sedegis mniSvnelobazec, romelsac mesame pirTa monawileoba iwvevda administraciuli saqmis
ganxilvis dros. am periodSi mesame pirTa institutis daniSnuleba normis miznidan gamomdinare ar fasdeboda, anu
administraciuli procesis ekonomiurobis mizans literatura ar ganixilavda. am ukanasknelze yuradReba ufro
mogvianebiT gamaxvilda, sasamarTlo praqtikis daxvewis
Sedegad. sasamarTlo praqtikis ganviTarebam da samosamarTleo samarTlis daxvewam ganapiroba mesame pirTa sasamarTlo procesSi savaldebulo mowvevis institutis
Camoyalibeba. samoqalaqo samarTlis procesisagan gansxvavebiT, sasamarTlos mieca SesaZlebloba Tavisi iniciativiT saqmeSi savaldebulo wesiT moewvia mesame pirebi,
romelTa interessac SeiZleba Sexeboda sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba. am samarTlebrivi institutis warmoSobisTanave literaturaSi daiwyo diskusia mesame pirTa statusis, maTi samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis irgvliv. miiCnevdnen, rom mesame pirebi warmoadgndnen procesis mxares

234
formaluri gagebiT, Tumca isini gansxvavdebodnen materialuri gagebiT procesis mxareebisagan da maTi uflebebi administraciuli saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis dros
erTgvarad SezRudulia. sabolood administraciul procesSi mesame pirebis martiv da savaldebulo (aucilebel)
Cabmas Soris sakanonmdeblo doneze gansxvaveba pirvelad
aisaxa 1953 wlis socialuri sasamarlos Sesaxeb kanonSi.
mesame pirTa institutis mizans ZiriTadad samarTlebrivi interesebis dacva, administraciuli procesis ekonomiurobis SenarCuneba da samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofa
warmoadgens. es CamonaTvali miznebisa Seexeba zogadad mesame pirebis instituts administraciul procesSi da ara
romelime konkretul qvesaxeobas am samarTlebrivi institutisa. Tumca ise ar unda gavigoT, rom administraciul
procesSi mesame pirTa martiv da savaldebulo mowvevas
Soris, miznis TvalsazrisiT, aranairi sxvaoba ar aris da
maTi Sinaarsis daniSnuleba erTnairia. administraciul
procesSi mesame pirTa martivi mowveva sasamarTlos Sexedulebis mixedviT xorcieldeba, xolo savaldebulo mowveva mesame pirebisa ki sasamarTlos valdebulebas warmoadgens. kanonSi formulirebuli es gansxvaveba gamokveTs
administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa savaldebulo
mowvevis upiratesobas martivTan SedarebiT.
sainteresod mogvaCnia CamovayaliboT zogadad is miznebi, romlebic administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa
mowvevis normis Sinaarsidan gamomdinereoben. kerZod:



mesame pirTa samarTlebrivi interesis dacvis mizani;


saqmis yovelmxrivi ganxilvis mizani;
procesis ekonomiurobis mizani;
samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofis mizani.

mesame pirTa samarTlebrivi interesis dacvis mizani


warmoadgens upirates mizans, romelsac administraciul
procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis instituti emsaxureba.
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-16

235
muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad ......sasamarTlo uflebamosilia acnobos pirs, romlis interesebsac SeiZleba Seexos sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, administraciuli procesis dawyebis Sesaxeb da Caabas igi saqmeSi
mesame pirad. rogorc aRniSnuli muxlis formulirebidan Cans, qarTveli kanonmdebeli ar akonkretebs zogadad
interesis Sinaarss, anu ar axdens aqcentirebas samarTlebriv interessze da gansazRvravs, rom mesame piri SeiZleba
mowveul iqnes sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvisas Tu zogadad mis interess Seexeba sasamarTlos gadawvetileba.
interesis cneba farTo cnebaa. migvaCnia, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi unda moxdes imis dakonkreteba, Tu piris
ra interesi SeiZleba Seilaxos sasamarTlos konkretuli
gadawyvetilebiT. evropis wamyvani qveynebis administraciul-saproceso kanonmdeblobasa da arsebul praqtikaze
dayrdnobiT SeiZleba danamdvilebiT ganisazRvros, rom
aq saqme exeba piris ara yvela saxis interess, aramed mxolod piris samarTlebriv interess.
samarTlebrivi interesis cneba viwro cnebaa da igi gulisxmobs samarTlis normebiT dacul interess. iuridiul
literaturaSi gabatonebuli Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, wminda idealuri, socialuri, ekonomikuri an kulturuli interesebi samarTlebrivi interesis cnebas ar ganekuTvneba. evropeli kanonmdeblisa da iuridiuli literaturis
midgoma am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT efuZneba im debulebas,
rom administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowveva ar
unda iyos farTo da nebismieri interesis mqone pirisaTvis xelmisawvdomi. unda moxdes, dakonkreteba konkretuli piris konkretuli interesisa da Tu is samarTlebrivi
interesebis farglebSi jdeba, mxolod maSin unda iqnes
piri administraciuli saqmis ganxilvaSi mesame pirad mowveuli.
amasTan, unda ganisazRvros iseTi sakiTxi, rogoricaa
samarTlebrivi interesis buneba. kerZod, igi kerZo-samarTlebrivi unda iyos Tu sajaro-samarTlebrivi. unda
aRiniSnos, rom am mxriv ar xdeba diferencia kerZo da sa-

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jaro interesebs Soris. administraciul procesSi mesame pirad mowveva unda moxdes samarTlebrivi interesis
bunebis miuxedavad. kerZod, ara aqvs mniSvneloba mesame
piris kerZo-samarTlebrivi interesi Seilaxeba administraciuli sasamarTlos konkretuli gadawyvetilebiT Tu
misi sajaro-samarTlebrivi interesi. unda aRiniSnos, rom
mesame pirTa samarTlebrivi interesisadmi amgvari midgoma erTgvar samarTlebriv xids qmnis administraciul da
samoqalaqo process Soris. misi meSveobiT gamoricxulia
samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis gziT imgvari gadawyvetilebis miRebis SesaZlebloba, romelic SeewinaaRmdegeba
administraciuli wesiT miRebul gadawyvetilebas.
magaliTi:

samSeneblo firmam mravalsarTuliani saxlis statistikuri angariSis gamosaTvlelad dokumentebi warudgina


arqiteqtors. samSeneblo firmas uari eTqva mSeneblobis
nebarTvaze arqiteqtoris uaryofiTi daskvnis safuZvelze, romelSic aRniSnuli iyo samSeneblo gegmis SeuTavsebloba arsebul statistikur monacemebTan. samSeneblo
firmam mimarTa sasamarTlos da moiTxova mSeneblobis nebarTva. am dros sasamarTlo uflemabosilia administraciuli saqmis ganxilvaSi mesame pirad moiwvios arqiteqtori. sasamarTlos mier procesSi arqiteqtoris mowvevis
motivia arqiteqtoris samarTlebrivi interesis dacva,
romelic mas SeiZleba Seelaxos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dadgindeba, rom mis mier micemuli samSeneblo daskvna arasworia
da aqedan gamomdinare, arqiteqtors SesaZlebelia daekisros samSeneblo firmis mimarT zianis anazRaurebis valdebuleba.
aRniSnuli magaliTidan naTlad Cans, rom arqiteqtors
SeiZleba Seelaxos kerZo-samarTlebrivi interesi zianis
anazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisrebis gziT. Tumca, administraciul procesSi misi mesame pirad mowvevis safuZveli zogadad samarTlebrivi interesis dacvaa da ar xdeba diferenciacia kerZo da sajaro miznebs Soris.
istoriulad mesame pirTa instituti administraciul

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procesSi imitom warmoiSva, rom momxdariyo im pirTa dacva, romlebsac SesaZlebelia administraciuli gadawyvetileba SexebodaT. swored mesame pirTa samarTlebrivi
interesebis dacvis mizani iyo Tavdapirvelad am samarTlebrivi institutis administraciul procesSi SemoRebis
safuZveli.
administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis mniSvnelovan safuZvels saqmis yovelmxrivi ganxilvis mizani
warmoadgens. rogorc viciT, administraciul procesSi
moqmedebs inkviziciurobis principi, romlic Sinaarsis
Sesaxeb zemoT gvqonda saubari. aq gvinda kidev erTxel
xazi gavusvaT inkviziciurobis principis upiratesobas
administraciul procesSi da swored masTan kavSirSi ganvixiloT administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis
mizani saqmis yovelmxriv ganxilvis motivTan mimarTebaSi.
radgan, inkviziciurobis principidan gamomdinare, administraciuli sasamarTlo uflebamosilia administraciuli saqmis ganxilvisas Tavad monawileobdes faqtobriv
garemoebaTa gamokvlevis procesSi. mas aseve ufleba aqvs,
swored am principidan gamomdinare, uzrunvelyos saqmis
yovelmxrivi da amomwuravi ganxilva, risTvisac sasamarTlo uflebamosilia administraciul saqmeSi mesame pirad
moiwvios yvela is fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piri, romlis
interesebsac SeiZleba Seexeos administraciuli gadawyvetileba. administraciul literaturaSi gabatonebuli
Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, mesame pirTa monawileoba administraciul procesSi qmnis safuZvels saqmis yovelmxrivi da
sruli moculobiT gamokvlevisa.
umniSvnelovanes mizans administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis intsitutisa warmoadgens procesis
ekonomiuroba. meoce saukunis 50-iani wlebidan iwyeba
swored aRniSnuli institutis ekonomiurobis elementze yuradRebis gamaxvileba evropis administrativistebs
Soris. pirvelad bavariis umaRlesi administraciuli sasamarTlos 1950 wlis 19 aprilis gadawyvetilebaSi iqna
dasabuTebuli procesis ekonomiurobis meSveobiT admi-

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nistraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis aucilebloba.
procesis ekonomiuroba administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa mowvevis institutTan mimarTebaSi gamoixateba
imiT, rom erTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT ganisazRvreba ramdenime urTierTobis Sinaarsi. amasTanave, procesis ekonomiurobiT xdeba saqmis ganxilvis usafuZvlod
gaWianurebis Tavidan acileba. mesame pirTa institutis
meSveobiT procesis ekonomiuroba gamoixateba upiratesad imaSi, rom miRebul sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas,
romelic ramdenime urTierTobis Sinaarss gansazRvravs
preiudiciuli daniSnuleba aqvs. preiudicia niSnavs sxva
sasamarTlos mier igive mxareebs Soris da imave davis saganze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis namdvilobas da savaldebulo Zalas sxva sasamarTloebisaTvis. magaliTad, Tu
arsebobs mesame pirad saqmeSi mowveul pirsa da erT-erT
mxares Soris kerZo-samarTlebrivi dava, saqmis ganmxilveli samoqalaqo sasamarTlosTvis ukve administraciuli sasamarTlos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebas imave mxareebs Soris da imave davis saganze eqneba preiudiuciuli
mniSvneloba. es ki warmoadgens procesis ekonomiurobis
gamoxatulebas. kerZod, aRar moxdeba samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi wesiT imave davis saganze, imave mxareebis mimarT
axali gadawyvetilebis miReba.
procesis ekonomiurobis paralelurad administraciul procesSi mesame pirebis mowvevis mizans samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofa warmoadgens. misi mizania gamoiricxos urTierTsawinaaRmdego gadawyvetilebebis miReba samoqalaqo da administraciuli sasamarTloebis mier erTi
da igive mxareebis mimarT, erTsa da imave davis saganze.
administraciul procesSi mesame pirad mowveul pirs, romelsac administraciuli gadawyvetilebiT ganesazRvra
garkveuli ufleba-movaleobebi, ar aqvs ufleba imave safuZvliT da imave mxaris mimarT sxva sasamarTloSi Seitanos igive Sinaarsis sarCeli.
mesame pirebis institutis sakanonmdeblo safuZvels

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qmnis saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqis
me-16 muxli. aRniSnuli muxlis Tanaxmad, qarTveli kanonmdebeli ganasxvavebs mesame pirebis martiv da savaldebulo (aucilebel) Cabmas. mesame pirTa administraciul
procesSi mowvevis martivi forma Sinaarsobrivad gansxvavdeba aucilebeli, savaldebulo formisagan. gansxvaveba
imaSia, rom mesame pirTa administraciul procesSi martivi formiT Cabma saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos uflebaa, xolo mesame pirTa auciebeli, savaldebulo Cabma ki
valdebuleba konkretuli garemoebis arsebobisas. me-16
muxlis pirveli nawili swored mesame pirTa martivi Cabmis
formulirebas Seicavs, xolo amave muxlis meore nawili ki
aucilebeli, savaldebulo Cabmis formulirebas. mesame
pirTa administraciul procesSi Cabmis martivi forma gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasamarTlos mTavari sxdomis
damTavrebamde sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba SeiZeba Seexos am pirTa interesebs. ra Tqma
unda, igulisxmeba samarlebrivi interesebi. swored am
SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo uflebamosilia acnobos maT administraciuli procesis dawyebis Sesaxeb da Caabas isini
mesame pirebad saqmis ganxilvaSi. administraciul procesSi martivi formiT Cabmuli mesame pirebi ar sargebloben
igive uflebebiTa da movaleobebiT, rogorc savaldebulo, aucilebeli formiT Cabmuli mesame pirebi. maT ufleba aqvT waradginon mtkicebulebebi, dasvan SekiTxvebi da
a. S. sasarCelo moTxovnis gazrdis an Semcirebis ufleba,
Segebebuli sarCelis wardgenis ufleba da sxva saproceso uflebebi, romlebiTac mxareebi sargebloben, maT ar
gaaCniaT. administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa martivi
formiT Cabmis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba ar gasaCivrdeba.
administraciul procesSi mesame piri savaldebulo,
aucilebeli formiT unda iqnes Cabmuli Tu igi im samarTalurTierTobis monawilea, romlis Taobazec sasamarTlos mier mxolod saerTo gadawyvetilebis gamotanaa SesaZlebeli. garda sasamarTlos iniciativisa, mesame pirTa
aucilebeli, savaldebulo formiT administraciul pro-

240
cesSi Cabma SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes Tavad dainteresebuli piris gancxadebis safuZvelze an erT-erTi mxaris iniciativiT motivirebuli gancxadebis safuZvelze.
savaldebulo, aucielebeli formiT saqmeSi mesame piris
Cabmis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos uari SeiZleba gasaCivrdes kerZo saCivriT. amasTanave, konkretulad savaldebulo, aucilebeli formiT administraciul procesSi mesame pirad
Cabmis Sesaxeb ganCineba SeiZleba gasaCivrdes mxolod im
piris mier, romelic Cabmul iqna saqmeSi mesame pirad. konkretuli sakiTxis gasaCivrebis ufleba mxareebs ara aqvT.
sainteresoa mesame pirad aucilebeli formiT Cabmuli pirebis saproceso uflebaunarianobisa da qmedunarianobis
sakiTxi. kanonmdebeli gansazRvravs, rom aRniSnuli mesame pirebi sargebloben mxaris yvela saproceso uflebiTa
da movaleobiT. aRniSnuli gulisxmobs imas, rom administraciul procesSi savaldebulo, aucilebeli formiT
Cabmul mesame pirebs ufleba aqvT waradginon damoukidebeli sarCeli, gazardon an Seamciron sasarCelo moTxovna, waradginon sakuTari moTxovna, morigdnen, uari Tqvan
sarCelze, cnon sasarCelo moTxovna, damoukideblad gaasaCivron sasamarTlos nebismieri gadawyvetileba da a. S. :

aucilebeli, savaldebulo formiT administraciul


procesSi mesame pirTa Cabmis klasikuri magaliTia sasamarTloSi sarCelis ganxilva ormagi zemoqmedebis Zalis
mqone individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT.
kerZod, rodesac erTi individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti adresatisaTvis aRmWurvelia, xolo
mesame pirisaTvis SemzRudveli xasiaTis. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba uSualod Seexeba
mesame piris interessac da mis mimarTac miRebul iqneba
gadawyvetileba, rac safuZvelia swored savaldebulo
formiT administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa Cabmisa.
administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa martiv da savaldebulo formiT Cabmas Soris gansxvavebas mniSvnebloba eniWeba swored mesame pirTa saproceso uflebaunari-

241
anobisa da qmedunarianobis miniWebis TvalsazrisiT. Madministraciul procesSi martivi formiT Cabmuli mesame
pirebi ufro SezRuduli uflebebiT sargebloben, vidre
savaldebulo formiT Cabmuli mesame pirebi. kanonmdebeli am ukanasknelTa saproceso uflebebs mxareTa zogad
uflebebs uTanabrebs. samoqalaqo procesisagan gansxvavebiT administraciuli procesi ar icnobs saqmeSi monawile pirebis mosarCeleebad da mopasuxeebad mkafiod dayofas. administraciul procesSi mosarCelec da mopasuxec,
aseve sxva administraciuli organo Tu mesame piri, yvela
gaerTianebulia erTi terminis qveS mxareebi administraciul procesSi. swored es Taviseburebac kidev erTxel
usvams xazs im garemoebas, rom mxareTa saproceso uflebebiT administraciul procesSi SeiZleba sargeblobdes
rogorc momCivani da mopasuxe, aseve mesame pirebi, kerZod, mesame pirebi, romlbic Cabmulni arian aucilebeli,
savaldebulo formiT.
TiTqosda martivad gasamijni mesame pirTa administraciul procesSi Cabmis ori forma martivi da savaldebulo praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT rTulad gansasxvavebelia. praqtikaSi xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac rTuldeba
zusti zRvaris gavleba mesame pirTa sasamarTlo procesSi Cabmis am or formas Soris. imisaTvis, rom gagviadvildes am ori formis urTierTgamijvna, unda ganisazRvros
ramdenime praqtikuli magaliTi:
1. a-m miiRo samsarTuliani saxlis mSeneblobis ne-

barTva. misma mezobelma B b-em, romelsac mxolod erTsarTuliani saxli aqvs, miiCnia, rom samsarTuliani saxlis aSenebis Semdgom misi saxli daiCrdileboda. man
mimarTa sasamarTlos aRniSnuli mSeneblobis nebarTvis baTilad gamocxadebis moTxovniT. ra Tqma unda, ,,aA
administraciuli saqmis ganxilvaSi Cabmul unda iqnes
mesame pirad savaldebulo Cabmis formiT, vinaidan sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba Seexeba aramarto bB -s, aramed a-s samarTlebriv interessa da uflebebs.

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aRniSnuli magaliTi metyvelebs imaze, rom administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa savaldebulo Cabmis forma
saxezea, Tu mesame piri im samarTalurTierTobis monawilea, romlis Taobazedac sasamarTlos mier mxolod saerTo gadawyvetilebis gamotanaa SesaZlebeli. administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa martivi Cabmis dros gadamwyvetia mesame pirTa samarTlebrivi interesebi, xolo rac
Seexeba aucilebel, savaldebulo Cabmas, am dros samarTlebrivi interesis paralelurad mniSvnelovania is, rom
sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT mesame pirTa uflebebi da
movaleobebic SeiZleba ganisazRvros.
2. abaSiZis quCis mcxovreblebs uari eTqvaT sare-

zervo wyalgayvanilobis damontaJebis nebarTvaze


uaryofiTi saeqsperto daskvnis safuZvelze. abaSiZis quCis mcxovreblebma mimarTes sasamarTlos da
moiTxoves aRniSnuli aqtis gauqmeba. am SemTxvevaSi
saeqsperto daskvnis mimcemi organo saqmeSi SeiZleba Cabmul iqnes mesame pirad martivi formiT. kerZod, aq saqme exeba ara savaldebulo, aramed martiv
Cabmas, vinaidan sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba saeqsperto daskvnis mimcemi organos samarTlebriv interess SeiZleba Seexos. kerZod, sasamarTlos mier
uaryofiTi saeqsperto daskvnis ukanonod miCnevis
SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs SeiZleba warmoeSvas saeqsperto organos mimarT zianis anazRaurebis
valdebuleba.

TvalsaCinoebisaTvis kidev erTxel gvinda xazgasmiT


aRvniSnoT, rom administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa
martivi Cabma saxezea mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba SeiZleba mesame pirTa interess Seexos. e. i. sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis miRebam
zemoqmedeba moaxdinos am pirTa samarTlebriv interesze. am dros saqme exeba mxolod samarTlebriv interesze
zemoqmedebas da ara raime uflebebisa da movaleobebis
gansazRvras sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT. rac Seexeba administraciul procesSi mesame pirTa savaldebulo

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Cabmas, aq saxezea mesame pirTa aramxolod samarTlebriv
interesze zemoqmedeba sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT,
aramed maTTvis garkveuli samarTlebrivi uflebebisa da
movaleobebis dakisreba. kerZod, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT ganisazRvreba mesame pirTa ufleba-movaleobanic da ara marto maTi samarTlebrivi interesi.
mesame pirTa instituti Zalze saintereso da amasTanave, mniSvnelovani institutia administraciuli procesisa. xSiria SemTxvevebi konkretul saqmeSi mesame pirad
Cabmis Sesaxeb survilis gamoTqmisa da gadawyvetilebis
miRebisa. kanonmdebeli gansazRvravs, rom Tu konkretul
SemTxvevaSi saqmeSi mesame pirad SeiZleba Cabmul iqnes 10
kacze meti, maSin sasamarTlo mesame pirad saqmeSi Caabams
im pirebs, romlebic amis survils gamoTqvamen. ra Tqma
unda, sasamarTlo gansazRvravs gonivrul vadas konkretuli pirebisaTvis, mesame pirad saqmeSi Cabmaze survilis
gamoTqmasTan dakavSirebiT.
sainteresod migvaCnia aqve vimsjeloT im sakiTxze Tu
administraciuli procesis ra stadiaze da romel instanciaSia dasaSvebi administraciul procesSi mesame pirad
Cabma. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi ar Seicavs srul pasuxs aRniSnul kiTxvaze. Tumca nawilobriv SeiZleba pasuxi gavceT am kiTxvas.
kerZod, saqarTvelos adinistraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-16 muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad sasamarTlos
mTavari sxdomis damTavrebamde. . . . sasamarTlos ufleba
aqvs saqmeSi mesame pirad Caabas piri, romlis interessac
SeiZleba Seexos sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. rac Seexeba
pirveli instanciisa da saapelacio sasamarTloebSi saqmis ganxilvas, eWvs ar iwvevs is faqti, rom swored am or
instanciaSi sasamrTlos mTavari sxdomis damTavrebamde
SeiZleba piri saqmeSi Cabmul iqnes mesame pirad. mniSvnelovania sask-Si Setanili is cvlileba, romelic pasuxobs
kiTxvas sakasacio sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis dros
mesame pirad Cabmis dasaSvebobaze. sask-is 341 muxlis Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTloSi sask-is me-16 muxlis me-2

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nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli mesame pirebi SeiZleba Caeban
maTive TanxmobiT, Tu isini sadavod ar xdian saapelacio
sasamarTlos mier dadgenil faqtobriv garemoebebs da waradgenen mxolod samarTlebriv mosazrebebs.

5. sasamarTlo mtkicebulebebi
mtkicebulebaTa instituti warmoadgens uZveles samarTlebriv instituts, romelsac Rrma istoriuli fesvebi aqvs. mtkicebulebebis instituts didi mniSvneloba
aqvs samarTlis yvela dargisaTvis da maT Soris, administraciuli samarTlisTvisac. mtkicebuleba warmoadgens
mniSvnelovan instruments administraciul saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgenisas. mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenis meSveobiT mxareebs eZlevaT saSualeba daamtkicon TavianTi
moTxovnebis WeSmariteba da sasamarTlos Seuqmnan amomwuravi warmodgena saqmis garemoebaTa Sesaxeb. mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenis ufleba administraciul procesSi
monawile mxareebis garda mesame pirebsac eniWebaT. mtkicebulebebis warmodgenisas mxareebi SezRudulni ar arian. am institutis safuZveli gamyarebulia SejibrebiTobis principiT. SejibrebiTobis principi qmnis safuZvels
administraciul procesSi mxareTa mier mtkicebulebebis
SeuzRudavad warmodgenisa. SejibrebiTobis principis safuZvelze procesis yovel monawiles eniWeba ufleba gaamyaros Tavisi moTxovna an gaaqarwylos mowinaaRmdege mxaris moTxovna mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenis meSveobiT.
administraciul procesSi mtkicebulebad gamoiyeneba
nivTieri mtkicebulebebi, mowmis Cveneba, mxareTa da mesame pirTa axsna-ganmartebani, eqspertis daskvna, werilobiTi mtkicebulebebi. dauSvebelia mtkicebulebad iseTi
saSualebis gamoyeneba, romelic mopovebulia kanonsawinaaRmdego gziT da romelic laxavs adamianis sayovelTaod dacul konstituciur uflebebsa da samarTlebriv

245
interesebs da aseve, ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciur wesrigs. dauSvebel mtkicebulebebad iuridiul literatuaSi Tvlian im mtkicebulebebs, romlebic mopovebulia
adamianze fizikuri Tu fsiqikuri zemoqmedebis Sedegad,
satelefono Tu sxva teqnikuri saSualebiT kanonsawinaaRmdegod mopovebuli informacia, piris pirad CanawerebSi arsebuli informacia am piris Tanxmobis gareSe da
sxva. zemoaRniSnuli xerxebiT miRebuli mtkicebulebebi
miiCneva dauSvebel mtkicebulebebad da sasamarTlos mier
ar xdeba maTi gaTvaliswineba saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, mtkicebulebaTa warmdgenis
uleba aqvs nebismier mxares, iqneba es mosarCele, mopasuxe Tu mesame piri. garda amisa, mtkicebulebaTa sakuTari
iniciativiT moZiebis ufleba administraciuli saqmis
ganmxilvel sasamarTlosac eniWeba. Amis safuZvels qmnis
inkviziciurobis principi administraciul procesSi.
adinistraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli sasamarTlos swored
es uflebamosileba ganasxvavebs administraciul process
samoqalaqo procesisagan. administraciuli procesi garda subieqturi uflebebis dacvisa, sajaro interesebis
dacvis mizansac emsaxureba. aqedan gamomdinare, rig SemTxvevebSi, rodesac eWvqveS dgeba sajaro interesTa realizaciisa da dacvis pirobis uzrunvelyofa, administraciuli saqmis ganmxilveli mosamarTle uflebamosilia sakuTari iniciativiT gamoiTxovos esa Tu is mtkicebuleba
da amiT moaxdinos saqmis yovelmxrivi gamokvleva da WeSmaritebis dadgena.
sainteresoa sakiTxi mtkicebis tvirTis Sesaxeb. kerZod, Tu vis ekisreba mtkicebis tvirTi adinistraciul
procesSi. saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-17 muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli organoa
valdebuli amtkicos mis mier gamocemuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanoniereba. aq saqme Seexeba
rogorc individualuri, aseve normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonierebis damtkiebas, ro-

246
gorc aRiarebiTi sarCelis SemTxvevaSi, aseve administraciul-samarTlbrivi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad
gamocxadebis moTxovnis sarCelis SemTxvevaSic. kanonmdeblis mier administraciuli organoebisaTvis dakisrebuli mtkicebis tvirTi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar gulisxmobs
mosarCelis ganTavisuflebas sasarCelo moTxovnis dasabuTebisagan, mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenisagan. sasarCelo moTxovna unda daasabuTos mosarCelem, xolo Semdgom
am moTxovnaTa uaryofa da sapirispiros damtkiceba admnistraciuli organos valia.

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Tavi IV
administraciuli organos saqmianobis
samarTlebrivi formebis saproceso-samarTlebrivi
mniSvneloba
administraciuli organos saqmianobis samarTlebrivi
formebis gamijvnis saproceso-samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba vlindeba imaSi, rom es warmoadgens aucilebel winapirobas sarCelis swori formis gansazRvrisaTvis. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb da sarCeli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze
damokidebulia administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
arsebobaze. sarCeli qmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze
gulisxmobs administraciuli realaqtis ganxorcielebas
an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb moTxovnas,
xolo davas administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan,
SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebiT maSin aqvs
adgili, rodesac davis sagani akmayofilebs administraciuli xelSekrulebis legaluri definiciis moTxovnebs.
1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti
1.1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis cneba
mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis aucilebelia,
rom is formalur-samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT Seicavdes legalur definiciaSi mocemul cnebis elementebs.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis legaluri definicia iZleva mis oTx Semadgenel nawilad dayofis SesaZleblobas.

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cnebis elementebia:
1. administraciuli organo
,,yvela saxelmwifo an adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis organo an dawesebuleba, sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri, agreTve, nebismieri sxva piri,
romelic kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze asrulebs sajarosamarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs (szak-is me-2 muxlis ,,a
qvepunqti).
administraciuli organos cnebis legaluri definicia
ori nawilisagan Sedgeba. definiciis pirveli nawili moicavs administraciuli organos organizaciul-samarTlebriv cnebas: saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis yvela organosa da dawesebulebas.
administraciuli organos funqcionaluri gageba,
romelic cnebis definiciis meore nawilSia mocemuli,
aerTianebs im fizikur da iuridiul pirebs, romlebic ar
arian saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis organoTa sistemis subieqtebi, magram kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze axorcieleben
sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebebs da am mizniT gamoscemen
individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtebs.
,,nebismieri sxva piri gulisxmobs im kerZo pirebs, romelTa saqmianoba kanoniT gansazRvrul da saxelmwifos mier
aRiarebul SemTxvevebSi administraciuli organoebis
qmedebaTa tolfas moqmedebad miiCneva. mmarTvelobiTi
uflebamosilebebiT kerZo pirebis aRWurva xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac raime saqmianobis ganxorcieleba moiTxovs specialur codnas da am mizniT Sesabamisi saxelmwifo
organoebis Seqmna did finansur danaxarjebTan iqneboda
dakavSirebuli maSin, rodesac kerZo pirebs misi Sesruleba imave xarisxiT da, amasTan, naklebi danaxarjebiT SeuZliaT. aseTi SemTxvevis erT-erTi klasikuri magaliTia
avtotransportis savaldebulo teqnikuri daTvaliereba
kerZo pirebis mier.

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sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo organoebi iseve, rogorc
mTavroba, rogorc wesi, ar axorcieleben mmarTvelobiT
saqmianobas. administraciuli funqciebis ganxorcielebisas, gamonaklisis saxiT, isini iyeneben saqmianobis iseT
formas, rogoric aris individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti. swored amitom eqceva es organoebi
saqmianobis am procesSi administraciuli organos cnebis
legaluri definiciis farglebSi.
aRmasrulebeli organoebis saqmianoba yovelTvis ar
aris mmarTvelobiTi saqmianoba, xSir SemTxvevaSi maTi saqmianoba scildeba szak-is moqmedebis sferos. Teoriuli
sakiTxis naTlad warmosaCenad ganvixiloT policiis organosa da prezidentis saqmianoba.
policiis prevenciuli da represiuli funqciebi:
dakaveba, Cxreka, identifikacia da a.S. rogorc
prevenciuli RonisZieba, xorcieldeba szak-iT
gansazRvruli saqmianobis samarTlebrivi formebis gamoyenebiT.

dakaveba, Cxreka, identifikacia da a.S., rogorc
momxdar danaSaulze reagireba, warmoadgens policiis represiul RonisZiebas da xorcieldeba
sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad.
policia aris aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organo,
romlis ZiriTadi amocanaa sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da
sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis dacva, danaSaulisa da sxva
samarTaldarRvevaTa Tavidan acileba. policiis Sesaxeb
saqarTvelos kanoniT gansazRvrul policiis am prevenciuli funqciebis ganxorcielba xdeba szak-iT gansazRvruli saqmianobis samarTlebrivi formebis gamoyenebiT.
policiis saqmianoba, romelic dakavSirebulia danaSaulis Cadenis gamo piris sisxlissamarTlebriv devnasa
da sisxlis samarTlis saqmiswarmoebasTan, operatiulsamZebro saqmianobasTan, xorcieldeba sisxlis samarTlis
kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. policiis Sesaxeb kanoniT

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dadgenili represiuli funqciebis ganmxorcielebeli
policiis organo aris ara administraciuli, aramed iusticiis organo.
saqarTvelos prezidenti yovelTvis ar warmoadgens
administraciul organos. ganvixiloT konkretuli SemTxveva, rodesac msjavrdebulma gancxadebiT mimarTa
saqarTvelos prezidents da moiTxova, prezidentisTvis
konstituciiT miniWebuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi
mis mimarT Sewyalebis aqtis gamocema. prezidentma ar
daakmayofila msjavrdebuli moqalaqis es Txovna.
saqarTvelos prezidenti saqarTvelos konstituciiT
gaTvaliswinebul uflebamosilebebs (saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebisa da SeTanxmebebis dadeba; kanonis xelmowera
da gamoqveyneba; parlamentis riggareSe sesiis an sxdomis
mowveva da a.S.) axorcielebs rogorc konstituciuri organo. saqarTvelos prezidentis uari Sewyalebaze ar aris
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
ramdenadac, am SemTxvevaSi, prezidenti aris ara administraciuli, aramed konstituciuri organo.

2. administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze


mmarTvelobiTi RonisZieba, romelsac administraciuli organo konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis
mosawesrigeblad axorcielebs, administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan unda gamomdinareobdes. RonisZiebis samarTlebrivi buneba gamomdinareobs misi ganxorcielebis
samarTlebrivi safuZvlis samarTlebrivi bunebidan. ramdenadac umeteswilad umniSvnelovanesi mmarTvelobiTi
amocanebi administraciul kanonebSia mocemuli, mmarTvelobis sajaro-samarTlebrivi formebis gamoyeneba warmoadgens Cveulebriv SemTxvevas.
administraciuli organo uflebamosilia gamoiyenos
saqmianobis kerZo-samarTlebrivi formebi.

251
mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis samarTlebrivi bunebis gansazRvrisaTvis, pirvel rigSi, yuradReba unda mieqces organizaciuli mowyobis formas. saxelmwifo, rogorc wesi,
sakuTari organoebis meSveobiT, organizaciuli mowyobis
sajaro-samarTlebrivi formis gamoyenebiT, axorcielebs
sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs.
mmarTvelobiTi funqciebis ganxorcielebis kerZo-samarTlebrivi organizaciis formebia: samoqalaqo samarTalidan cnobili saaqcio sazogadoeba, SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba da fondebi.
erTmaneTisagan unda gavmijnoT organizaciuli mowyobis formebi da moqalaqeebTan urTierTobis samarTlebrivi formebi. organizaciuli mowyobis kerZo-samarTlebrivi
formis arCeva gulisxmobs kerZo-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arsebobas, ramdenadac saaqcio sazogadoebas an SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas ara aqvs individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis uflebamosileba. misi saqmianobis samarTlebriv formas warmoadgens kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba.
amis sapirispirod, Tuki arCevani SeCerda organizaciuli mowyobis sajaro-samarTlebriv formaze, SesaZlebeli xdeba saqmianobis rogorc sajaro-samarTlebrivi, ise
kerZo-samarTlebrivi formebis gamoyeneba.
Tuki kanonmdeblis mier uSualod ar aris gansazRvruli, administraciul organos aqvs organizaciuli mowyobis formis arCevani, xolo organizaciuli mowyobis sajaro-samarTlebrivi formis arCevis SemTxvevaSi, aseve saqmianobis sajaro-samarTlebriv da kerZo-samarTlebriv
formebs Soris arCevanis Tavisufleba. sajaro-samarTlebrivi uflebamosilebebis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia
kerZo-samarTlebrivi formiT. sajaro-samarTlebrivi
uflebamosilebebisa da interesebis arseboba TavisTavad
ar gulisxmobs organizaciuli mowyobis sajaro-samarTlebrivi formis arsebobas.
Tuki konkretul SemTxvevaSi dgeba ganxorcielebuli
RonisZiebis sajaro-samarTlebrivi da kerZo-samarTleb-

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rivi bunebis dadgenis problema, gamoyenebul unda iqnes
Semdegi kriteriumebi:
1. kanonmdeblis nebis gansazRvra. sapolicio samarTalSi kanonmdeblis mier konkretulad gansazRvrulia RonisZiebis ganxorcielebis administrciul-samarTlebrivi
safuZvlebi da administraciul organos ar rCeba diskrecia arCevani gaakeTos saqmianobis sajaro-samarTlebriv
da kerZo-samarTlebriv formebs Soris;
2. administraciuli organos nebis gansazRvra. Tuki administraciuli organo iyenebs organizaciuli mowyobis
iseT samarTlebriv formas, rogoricaa saaqcio sazogadoeba, es aSkarad miuTiTebs mis nebaze, konkretuli urTierToba moawesrigos kerZo-samarTlebrivi formebis
gamoyenebiT. amis sapirispirod, rodesac xdeba sajaro
samarTlis iuridiuli piris Seqmna an, rodesac RonisZieba xorcieldeba individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formiT, miuxedavad samarTlebrivi urTierTobis Sinaarsisa, aSkaraa administraciuli organos
neba, urTierToba moawesrigos organizaciuli mowyobisa
da saqmianobis sajaro-samarTlebrivi formebis gamoyenebiT.
cnebis es elementi arsebiTi ar aris qmedebis individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis, ramdenadac swored aseTi sakanonmdeblo safuZvlis
ararsebobis dros xdeba gamocemuli aqtebis, anu ukanono
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis legaluri definiciis farglebSi moqceva. arsebobs
Tu ara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemisaTvis saWiro sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi
an sworad gamoiyenes Tu ara is, qmedebis individualur
administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis, amas
arsebiTi mniSvneloba ara aqvs; ukanono individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtic Sesasruleblad
savaldebulo Zalis mqonea, Tu is kanoniT gansazRvrul
vadebSi ar gasaCivrdeba.

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aqedan gamomdinare, unda iTqvas, rom cnebis es elementi
ar SeiZleba miviRoT erTaderT ganmsazRvrel kriteriumad administraciuli qmedebis individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis.

3. individualuri samarTlebrivi aqti


administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis individualuri xasiaTis ganmsazRvreli kriteriumebi:

individualur pirTa wre;

konkretuli SemTxveva.

individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis


cnebis es niSani axasiaTebs mas, rogorc individualur samarTlebriv aqts, da emsaxureba mis gamijvnas normatiuli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisgan, romelic qcevis zogad wess adgens.
individualuria administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
Tu administraciuli organos RonisZieba mimarTulia piris an pirTa SezRuduli wrisken. konkretulia pirTa wre
maSin, rodesac gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros garkveulia
Tu vis exeba is. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti individualurad gansazRvruli pirebisken
unda iyos mimarTuli an Seexebodes calkeul konkretul
SemTxvevebs.
mxolod individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisa da normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis urTierTgamijvniT da administraciuli organos saqmianobis orive samarTlebrivi formis adresatisa
da obieqtis SejerebiT aris SesaZlebeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis, rogorc individualuri samarTlebrivi aqtis cnebis gageba.

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samarTlebrivi aqtebis individualurad da normatiulad dayofa mxolod im kriteriumiT, pirTa rogor
wreze vrceldeba igi, ver mogvcems sasurvel Sedegs. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisa da samarTlis normis urTierTdamokidebulebisaTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs ,,mowesrigebis or struqturul elements, esenia: ,,adresatTa wre da ,,konkretuli SemTxveva.
nebismieri aqti mimarTulia erTi an ramdenime pirovnebisken da, imavdroulad, awesrigebs konkretul SemTxvevebs.
mowesrigebis adresatTa wre individualurad an generalurad unda ganisazRvros maSin, rodesac SesaZlebelia SemTxvevis konkretulad an abstraqtulad aRwera.
samarTlebrivi aqti individualuri xasiaTisaa, rodesac is mimarTulia konkretuli pirovnebisken, romelsac aqti saxelobiT aRwers an uSualod mimarTavs. amis
magaliTia pirovnebisTvis kerZo saxlis mSeneblobis nebarTvis gacema.
aqti individualuria maSinac, rodesac is ara erT pirovnebas, aramed misi gamocemis dros obieqturad gansazRvrul an gansazRvrebad pirTa jgufs moicavs. zRvars
individualur da generalur mowesrigebas Soris ganapirobebs ara pirTa ricxobrivi odenoba, aramed is, gansazRvrebadia Tu ara es wre. magaliTad, policielis moTxovnis
- pirebma, romlebic im droisTvis SenobaSi imyofebian, datovon igi - adresatia yvela piri, vinc SenobaSi imyofeba.
adresatTa wris saxelobiTi aRwera SeuZlebelia, magram
SesaZlebelia maTi saerTo niSniT ,,im droisTvis SenobaSi yofna gansazRvra. generaluri mowesrigebis dros samarTlebrivi aqti pirTa ganusazRvrel wres Seexeba. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia is, rom igi mimarTulia ,,yvelasken,
rom misi gamocemis dros jer kidev ar aris gansazRvruli
subieqtTa wre, romelzec es aqti gavrceldeba.
konkretulia samarTlebrivi aqti, romelic konkretuli saqmis viTarebas asaxavs da Tavisi bunebiT ,,erTjeradia. amis magaliTia administraciuli organos gadawyve-

255
tileba, romelic konkretul Senobas aniWebs kulturis
Zeglis statuss.
abstraqtuli samarTlebrivi aqti asaxavs saqmis garemoebebs zogadad da mis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia konkretuli SemTxvevis ganusazRvreli raodenoba warmoiSvas.
administraciuli organos mier moqalaqisaTvis sapensio
daxmarebis gacemis Taobaze miRebuli konkretuli gadawyvetilebis safuZvelia swored samarTlis normiT (kanoniT) ganxorcielebuli abstraqtuli mowesrigeba (kanoni
sapensio uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb).
4. ,,awesebs, cvlis, wyvets an adasturebs
administraciuli organos qmedeba maSin SeiZleba miviCnioT individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqtad, rodesac es qmedeba calmxrivad mkacrad gansazRvruli samarTlebrivi Sedegisken (e.i. qmedebis Sedegi mowesrigeba) aris mimarTuli
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
cnebis es elementi aRwers mis bunebas, rogorc RonisZiebas, romelic mimarTulia urTierTobis samarTlebrivi
mowesrigebisaken, e.i. is awesebs, cvlis, wyvets an adasturebs piris samarTlebriv mdgomareobas.samarTlebrivi
mowesrigebis arsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemiT ganxorcielebuli RonisZieba administraciuli organos nebis
Sesabamisad iqiTken aris mimarTuli, rom calmxrivad da
Sesasruleblad savaldebulo ZaliT uSualo samarTlebrivi Sedegi warmoSvas.
mowesrigeba, rogorc individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis cnebis elementi, ara gvaqvs, rodesac
sajaro-samarTlebrivi RonisZieba pirdapir samarTlebriv Sedegs ar iwvevs, e.i., rodesac sajaro dawesebulebis
mxridan mxolod informaciis, rCeva-darigebis an axsnaganmartebis miwodebasTan, an faqtobriv garemoebaTa dadgenis mizniT ganxorcielebul moqmedebasTan gvaqvs saqme.

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mmarTvelobiTi RonisZieba, romelic mimarTuli ar
aris konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis mowesrigebisken, aris ubralo mmarTvelobiTi saqmianoba,
anu realaqti.

1.2. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi


aqtis kanoniereba da ukanonoba
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanonierebis winapirobaa, pirvel rigSi, am aqtis gamomcemi administraciuli organo iyos uflebamosili, konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba moawesrigos individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis
gziT. saqmianobis swori samarTlebrivi formis arCevasTan erTad mniSvnelovania, rom is uflebamosili organos
mier administraciuli warmoebis saTanado saxis da aqtis
gamocemisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formis dacviT iyos gamocemuli.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
pasuxobs misTvis kanoniT dadgenil moTxovnebs da aris
kanonieri, rodesac:
(1) konkretul SemTxvevaSi administraciuli organo
uflebamosilia, gamoiyenos saqmianobis es samarTlebrivi
forma (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis, rogorc saqmianobis samarTlebrivi formis, dasaSveboba);
(2) konkretul SemTxvevaSi daculia aqtis gamocemisaTvis saWiro sagnobrivi da teritoriuli kompetencia,
administraciuli warmoebis saxe da individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis forma (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formaluri kanoniereba);

257
(3) individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti Sinaarsobrivad Seesabameba misi gamocemis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis materialuri kanoniereba).
1.2.1 individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formaluri da materialuri kanoniereba
1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis formaluri kanoniereba
a) uflebamosileba. individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti unda gamosces sagnobrivad da teritoriulad uflebamosilma administraciulma organom.
sagnobrivi uflebamosileba ukavSirdeba mowesrigebis
sagans (obieqts), anu imas, aris Tu ara administraciuli
organo uflebamosili moawesrigos konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba. teritoriuli uflebamosileba gulisxmobs sagnobrivad uflebamosili organos samoqmedo
teritorias.
b) administraciuli warmoebis saTanado saxe. administraciuli warmoeba aris administraciuli organos
saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis momzadebis, gamocemisa da aRsrulebisaken. administraciuli kodeqsi CamoTvlis administraciuli warmoebis saxeebs da amkvidrebs princips, romelic
administraciuli organos avaldebulebs, gamosces individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti martivi
administraciuli warmoebis wesiT - Tu kanoni konkretul
SemTxvevaSi ar iTvaliswinebs sxva saxis administraciuli
warmoebis gamoyenebis aucileblobas. saqmianobis am procesSi aucilebelia mTeli rigi normebis dacva, romlebic
gansakuTrebiT Tavmoyrilia administraciuli kodeqsis
VI TavSi da moqmedebs administraciuli warmoebis yvela

258
saxisaTvis. gansakuTrebiT SeiZleba gamovyoT is moTxovnebi, romlebic individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonierebis safuZvlebia. esenia: administraciuli warmoebis dawyebis safuZvlebis dacva; kanoniT
gauTvaliswinebeli moTxovnebis dawesebis dauSvebloba;
dainteresebuli mxaris mier sakuTari azris gamoTqmis
ufleba; acilebis ufleba; sxva administraciuli organos
monawileoba administraciul warmoebaSi da a.S.

g) individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis forma. zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 51-e
muxlis Tanaxmad, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti SeiZleba gamoices werilobiT an zepiri
formiT.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
werilobiTi formiT gamocema - es aris gavrcelebuli da
ZiriTadi forma. samarTlebrivi urTierTobis gamWvirvalobis, mtkicebulebis procesis gamartivebis da mmarTvelobiTi aqtebis administrirebis uzrunvelsayofad
upiratesoba eniWeba werilobiT formas. Tanamedrove
mmarTvelobis praqtikaSi individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema xdeba werilobiTi, zepiri an sxva formiT (mag., SuqniSnebiT mowesrigebuli sammarTlebrivi urTierToba).
d) individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formaluri kanonierebis gansazRvris procesSi aucilebelia yuradReba mieqces mis dasabuTebas - yoveli
werilobiTi formiT gamocemuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti unda Seicavdes werilobiT
dasabuTebas. masSi unda iyos mocemuli is samarTlebrivi
da faqtobrivi winamZRvrebi, romelTa safuZvelzec gamoica es individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti. Tu administraciuli organo moqmedebda diskreciuli uflebamosilebis safuZvelze, igi valdebulia, aqtis
dasabuTebaSi miuTiTos im garemoebebze, romelic safuZvlad daudo mis gadawyvetilebas.

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individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
dasabuTebis moTxovna emsaxureba, pirvel rigSi, administraciuli organoebis TviTkontrols, ramdenadac is iZulebuli xdeba, dasabuTebis Camoyalibebis procesSi Tavisi gadawyvetileba samarTlebrivi da faqtobrivi TvalsazrisiT zustad moiazros da gaamagros. individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis dasabuTeba, meore
mxriv, aadvilebs adresatis mxridan misi kanonierebisa da
gasaCivrebis SesaZlo Sedegebis Sefasebas da, bolos, is
aadvilebs saCivris an sarCelis ganmxilveli organoebis
mier misi kanonierebisa da mizanSewonilobis gadamowmebis
process.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
romelic akmayofilebs adresatis moTxovnas da, amasTan,
ar axdens mesame piris uflebebis SezRudvas, ar saWiroebs
dasabuTebis darTvas. szak-is 53-e muxlis me-7 nawilis Tanaxmad, werilobiTi formiT gamocemuli individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti ar saWiroebs dasabuTebas, Tu:

a. is gamocemulia dainteresebuli mxaris moTxovnis safuZvelze da ar zRudavs mesame pirebis kanonier uflebebsa da interesebs;
b. dainteresebuli mxarisaTvis cnobilia is
faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi winapirobebi, romelTa safuZvelzedac gamoica es individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti;
g. kanoni iTvaliswinebs misi dasabuTebis gareSe
gamocemis SesaZleblobas.
e) kanonier individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtSi unda mieTiTos is organo, romelSic SeiZleba am
aqtis gasaCivreba, da misi misamarTi. aseve, aucilebelia
miTiTeba saCivris (an sarCelis) Setanis vadaze (szak-is
52 II muxli). ramdenadac zogadi administraciuli kodeq-

260
si arafers ambobs am moTxovnis darRvevis samarTlebriv
Sedegebze, SesaZlebelia sask-is me-12 muxlis administraciuli aqtis gamocemis procesze analogiis saxiT gavrceleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tu mxares ar ganemarta gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba, gasaCivrebis vada da wesi, maSin
gasaCivreba SeiZleba sasamarTlo aqtis gamotanidan erTi
wlis ganmavlobaSi.
aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom am moTxovnis daucveloba individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonwinaaRmdegobas da baTilobas ki
ar iwvevs, aramed zemoqmedebas axdens gasaCivrebis vadis
aTvlaze da, amdenad, aferxebs individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlas,
ramdenadac is (myarad) Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalas swored gasaCivrebis vadis gasvlis Semdeg iZens.
1.2.2. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis materialuri kanoniereba
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
materialuri kanoniereba dakavSirebulia aqtis SinaarsTan da moiTxovs, masSi asaxuli konkretuli urTierTobis
mowesrigeba Seesabamebodes aqtis gamocemis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs da winaaRmdegobaSi ar modiodes qveyanaSi
moqmed sakanonmdeblo aqtebTan.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
rogorc samarTlis normis konkretizaciisa da individualizaciis aqti, unda Seesabamebodes samarTlis normebs,
romelTa aRsrulebasac is axdens. garda am konkretuli
normebisadmi Sesabamisobisa, zogadad is ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes qveyanaSi moqmed samarTlis normebs da konstituciis ZiriTad principebs (kanonis uzenaesobis principi).

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individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis uflebamosileba, ramdenadac is sakanonmdeblo
aqtis safuZvelze da mis Sesasruleblad gamoicema, gamomdinareobs TviT am samarTlebrivi aqtidan.
aseTi samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi ara gvaqvs saxeze, rodesac Tavad is samarTlebrivi norma, romlis safuZvelzec gamoica es individualuri aqti, ewinaaRmdegeba ierarqiiT zemdom samarTlebriv normas da amdenad aris baTili.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, yovelTvis ar aris sakmarisi
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
materialuri kanonierebis dadgenisaTvis misi gamocemis
uSualo samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis Semowmeba. eWvis SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia swored am samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis kanonierebisa da konstituciurobis Semowmeba.
Tu administraciul organos individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamosacemad gaaCnia moqmedebisa da gadawyvetis Tavisufali sivrce, is valdebulia
gamoiyenos igi Sesabamisi miznis misaRwevad da SearCios
erT-erTi is gadawyvetileba, romelTa miRebis uflebac
mas kanoniT aqvs miniWebuli. diskreciuli uflebamosilebis gamoyenebis moTxovnis ugulvelyofa Sedegad iwvevs
administraciuli aqtis ukanonobas.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis procesSi mniSvnelovani yuradReba unda daeTmos miRweuli miznisa da mis misaRwevad gamoyenebuli saSualebis Tanazomierebis Ddacvas.
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
Sinaarsi unda iyos sakmaod konkretuli, anu is unda iyos
ise naTlad Camoyalibebuli, rom mis adresats calsaxad
SeeZlos imis gageba, Tu ras moiTxovs misgan am aqtis gamomcemi organo.
es moTxovna gamomdinareobs TviT individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis funqciidan, ramdenadac, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, is axdens zogadi normebis
konkretizacias da individualizacias

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1.3. ukanono individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanonierebis zemoT moyvanili kriteriumebidan dasaSveboba, kanonierebis formaluri da materialuri winapirobebi - erT-erTis darRveva, ise, rogorc samarTlis
normis gamoyeneba saqmis garemoebaTa araswori gamokvlevis Sedegad, SesaZloa iqces misi ukanonobis safuZvlad.
erTmaneTisagan unda gavmijnoT ukanono da arara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebi.
aseve erTmaneTisgan unda gaimijnos ukanono da mizanSeuwoneli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebi. unda aRiniSnos, rom mizanSewonilobas gadaamowmebs mxolod administraciuli organo saCivarze administraciuli warmoebis gziT, sasamarTlo ki ifargleba
aqtis mxolod kanonierebis SemowmebiT.
aucilebelia ukanono da Secdomiani individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis erTmaneTisagan
gamijvna. aq igulisxmeba aqtis gamocemis dros daSvebuli
teqnikuri Secdoma weris, gamoTvlebis dros da sxva aseTi aSkara Secdomebi. administraciul organos nebismier
dros SeuZlia aseTi Secdomebis gasworeba da es xdeba administraciuli warmoebis formaluri moTxovnebis daucvelad. bunebrivia, rom aseT koreqturas aqvs ukuqceviTi
Zala da is moqmedebs aqtis gamocemis dRidan.
da bolos, unda moxdes kanonieri da kanonier ZalaSi
Sesuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis cnebebis gamijvna. kanoniereba pirvel SemTxvevaSi
gulisxmobs aqtis Sinaarsis samarTlis normebTan Sesabamisobas, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi, am aqtis samarTlebriv
Sedegebs. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis samarTlebrivi Sedegebi dgeba mis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg. misi ZalaSi Sesvla ar aris damokidebuli am aqtis Sinaarse, anu mis kanonierebasa da ukanonobaze,
aramed is ZalaSi Sedis mxarisaTvis kanoniT dadgenili we-

263
siT gacnobisTanave an gamoqveynebis dRes an kidev szak-is
54-e muxliT dadgenil sxva SemTxvevebSi.
1.4. arara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
kanonis moTxovnaTa darReviT individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema yovelTvis
ar warmoSobs mis arara aqtad cnobis safuZvels. es damokidebulia samarTaldarRvevis xasiaTze. ukanono individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisagan
gansxvavebiT arara individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts misi gamocemis momentidan ara aqvs Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zala da ar saWiroebs aravis mxridan (moqalaqe, administraciuli organo, sasamarTlo)
angariSis gawevas. rogorc kanonieri, ise ukanono individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, gansxvavebiT arara administraciuli aqtisagan, misi gamocemis
momentidan iZens Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalas da
saCivrisa da sarCelis Setanis vadis gasvlis Semdeg xdeba
Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalis mqone.
szak-is me-60 muxlSi gansazRvrulia individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arara aqtad cnobis safuZvlebi:
a) SeuZlebelia misi gamomcemi organos dadgena;
b) is gamocemulia arauflebamosili organos an arauflebamosili piris mier;
g) misi Sesruleba SeuZlebelia faqtobrivi mizezis
gamo;
d) misi Sesruleba gamoiwvevs sisxlisamarTlebriv an
administraciul samarTaldarRvevas.
administraciuli organo valdebulia, sakuTari iniciativiT an dainteresebuli mxaris moTxovniT, aRiaros
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi _ aqti
arara aqtad. arara individualur administraciul-sa-

264
marTlebrivi aqtebze administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis gasaCivrebisaTvis szak-iT dadgenili vadebi ar vrceldeba.
1.5. individualuri administraciul samarTlebrivi
aqtis kanonierebis gadamowmeba
kazusi: saaqcio sazogadoeba quTaisis ,,investbanks mieniWa uflebamosileba, ekonomikis saministros Sesabamisi
instruqciis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebze gasces samSeneblo
sesxebi SeRavaTiani procentiT. sesxis odenobis gansazRvris erT-erT kriteriumad ganisazRvra ojaxis wevrTa
odenoba.
quTaisis mkvidrma vaSakiZem gancxadebiT mimarTa ,,investbanks zemoaRniSnuli programis farglebSi samSeneblo sesxis gamoyofis Sesaxeb sakuTari saxlis aSenebis
mizniT. dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad ganmcxadebelma keTilsindisierad Seavso yvela dokumenti. sesxis daangariSebis dros saqmismwarmoebelma gabaSvilma dauSva Secdoma da ojaxis wevrTa odenobis arasworad dafiqsirebis Sedegad realurad kuTvnili sesxis odenoba 25 000 laramde
gazarda.
ori wlis Semdeg ,,investbankSi Catarebuli reviziis
Sedegad aRmoCnda saqmismwarmoeblis mier daSvebuli Secdoma. am droisaTvis kreditors aRniSnuli sesxiT saxli
aeSenebina da iq cxovrobda.
SekiTxva: aqvs Tu ara ufleba banks gaauqmos sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli mowmoba da kreditorisgan moiTxovos zedmeti Tanxis ukan dabruneba?
SeamowmeT bankis uflebamosileba, gaauqmos sakuTari
gadawyvetileba administraciul saCivarze administraciuli warmoebis farglebSi.
am mizniT unda Semowmdes:
I. sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis
samarTlebrivi buneba;

265
II. sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis
kanoniereba da ukanonoba;
III. sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis
gauqmebis SesaZlebloba.

kazusis amoxsna:
I. sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis samarTlebrivi buneba
bankis mizania sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis gauqmeba. igi amas SeZlebs Tu sajaro-samarTlebrivi norma iZleva aRniSnul saSualebas. upirveles yovlisa
unda dadgindes, sesxis gacemis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis
samarTlebrivi buneba, kerZod, igi sajaro-samarTlebrivi
Tu kerZo-samarTlebrivi bunebisaa.
sesxis gacemis gadawyvetilebas eqneba sajaro-samarTlebrivi buneba, Tu igi gamocemulia individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formiT, anu akmayofilebs saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis
me-2 muxlis ,,d qvepunqtis moTxovnebs. pirvel rigSi unda
dadgindes sesxis gacemis gadawyvetilebis mimRebi piris
Tu organos samarTlebrivi buneba. kazusis Sinaarsidan
gamomdinare, sesxi gaica saaqcio sazogadoeba ,,investbankis uflebamosili piris gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze.
saaqcio sazogadoeba aris kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli
piri da saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis
me-2 muxlis ,,a qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, igi ar warmoadgens
admistraciul organos organizaciuli gagebiT. Tumca
aRniSnuli muxlis ,,a qvepunqtis meore nawilis Tanaxmad,
romelic administraciuli organoebis funqcionalur
gagebas ayalibebs, ,,investbanki SeiZleba miviCioT administraciul organod. kerZod, ,,investbanki samSeneblo
sesxs gascemda kanoniT misTvis miniWebuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi ekonomikis saministros instruqciis

266
Sesabamisad. kazusis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom konkretul SemTxvevaSi, ,,investbanki aris
administraciuli organo funqcionaluri gagebiT, vinaidan igi kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze asrulebs sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebamosilebas.
aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba miRebulia administraciuli kanonmdeblobis (ekonomikis saministros mier miniWebuli uflebamosileba) safuZvelze da awesebs konkretuli piris (vaSakiZis) uflebebsa da movaleobebs.
ramdenadac investbankis gadawyvetileba akmayofilebs
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
cnebis elementebs, igi warmoadgens individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts.
II. sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis kanoniereba da ukanonoba
,,investbanks ganzraxuli aqvs sesxis gacemis gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis gauqmeba zogadi terminia. igi moicavs
aqtis baTilobasa da Zaladakargulad gamocxadebas. baTilobis obieqtia ukanono individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti, xolo Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis
- kanonieri individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. aqedan gamomdinare, unda dadgindes individualuri administraciul-samarTlebivi aqtis (sesxis gacemis gadawyvetilebis) kanoniereba Tu ukanonoba.
daculia gadawyvetilebis miRebis formaluri kanonierebis moTxovnebi. gadawyvetileba miRebulia uflebamosili organos mier administraciuli warmoebis saTanado
saxis dacviT individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formiT.
gadawyvetilebis materialuri kanonierebis Semowmebisas vadgenT bankis Secdomas vaSakiZis ojaxis wevrebis
odenobis fiqsaciaSi, rac gaxda safuZveli samSeneblo
sesxis gazrdili odenobis dadgenis. bankis TanamSromelma
gadawyvetileba daafuZna araswor garemoebas, rac warmo-

267
adgens individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis materialuri kanonierebis kriteriumis darRvevas.
maSasadame, sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumenti
(individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti)
ukanonoa da es SeiZleba gaxdes gadawyvetilebis baTilad
gamocxadebis safuZveli.
III. sesxis gacemis gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis SesaZlebloba
saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-60
muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti baTilia, Tu is ewinaaRmdegeba kanons an
arsebiTad darRveulia misi momzadebisa da gamocemis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili sxva moTxovnebi. aRniSnulis Tanaxmad, ukanono individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti SeiZleba baTilad iqnes cnobili. kazusis
Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli
dokumenti warmoadgens aRmWurvel, uflebamimniWebel
individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts. misi
baTilad cnoba samarTlebrivad ufro rTulia, vidre amkrZalavi individualuri administraciul-samarTlbrivi
aqtisa. saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis
me-60 muxlis me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia kanonsawinaaRmdego aRmWurveli individualur-samarTlebrivi
aqtis baTilad cnoba, Tu dainteresebul mxares kanonieri ndoba aqvs am individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis mimarT. kanonieri ndoba arsebobs maSin, Tu
pirma aqtis safuZvelze ganaxorciela iuridiuli mniSvnelobis qmedeba, da saxeze ara gvaqvs kanonieri ndobis gamomricxveli garemoeba - dainteresebuli mxaris ukanono
qmedeba.
vaSakiZem ukanono sesxis gacemis damadasturebeli dokumentis safuZvelze ganaxorciela iuridiuli mniSvnlobis qmedeba, kerZod, aaSena saxli. maSasadame, misi kanonieri ndoba saxezea. kazusis Sinaarsidan irkveva, rom

268
ganmcxadebelma kanonis moTxovnis Sesabamisad, keTilsindisierad Seavso yvela saWiro dokumenti sesxis misaRebad
da misi kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedeba saxeze ar aris. es faqti
metyvelebs imaze, rom kanonieri ndobis gamomricxvel garemoebasTan, am SemTxvevaSi, ar gvaqvs saqme. aRniSnulidan
gamomdinare, udavoa vaSakiZis kanonieri ndoba kanonsawinaaRmdego aRmWurveli individualur-samarTlebrivi aqtis mimarT, rac gamoricxavs aRniSnuli aqtis baTilobas.
banki ar aris uflebamosili, moaxdinos sesxis gacemis
gadawyvetilebis baTiloba da moiTxovos zedmetad gadaxdili Tanxis ukan dabruneba.
amasTanave, sayuradReboa saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-60 muxlis me-6 nawili, romlis
Tanaxmadac saxelmwifo an sazogadoebrivi interesis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia aRmWurveli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad
cnoba adresatisaTvis qonebrvi kompensaciis gadaxdis
gziT. aRniSnuli wesi gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
gaicema nebarTvebi da sxva aramaterialuri SeRavaTebi,
xolo rodesac aqtis safuZvelze gaicema fuladi an sxva
materialuri sikeTe, azrs kargavs misi dabruneba kompensaciis gziT. aRmWurveli aqtis baTilobiT vaSakiZes mouwevda zedmeti Tanxis ukan dabruneba, risTvisac miiRebda kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul kompensacias imave
odenobiT, rac yovelgvar azrs iqneboda moklebuli.

2. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti


2.1. Sesavali
administraciuli samarTlis maregulirebeli roli,
upirveles yovlisa, normatiul administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtebSi povebs Tavis gamovlinebas. administraciuli samarTlis normebs axasiaTebT normis yvela niSani. administraciul-samarTlebrivi norma saxelmwifo

269
mmarTvelobis sferoSi kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebis umniSvnelovanes iuridiul formas warmoadgens. samarTlis
sxva dargebisagan gansxvavebiT administraciuli samarTlis normebs gaaCniaT maTi darRvevisagan dacvis sakuTari saSualeba, kerZod, administraciuli pasuxismgebloba,
romelic, rogorc wesi, sasamarTlos gareSe dgeba administraciuli, agreTve disciplinuri warmoebis wesiT.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi normis Taviseburebas
warmoadgens agreTve is, rom xSirad maTi meSveobiT wesrigdeba samarTlis sxva dargebis sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, kerZod, maTi meSveobiT uzrunvelyofilia
safinanso, miwis, sagadasaxado, bunebadamcavi da sxva urTierTobebis garkveuli nawilis mowesrigeba da dacva.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi normebis umniSvnelovanes Taviseburebas warmoadgens is, rom maTi SemoReba
xSirad Tavad aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis subieqtebis
mier, saxelmwifo-mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobis procesSi
da misi miznebis misaRwevad xorcieldeba (mag., ministrebis mier gamocemuli normatiuli aqtebi). moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT Sesabamisi aRmasrulebeli organoebisaTvis samarTlebrivi normebis damoukidebeli gamocemis, administraciuli normaSemoqmedebis uflebamosilebis miniWeba
aris nebismieri administraciuli organos kompetenciis
umniSvnelovanesi elementi. moTxovnileba Zlier, efeqtur aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze obieqturad ganapirobebs mis aRWurvas normisdamdgeni uflebamosilebebiT.
amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs Tanamedrove pirobebSi, rodesac mmarTvelobis obieqtTa mzardi raodenoba kargavs saxelmwifo xasiaTs, ris Sedegadac SeuZlebeli
xdeba maTze zemoqmedeba aranormatiuli, saganmkarguleblo gziT. amdenad, mniSvnelovanwilad izrdeba normaSemoqmedebis, maT Soris, administraciuli normaSemoqmedebis
roli. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti unda Seesabamebodes normatiul aqts, ukanaskneli
savaldebuloa administraciisaTvis, am SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs principi tu patere legem quam fecisti, romelic avalde-

270
bulebs reglamentis avtors daicvas igi individualuri
gadawyvetilebebis miRebis yvela SemTxvevaSi. normatiuli aqtis mimRebi organo uflebamosilia gaauqmos an Secvalos igi, magram ar aris uflebamosili individualuri
gadawyvetilebebis miRebis gziT daarRvios igi.
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
miRebis (gamocemis) uflebamosileba Tavisi arsiT aris
kanonmdeblis mier aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisaTvis
gadacemuli samarTalSemoq-medebis uflebamosileba.
nebismieri samarTlebrivi norma, maT Soris, administraciul-samarTlebrivi norma, warmoadgens samarTalSemoqmedebiT aqts. amasTanave, vinaidan aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organoebis ZiriTad funqcias warmoadgens
samarTalgamoyenebiTi saqmianoba, maTi normaSemoqmedebiTi xasiaTis saqmianoba imave mizans isaxavs. miuxedavad
imisa, rom sakanonmdeblo aqtiT ver iqneba uzrunvelyofili saTanadod yvela sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis
mowesrigeba administraciuli normaSemoqmedeba ver iqneba usazRvro, aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba ver iqceva
sakanonmdeblo procesis Semadgenel nawilad da ver Secvlis mas. uwyebrivi administraciuli normaSemoqmedebis
metismeti gafarToeba yovelTvis ar aris gamarTlebuli,
miT ufro, Tu administraciul-samarTlebrivi normis adresati aris moqalaqe. optimalurad iTvleba uwyebrivi
administraciuli normaSemoqmedebis dayvana umetesad Sidasistemur regulirebamde, aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis meqanizmis Sida organizaciamde, zogadsavaldebulo
administraciuli wesebis dadgenis SezRudviT. uwyebriv
administraciul samarTalSemoqmedebas momavalSi ZiriTadad Sidasistemuri regulirebis xasiaTi unda mieces,
anu is unda xorcieldebodes TviT aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis meqanizmis Sinagani organizaciis interesebSi
(mag. dargobrivi sistemis qveda rgolebisaTvis savaldebulo normebis dadgena), SeZlebisdagvarad unda SeizRudos uwyebebis mier sayovelTaod zogadsavaldebulo
wesebis SemoReba. amgvari uflebamosileba ZiriTadSi de-

271
legirebuli unda iqnes aRmasrulebeli xasiaTis saerTo
kompetenciis mqone organoebze. ,,normatiuli aqtebis
Sesaxeb kanonis me-18 muxlis Tanaxmad, kanonqvemdebare
normatiuli aqtis miReba (gamocema) SeiZleba mxolod sakanonmdeblo aqtis Sesasruleblad da im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es
pirdapir aris gaTvaliswinebuli sakanonmdeblo aqtiT.
samarTlis wyaroTa ierarqiaSi normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebi iuridiuli Zalis mixedviT
eqvemdebarebian kanons. kanons aqvs upiratesi Zala kanonqvemdebare aqtebis mimarT.152 kanonqvemdebare normatiul
aqtSi miTiTebuli unda iyos, romeli sakanonmdeblo aqtis
safuZvelze da romlis Sesasruleblad iqna igi miRebuli
(gamocemuli). amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom normatiuli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti delegirebuli samarTalSemoqmedebis, kanonmdeblobis dekoncentraciis,
misi diversifikaciis gamovlinebaa. delegirebuli kanonSemoqmedebis saxelmwifoebriv-samarTlebrivi azri swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom kanonis moTxovnaTa dacviT
regulirebis amocanebis SesrulebaSi CarTuli iqnes aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis specialuri SesaZleblobani
da misi specializirebuli profesiuli codna. delegireba uzrunvelyofs konkretuli sferos regulirebis sagnobriv urTierTkavSirs, romelic ganawilebulia kanoniT gansazRvrul masStabsa da normatiul administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts Soris. gaumarTlebelia uwyebrivi
administraciuli normaSemoqmedebis sferos moqmedebis
metismeti gafarToeba.
delegirebis Sedegad kanonqvemdebare aqtebis gamocema mimdinareobs saxelmwifos mier Tavisi amocanebis Sesrulebis farglebSi da ar scildeba misi pasuxismgeblobis sferos. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis
152 qveynis sakanonmdeblo organos mier kanonis miRebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli wesis dacviT miRebul normatiul aqts iuridiul
literaturaSi uwodeben kanons formaluri gagebiT, kanonqvemdebare
aqtebs uwodeben kanons materialuri gagebiT.

272
mier TavianTi uflebamosilebis farglebSi normatiuli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis miReba emyareba
TviTmmarTvelobis politikur ideas, TviTmmarTveloba
ar Seadgens damoukidebel samarTlis wyaros, magram imavdroulad igi warmoadgens normatiul xelisuflebas,
romelic efuZneba sakuTari saqmeebis sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT mowesrigebaze. saxelmwifosagan damoukidebeli politikuri gadawyvetilebis miRebis unari ayalibebs
TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis normatiuli mixedulebis
SedarebiT ufro farTo sferos. aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organoebis mier miRebuli kanonqvemdebare aqtebisagan gansxvavebiT adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis
organoebis mier miRebuli normatiuli administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti avtonomiuri normaSemoqmedebis sferos ganekuTvneba153.
153 zemoaRniSnuli ar gamoricxavs, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebis mier miRebuli(gamocemuli)
normatiuli aqtebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan Sesabamisobis
uzrunvelsayofad normatiuli aqtis am saxeobaze samarTlebrivi
zedamxedvelobis dawesebas. ,,adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobis Sesaxeb 08.06.2007
wlis kanonis Tanaxmad, samarTlebriv zedamxedvelobas eqvemdebareba eqskluziuri, nebayoflobiTi da delegirebuli uflebamosilebis sferoSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisa
da Tanamdebobis pirebis mier miRebuli(gamocemuli) normatiuli
aqtebi. saqarTvelos iusticiis saministro(saministros teritoriuli organo) valdebulia normatiuli aqti registraciisTanave,
samarTlebriv daskvnasTAn erTad, gadaugzavnos Sesabamis zedamxedvelobis organos. Tu zedamxedvelobis organo normatiul aqts
kanonsawinaaRmdegod miiCnevs, igi uflebamosilia normatiuli aqtis registraciidan 15 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi mimarTos
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis pirs) am
normatiul aqtSi cvlilebis Setanis an misi gauqmebis Sesaxeb motivirebuli werilobiTi moTxovniT. zedamxedvelobis organom werilobiT moTxovnaSi unda miuTiTos is normebi, romlebsac ewinaaRmdegeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis
piris) mier miRebuli(gamocemuli) normatiuli aqti. adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis organo(Tanamdebobis piri) valdebulia moTx-

273

ovnis miRebidan 15 dRis vadaSi gaugzavnos zedamxedvelobis organos normatiul aqtSi cvlilebis Setanis an misi gauqmebis Sesaxeb
miRebuli(gamocemuli) normatiuli aqti an motivirebuli werilobiTi uari. zedamxedvelobis organos ufleba aqvs aRniSnuli vadis
gasvlidan araugvianes 10 kalendaruli dRisa mimarTos sasamarTlos normatiuli aqtis SeCerebis, baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT. Tu zedamxedvelobis organo miiCnevs, rom adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis
piris) mier miRebuli(gamocemuli) normatiuli aqti uxeSad arRvevs
adamianis ZiriTad uflebebs an iwvevs gamousworebel mZime zians,
igi valdebulia normatiuli aqtis ZalaSi SesvlisTanave mimarTos
sasamarTlos am normatiuli aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT.
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organosaTvis delegirebuli
uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebis zedamxedvelobas eqvemdebareba delegirebuli uflebamosilebebis sferoSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis piris) mier
miRebuli(gamocemuli) normatiuli aqtebi.
Tu adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organo(Tanamdebobis piri)
zedamxedvelobis organos winadadebis miRebidan 10 dRis ganmavlobaSi ar Seasrulebs zedamxedvelobis organos moTxovnas,
am ukanasknels ufleba aqvs aRniSnuli vadis gasvlidan 5 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi mimarTos saqarTvelos mTavrobas
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis piris)
mier miRebuli(gamocemuli) Sesabamisi normatiuli aqtis an aqtis
nawilis gauqmebis Sesaxeb winadadebiT. saqarTvelos mTavroba
zedamxedvelobis organos winadadebas ixilavs da Sesabamis gadawyvetilebas iRebs winadadebis miRebidan 1 Tvis vadaSi. am vadis
gasvlis Semdeg mTavrobis mier adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis
organos(Tanamdebobis piris) mier miRebuli(gamocemuli) Sesabamisi normatiuli aqtis an aqtis nawilis gauqmeba dauSvebelia. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos(Tanamdebobis pirs) ufleba
aqvs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sasamarTloSi gaasaCivros
mTavrobis gadawyvetileba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos (Tanamdebobis piris) mier miRebuli (gamocemuli) normatiuli
aqtis an aqtis nawilis gauqmebis Sesaxeb, Tu igi am gadawyvetilebas
kanonsawinaaRmdegod miiCnevs.

274
2.2. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis cneba
,,normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti uflebamosili administraciuli organos mier sakanonmdeblo aqtis safuZvelze gamocemuli samarTlebrivi aqti,
romelic Seicavs misi mudmivi an droebiTi da mravaljeradi gamoyenebis qcevis zogad wess.
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti administraciuli organos saqmianobis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani samarTlebrivi formaa, romelic kanonis safuZvelze
da misi aRsrulebis mizniT mimarTulia pirTa ganusazRvrel wreze da adgens mravaljeradi gamoyenebis qcevis
zogad wess.
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
cnebis ZiriTadi elementebia:


uflebamosili administraciuli organo;


sakanonmdeblo aqtis safuZvelze;
qcevis zogadi wesi.

a. uflebamosili administraciuli organo


kanonSemoqmedeba - es aris qveynis sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis funqcia. dauSvebelia sakanonmdeblo organos
mier sakuTari funqciebis Sesrulebaze uaris Tqma da uflebamosilebaTa sxva saxelmwifo organoze gadacema. ramdenadac sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebas Zala ar Seswevs,
uzrunvelyos qveynis sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sakiTxis normatiuli mowesrigeba, normaTSemoqmedeba moiTxovs samuSaos gayofas sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel
xelisuflebebs Soris. kanonmdebeli valdebulia, kanonis
gamocemis gziT TviTon moawesrigos mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis normatiuli sfero da specifikuri da wvrilmani
sakiTxebis mowesrigebis prerogativa dautovos mmarTvelobis organoebs. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis uflebamosilebiT mmarTvelobis
organoebis aRWurvis mizania, xeli Seewyos sakanonmdeblo

275
organos efeqturobas; specifikuri da wvrilmani sakiTxebis mowesrigebisgan gamoTavisufleba kanonmdebels SesaZleblobas aZlevs, srulyofilad moawesrigos qveynis
saSinao cxovrebisa da sagareo urTierTobis umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxebi.
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemisTvis uflebamosili organo ganisazRvreba im kanoniT, romelic Sesabamis organoebs aRWuravs aseTi aqtis
gamocemis uflebamosilebiT. Sesabamisi administraciuli organosTvis moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad miniWebuli administraciuli normaTSemoqmedebis ufleba misi
kompetenciis umniSvnelovanesi elementic aris, vinaidan
aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis ZiriTadi funqciaa samarTalgamoyenebiTi, normaSefardebiTi saqmianoba. administraciuli organoebis normaSemoqmedebiTi xasiaTis
saqmianoba mxolod am mizans emsaxureba da am funqciiT
aris determinirebuli. amdenad, administraciul-samarTlebriv normebs orgvari samarTalgamoyenebiTi da samarTaldamdgeni iuridiuli datvirTva aqvs; es normebi
emsaxureba samarTalgamoyenebis, anu aRsrulebis mizans,
ris gamoc, moqmedi kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, aRmasrulebeli organos normatiuli aqtebi gamoicema kanonis aRsrulebis mizniT, anu isini kanonqvemdebare aqtebia.
b. sakanonmdeblo aqtis safuZvelze
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis uflebamosilebis zogadi samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi Cadebulia saqarTvelos konstituciaSi, saqarTvelos kanonSi ,,normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb da saqarTvelos zogad administraciul kodeqsSi. aseve, calkeuli
kanonebi Seicavs specialur miTiTebas, rom konkretuli
mmarTvelobis organo aRWurvilia, amave kanonis safuZvelze gamosces normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. sakanonmdeblo aqtis safuZvelze normatiuli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania, rom TviT am kanonSi ganisazRvros

276
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis uflebamosilebis ,,Sinarsi, mizani da moculoba.
Ee.i. TviTon kanonmdebelma unda gansazRvros momavalSi
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemiT ganxorcielebuli samarTlebrivi mowesrigebis
CarCoebi da mimarTulebebi ise, rom mmarTvelobis organos SeeZlos kanonmdeblis nebis farglebSi da Sesabamisad
moqmedeba.
g. qcevis zogadi wesi
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
cnebis es elementi mas individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtisagan mijnavs. normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti adgens qcevis zogad wess,
romelic mimarTulia misi gamocemis dros ganusazRvrelad bevri saxis urTierTobebis ganusazRvreli raodenobis monawileebisken.
2.3. administraciuli warmoeba normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemasTan dakavSirebiT
administraciuli warmoeba normatiuli aqtis gamosacemad daiwyeba mxolod kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi, romelic administraciul organos aRWuravs
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis uflebamosilebiT. normatiuli administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis uflebamosilebis damdgeni kanoni SeiZleba gaxdes dainteresebuli fizikuri an
iuridiuli piris an administraciuli organos mxridan
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovnis safuZveli.
uflebamosili administraciuli organo gadawyvetilebas normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamosacemad administraciuli warmoebis Sesaxeb iRebs werilobiT, aseTi gadawyvetileba aris individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti.

277
administraciuli warmoeba, normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis mizniT, SesaZlebelia daiyos Semdeg stadiebad:
-
-
-
-
-
-

gadawyvetileba normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamosacemad administraciuli


warmoebis dawyebis Sesaxeb (szak-is 211-e muxli);
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
proeqtis momzadeba (szak-is 212-e muxli);
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
proeqtis gamoqveyneba (szak-is 213-e muxli);
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
proeqtTan dakavSirebuli mosazrebebis ganxilva
(szak-is 216-e muxli);
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
miReba;
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamoqveyneba.

2.4. sasamarTlo praqtika


administraciuli normatiul-samarTlebrivi aqtebi
SeiZleba Semowmdes saerTo sasamarTlos mier maT kanonierebaze, anu maT Sesabamisobaze upiratesi iuridiuli
Zalis mqone normatiuli aqtisadmi. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb dauyovnebliv unda gamoqveyndes oficialuri gamocemis organoSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb
ver iqneba daZleuli imave aqtis ganmeorebiTi miRebiT.
administraciuli organos mier kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesis dacviT imave Sinaarsis samarTlebrivi normis miReba (gamocema), romelic sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT
gauqmebuli iyo, dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, ukeTu
sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT norma gauqmda normis miRebis (gamocemis) kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesis darRvevis gamo.

278
sasamarTlo praqtikaSi aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac adminitsraciuli organos mier gamocemuli administraciuli
aqti emyareba uwyebrivi normatiuli aqtis debulebebs,
romlebic ar yofila oficialur gamocemaSi gamoqveynebuli da, maSasadame, ar Sesula kanonier ZalaSi. miuxedavad amisa, aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sasamarTloebis
yuradRebis miRma rCeba administraciuli organos mier
aqtis gamocemis safuZvlis legitimuroba. ase, mag., sakasacio palatam erT-erTi saqmis ganxilvisas miuTiTa, rom
,,fasebis da faswarmoqmnis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb kanonis
me-13, me-15 muxlebis Tanaxmad regulirebadi fasebi (tarifebi) mtkicdeba da ZalaSi Sedis saministros normatiuli
aqtiT, saqarTvelos moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad.
saqarTvelos janmrTelobis dacvis ministris 14.06.99w.
#206-o brZaneba, romlis moTxovnis darRvevis gamo fasebis inspeqcia moiTxovda meurne subieqtis angariSsworebis angariSidan fasebis da faswarmoqmnis kanonmdeblobis darRvevis Sedegad miRebuli Semosavlis amoRebas
da dajarimebas, oficialur gamocemaSi - ,,saqarTvelos
sakanonmdeblo macneSi ar gamoqveynebula. amdenad, saqmis ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom darRveulia
,,normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb kanonis 38-e, 51-e, 61-e muxlebis moTxovnebi. normatiuli aqtis gamoqveyneba warmoadgens normaSemoqmedebiTi procesis bolo, damagvirgvinebel stadias, misi ZalaSi Sesvlis savaldebulo winapirobas. normatiuli aqtis amoqmedebisaTvis dadgenili
proceduris darRvevis Sedegad normatiul aqts ara aqvs
iuridiuli Zala, amasTanave normatiuli aqtis ZalaSi SesvlisaTvis savaldebuloa aqtis arayovelgvari, aramed,
saxeldobr, oficialur gamocemaSi gamoqveyneba, romliTac dasturdeba aqtis ZalaSi Sesvla. sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom aqtis - saqarTvelos janmrTelobis dacvis saministros gazeT ,,medicinaSi gamoqveyneba, ,,normatiuli
aqtebis Sesaxeb kanonis 61-e muxlis mixedviT, ar cvlis
misi oficialuri gamocemis saWiroebas, vinaidan aqtis
gamocemis droisaTvis gamoicemoda saqarTvelos ofi-

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cialuri beWdviTi organo - ,,saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo
macne. ,,normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb kanonis 38,5 muxlis
Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos normatiuli aqtis oficialur gamoqveynebad iTvleba misi sruli teqstis pirveli gamoqveyneba ,,saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macneSi. vinaidan
janmrTelobis dacvis ministris 14.06.99w. #206-o brZaneba,
romliTac dadgenili iyo dawesebulebis xelmZRvanelis
mier momsaxurebis fasebis SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos janmrTelobis dacvis saministrosTan, ar gamoqveynebula oficialur gamocemaSi, sakasacio sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom
mas ar aqvs normatiuli Zala. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare,
sakasacio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom ar arsebobda qveda sasamarTlo instanciis mier janmrTelobis dacvis ministris 14.06.99w. #206-o brZanebis kanonqvemdebare normatiul
aqtad miCnevis, misi moTxovnebis darRvevis dadasturebis
safuZveli. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, umarTebulod iqna
miCneuli 14.06.99w. #206-o brZanebiT dadgenili fasebis SeTanxmebis wesis darRveviT miRebuli Semosavlis, aseve imave odenobis sajarimo Tanxis, ,,fasebisa da faswarmoqmnis
safuZvlebis Sesaxeb kanonis me-16 muxlis safuZvelze,
fasebis inspeqciis wardginebiT saqarTvelos ekonomikis,
mrewvelobisa da vaWrobis saministros 16.02.01w. #18 brZanebiT saxelmwifo biujetSi gadaricxva.154
analogiuri motivaciiT ar dakmayofilda agreTve sakasacio palatis 21.12.01w. gadawyvetilebiT155 fasebis saxelmwifo inspeqciis sakasacio saCivari. saqarTvelos
transportis ministris 29.09.98w. #67 brZaneba, romliTac
damtkicda saqarTvelos ekonomikis saministrosTan SeTanxmebuli ,,mZRolTa winaswari samedicino Semowmebis
tarifi, registrirebulia saqarTvelos iusticiis saministroSi, Setanilia normatiuli aqtebis saxelmwifo
154 `susg administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2002w., #6, gv.
767-773.
155 `susg administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~, 2002w., #1, gv.
112-118

280
reestrSi da miniWebuli aqvs saxelmwifo saregistracio
kodi. amasTanave, vinaidan saqarTvelos transportis ministris 29.09.98w. #67 brZaneba, romliTac damtkicda mZRolTa winasareiso samedicino Semowmebis tarifi, ar gamoqveynebula oficialur gamocemaSi, sakasacio palatam
miuTiTa, rom mas ar aqvs normatiuli Zala. Sesabamisad ar
aqvs savaldebulo, normatiuli Zala am brZanebis me-3 punqtiT damtkicebul saqarTvelos ekonomikis saministrosTan SeTanxmebul mZRolTa winasareiso samedicino Semowmebis tarifs da kalkulacias, ris gamo xsenebul brZanebaze damyarebuli fasebis saxelmwifo inspeqciis moTxovna
ar dakmayofilda.
oficialuri dokumentaciis publikaciisa da gavrcelebis srulyofili sistemis, sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis aqtebis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofis pirobebSi azrs iZens iuridiuli aqsioma: kanonis
ucodinaroba pirs ar aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisagan, rac gulisxmobs kanonis (materialuri TvalsazrisiT)
codnis prezumfcias, e.i. TiToeulisaTvis udavo SesaZleblobas icodes iuridiuli normis Sinaarsi. imisaTvis,
rom normatiuli aqtis codnis prezumpcias realuri safuZveli gaaCndes, igi materialuri da formaluri garantiebiT unda iqnes uzrunvelyofili. materialur garantiaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba kanonmdeblobis propagandis,
samarTlebrivi informaciis miwodebis yvelanairi forma.
rac ufro mravalricxovania aseTi forma, miT ufro metad
iqceva kanonis codnis prezumfcia realobad. formalur
garantias ki warmoadgens normatiuli aqtis oficialuri
gamoqveyneba, igi kanonis codnis prezumfciis safuZvelTa
safuZvels warmoadgens. aRniSnuli prezumfcia erT-erTi
pirvelTagania prezumfciaTa Soris, misi cxovrebaSi daCqarebuli gatareba odiTganve cxovrebiseuli saWiroebiT
iyo nakarnaxevi. kanonmdeblobis codnis, gansakuTrebiT
farTo urTierTobaTa speqtris momcveli administraciuli kanondeblobis codnis prezumfcia, sxva prezumfciebTan SedarebiT, asaxavs albaTobis dabal xarisxs. aRniSnu-

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lis gamo administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba ukavSirebs
normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gasaCivrebis aTvlas ara misi oficialuri gamoqveynebis moments, aramed normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis mier mosarCelisaTvis uSualo zianis miyenebas.
kerZod, normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis baTilad cnobis moTxovniT sarCeli unda aRiZras
mosarCelisaTvis uSualo zianis miyenebidan sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi.
sasamarTlos mier miRebuli, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba normatiuli aqtis gauqmebis Sesaxeb
unda gamoqveyndes oficialur gamocemaSi `sakanonmdeblo macneSi~. sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT gauqmebuli normatiuli aqti Zalas kargavs
oficialur gamocemaSi gadawyvetilebis gamoqveynebis
dRidan. amdenad, oficialur gamocemaSi gadawyvetilebis
sarezolucio nawilis gamoqveyneba savsebiT sakmarisia
normatiuli aqtis Zaladakargulad gamocxadebisaTvis,
gauqmebuli normatiuli aqtis mimReb organos ar evaleba
sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis aRsasruleblad raime zomis miReba.
vinaidan normaSemoqmedebiTi procesi mniSvnelovanwilad aris ganpirobebuli politikuri aspeqtebiT, normatiul aqtebTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlo davebSi mxareTa
argumentaciaSi Cveulebisamebr Warbobs mizanSewonilobis motivebi, rac normaSemoqmedebis da ara sasamarTlos
kompetencias Seadgens. sasamarTlo mowodebulia gadawyvitos davis mxolod da mxolod samarTlebrivi aspeqtebi
da Tavi unda Seikavos socialur-politikuri an ekonomikuri mizanSewonilobis sakiTxebis ganxilvisagan, miT
ufro, rom normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis kanonierebis Taobaze sasamarTlos mier miRebuli
gadawyvetileba TavisTavad mizanSewonilia, vinaidan mizanSewonilobis aspeqti, racionaluri kanonmdeblobis
pirobebSi, ukavSirdeba kanonierebas. samarTalSemoqmedebiTi uflebamosilebis delegirebis arsi administra-

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ciuli organos specialuri codnis da kompetenciis gamoyenebaSi mdgomareobs, am TvalsazrisiT SesaZlebelia
saubari amgvari regulirebis dros arsebul mixedulebaze. germaniis administraciuli sasamarTlos 13.12.84w.
gadawyvetilebaSi, gamotanili saqmeze, romelSic kasatorebi iTxovdnen diuseldorfis universitetis msmenelTa
miRebis dadgenili kvotis gazrdas, sasamarTlom miuTiTa,
rom administraciul sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia Seasworos
mocemuli gadawyvetileba im safuZvliT, rom ufro marTebulia saswavlebelSi miRebis limitis sxvagvari gaangariSeba anda dadgenilebis mimRebi organos mier mowveuli
calkeuli saeqsperto daskvnebi anda gaangariSebis modelebi arasworia. sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom dadgenilebis
mimReb organos regulirebisas gaaCnia mixedulebis ufleba, romelsac sasamarTloebi pativiscemiT unda moekidon.
q. Tbilisis sakrebulos normatiul aqtTan dakavSirebiT
warmoqmnili davis gadawyvetisas saqarTvelos uzenaesi
sasamarTlos sakasacio palatam miuTiTa, rom kasatoris
(politikuri partiis) mosazrebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom qveda
instanciis sasamarTlom ar gaiTvaliswina wylis gadasaxadis xvedriTi wili minimalur xelfasTan da pensiasTan
mimarTebaSi, sakrebulos mier Sps ,,Tbilwyalkanalis
wlebis ganmavlobaSi subsidireba, tarifis gazrda Sps
,,Tbilwyalkanalis gasxvisebis gamo ar warmoadgens kasaciis dakmayofilebis safuZvels, vinaidan kasatori ar
uTiTebs xsenebuli sakiTxebis gauTvaliswineblobiT kanonmdeblobis ra normebi iqna darRveuli. sasamarTlom
miuTiTa agreTve, rom davis gadawyvetisas sasamarTlo
xelmZRvanelobs kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebiT da ara mizanSewonilobis mosazrebebiT. mizanSewonilobis gamo
aqtis Zaladakargulad cnobis safuZvlebi mocemulia
,,aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis struqturisa da saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb kanonis 49-e muxlis pirvel punqtSi.
amasTanave, kolegiuri administraciuli organos gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvis gansxvavebuli wesi, maTi mxolod
kanonierebis TvalsazrisiT Semowmeba, kolegiuri organos

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gansakuTrebuli statusis da misi diskreciuli uflebamosilebis SezRudvis mizanSewonilobis TvalsazrisiT
dauSvebloba dadgenilia araTu administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis, aramed administraciuli warmoebis wesiTac, romlisTvisac Cveulebisamebr daSvebulia miRebuli
gadawyvetilebis gadasinjva mizanSewonilobis TvalsazrisiT. kerZod, szak-is 203-e muxlis me-6 nawilis Tanaxmad,
kolegiuri an saTaTbiro organos gadawyvetilebis an sazogadoebrivi eqspertis daskvnis safuZvelze gamocemul
administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts administraciuli
organo amowmebs mxolod kanonierebis TvalsazrisiT da
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis SemTxvevaSi avalebs Sesabamis
adminitsraciul organos axali administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemas.156
3. realaqti
3.1. realaqtis cneba
realaqti (de faqto moqmedeba, realuri moqmedeba,
ubralo mmarTvelobiTi saqmianoba) - es aris administraciuli organos iseTi sajaro-samarTlebrivi RonisZieba, romelic mimarTulia ara samarTlebrivi urTierTobis warmoSobis, Secvlis an Sewyvetisken, aramed
faqtobrivi Sedegebis dadgomisaken.
realaqti, rogorc administraciuli organos saqmianobis erT-erTi forma, saqarTvelos zogad administraciul
kodeqsSi calke ar aris gamoyofili. kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs administraciuli organos qmedebis gasaCivrebis
SesaZleblobas. aseve, saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi srulyofilad adgens administraciuli
organos mier ganxorcielebuli realuri moqmedebisgan
156 `susg administraciul da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze~. 2004w., #2 gv.
336-344.

284
piris uflebisa da kanonieri interesis dacvis samarTlebriv saSualebebs (sask-is 24-e muxli: sarCeli qmedebis
ganxorcielebis Taobaze). administraciuli organos moqmedebis ganxorcielebis uflebamosileba Cadebulia specialur kanonebSi. mag.., policiis mier piris personaluri
monacemebis mopovebisa da damuSavebis mizniT ganxorcielebul moqmedebas awesrigebs sapolicio samarTlis sferoSi moqmedi normatiuli aqtebi.

3.2. realaqtis gamovlenis formebi


administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebul realur moqmedebas didi praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs. amis
sailustraciod sakmarisia ramdenime maTganis CamoTvla:
mosaxleobis sasmeli wyliT momarageba, quCebis SekeTeba
da dasufTaveba, pensiebis darigeba da a.S.
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli realuri moqmedeba SeiZleba gamovlindes rogorc organizaciis SigniT, aseve mis gareT.
Sidaorganizaciuli realaqtebi
Sidaorganizaciul realaqtTan maSin gvaqvs saqme, rodesac misi faqtobrivi Sedegebi ar scildeba am organizaciis farglebs. aseT SemTxvevas miekuTvneba, rodesac
administraciuli organos muSaki:
- adgens dokumentebs da asrulebs sxva weriT samuSaoebs;
- amzadebs muSaobisTvis saWiro saSualebebs;
- awyobs TaTbirebs;
- axdens dokumentebisa da sxva saqmiani qaRaldebis sistematizacias da a.S.
sainformacio xasiaTis realaqtebi da faqtobrivi
qmedebebi
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli realaqtebis didi nawili mimarTulia organizaciis gareT

285
faqtobrivi Sedegebis dadgomisken. iuridiul literaturaSi xdeba organizaciis gareT gamovlenili realaqtebis
or jgufad sistematizacia: sainformacio xasiaTis realaqtebi (moqalaqebisTvis axsna-ganmartebebis micema; sajaro gafrTxileba mosalodneli saSiSroebis Tavidan asacileblad; sajaro wliuri moxsenebebi da a.S.) da faqtobrivi qmedebebi (quCebis SekeTeba, dasufTaveba; skverebis
mowyoba; socialuri fuladi da materialuri daxmarebebis gacema da a.S.).
administraciuli realaqtis gamovlenis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani formaa sajaro gafrTxileba. es is SemTxvevebia, rodesac mmarTvelobis organo akeTebs sajaro
gancxadebas da afrTxilebs mosaxleobas bunebis movlenebis (didTovlobis, wyaldidobis) Sedegad mosalodnel
uaryofiT Sedegebze (mewyerze, sasmeli wylis dabinZurebaze, eleqtroenergiis miwodebis Seferxebaze da a.S.) an
konkretuli soflis meurneobis produqtis, konkretuli
warmoSobis sakvebis vargisianobaze (uxarisxo braziliuri
qaTmis barklebis aralegaluri Semosvla da janmrTelobisTvis SesaZlo mavne Sedegebi). sajaro gafrTxilebis
klasikuri magaliTia sigaretis kolofze jandacvis saministros gafrTxileba sigaretis mowevis mavne Sedegebze.
sajaro gafrTxilebis Sedegebis xasiaTi damokidebulia
gancxadebis gakeTebis formaze, dacvis obieqtis mniSvnelobaze, saSiSroebis xasiaTze, sainformacio saSualebebisa da mosaxleobis reaqciaze da a.S. magaliTad, jandacvis saministros gafrTxilebas Tambaqos mowevis mavne
Sedegebze TiTqmis aravin aqcevs yuradRebas, magram konkretuli kvebis produqtebis vargisianobaze informacia
mosaxleobis swraf reaqcias iwvevs; mcirdeba an TiTqmis
wydeba am produqtis realizacia, rac uaryofiT gavlenas axdens am sawarmos biznesinteresebze. am informaciiT
sargebloben aseve am firmis konkurenti mewarmeebi.
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli sajaro gafrTxilebisa (realaqti) da akrZalvis (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti) Sedareba

286
naTlad warmoaCens sajaro gafrTxilebis nakleb samarTlebriv mniSvnelobas, Tumca SesaZlebelia, orive SemTxvevaSi msgavs SedegebTan gvqondes saqme. mag., rodesac
administraciuli organo afrTxilebs mosaxleobas konkretuli sakvebi produqtis janmrTelobisTvis saSiS Sedegebze, es iwvevs ara marto am konkretuli produqtis
realizaciis Sewyvetas, rac mewarmisTvis am produqtis
warmoebis akrZalvis tolfasia, aramed es sawarmo mosaxleobaSi kargavs reputacias da eWvqveS dgeba mis mier
sarealizaciod gamotanili sxva prodeqtebic. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom akrZalvis Sedegebi ufro
viwroa, vidre sajaro gafrTxilebisa, ramdenadac akrZalva erT konkretul produqts moicavs, xolo gafrTxilebis SemTxvevaSi is gavlenas axdens mTlianad produqciis
damzadeba-realizaciis procesze.
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli sajaro gafrTxilebis kanonierebis dasadgenad unda Semowmdes am RonisZiebis
1. dasaSveboba;
2. samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi;
3. konstituciasTan, gansakuTrebiT, pirovnebis ZiriTad uflebebsa da TavisuflebebTan Sesabamisoba.

3.3. realaqtis ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi


administraciuli organos mier realaqtis ganxorcielebis samarTlebriv safuZvels SeiZleba qmnides konkretuli kanoni, normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti an individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti. aRmWurveli xasiaTis realaqti, aseve, SesaZlebelia,

287
ganxorcieldes konkretuli normatiuli safuZvlebis gareSec.
RonisZieba, romelsac administraciuli organo axorcielebs sakuTari uflebamosilebis farglebSi da mimarTulia konkretuli faqtobrivi miznis misaRwevad, ar unda
ewinaaRmdegebodes qveyanaSi moqmed samarTlis normebs.
administraciuli realaqti ise, rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, aris kanonsawinaaRmdego, rodesac mas axorcielebs teritoriulad an
sagnobrivad arauflebamosili administraciuli organo
an rodesac is ukanonod zRudavs piris ZiriTad konstituciur uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs.

4. administraciuli xelSekruleba
4.1. administraciuli xelSekrulebis cneba
,,administraciuli xelSekruleba - administraciuli
organos mier sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis
mizniT, fizikur an iuridiul pirTan, agreTve sxva administraciul organosTan dadebuli samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba (szak-i. muxli 2. 1. ,,z).
xelSekruleba, rogorc samoqalaqo samarTlis instituti, aris ormxrivi (an mravalmxrivi) nebis gamovlena,
romelic mimarTulia samarTlebrivi urTierTobis warmoSobis, Secvlis an Sewyvetisken. xelSekruleba ideba
mxareebis urTierTTanmxvedri, saerTo miznisken mimarTuli nebis gamoxatvis Sedegad. Tu ar aris ormxrivi neba,
Sesabamisad, ar aris administraciuli xelSekrulebac.

288
cnebis elementebia:
a. administraciuli organo
rogorc administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebis legaluri definiciidan irkveva, misi erT-erTi savaldebulo mxarea administraciuli organo.
administraciuli organos cneba, rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis cnebis elementi, da administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebis elementi, TavianTi arsiT, identuria. administraciuli organos
funqcionaluri gageba (,,nebismieri piri, romelic kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze asrulebs sajaro-samarTlebriv
uflebamosilebebs), romelsac aRiarebs saqarTvelos
zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi, aerTianebs rogorc administraciul organoebs organizaciul-samarTlebrivi
gagebiT, aseve, im fizikur da iuridiul pirebs, romlebic
ar arian saxelmwifo organoTa sistemis subieqtebi, magram kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze axorcieleben sajarosamarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs da mis CarCoebSi deben
administraciul xelSekrulebas.
administraciuli organo administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebisas ver imoqmedebs kerZo pirebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kerZo avtonomiis TavisuflebiT, ramdenadac
misi saqmianoba mimarTulia sajaro uflebamosilebebis
gansaxorcieleblad da moqmedebs mxolod kanoniT misTvis miniWebuli uflebamosilebebis farglebSi.
b. ,,sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis mizniT
administraciuli da samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis gamijvnas emsaxureba administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebis legalur definiciaSi mocemuli elementi: ,,sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis mizniT.
administraciuli organo uflebamosilia, gamoiyenos
saqmianobis rogorc sajaro-samarTlebrivi, aseve, kerZosamarTlebrivi formebi. aqedan gamomdinare, ibadeba kiTx-

289
va - ra SemTxvevaSi iZens administraciuli organos mier
dadebuli xelSekruleba administraciul-samarTlebriv
xasiaTs. Aam kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas saproceso-samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba aqvs: administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SecvlasTan an SewyvetasTan dakavSirebiT
warmoSobil davebs ganixilavs da wyvets saerTo sasamarTloebi administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT.
administraciul xelSekrulebas sxva saxis xelSekrulebisagan mijnavs xelSekrulebis sagani. xelSekrulebis
administraciul-samarTlebrivi Tu samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi buneba unda ganisazRvros obieqturad. xelSekrulebis mxareebis subieqturi Sexeduleba ar aris arsebiTi. amasTanave, gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom
administraciul organos, umetes SemTxvevaSi, kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli aqvs rogorc kompetencia, aseve
misi ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi saSualeba. aseT SemTxvevebSi is normatiuli aqti, romelic administraciul
organos aRWuravs qmedebis uflebamosilebiT, gvaZlevs
informacias misi saqmianobis formis samarTlebriv bunebaze, xolo im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac administraciuli
organos miniWebuli aqvs diskreciuli uflebamosileba
- SearCios yvelaze misaRebi saqmianobis forma, misi neba
gansazRvravs saqmianobis formis (xelSekrulebis) samarTlebriv bunebas (saqmianobis samarTlebrivi formis
arCevanis Tavisufleba).
zogadi administraciuli kodeqsisis me-2 muxlis I nawilis ,,z qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, xelSekrulebis samarTlebriv bunebas gansazRvravs xelSekrulebis mizani. ar aris
arsebiTi xelSekrulebis mxareebis samarTlebrivi statusi; is faqti, rom xelSekrulebis erT-erTi an orive mxare
administraciuli organoa, ar gvaZlevs SesaZleblobas,
igi administraciul xelSekrulebad miviCnioT. SesaZlebelia, or administraciul organos Soris daidos samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba. M
xelSekrulebis mizani unda ganvsazRvroT misi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare. arsebiTia imis dadgena, Tu rogoria

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saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebis, gansakuTrebiT, xelSekrulebiT nakisri valdebulebebis an dadgenili moTxovnebis samarTlebrivi buneba. administraciul xelSekrulebasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac:
a. is administraciuli samarTlis normebis Sesrulebas
emsaxureba;
b. is administraciuli aqtis gamocemis an sxva mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas Seicavs;
g. is moqalaqis sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs an valdebulebebs adgens.
4.2. administraciuli xelSekrulebis sakanonmdeblo
safuZveli
administraciuli xelSekrulebis, rogorc administraciuli organos saqmianobis erT-erTi sajaro-samarTlebrivi formis, sakanonmdeblo safuZvels qmnis saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi. igi ayalibebs
administraciuli xelSekrulebis legalur definicias
(szak-is me-2 muxlis 1-li nawilis ,,z qvepunqti) da mis maregulirebel specialur normebs kodeqsis V TavSi (muxlebi 65 - 71) uyris Tavs.
administraciuli organos mier administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebisas, aseve gamoiyeneba zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT administraciuli warmoebisTvis VI
TaviT dadgenili wesebi da samoqalaqo kodeqsis Sesabamisi normebi (szak-is 65-e muxlis II nawili; 70-e muxlis I nawili).
4.3.administraciuli xelSekruleba da individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
administraciuli xelSekruleba iseve, rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, awesebs,
cvlis an wyvets piris an pirTa SezRuduli wris ufle-

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bebsa da movaleobebs. maTi saerTo maxasiaTebelia is, rom
orive administraciuli warmoebis produqtia. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisa da administraciuli xelSekrulebis ganmasxvavebeli niSania is, rom
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti administraciuli organos calmxrivi nebis gamoxatvis Sedegia, xolo administraciuli xelSekruleba ormxrivi nebis
gamovlenis aqtia. Aam gansxvavebas ukavSirdeba is Taviseburebebi, romlebic axasiaTebs am or instituts maT amoqmedebasTan, kanonierebasTan, cvlilebebis SetanasTan, baTilobasa Tu aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT.
aucilebelia zRvaris gavleba administraciul xelSekrulebasa da im individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts Soris, romlis gamocemac dainteresebuli piris Tanxmobas saWiroebs. administraciuli organos saqmianobis am or samarTlebriv formas erTmaneTisgan mijnavs
is garemoeba, rom aseTi saxis individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtic administraciuli organos
calmxrivi nebis gamovlenis Sedegia. piris Tanxmobis moTxovnis mizani ar aris, CarTos adresati gadawyvetilebis
miRebis procesSi (rasac adgili aqvs administraciuli
xelSekrulebis dadebis dros), aramed miznad isaxavs, adresats aacilos iseTi aRmWurveli xasiaTis RonisZieba,
romelic mis survils ar Seesabameba. adresatis mxridan nebis gamoxatva administraciuli xelSekrulebis arsebobis
winapirobaa, xolo individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis SemTxvevaSi ki, misi kanonierebis ganmsazRvreli kriteriumia. adresatis nebis gareSe ara gvaqvs
administraciuli xelSekruleba, xolo individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, romlis gamocemac
dainteresebuli piris Tanxmobas saWiroebs, SeiZleba gamoices misi nebis gauTvaliswineblad. aseTi aRmWurveli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
ukanonoa da SesaZlebelia misi gasaCivreba da gauqmeba
(aseTi individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis magaliTebia samsaxurSi daniSvna, universitetSi Ca-

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ricxva, samewarmeo saqmianobis nebarTva da a.S. adresati
valdebulia, droulad gamoxatos sakuTari uaryofiTi
damokidebuleba am aqtis mimarT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
SesaZlebelia, am aqtiT miniWebul privilegiebTan erTad
mTeli rigi valdebulebebic warmoiSvas).
calkeul SemTxvevebSi Znelia imis calsaxad garkveva,
rasTan gvaqvs saqme - es administraciuli xelSekrulebaa
Tu individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti,
romelic saWiroebs dainteresebuli mxaris Tanxmobas.
arsebiTia samarTlebrivi urTierTobis monawileTa neba,
gansakuTrebiT, administraciuli organos neba, romelic
unda dadgindes nebis gamoxatvis formiTa da urTierTobis zogadi SefasebiT. Tu adresats SesaZlebloba aqvs, zegavlena moaxdinos samarTlebrivi urTierTobis Sinaarsis
gansazRvraze, es metyvelebs mmarTvelobis organos mxridan RonisZiebis administraciuli xelSekrulebis saxiT
ganxorcielebis nebaze, xolo, rodesac RonisZiebis adresats SesaZlebloba eZleva, mxolod (Tanxmobaze) uaris
TqmiT winaRmdegoba gauwios RonisZiebis samarTlebriv
Sedegebs, unda vivaraudoT individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis neba.
SesaZlebelia, administraciuli organosa da moqalaqis
neba ar emTxveodes erTmaneTs. rodesac administraciuli
organos mizania, dados administraciuli xelSekruleba,
xolo moqalaqes misi neba ise esmis, rogorc aRmWurveli
aqtis gamocemaze mimarTuli gancxadeba, aseT SemTxvevaSi
ara gvaqvs arc administraciuli xelSekruleba da arc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. amis
sapirispirod, rodesac administraciuli organos mizania, gamosces individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, xolo moqalaqe mis mier gacemul Tanxmobas
afasebs, rogorc administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebaze Tanxmobas, aseT SemTxvevaSi ara gvaqvs administraciuli xelSekruleba, magram gvaqvs (ukanono) aRmWurveli
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti.

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4. 4. administraciuli xelSekrulebis kanoniereba
4.1.1 administraciuli xelSekrulebis formaluri
kanoniereba
a. ormxrivi neba. administraciuli xelSekruleba ideba ormxrivi, Sinaarsobrivad Tanmxvedri nebis gamovlenis
Sedegad. xelSekrulebis erTi mxaris mier gakeTebuli SeTavazeba (oferti) da meore mxaris mier gamoxatuli Tanxmoba (aqcepti) administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebis
aucilebeli winapirobebia.
administraciuli organo moqalaqes gasacnobad ugzavnis xelSekrulebis jer kidev xelmouwerel egzemplars,
romelSic mocemulia moqalaqis valdebuleba, gadaixados
10 000 lari, xelSekrulebaSi SeTavazebuli momsaxurebis
safasurad. moqalaqe Tanxmobis niSnad xels awers xelSekrulebas da ubrunebs administraciul organos. administraciuli organo xels awers xelSekrulebas da inaxavs
mas saqmiani qaRaldebis ganyofilebaSi. ramdenadac moqalaqes ar dabrunebia administraciuli organos mier xelmowerili xelSekruleba, varaudobs, rom SeTanxmeba ar
Sedga. ori Tvis Semdeg administraciul organos sasamarTloSi Seaqvs sarCeli moqalaqis mxridan xelSekrulebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxis gadauxdelobis gamo. moqalaqes
mxolod amjerad eZleva SesaZlebloba, ixilos ormxrivad
xelmowerili xelSekruleba. saxezea Tu ara xelSekrulebiTi valdebuleba?
iuridiul literaruraSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, administraciuli organos mier xelSekrulebis meore mxarisTvis gagzavnili xelmouwereli xelSekrulebis
blanki ar warmoadgens SeTavazebas (oferts) xelSekrulebis dadebaze. swored moqalaqis mier xelmowerili xelSekrulebaa SeTavazeba (oferti), rac saWiroebs administraciuli organos mxridan xelmoweris saSualebiT miRebasa
(aqcepts) da moqalaqisTvis gadacemas. ramdenadac Cven
mier gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi administarciul organos

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moqalaqisTvis ar gaugzavnia mis mier xelmowerili xelSekruleba, amdenad, xelSekruleba ar SeiZleba dadebulad
CaiTvalos da, Sesabamisad, ar SeiZleboda damdgariyo
valdebulebiT-samarTlebrivi urTierToba.
b. forma. administraciuli xelSekruleba SeiZleba
daidos mxolod werilobiTi formiT, Tu kanoniT sxva ram
ar aris dadgenili. kanoniT dadgenili formis daucveloba SeiZleba gaxdes administraciuli xelSekrulebis baTilobis safuZveli.
administraciuli xelSekrulebis formaluri kanonierebis erT-erTi kriteriumia mesame piris monawileoba administraciuli garigebis dadebaSi. administraciuli garigeba, romelic zRudavs mesame piris uflebas an akisrebs
mas raime valdebulebas, ZalaSi SeiZleba Sevides mxolod
mesame piris werilobiTi Tanxmobis wardgenis Semdeg.
szak-is 68-e muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli organo
uflebamosilia, konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba, romlis individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis gziT mowesrigebis uflebac mas aqvs,
moawesrigos administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebis
gziT. Tu individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti, romlis magivradac administraciuli xelSekruleba
daido, saWiroebda romelime sxva administraciuli organos werilobiT Tanxmobas, es Tanxmoba aseve aucilebelia
administraciuli xelSekrulebis ZalaSi Sesasvlelad.
kanonis am moTxovnis daucvloba SeiZleba gaxdes administraciuli xelSekrulebis baTilobis safuZveli.
4.4.2. administraciuli xelSekrulebis materialuri
kanoniereba
administraciuli xelSekrulebis materialuri kanoniereba gulisxmobs mis Sesabamisobas saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli da samoqalaqo kodeqsebis saTanado

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normebTan. administraciuli organos mier dadebuli administraciuli xelSekruleba aseve ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes saqarTvelos konstituciasa da kanonmdeblobas.
administraciuli xelSekrulebis baTilad gamocxadebas awesrigebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi. garda samoqalaqo kodeqsiT dadgenili safuZvlebisa, szak-i
iTvaliswinebs moTxovnebs, romelTa daucvelobac SeiZleba gaxdes administraciuli xelSekrulebis baTilobis
safuZveli. aqedan gamomdinare, administraciuli xelSekruleba aris baTili, magaliTad, rodesac:
xelSekrulebis erT-erTi mxare qmeduunaro piria
an is dadebulia fsiqikuri moSlilobis dros, an suliT
avadmyofis mier (ssk-is 58-e muxli);
is dadebulia mxolod mosaCveneblad, im ganzraxvis
gareSe, rom mas Sesabamisi iuridiuli Sedegi mohyves (sskis 56-e muxli);
neba gamovlenilia araseriozulad (xumrobiT) im
varaudiT, rom araseriozulobas miuxvdebodnen (ssk-is
57-e muxli);
is dadebulia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formis
daucvelad (werilobiTi forma an sanotaro damowmebis
kanoniT dadgenili valdebuleba);
im individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis baTilad gamocxadebis SemTxvevaSi, romlis safuZvelzec daido es administraciuli xelSekruleba.

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Tavi V
administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT saerTo sasamarTloSi ganixileba dava im samarTlebriv urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT, romelic gamomdinareobs administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan.
1. administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis stadiebi
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi
amkvidrebs sasamarTloSi saqmis warmoebis Tanamedrove
models, romelic gulisxmobs administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis procesis sam stadiad dayofis aucileblobas. es stadiebia:
I.
II.
III.

sarCelis miReba;
sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmeba;
sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgena.

sarCelis miReba
sarCelis aRZvra aris darRveuli an sadavo uflebis sasamarTlos gziT dacvis saproceso saSualeba. yovel pirs
aqvs ufleba sajaro xelisuflebisagan uflebebisa da
Tavisuflebebis dasacavad mimarTos sasamarTlos. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi gansazRvravs uflebis dacvisaTvis sasamarTloSi mimarTvis formas sasarCelo gancxadebis saxiT.
sasamarTlo sasarCelo gancxadebis Semosvlidan xuTi
dRis ganmavlobaSi amowmebs mis Sesabamisobas samoqalaqo
saproceso kodeqsis 177-e - 179-e muxlebiT dadgenil moTxovnebTan da gamoaqvs ganCineba sarCelis miRebis Sesaxeb.
sarCelis sasamarTloSi Setanisas (Tu fostiT ar aris
gagzavnili) sasamarTlos kancelaria amowmebs sarCelis

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formalur mxares, rac gulisxmobs sssk-is 178-e muxlis
pirveli nawilis ,,a-,,d, ,,z, ,,k da ,,m qvepunqtebiT gaTvaliswinebuli rekvizitebis dacvas. kancelaria aseve
amowmebs erTvis Tu ara sarCels saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdis damadasturebeli dokumenti, xolo Tu aseTi dokumenti ar erTvis, Suamdgomlobebis grafaSi miTiTebulia
Tu ara Suamdgomloba saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan gaTavisuflebis, misi gadaxdis gadavadebis an Semcirebis Sesaxeb, erTvis Tu ara sarCels TandarTuli dokumentebis
nusxaSi miTiTebuli yvela dokumenti, erTvis Tu ara sarCels warmomadgenlis uflebamosilebis damadasturebeli
dokumenti (Tu sarCeli Seaqvs warmomadgenels), aris Tu
ara sarCeli xelmowerili, wardgenilia Tu ara sarCelisa
da TandarTuli dokumentebis imdeni asli, ramdenic mopasuxea. sasamarTlos kancelaria formaluri uzustobis
aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi mosarCeles (mis warmomadgenels)
miuTiTebs uzustobis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb.
Tu mosamarTle gamoarkvevs, rom sarCeli Setanilia
sssk-is 178-e da 179-e muxlebSi miTiTebuli pirobebis
darRveviT, an saxelmwifo baJi ar aris gadaxdili, gamoitans ganCinebas xarvezis Sesaxeb da mosarCeles dauniSnavs vadas mis Sesavsebad. Tu mosarCele daniSnul vadaSi
Seavsebs ganCinebaSi miTiTebul xarvezs, mosamarTle gamoitans ganCinebas am sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis Sesaxeb.
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas
sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebaze uaris Tqmisa da misi mosarCelisaTvis dabrunebis Sesaxeb, razedac SeiZleba kerZo
saCivris Setana. Tu sarCelSi ar aris miTiTebuli mosarCelis misamarTi, sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCineba sarCelis
ganuxilvelad datovebis Sesaxeb.
sask-is 29-e muxlis I nawilis Tanaxmad, sarCelis miReba
sasamarTloSi aCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas.

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sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmeba
sasamarTlo sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis etapze amowebs sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxs. Semowmeba xorcieldeba sask-is 22-25-e muxlebis Sesabamisad. Tu ki dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadawyveta saeWvoa an mosamarTle miiCnevs,
rom sarCeli dauSveblad unda iqnes cnobili, sasamarTlo
sarCelis miRebidan 2 kviris vadaSi niSnavs gamwesrigebel
sxdomas sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gansaxilvelad.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis
an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT sarCelis dasaSveboba mowmdeba sask-is 22-e muxlis safuZvelze. sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu:
1. sarCelis mizania administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnoba an Zaladakargulad
gamocxadeba (e.i. yuradReeba unda mieqces sarCelis
formulirebas);
2. mosarCele amtkicebs, rom administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti an misi nawili pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs mis kanonier uflebas an interess an ukanonod zRudavs mis uflebebs (sarCelis dasaSvebobis dadgenisas sakmarisia
imis varaudi, rom irRveva mosarCelis subieqturi
ufleba. namdvilad darRveulia Tu ara mosarCelis
ufleba, es dgindeba sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas);
3. daculia gasaCivrebis vadebi (sask-is 22-e muxlis III nawilis Tanaxmad, sarCeli sasamarTlos unda
waredginos Sesabamisad administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis an administraciul saCivarTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis gacnobidan, aseve administraciul saCivarTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis gamotanisaTvis dadgenili vadis gasvlidan
erTi Tvis vadaSi, xolo normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis SemTxvevaSi uSualo
zianis miyenebidan 3 Tvis vadaSi).

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administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasaSveboba mowmdeba sask-is 23-e muxlis
safuZvelze. sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu:
1. sarCelis mizania administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema (e.i. yuradReeba unda mieqces
sarCelis formulirebas);
2. mosarCele amtkicebs, rom administraciuli organos uari administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemaze pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs mis kanonier uflebas an interess (sarCelis dasaSvebobis dadgenisas sakmarisia imis varaudi,
rom irRveva mosarCelis ufleba. namdvilad darRveulia Tu ara mosarCelis ufleba es dgindeba sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas);
3. daculia gasaCivrebis vadebi (sask-is 23-e muxlis III nawilis Tanaxmad, sarCeli sasamarTlos unda
waredginos administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemaze uaris miRebidan erTi Tvis vadaSi).
qmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze sarCelis dasaSveboba mowmdeba sask-is 24-e muxlis safuZvelze. sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu:
1. sarCelis mizania iseTi qmedebis ganxorcieleba an iseTi qmedebisagan Tavis Sekaveba, romelic ar
gulisxmobs administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemas (e.i. yuradReeba unda mieqces sarCelis
formulirebas);
2. administraciuli organos mier raime moqmedebis ganxorcieleba an uari raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebaze pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess
(sarCelis dasaSvebobis dadgenisas sakmarisia imis
varaudi, rom irRveva mosarCelis ufleba. namdvilad
darRveulia Tu ara mosarCelis ufleba es dgindeba
sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas);

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aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSveboba mowmdeba sask-is 25-e
muxlis safuZvelze. sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu:
1. sarCelis mizania administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arara aqtad aRiareba an uflebis an samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis
dadgena (e.i. yuradReeba unda mieqces sarCelis formulirebas);
2. mosarCeles ar SeuZlia aRZras sarCeli sask-is
22-24-e muxlebis safuZvelze (aRiarebiT sarCels
aqvs uflebis dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualebis srulyofis funqcia. is moicavs im SemTxvevebs, rodesac
SeuZlebelia darRveuli uflebis dacva sask-is 22-e
24-e muxlebis safuZvelze. mag., saremonto samuSaoebis Catarebis mizniT qalaqis gamgeobam gadaketa
Wyondidelis quCa. am quCaze mdebare benzingasamarTi sadguris mepatrones miaCnia, rom dausabuTeblad
Wianurdeba gzis gaxsna, rac zians ayenebs mis uflebebs. mas SeuZlia aRZras sarCeli sask-is 24-e muxlis
Tanaxmad da moiTxovos gzis gaxsna, magram rodesac
sarCelis Setanamde ixsneba quCa, aseT SemTxvevaSi
rCeba uflebis dacvis erTad-erTi saSualeba aRiarebiTi sarCeli, romelic benzingasamarTi sadguris
mepatrones aZlevs SesaZleblobas, moiTxovos gzis
gadaketviT misi uflebis darRvevis aRiareba, rac
SesaZlebelia gaxdes saxelmwifos mimarT zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis safuZveli);
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arara aqtad aRiarebis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi mosarCeles SesaZlebloba
eZleva sasarCelo xandazmulobis vadebis gareSe, nebismier dros moiTxovos am aqtiT misi uflebebis darRvevis
aRiareba, Sesabamisad, aqtis arara aqtad cnoba.

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1.2. administraciuli saCivari, rogorc sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapiroba
administraciul saCivars aqvs sarCelis dasaSvebobis
aucilebeli winapirobis funqcia. dainteresebul mxares
ufleba aqvs mimarTos sasamarTlos darRveuli uflebis
dacvis mizniT, Tu ki is pirvel rigSi gamoiyenebs szak-iT
dadgenil uflebis dacvis saSualebas.
samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia
is, rom dainteresebul mxares SesaZlebloba eZleva moiTxovos administraciuli warmoebis Sedegad miRebuli saboloo gadawyvetilebis gadasinjva. szak-is 177-e muxlis
Tanaxmad, dainteresebul mxares ufleba aqvs gaasaCivros
administraciuli organos mier gamocemuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. administraciuli saCivari aseve SesaZlebelia administraciuli realaqtis ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovniT.
administraciul saCivars aqvs mTeli rigi upiratesobebi: administraciul saCivarze administraciuli warmoebis
farglebSi mowmdeba gadawyvetilebis mizanSewoniloba da
kanoniereba, maSin, rodesac sasamarTlo Semoifargleba
gadawyvetilebis kanonierebis SemowmebiT.
administraciuli saproceso samarTlis saxelmZRvanelos farglebSi administraciuli saCivris institutis
ganxilva gamarTlebulia misi saproceso-samarTlebrivi
mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare. yuradRebas SevaCerebT mxolod mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze.
1.2.1. saCivris wardgena
administraciul saCivarTan dakavSirebiT administraciuli warmoebisas gamoiyeneba martivi administraciuli
warmoebis debulebani.
administraciuli warmoeba daiwyeba mxolod administraciuli saCivris wardgenis SemTxvevaSi. e.i. adminis-

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traciuli warmoebis dawyebis safuZvelia, mxolod dainteresebuli mxaris iniciativa, mis mier werilobiTi formiT wardgenili saCivari. Tu ki administraciuli organo
sakuTari iniciativiT axdens miRebuli gadawyvetilebis
kanonierebis gadamowmebas, es xorcieldeba ara szak-is XIII
Tavis safuZvelze, aramed kodeqsis me-60-62-e muxlebze
dayrdnobiT.
ramdenadac administraciuli warmoebis dawyebis safuZvelia administraciuli saCivari, kanonmdebeli gansazRvravs mis rekvizitebs. szak-is 181-e muxlis Tanaxmad,
administraciul saCivarSi aRniSnuli unda iyos:
a) administraciuli organos dasaxeleba, romelSic Seitaneba administraciuli saCivari;
b) administraciuli saCivris warmdgeni piris vinaoba da misamarTi;
g) im administraciuli organos dasaxeleba, romlis administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti an moqmedeba saCivrdeba;
d) gasaCivrebuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis dasaxeleba;
e) moTxovna;
v) garemoebani, romelTac efuZneba moTxovna;
z) administraciul saCivarze darTuli sabuTebis
nusxa, Tu saCivarze raime dokumenti daerTvis.
administraciuli saCivari wardgenil unda iqnes administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamoqveynebis an oficialuri wesiT gacnobidan erTi Tvis vadaSi aqtis gamomcem administraciul organoSi, Tu iq arsebobs misi gamomcemi Tanamdebobis piris an struqturuli qvedanayofis
zemdgomi Tanamdebobis piri, xolo Tu aqti gamocemulia
administraciuli organos xelmZRvaneli Tanamdebobis
piris mier zemdgom administraciul organoSi. Tu ki
gadawyvetilebis mimReb administraciul organos ara hyavs zemdgomi administraciuli organo dainteresebuli
mxare uflebamosilia pirdapir mimarTos sasamarTlos
darRveuli uflebis dacvis moTxovniT. administraciuli

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realaqti saCivrdeba erTi Tvis vadaSi im dRidan, rodesac
dainteresebuli mxarisaTvis cnobili gaxda am moqmedebis
ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb.
dauSvebelia administraciuli saCivari administraciuli xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan an SewyvetasTan dakavSirebiT warmoSobili davebis ganxilvisa
da gadawyvetis moTxovniT. aseve, calke gasaCivrebas ar
eqvemdebareba administraciuli warmoebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli administraciuli organos gadawyvetileba, garda im SemTxvevisa, Tu es pirdapir ar aris
gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT an Sesabamisi administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtisagan damoukideblad arRvevs piris
uflebas an kanonier interess.
1.2.2. administraciuli saCivris wardgenaze uflebamosili subieqti
administraciuli saCivris wardgenis ufleba aqvs dainteresebul mxares. dainteresebuli mxare aris nebismieri
fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, administraciuli organo,
romelTa dakavSirebiTac gamocemulia an unda gamoices
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, agreTve, romlis
kanonier interesze pirdapir da uSualo gavlenas axdens
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti an administraciuli organos qmedeba.
mag., administraciuli saCivris wardgenis ufleba aqvs
pirs, romelic aris individualuri administraciuli aqtis (mSeneblobis akrZalvis Sesaxeb administraciuli organos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebis) adresati. aseve saCivris Setanis ufleba aqvs im pirs, romelic ar aris administraciuli RonisZiebis uSualo adresati, aramed aris
im piris mezobeli, romlis mimarTac gamoica mSeneblobis
nebarTva, ramdenadac es individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti pirdapir da uSualo gavlenas axdens
mis kanonier interesze.

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1.2.3. saCivris wardgenis samarTlebrivi Sedegebi
administraciuli saCivris wardgena warmoSobs administraciuli organos valdebulebas, daiwyos administraciuli warmoeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi administraciuli warmoeba warmoadgens administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemasTan dakavSirebiT ganxorcielebuli warmoebis
gagrZelebas, romlis mizania axali gadawyvetilebis anu
dainteresebuli mxarisaTvis misaRebi administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema.
administraciuli saCivris wardgena iwvevs gasaCivrebuli aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebas.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba ar SeCerdeba, Tu:
a) gamoiwvevs saxelmwifo an adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis an mmarTvelobis organoebis xarjebis
gazrdas;
b) warmoadgens policiis administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts, romelic miRebulia sazogadoebrivi
wesrigis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT;
g) gamocemulia sagangebo an saomar mdgomareobaSi
Sesabamisi kanonis safuZvelze;
d) aRsrulebis gadadeba gamoiwvevs mniSvnelovan
materialur zarals, an mniSvnelovan safrTxes Seuqmnis sazogadoebriv wesrigs an uSiSroebas.
1.2.4. warmoebis mimdinareoba
administraciuli warmoeba administraciul saCivarTan
dakavSirebiT gulisxmobs individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonierebis gadamowmebas.
1.2.4.1. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonierebis gadamowmeba
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
kanonierebis Semowmebisas, pirvel rigSi, unda Semowmdes

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am aqtis gamomcemi administraciuli organos uflebamosileba, konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTirToba moawesrigos individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemis gziT. saqmianobis swori samarTlebrivi
formis arCevasTan erTad mniSvnelovania, rom is uflebamosili organos mier administraciuli warmoebis saTanado saxis da aqtis gamocemisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formis dacviT iyos gamocemuli.
1.2.4.2 administraciuli organos gadawyvetileba
Tu kanoniT an kanonqvemdebare aqtiT sxva ram ar aris
dadgenili, administraciuli organo administraciul
saCivars ganixilavs da Sesabamis gadawyvetilebas iRebs
erTi Tvis vadaSi. Tu saqmisaTvis arsebiTi mniSvnelobis
mqone garemoebaTa dadgenisaTvis aucilebelia meti dro,
administraciuli organo uflebamosilia administraciuli warmoebis dawyebidan ara ugvianes 7 dRisa gamoitanos
dasabuTebuli gadawyvetileba administraciuli saCivris
ganxilvis vadis gagrZelebis Sesaxeb. administraciuli
saCivris ganxilvis vada SeiZleba gagrZeldes ara umetes
erTi TviT.
administraciul organos administraciuli saCivris
ganxilvis Sedegad gamoaqvs erT-erTi Semdegi gadawyvetileba:
- administraciuli saCivris dakmayofilebis Sesaxeb;
- administraciuli saCivris dakmayofilebaze uaris
Tqmis Sesaxeb;
- administraciuli saCivris nawilobriv dakmayofilebis Sesaxeb.
administraciuli saCivris ganxilvis Taobaze administraciuli organos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba warmoadgens individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqts da igi unda akmayofilebdes individualuri adminsitraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisaTvis szak-iT dadgenil
moTxovnebs.

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2. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Taobaze157
2.1. sarCelis dasaSveboba
2.2.1. sarCelis mizani administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmeba
sarCelis mizania SemzRudveli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmeba. sarCelis dasaSvebobis aucilebeli winapirobaa administraciuli aqtis arseboba.
sarCelis swori formis SerCevisaTvis aucilebelia imis
dadgena, administraciuli organo saqmianobis romel samarTlebriv formas iyenebs. arsebiTi ar aris Tu romeli
forma unda gamoeyenebina mas. iyenebs Tu ara administraciuli organo saqmianobis swor formas, es aris arsebiTi
sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebis etapze.
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli
mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis, is unda akmayofilebdes administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis cnebis elementebs
(individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi da normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis cnebis
elementebi ganxilulia wignis V TavSi).
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis arsebobis aucilebeli winapirobaa misi adresatisaTvis oficialuri
gacnoba. dauSvebelia administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovna, Tuki ar momxdara misi oficialuri gacnoba, an rodesac is aris arara aqti, an rodesac is dakargavs Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalas an sxvagvarad
moxdeba misi gauqmeba. sarCelis wardgenis aucilebeli wi157 sarCelis dasaxeleba ar Seesabameba moTxovnis Sinaarss. mosarCelis mizania SemzRudveli ukanono administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gauqmeba. gaugebaria Tu ra datvirTvis matarebeliaA sarCelis
gamijvna baTilad cnobis da Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb
sarCelebad, rac sasamarTlo praqtikaSi ar gvxvdeba.

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napiroba ar aris - mosarCeles gaacnes es administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti oficialurad Tu ara. mesame pirebsac
aqvT ufleba gaasaCivron administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtebi, romlebic zRudaven maT uflebebs an kanonier interess.
2.2.2. gansjadoba
kazusi 1: mosarCele X iTxovs ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis damxmare
struqturuli erTeulebis Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad
Catarebuli konkursis sakonkurso komiisiis gadawyvetilebis baTilad cnobas.
sask-is me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli marTlmsajuleba xorcieldeba im samarTlebriv urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT, romelic gamomdinareobs administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan. gansjadobis dadgenis mizniT unda Semowmdes Tsu-sa da mosarCeles Soris
warmoqmnili urTierToba aris Tu ara administraciulsamarTlebrivi xasiaTis, rom is gaxdes administraciuli
sasamarTlos ganxilvis sagani.
unda Semowmdes sakonkurso komisiis gadawyvetileba, aris Tu ara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. qmedebis individualur administraciulsamarTlebriv aqtad miCnevisaTvis aucilebelia, rom is
formalur-samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT Seicavdes szakis me-2 muxlis ,,d qvepunqtiT gansazRvrul cnebis elementebs. cnebis elementebia:
-
administraciuli organo;
-
administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze;
-
individualuri samarTlebrivi aqti;
-
awesebs, cvlis wyvets an adasturebs.
,,saqarTvelos kanoni umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb axdens umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebis personalis klasifikacias akademiur, administraciul da damxmare personalad. kanoni aseve gansazRvravs umaRles saswavlo

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dawesebulebebSi vakansiis dakavebis erTian wesebs. aRniSnuli kanoni akademiuri da administraciuli Tanamdebobis dakavebis aucilebel winapirobad asaxelebs Ria konkurss, xolo damxmare personalis samsaxurSi miRebisa da
samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis uflebamosilebas aniWebs
universitetis administraciis xelmZRvanels, romelic
am uflebamosilebas axorcielebs Sromis kanonmdeblobis
safuZvelze. aseve ,,saqarTvelos kanoni sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis Sesaxeb ar adgens sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pirSi vakansiis konkursis wesiT dakavebis
valdebulebas.
Tsu-is administraciis xelmZRvaneli, rogorc nebismieri kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piri, uflebamosilia
kvalificiuri kadrebis SerCevis mizniT Seqmnas profesiuli niSniT dakompleqtebuli komisia. komisiis Seqmnis
mizania, dadgindes konkursantis Sesabamisoba aRniSnuli
vakansiisaTvis dadgenil moTxovnebTan. sakonkurso komisiis daskvnis gaTvaliswinebiT, universitetis administraciis xelmZRvaneli iRebs gadawyvetilebas konkusSi
gamarjvebuli kandidatis vakantur Tanamdeboibaze daniSvnis Taobaze.
mocemul SemTxvevaSi mosarCelesa da Tsu-s Soris warmoqmnili urTierToba ar aris administraciul-samarTlebrivi, ramdenadac sakonkurso komisiis gadawyvetilebas ar axasiaTebs Semdegi niSnebi: 1. is ar aris gamocemuli administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. ramdenadac ar mogvepoveba administraciul-samarTlebrivi
norma, romelic daadgenda Tsu-is damxmare personalis
konkursis wesiT SerCevisa da sakonkurso komisiis Seqmnis
valdebulebas (aseTi valdebuleba arsebobs sajaro samsaxuris dakavebis SemTxvevaSi).
2. sakonkurso komisiis gadawyvetilebis uSualo adresati ar aris konkursanti. is, rogorc Sidaorganizaciuli
aqti, gamoicema administraciis xelmZRvanelis davalebis
safuZvelze da warmoadgens sarekomendacio xasiaTis do-

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kuments, romelic mas exmareba gadawyvetilebis miRebis
procesSi. administraciis xelmZRvaneli ar aris SeboWili
konkursis SedegebiT da gadawyvetilebas iRebs sakuTari
Sinagani rwmeniT.
3. sakonkurso komisiis gadawyvetilebas ar axasiaTebs
cnebis elementi ,,awesebs, cvlis, wyvets an adasutebs,
ramdenadac is konkursantis mimarT araviTar samarTlebriv Sedegebs ar warmoSobs, anu mas ar axasiaTebs momwesrigebeli buneba. sakonkurso komisia ar iRebs gadawyvetilebas piris samsaxurSi miRebis an gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb,
aramed afasebs dasakavebeli TanamdebobisaTvis wayenebul moTxovnebTan konkursantis Sesabamisobas. administraciis xelmZRvaneli sakuTari diskreciis farglebSi
iRebs gadawyvetilebas piris samsaxurSi miRebis Sesaxeb.
ar arsebobs sajaro-samarTlebrivi norma, romlis safuZvelzec mosarCele daadasturebda sakuTar uflebas, dainiSnos konkretul Tanamdebobaze.
Tsu-is, rogorc sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piris mimarT ar vrceldeba sajaro samsaxuris mimarT dadgenili
normebi. Tsu-is administraciis xelmZRvaneli moqmedebs
,,sajaro samarTlis iridiuli piris Sesaxeb kanonisa da
Sromis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. uflebis dacvis moTxovniT sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvis winapiroba is aris,
rom mosarCeles unda gaaCndes ufleba, romelic gamomdinareobs administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan.
Tsu-is administraciis xelmZRvanelis mier konkursis
daniSvna da konkursantebis SerCeva ar ganxorcielebula
administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. Sromis
kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinare, Tsu-is administraciis
xelmZRvanelis es qmedeba ar eqvemdebareba administraciuli sasamarTlos mxridan gadasinjvas, ramdenadac ar
arsebobs administraciuli samarTlis norma, romelic
gaxdeboda konkursantis mier samsaxurSi miRebis moTxovnis samarTlebrivi safuZveli.
Tsu-sa da mosarCeles Soris warmoSobili dava ver gax-

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deba administraciuli sasamarTlos gansjadi imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sasamarTlos mier samarTlis Sefardeba
Semdegi stadiebis gavliT xorcieldeba:
1. faqtis dadgena: sasamarTlo adgens, ra moxda
faqtobrivad, Tu ra SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme;
2. faqtobrivi Semadgenlobis garkveva: rac gulisxmobs samarTlis saTanado normis moZiebas sadac iqneba
im sinamdvilis (faqtis) normatiuli aRwera, romelsac
ukavSirdeba iuridiuli Sedegis dadgoma;
3. imis dadgena, Seesabameba Tu ara faqti faqtobriv
Semadgenlobas;
4. samarTlebrivi Sedegebis gansazRvra;
Cven mier gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo ver SeZlebs samarTlebrivi Sedegebis gansazRvras, ramdenadac ar
moiZebneba administraciul-samarTlebrivi norma, sadac
iqneboda faqtis Tsu-s damxmare personalis konkursis
Catarebis gziT SerCeva normatiuli aRwera, romelsac
daukavSirdeboda iuridiuli Sedegis dadgoma (administraciuli kanonmdebloba ar awesrigebs Tsu-s damxmare
personalis konkursis wesiT daniSvnis proceduras).
kazusi 2: mosarCele X-ma sarCeliT mimarTa sasamarTlos da moiTxova saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros isani-samgoris raionis saganmanaTleblo
resurs-centris gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba, romliTac
uari eTqva arasrulwlovanis mzrunvelad daniSvnaze.
Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTos samoqalaqo saqmeTa kolegiam saqme gansjadobiT gansaxilvelad gadasca amave
sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegias Semdeg
garemoebaTa gamo:
sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, rom sask-is me-2 muxlis 1-li
nawilis Tanaxmad, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
wesiT ganixileba dava im samarTlebriv urTierTobasTan
dakavSirebiT, romelic gamomdinareobs administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan. sasamarTlo kolegiis
ganmartebiT, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

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saministros teritoriuli organoebis saganmanaTleblo
resurs-centris debulebis me-2 muxlis me-2 punqtis ,,o
qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, kanoniT miniWebuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi resurs-centri asrulebda meurveobisa da
mzrunvelobis organos funqciebs kanondeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. samoqalaqo saqmeTa kolegiis ganmartebiT, resurs-centris ufrosis mier kanoniT miniWebuli sajaro
uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis mizniT gamocemuli gadawyvetileba mzrunvelad daniSvnis an masze uaris Tqmis
Sesaxeb, warmoadgens administraciuli warmoebis Sedegad
miRebul individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqts.
Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis mosazrebiT gansaxilveli dava gamomdinareobs ara administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan, aramed
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsidan.
sakasacio sasamarTlo aRniSnul davas miiCnevs Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis gansjadad da ar iziarebs am ukanasknelis mosazrebas
imis Taobaze, rom gansaxilveli dava ar gamomdinareobs
administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan. sakasacio sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, rom davis sagans warmoadgens administraciul organosa da moqalaqes Soris warmoSobili administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierToba. administraciuli
organo axorcielebs sajaro-samarTlebriv funqciebs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. resurs-centris ufrosi
Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi gamoscems individualur
administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts. ssk-is 1278-e muxlis
Sesabamisad, arasrulwlovani piris meurveoba da mzrunveloba ekisreba ganaTlebis saministros adgilobriv organos. ssk-is 1281-e muxlis Tanaxmad, meurvis an mzrunvelis movaleobaTa gansaxorcieleblad meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organoebi niSnaven meurves an mzrunvels. miuxedavad am normebis ssk-Si ganTavsebisa, maT safuZvelze
warmoSobili urTierToba warmoadgens administraciulsamarTlebriv urTierTobas, xolo meurvis an mzrunvelis

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mier Tavisi funqciebi xorcieldeba samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis farglebSi.
gansjadobis davasTan dakavSirebiT sagulisxmoa
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos didi palatis 2007
wlis 10 ivlisis #bs-132-123 (k-07) gadawyvetileba, romelic Seexeba ssip ,,saqarTvelos televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis Tavmjdomaris mier mosarCelis mTavari
redaqtoris Tanamdebobidan gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb
brZanebis samarTlebrivi bunebis gansazRvras. sasamarTlos mosazrebiT aRniSnuli ,,brZaneba warmoadgens kerZo
samarTlis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze gamocemul, samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb samarTlebriv aqts, romlis kanonierebac unda Semowmdes samoqalqo samarTalwarmoebis farglebSi da gamoyenebul iqnes swored kerZo
samarTlis Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo aqti.
kazusi 3: mosarCelem sarCeli aRZra Tbilisis saqalaqo
sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiaSi mopasuxeebis _ Tbilisis sagadasaxado inspeqciisa da saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamentis
mimarT, romliTac moiTxova Sps savaWro saxl `sinaTlis~
saregistracio da sxva monacemebSi Setanili cvlilebebis
baTilad cnoba.
Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis ganCinebiT sarCeli gansjadobiT gadaegzavna Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos samoqalaqo saqmeTa
kolegias, rac saqalaqo sasamarTlom daasabuTa Semdegnairad:
konkretul SemTxvevaSi mosarCelis moTxovnas warmoadgenda im brZanebis baTilad cnoba, romliTac samewarmeo reestrSi ganxorcielda cvlilebebi. sasamarTlos
mosazrebiT, aRniSnuli brZaneba ar warmoadgenda administraciul aqts, ramdenadac mTavaria ara brZanebis
forma, aramed misi Sinaarsi. sadavo brZanebis Sinaarsidan
gamomdinare ki, gasaCivrebuli brZanebis safuZvelze mTe-

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li rigi cvlilebebi Sevida Sps savaWro saxl ,,sinaTlis
saregistracio monacemebSi - ganxorcielda cvlilebebi
samewarmeo reestrSi. sasamarTlos daskvniT, mopasuxe sagadasaxado organo - moqmedebda ara administraciuli
kanonmdeblobis, aramed ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb kanonis safuZvelze da amasTan, ara rogorc administraciuli organo, ris gamoc mocemul SemTxvevaSi ar arsebobda saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxliT
gaTvaliswinebuli, administraciuli kanonmdeblobiT
mowesrigebadi samarTalurTierToba.
saqalaqo sasamarTlom gamoiyena administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2.2 muxlis ,,a qvepunqti da ganmarta, rom
davis administraciul-samarTlebrivad miCnevisaTvis saWiroa Semdeg pirobaTa arseboba: 1. sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierToba unda gamomdinareobdes administraciuli
samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan, Tanaxmad administraciuli
saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis pirveli nawilisa da administraciuli davis sagans unda warmoadgendes administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis me-2 nawiliT
gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebi; 2. sadavo samarTalurTierTobaSi monawile erT-erTi mxare unda iyos administraciuli organo, Tumca administraciuli organos mxolod davaSi monawileoba ar warmoadgenda davis administraciul saqmed miCnevis absolutur kriteriums, aramed
umTavresi Tavad sadavo samarTalurTierTobis arsi da
davis sagani iyo.
saqalaqo sasamarTlos daskvniT, SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis, iseve, rogorc kerZo samarTlis
sxva iuridiuli pirebis dafuZneba-registraciis, partniorTa ufleba-movaleobebisa da sazogadoebis marTvis
sakiTxebi, samarTlebrivad warmoadgenda korporaciul
urTierTobas, romelic regulirdeba ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb
saqarTvelos kanoniT. amdenad, gasaCivrebuli brZaneba Seexeboda Sps savaWro saxl ,,sinaTles, rogorc ,,mewarmeTa
Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formiT
dafuZnebuli SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis

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wesdebaSi cvlilebebis Setanas, miT ufro, rom mosarCele
sasarCelo gancxadebaSi dayenebuli sasarCelo moTxovnebis ZiriTad safuZvlad uTiTebda ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb
saqarTvelos kanonisa da samoqalaqo kodeqsis normebis
darRvevebze da mopasuxe ar iTvleboda sajaro uflebamosilebis ganmxorcielebel organod - administraciul organod, im pirobebSi, roca mis mier gamocemul moqmedebebs
safuZvlad ar udevs administraciuli kanonmdebloba.
zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos daskvniT,
sagadasaxado organo, romelic aregistrirebda samewarmeo reestrSi ganxorcielebul cvlilebebs, sajaro uflebamosilebis ganmxorcielebel organod ver CaiTvleboda. Sesabamisad, mosarCelis mier gasaCivrebuli brZaneba ar warmoadgenda administraciuli organos mier administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze gamocemul
individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtebs. amdenad, sadavo samarTalurTierTobis arsisa da davis sagnis mixedviT, mocemuli dava ganekuTvneboda samoqalaqo
saqmeTa kategorias da ganxiluli unda yofiliyo samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT.
Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos samoqalaqo saqmeTa kolegiis ganCinebiT, sarCeli gansjadobis Sesaxeb davis gadasawyvetad gadaegzavna saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTlos, rac saqalaqo sasamarTlom daasabuTa Semdegnairad:
saqalaqo sasamarTlo ar daeTanxma mocemuli davis samoqalaqo kategoriad miCnevas da ganmarta, rom saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamenti,
saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-2 muxlis pirveli nawilis ,,a qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, warmoadgens administraciul organos, romelic kanonmdeblobis
safuZvelze axorcielebs sajaro uflebamosilebas. amave
muxlis ,,g qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti aris administraciuli organos mier kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze gamocemuli samarTlebrivi aqti.
saqalaqo sasamarTlos miTiTebiT, saqarTvelos finansTa ministris 2007 wlis 20 martis #233 brZanebiT damt-

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kicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebisa da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelebis saxelmwifo an/
da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis~ Sesaxeb instruqciis
pirveli muxlis me-7 punqtis Tanaxmad, sagadasaxado inspeqciis ufrosis brZanebiT saTanado uflebamosil pirs
SeiZleba mieniWos saxelmwifo da sagadasaxado registraciis mowmobis, registraciis monacemebSi cvlilebebis
Taobaze brZanebis gamocemis ufleba. amdenad, sarCeliT
sadavo brZanebebi warmoadgenda individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtebs.
saqalaqo sasamarTlos daskvniT, gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi, dava swored administraciuli kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinareobda. mosarCele Tavisi moTxovnis safuZvlad
sadavo brZanebis gamocemisas ,,saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa
Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis, aseve zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-601 muxlis, 53-e muxlis me-5 nawilis da
96-e muxlis pirveli da me-2 nawilebis moTxovnaTa darRvevaze miuTiTebda da ara saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsisa da ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis moTxovnaTa darRvevebze, ris gamoc saqme eqvemdebareboda administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganxilvas.
sakasacio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom sarCeli Tbilisis
saqalaqo sasamarTlos samoqalaqo saqmeTa kolegiis gansjad samoqalaqo davas warmoadgens, Sesabamisad, saqme gansaxilvelad unda daeqvemdebaros miTiTebul sasamarTlos gansjadobis mixedviT, Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo:
sakasacio sasamarTlos miaCnia, rom YTbilisis saqalaqo
sasamarTlos samoqalaqo saqmeTa kolegiis ganCineba davis administraciulad miCnevis Taobaze sruliad dausabuTebelia, ramdenadac sasamarTlom ar imsjela Tu ra
samarTalurTierToba iyo saxeze da gaugebaria Tu ra mosazrebiT mivida amgvar daskvnamde, ris gamoc darRveulia
sssk-is 394 `e~ muxlis moTxovnebi.
konkretul SemTxvevaSi, sarCelis moTxovnas warmoadgens administraciuli organos _ saqarTvelos finansTa
saministros sagadasaxado departamentis brZanebis baTi-

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lad cnoba, romliTac cvlileba Sevida Sps savaWro saxl
`sinaTlis saregistracio monacmebSi, rac ar warmoadgens administraciuli kategoriis davas, ramdenadac administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2.1. muxlis mixedviT
saerTo sasamarTloebi administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixilaven administraciuli samarTlis
kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinare samarTlebrivi urTierTobidan warmoSobil davebs. administraciuli saproceso
kodeqsis 2.2. muxli kidev ufro akonkretebs Tu ra SeiZleba warmoadgendes administraciuli davis sagans.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, kanonmdebelma administraciuli samarTalwarmoebiT saqmis ganxilvis ZiriTad elementad gansazRvra davis sagani, romelic warmoSobilia
im samarTalurTierTobidan, romelic sajaro, konkretulad, administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobiTaa mowesrigebuli.
sakasacio sasamarTlo ganmartavs, rom sarCelis moTxovna ar gamomdinareobs administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan, ramdenadac Sps, rogorc kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris saregistracio monacemebSi cvlilebebis Setana regulirdeba `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis
Sesabamisi normebiT.
sakasacio sasamarTlos miaCnia, rom administraciuli
organos _ saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamentis brZanebebi, romliTac cvlileba Sevida
Sps-s saregistracio monacmebSi ar warmoadgens administraciul aqts, ramdenadac igi ar Seicavs zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 2.1. muxlis ,,d qvepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli administraciuli aqtis definiciis ganmsazRvrel aucilebel elements, kerZod: sadavo samarTlebrivi
urTierToba ar gamomdinareobs administraciuli /sajaro/ samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan; Sesabamisad mocemuli
dava eqvemdebareba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT
ganxilvas, ramdenadac sadavo samarTalurTierToba regulirdeba kerZo samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT, konkretulad, ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb kanoniT.

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sakasacio sasamarTlo ganmartavs, rom saqarTvelos
finansTa saministro, saqarTvelos finansTa ministris
#233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis) da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis Sesaxeb~ instruqciis safuZvelze axorcielebs ra mewarme subieqtis registracias, ra drosac
dasturdeba sawarmos sadamfuZneblo (da sxva monacemebi)
dokumentaciis Sesabamisoba `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis
moTxovnebTan, Sesabamisad sadavo brZanebebi materialuri TvalsazrisiT Semowmebas eqvemdebareba kerZosamarTlebriv normebTan Sesabamisobis TvalsazrisiT.
sakasacio sasamarTlos miaCnia, rom gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi sadavo brZanebas ar gaaCnia davis administraciulad miCnevisaTvis ganmsazRvreli meore elementi:
sadavo samarTalurTierToba ar gamomdinareobs administraciuli /sajaro/ samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan; sadavo
brZaneba awesrigebs kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris
registraciis pirobebs samewarmeo kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. Sesabamisad, sadavo samarTalurTierToba gamomdinareobs ara sajaro, aramed, kerZo samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan. is garemoeba, rom administraciuli organo
sadavo samarTalurTierTobas awesrigebs gadawyvetilebis /brZanebis/ gamocemis gziT, davas ar ganakuTvnebs
administraciul kategorias, ramdenadac urTierToba
gamomdinareobs kerZo samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan, amasTan administraciuli organo gadawyvetilebis miRebis
dros swored kerZo samarTlis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze iRebs gadawyvetilebas `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis
safuZvelze. Sesabamisad, es garemoeba ver gaxdeba davis
administraciul kategoriad miCnevis safuZveli, vinaidan
cxadia, rom sadavo brZaneba gamocemulia ara sajaro samarTlis, aramed, kerZo samarTlebrivi normatiuli aqtis
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis safuZvelze. Sesabamisad, samoqalaqo sasamarTlom msjeloba unda iqonios am brZanebis,
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis normebTan mimarTebiT.

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aRniSnulidan gamomdinare saxeze ar aris dava, romelic administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2.1. muxlis
mixedviT administraciuli saproceso kodeqsiT dadgenili wesiT eqvemdebareba ganxilvas.
sainteresoa sakasacio sasamarTlos mosamarTlis
gansxvavebuli azri, romelic Tvlis rom sarCeli gansaxilvelad unda daqvemdebareboda administraciul sasamarTlos Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo:
konkretul SemTxvevaSi sasarCelo moTxovnas warmoadgens administraciuli organos _ saqarTvelos finansTa
saministros sagadasaxado departamentis brZanebis baTilad cnoba, romliTac cvlileba Sevida Sps-s saregistracio monacemebSi, rac warmoadgens administraciuli
kategoriis davas, ramdenadac administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2.1. muxlis mixedviT saerTo sasamarTloebi
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganixilaven
administraciuli samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan gamomdinare samarTlebrivi urTierTobidan warmoSobil davebs.
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2.2. muxli kidev
ufro akonkretebs, Tu ra SeiZleba warmoadgendes administraciuli davis sagans.
administraciuli organos mier ganxorcielebuli qmedebis administraciul aqtad miCnevisaTvis aucilebelia,
is formalur-samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT akmayofilebdes zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 2.1. muxlis `d~ punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul administraciuli aqtis legaluri
definiciis yvela elements. kerZod:
1. sadavo urTierTobis erT-erTi mxare aris administraciuli organo _ administraciuli aqtis avtori;
2. sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierToba gamomdinareobs
administraciuli /sajaro/ samarTlis kanonmdeblobidan;
3. administraciuli organos RonisZieba mimarTulia
konkretuli SemTxvevis mowesrigebisaken.
4. administraciuli organos es RonisZieba (igulisxmeba Semdegi elementi: `awesebs, wyvets an adasturebs~) mi-

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marTulia samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis Secvlisaken, e.i.
is awesebs, cvlis, wyvets an adasturebs piris samarTlebriv mdgomareobas.
saqarTvelos finansTa ministris #233 brZaneba, romliTac damtkicda `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi
filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis) da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis
wesis Sesaxeb~ instruqcia, gamoica Semdegi sakanonmdeblo
aqtebis Sesasruleblad: saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsis 41-e, 52-e, me-100 da 101-e, `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-4 muxlis 4.5. punqtis, me-5 muxlis, me-51,
me-52, me-53 muxlebis, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis
28-e muxlisa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2004 wlis 21 maisis #39 dadgenilebiT damtkicebuli saqarTvelos finansTa
saministros debulebis me-4 muxlis me-3 punqtis `l~ qvepunqtis safuZvelze.
miTiTebuli instruqciis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, sawarmos (maT Soris individualur sawarmoTa) da arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli) iuridiuli pirebis, filialebis
(warmomadgenlobebis) saxelmwifo/sagadasaxado registraciisaTvis/aRricxvisaTvis, aseve gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelTa sagadasaxado aRricxvisaTvis uflebamosil
sagadasaxado organod ganisazRvra saqarTvelos finansTa saministros Semosavlebis samsaxuri. Sesabamisad,
saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamenti zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 2.1.`a~ qvepunqtis definiciidan gamomdinare, warmoadgens administraciul organos. amdenad, saxezea saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamentis mier gamocemuli
brZanebis individualur-administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqtad miCnevisaTvis gansazRvruli erT-erTi elementi _
administraciuli organo.
saqarTvelos finansTa ministris #233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebis
(warmomadgenlobebis) da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis Sesaxeb~

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instruqciis 2.1. muxlis Tanaxmad saxelmwifo (maT Soris
samewarmeo) reestris warmoeba aris sagadasaxado organos
mier saqarTvelos sawarmoTa (maT Soris individualur sawarmoTa) da arasamewarmeo (arakomerciul) iuridiul pirTa, filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis) (maT Soris, ucxo
qveynis sawarmoTa da arasamewarmeo (arakomerciul) iuridiul pirTa filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis)) saxelmwifo registraciis gansaxorcielebeli im saTanado RonisZiebebis procesi, romlebic gansazRvrulia `mewarmeTa
Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo
kodeqsiTa da am instruqciiT.
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 1.1. muxlis Tanaxmad, es kanoni awesrigebs samewarmeo saqmianobis monawileTa mowyobis organizaciul-samarTlebriv formebs. miTiTebuli
normis Tanaxmad, `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis moqmedebis
sfero srulad ar aregulirebs samewarmeo saqmianobas an
masTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, aramed igi Semoifargleba samewarmeo saqmianobis monawileTa mowyobis organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formebis gansazRvriT da masTan
dakavSirebuli sakiTxebiT. saqarTvelos konstituciiT,
samoqalaqo kodeqsiT, mewarmeTa ASesaxeb kanoniTa da sxva
kanonebiT ganmtkicebulia samewarmeo saqmianobis Tavisufleba, rac niSnavs, rom samewarmeo urTierTobis monawileebs, rogorc kerZo samarTlebrivi brunvis subieqtebs, SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon kanoniT aukrZalavi, maT
Soris, kanoniT pirdapir gauTvaliswinebeli nebismieri
moqmedeba (samoqalaqo kodeqsis 10.2. muxli), gansxvavebiT
administraciuli /sajaro kanonmdeblobidan, roca nebismieri moqmedebis ganxorcieleba unda gamomdinareobdes
kanoniT pirdapir miniWebuli uflebamosilebidan da Seesabamebodes mas.
kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebi SesaZlebelia arsebobdnen, rogorc registrirebuli, aseve araregistrirebuli saxiT, magram iuridiuli piris registracias konstituciuri mniSvneloba gaaCnia, ramdenadac sawarmoTa,
rogorc kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirTa warmoSobis da

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maTTan dakavSirebuli sxva faqtebi mxolod registraciis
Semdeg iZenen iuridiul Zalas.
swored registraciis pirobebSi iZens kerZo samarTlis
iuridiuli piri statuss da aRiWurveba ara mxolod kerZosamarTlebrivi ufleba-movaleobebiT, aramed sajaro
valdebulebebiT. ase, magaliTad, saqarTvelos finansTa
ministris #233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis)
da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis Sesaxeb~ instruqciis 3.2. muxlis Tanaxmad, sawarmo (garda `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gansazRvruli warmonaqmnebisa)/ organizacia
(garda samoqalaqo kodeqsis pirveli wignis pirveli karis
meore TavSi gansazRvruli warmonaqmnisa) valdebulia,
registraciidan an ekonomikuri saqmianobis dawyebidan 10
dRis vadaSi, sagadasaxado aRricxvis (registraciis) Sesaxeb gancxadebiT mimarTos sagadasaxado organos Tavisi
saqmianobis adgilis mixedviT. anu, faqtobrivad, registraciis Sedegad kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirebs warmoeSobaT saxelmwifos winaSe gansazRvruli saxis valdebulebebi _ gadasaxadis gadaxdis /sajaro/ valdebuleba saxelmwifo biujetis winaSe yvela saxis samewarmeo saqmianobasTn dakavSirebiT, romelic ibegreba saxelmwifos mier.
xolo piri (maT Soris, kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piri)
ixdis ra gadasaxadebs saxelmwifo biujetSi, amgvarad Sedis sajaro samarTlebriv urTierTobaSi saxelmwifosTan,
administraciul organosTan, romlis saqmianobac sajaro
interess emsaxureba. metic, registraciis Semdgom administraciuli organo instruqciis 2.3. muxlis Tanaxmad
asrulebs gansazRvruli saxis RoniZiebebs _ aqveynebs
oficialur beWdviT organoSi saxelmwifo (maT Soris, samewarmeo) registraciis monacemebs, amasTan samewarmeo
reestris asls (eleqtronul versias) ugzavnis saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros saxelmwifo
saqveuwyebo dawesebulebas _ statistikis saxelmwifo
departaments TveSi erTxel, araugvianes momdevno Tvis 5

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ricxvisa, saaqcio sazogadoebis samewarmeo reestris asls
(eleqtronul versias) ki saqarTvelos fasiani qaRaldebis
erovnul komisias, anu sakasacio sasamarTlo ganmartavs,
rom kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris registraciis Semdeg saxezea administraciuli organoebis koordinirebuli muSaobis procesi.
saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado departamenti registraciis ganxorcielebisas xelmZRvanelobs rogorc administraciuli /sajaro/, aseve kerZo
samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT. magram saxelmwifos mier delegirebuli uflebamosilebis safuZvelze administraciul organos daevala ra kerZo samarTlis iuridiul
pirTa registracia, amgvarad kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis saqmianoba moeqca saxelmwifo kontrolis (aRricxvis) qveS. registraciis safuZvelze kerZo samarTlis
iuridiuli piris statusis dadastureba swored administraciuli organos mmarTvelobiT RonisZiebas e.i. administrirebis sferos warmoadgens, xolo saxelmwifos mier
registraciis safuZvelze kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli
piri, rogorc organizaciul-samarTlebrivi warmonaqmni
iZens konstituciur niSans, ramdenadac saxelmwifo reestri (maT Soris, samewarmeo reestri) aris nusxa im faqtebisa, romlebsac ekonomikur urTierTobebSi samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba gaaCnia (instruqciis 2,,z punqti).
mosamarTle miiCnevs, rom mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis
ganxorcielebisas _ registraciaSi kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris gatarebis dros, administraciuli organo
am ukanasknelis mier Sesrulebuli procedurebis kanonierebas, moqmed kanonmdeblobasTan mis Sesabamisobas, afasebs rogorc kerZo samarTlis normatiuli aqtebiT (samoqalaqo kodeqsi, `mewarmTa Sesaxeb~ kanoni), aseve sajaro
samarTlis normatiuli aqtiTac saqarTvelos finansTa
ministris #233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebis (warmomadgenlobebisa)
da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis Sesaxeb~ instruqciis safuZ-

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velze, Tumca aRniSnuli _ Tu ramdenad Seesabameba kerZo
samarTlis kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs kerZo samarTlis
iuridiuli piris mier Sesrulebuli moqmedebebi, registraciis miRebisaTvis davas avtomaturad ar aqcevs samoqalaqo /kerZo/ kanonmdeblobis regulirebis sferoSi
kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris registraciaSi gatareba, aris administraciuli organos mmarTvelobiTi funqcia, ra drosac gadawyvetilebis miRebisas administraciuli organo samewarmeo subieqtis wardgenili dokumentebis Sesabamisobis Sefasebisas xelmZRvanelobs kerZo
samarTlis normatiuli aqtebiT, Tumca uflebamosilebas
axorcielebs sajaro - administraciuli kanonmdeblobis
safuZvelze, ramdenadac saqarTvelos finansTa ministris #233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli
pirebis, maTi filialebis (warmomadgenlobebis) da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado
registraciis wesis Sesaxeb~ instruqciis 2.7 muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo da sagadasaxado registraciis mowmobis,
registraciis monacemebSi cvlilebis Taobaze brZanebis
(individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis)
gamocemis ufleba sagadasaxado inspeqciis ufrosis individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtiT SeiZleba mieniWos saTanado uflebamosil pirs.
saqarTvelos finansTa ministris #233 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis, maTi filialebis (warmomadgenlobebisa) da gadasaxadis sxva gadamxdelis saxelmwifo an/da sagadasaxado registraciis wesis
Sesaxeb~ instruqciis 21-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sagadasaxado
organoSi saxelmwifo registraciis an/da gadasaxadis gadamxdelad aRricxvaze dadgomis wesis darRveva, kerZod,
ekonomikuri saqmianoba sagadasaxado organoSi saxelmwifo registraciis an/da sagadasaxado aRricxvis gareSe, iwvevs pasuxismgeblobas kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mosamarTlis ganmartebiT,
rogorc kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris registraciaSi gatarebis, aseve saregistracio monacemebSi cvli-

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lebis Setanis dros saqarTvelos finansTa saministros
sagadasaxado departamentis mier gamocemuli brZaneba
warmoadgens individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts. ramdenadac gasaCivrebulia administraciuli
organos mmarTvelobiTi saxis gadawtyvetileba im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romlis mowesrigeba individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis gziT mis
uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba, amasTan administraciuli organos RonisZieba mimarTulia konkretuli SemTxvevis mowesrigebisaken _ kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris
registraciisaken, ra drosac administraciuli organos
es RonisZieba adgens mewarmis, rogorc korporaciuli
subieqtis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formiT Camoyalibebis da dafuZnebis faqts,
gansazRvravs mis ufleba-movaleobebs, adasturebs misi,
rogorc registrirebuli samewarmeo iuridiuli piris
warmoqmnas. Sesabamisad, administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqtSi cvlilebis Setanis Taobaze gadawyvetileba aseve
ganxilul unda iqnes, rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti da misi kanoniereba unda Semowmdes administarciuli marTlmsajulebis meSveobiT.
sasamarTlo praqtikis analizi cxadyofs, Tu ramdenad
rTulia administraciuli da samoqalaqo davebis gamijvna. problemis gadawyvetaSi mniSvnelovani roli uWiravs
sasamarTlo praqtikis ganviTarebas.
2.2. sarCelis gamijvna
sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis Taobaze da sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT urTierTgamomricxveli sarCelis saxeebia. sarCelis es ori saxe aris uflebis dacvis alternatiuli saSualeba. arsebiTia sarCelis mizani.
mosarCelis mizania administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT aRmofxvras administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemiT damdgari mdgomareoba, anu

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aRdges aqtis gamocemamde arsebuli mdgomareoba. amis sapirispirod, Tuki mosarCelis mizania, arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvla da misTvis xelsayreli mdgomareobis miRweva
sarCelis dasaSvebi saxea sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze. aseTi aRmWurveli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze uaris
SemTxvevaSic sarCelis mizani aris ara aqtis gamocemaze
uaris gauqmeba, aramed aqtis gamocema. amdenad, sarCeli
sasamarTlos unda waredginos administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT.

sarCelis dasaSvebobis sqema


1. gansjadi sasamarTlo
- sajaro-samarTlebrivi dava.
1. dasaSveboba
- administraciuli organos uari;
- pirdapiri da uSualo (individualuri) ziani;
- sarCelis aRZvris vada erTi Tve;
- sarCelis mizani administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gauqmeba;
1. sasarCelo uflebamosileba;
2. winaswari mimarTvis savaldebuloba;
3. mopasuxe administraciuli organo, romlis
uflebamosilebaSic
Sedis
moTxovnili
aqtis
gauqmeba;
4. dasaSvebobis sxva winapirobebi
- monawileobis uflebamosileba;
- saproceso uflebamosileba;
- dadgenili wesiT Sedgenili sarCeli;
- samarTlebrivi dacvis zogadi moTxovnebi.

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2.3. sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgena
sasamarTlo sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmebisa da sarCelis miRebaze ganCinebis gamotanasTan erTad adgens saqmis mTavar sxdomaze ganxilvis TariRs. mosamarTlis gankargulebiT sarCelisa da TandarTuli dokumentebis aslebi egzavneba mopasuxes. M
sasamarTlos mTavar sxdomaze saqmis arsebiTad ganxilvis Sedegad dgindeba sarCelis dasabuTebuloba.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT sarCelis
dasabuTebuloba mowmdeba sask-is 32-e muxlis safuZvelze. sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu
1. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti kanonsawinaaRmdegoa da
2. is pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs
mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess an ukanonod
zRudavs mis uflebebs.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis kanonierebisa
da ukanonobis dasadgenad sasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobs
administraciuli samarTlis mecnierebisa da praqtikis
mier SemuSavebuli saqmis ganxilvis sqemis mixedviT, rac
aadvilebs samosamarTleo saqmianobas. administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas,
pirvel rigSi, mowmdeba administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis formaluri kanoniereba da SemdgomSi materialuri
kanoniereba.

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administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formaluri kanonierebis Semowmebisas erT-erTi romelime elementiT


dadgenili moTxovnis darRvevis gamovlena gvaZlevs SesaZleblobas aqti miviCnioT kanonsawinaaRmdegod da ar aros
saWiro movaxdinoT materialuri kanonierebis Semowmeba.
e.i. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis dasabuTebulobis Semowmeba wydeba im elementTan, sadac aRmoCndeba
misi kanonwinaaRmdegoba.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ukanonobis dadgena ar aris sakmarisi, rom sarCeli miviCnioT dasabuTebulad. aucilebelia imis dadgena, es ukanono aqti pirdapir
da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs Tu ara mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess an ukanonod zRudavs
Tu ara mis uflebebs.

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kazusi:
q. baTumis centrSi mdebare sastumros mepatronem 2007
wlis 1 marts uflebamosili administraciuli organosagan miiRo sastumros funqcionirebis nebarTva, romliTac
ganisazRvra sastumros ukan mdebare ezoSi gamavali oTaxebisaTvis, xmauris CaxSobis mizniT, ormagi fanjrebis damontaJebis valdebuleba. sastumros mepatronem Seasrula nebarTviT gansazRvruli valdebulebebi. miuxedavad
amisa, sastumros ukana ezos mimdebare sacxovrebeli binis binadarni uCivian gvian RamiT sastumrodan gamomaval
xmaurs. am faqtidan gamomdinare, uflebamosilma administraciulma organom 2007 wlis 3 maiss miiRo gadwyvetileba, romliTac sastumros mesakuTres ganesazRvra sastumros ukana ezoSi gamavali oTaxebis musikisTvis, zeimisa da
sxvadasxva xalxmravali RonisZiebebisaTvis gamoyenebis
SesaZlebloba saRamos 20:00 saaTamde.
sastumros mepatronem gaasaCivra aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba da miuTiTa, rom xmauris CasaxSobad man ukve Seasrula administraciuli organos mier dadgenili moTxovnebi da amis Semdgom, mokle droSi, meore gadawyvetileba
sastumrodan gamomaval xmaurTan dakavSirebiT mas usafuZvlod miaCnia. amave dros, sastumros ukana oTaxebi
dRis ganmavlobaSi faqtiurad gamouyenebelia; maTi gaqiraveba SesaZlebelia mxolod saRamos saaTebSi gamoyenebis
mizniT. aRniSnuli oTaxebis gamouyeneblobis SemTxvevaSi
mas miadgeba mniSvnelovani materialuri zarali imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom oTaxebis Tanamedrove aRWurviloba da
remonti mas Zviri daujda.
unda dadgindes:
1.
sarCelis saTanado forma;
2.
davis sasamarTlos mier saboloo gadawyvetamde
oTaxebis gamoyenebis uflebis mopovebis SesaZlebloba;
3.
misi saCivris daukmayofileblobis SemTxvevaSi, administrcaiuli organos mxridan zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis SesaZlebloba.

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kazusis amoxsna
1. gansjadoba
gansjadoba gulisxmobs, Tu konkretulad romelma sasamarTlom unda ganixilos aRniSnuli dava da ra wesiT
samoqalaqo Tu administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis ganxorcielebis gziT.
kazusis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, saxezea uflebamosili administraciuli organos gadawyvetileba, romelic saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-2
muxlis ,,d qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts warmoadgens. davis sagania
administraciuli organos mier administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze miRebuli gadawyvetileba (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti), romlis
kanonis Sesabamisobis sakiTxic, saqarTvelos saproceso
kodeqsis me-2 muxlis me-2 nawilis ,,a qvepunqtis Tanaxmad,
ganixileba administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT.
2. sarCelis saxe
sarCelis saxes vadgenT sarCelis miznidan gamomdinare.
mosarCelis mizania SemzRudveli xasiaTis gadawyvetilebis Sedegis dadgomis Tavidan acileba. sastumros mepatronem unda gaasaCivros administraciuli organos individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqti, romelic
gamoica 2007 wlis 3 maiss. pirvel rigSi unda dadgindes am
gadawyvetilebis damokidebuleba 1 martis gadawyvetilebasTan. Tuki 3 maisis gadawyvetileba aris 1 marts miRebuli gadawyvetilebis damatebiTi valdebuleba, romelic
emsaxureba administraciuli organos mier miRebuli pirveladi gadawyvetilebis Sesrulebas, unda moxdes am ori
gadawyvetilebis erTobliobaSi ganxilva. kazusis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, 3 maisis gadawyvetileba warmoadgens
damoukidebel gadawyvetilebas, romelic miRebul iqna
ukmayofilo mezoblebis moTxovnis safuZvelze. qalaqis
meriis 1 martis gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili damatebiTi

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moTxovna, romelic xmauris CaxSobas isaxavda miznad, moqalaqem ukve Seasrula.
2001 wlis 3 maisis gadawyvetileba damoukidebeli individualuri administrciul-samarTlebrivi aqtia, romelic Seicavs pirveli gadawyvetilebisgan damoukidebel
mowesrigebas. sastumros mepatrones SeuZlia moiTxovos
misi gauqmeba sask-is 22-e muxlis Tanaxmad.
3. sarCelis Setanis uflebamosileba
sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis da administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovnis uflebamosileba aqvs im pirs, romlis subieqtur uflebasa da interess
uSualod da individualurad miadga ziani administraciuli organos gadawyvetilebiT. sastumros mepatrone
aris fizikuri piri, romlis mtkicebiTac mis komerciul
interessac uSualod da individualurad Seexo administraciuli organos 3 maisis gadawyvetileba. aRniSnulidan
gamomdinare, sastumros mepatrone uflebamosilia Seitanos sarCeli sasamarTloSi da moiTxovos individualuri
adnistraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmeba.
sarCeli sasamarTlos unda waredginos aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis gacnobidan erTi Tvis vadaSi.
4. sarCelis dasabuTebuloba
aRniSnuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT sarCelis dasabuTebuloba unda Semowmdes sask-is 32-e muxlis safuZvelze.
administraciuli organos 3 maisis gadawyvetileba iqneboda ukanono, Tuki is ewinaaRmdegeba misi gamocemis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs. unda Semowmdes misi formaluri
da materialuri kanoniereba.
materialuri kanonierebis Semowmebisas yuradReba
unda mieqces saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis debulebebs samezoblo urTierTobaTa Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli kodeqsis 175-emuxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad . . . . miwis nakveTis an

sxva uZravi qonebis mesakuTres ar SeuZlia akrZalos mezo-

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beli nakveTidan iseTi zemoqmedeba, romelic gamowveulia
uZravi qonebiT Cveulebrivi sargeblobiT da ar SeiZleba
misi aRkveTa iseTi RonisZiebiT, romelic am saxis mosargebleTaTvis normalur sameurneo saqmianobad miiCneva.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, unda Semowmdes saxezea Tu ara
samezoblo zemoqmedebaTa Tmenis valdebuleba.
aseve sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom 1 martis aRmWurveli
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
sastumros eqspluataciis nebarTvasTan erTad Seicavda
damatebiT valdebulebas, xmauris CaxSobis uzrunvelsayofi RonisZiebebis Catarebis Sesaxeb, rac, kazusis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, sastumros mepatronem Seasrula. aRniSnuli faqti iZleva safuZvels Semowmdes, Tu ramdenad
aris gamarTlebuli umokles droSi damatebiTi valdebulebis dadgena.
5. davis sasamarTlos mier saboloo gadawyvetamde oTaxebis gamoyenebis uflebis mopovebis SesaZlebloba
sastumros mepatrones ainteresebs - aqvs Tu ara mas ufleba sasamarTlos gziT davis gadawyvetamde gamoiyenos
oTaxebi komerciuli miznebisaTvis, Tu valdebulia dauyonebliv Sewyvitos misi eqspluatacia.
sarCeli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT iwvevs am aqtis moqmedebis
SeCerebas. sarCelis suspensiuri efeqti dgeba avtomaturad, ramdenadac sasamarTlo ar miiRebs gadawyvetilebas
sask-is 29-e muxlis me-2 nawiliT dadgenili erT-erTi safuZvliT aqtis moqmedebis gagrZelebis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSic ki mas SeuZlia moiTxovos sasamarTlos mier aqtis
moqmedebis SeCereba, Tuki arsebobs dasabuTebuli eWvi
gasaCivrebuli aqtis kanonierebis Taobaze an Tu misi gadaudebeli aRsruleba arsebiT zians ayenebs mosarCeles
an SeuZlebels gaxdis misi kanonieri uflebis an interesis
dacvas.

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6. zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis ufleba
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobiT miyenebuli qonebrivi zianis anazRaurebis meqanizmi,
romelic Cadebulia szak-is me-601 muxlSi, ar gamoiyeneba
saCivris (sarCelis) safuZvelze administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis SemTxvevebze, ramdenadac gasaCivrebis vadebSi dainteresebul mxares ar warmoeSoba kanonieri ndoba am aqtis mimarT.

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis


Sesaxeb sarCelis dasabuTebuloba
administraciuli organos uaris
kanonsawinaaRmdego xasiaTi
- uari ekuTvnis uflebamosil
administraciul organos;
- uariT mosarCeles adgeba pirdapiri da
uSualo (individualuri ziani);
- administraciuli warmoebis darRvevis
arsebiTi xasiaTi;
- moTxovnis materialuri da
procesualuri safuZvlianoba.
3. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis Taobaze
3.1. Sesavali
dainteresebul pirs SeuZlia sarCeliT mimarTos sasamarTlos administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT. am saxis sarCelze davis sagans warmoadgens
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos mier kanonsawinaaRmdegod uaris
Tqmis gamo administraciul organoze moTxovnili aqtis

333
gamocemis davaleba. sasarCelo moTxovnis mizania sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT daevalos administraciul
organos aseTi aqtis gamocema. aRniSnuli miznis gaTvaliswinebiT, am saxis sarCels germanuli kanonmdeblobiT
specialuri saxelwodebac aqvs da mas movaleobis Sesrulebis davaldebulebis Sesaxeb sarCels uwodeben (Vw, $
42(1)).
sask-is 23-e muxlma sanam is dRevandeli redaqciiT Camoyalibdeboda, garkveuli saxecvlileba ganicada. Tavdapirveli redaqciidan gamomdinare, mosarCeles SeeZlo sasamarTlosTvis miemarTa mxolod individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis (maSindeli saxelwodebiT administraciuli aqtis) gamocemis moTxovniT.
aRniSnuli dainteresebul pirs ar aZlevda SesaZleblobas srulad moexdina misTvis kanonmdeblobiT miniWebuli
uflebamosilebis realizeba. kerZod, norma ar iTvaliswinebda sasamarTloSi sarCelis wardgenas normatiuli
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis davalebis moTxovniT. aRniSnulma ganapiroba sask-is 23-e muxlSi kanonmdeblis mier cvlilebis Setana (2005w.) da normis
srulyofa. Nnormis srulyofis mizniT masve daemata me-3
nawili, romliTac ganisazRvra gasaCivrebis vada (aRniSnulze ix. qvemoT II. gasaCivrebis vadebi). erT-erTi bolo
cvlilebiT (2007) muxls daemata me-4 nawili, romliTac
ganisazRvra, rom administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis aRZvris SemTxvevaSi ar daiSveba Segebebuli sarCelis wardgena. aRniSnuli cvlilebis
Setanis aucilebloba sasamarTlo praqtikam ganapiroba.
Segebebuli sarCelis raoba mocemulia sssk-is 188-e 190-e
muxlebSi. administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi, rodesac
mopasuxe mxares umravles SemTxvevaSi da sask-is 23-e muxliT aRZrul sarCelze, warmoadgens administraciuli
organo, - mis mier Segebebuli sarCelis aRZvra aWianurebda saqmis ganxilvas, efeqturi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas uSlida xels.

334
3.2. sarCelis dasaSveboba
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovnis Sesaxeb sarCelis dasaSvebad miCnevisaTvis aucilebelia, rom sarCeli akmayofilebdes sask-is 23-e muxliT
gansazRvrul dasaSvebobis moTxovnebs.
sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze aris mavaldebulebeli sarCelis erT-erTi
saxe. uflebis dacvis es procesualuri instituti gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mosarCelis mizania misi samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba da moTxovnil
RonisZiebas aqvs administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
samarTlebrivi xasiaTi.
3.2.1. administraciuli organos uari
sask-is 23-e muxlis me-2 nawilidan gamomdinare (Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili, sarCeli dasaSvebia, Tu
administraciuli organos uari administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze---), am sasarCelo moTxovnis
savaldebulo winapirobas warmoadens is garemoeba, rom
dainteresebul pirs (mosarCeles) moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze administraciulma organom uTxra uari (magaliTad, dainteresebul
pirs, kanonis sawinaaRmdegod, uari uTxres mSeneblobis
nebarTvis gacemaze). uaris TqmaSi igulisxmeba rogorc
werilobiTi uari, romliTac dainteresebuli piris moTxovna SeiZleba rogorc srulad, aseve nawilobriv iqnes
uaryofili, aseve,Uzogadi administraciuli kodeqsis Tanaxmad (mux. 177, naw.2), uaris Tqmad ganixileba administraciuli organos mier administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemisaTvis gansazRvruli vadis darRveva (vadaSi aqtis ar gamocema) da igi saCivrdeba szak-is dadgenili
wesiT. esaa administraciuli organos e.w. umoqmedobiT
uari, roca is gauSvebs administraciuli aqtis gamocemisaTvis dadgenil, magaliTad, erTTvian vadas.
dasaSvebobis Sesaxeb sakiTxis garkvevisas administraciuli organos uarTan mimarTebiT yuradReba unda mie-

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qces sask-is me-2 muxlSi Sesul damatebas (2007w.), romliTac dadginda zemdgom Tanamdebobis pirTan/administraciul organoSi gasaCivrebis savaldebulo moTxovna (e.w.
gasaCivrebis preiudiciuli wesi). am muxlis me-5 nawilis
Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo ar miiRebs sarCels administraciuli organos mimarT, Tu mosarCelem saqarTvelos zogadi
administraciuli kodeqsiT dadgenili wesiT ar gamoiyena administraciuli saCivris erTjeradad wardgenis SesaZlebloba. amdenad, dainteresebuli piri valdebulia,
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu administraciulma organom ar gamosca
moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, - uari
administraciuli saCivriT gaasaCivros jer zemdgom administraciul organoSi/Tanamdebobis pirTan da administraciul saCivarze kvlav sruli an nawilobrivi uaris
miRebis SemTxvevaSi, mimarTos sasamarTlos administraciul organoze moTxovnili aqtis gamocemis davalebis
moTxovnT.
3.2.2. ziani, sasarCelo uflebamosileba
sask-is 23-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Sesabamisad, am saxis sarCelis dasaSvebobisaTvis aucilebelia aseve, rom mosarCele iyos is piri, romlis kanonier uflebas an interess
pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos uari (sasarCelo uflebamosileba). es
debuleba Tavis TavSi moicavs ramdenime sakiTxs. KkerZod,
moTxovnili aqtis ar gamocemiT/miRebiT mosarCelis (dainteresebuli mxaris) kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis
an interesisaTvis miyenebuli ziani unda iyos pirdapiri
da uSualo (individualuri). aRniSnuli ki, bunebrivia, ar
aris abstraqtuli kategoria, aramed sakmaod konkretulia da igi unda gamomdinareobdes rogorc konstituciiT
gansazRvruli ZiriTadi uflebebidan, aseve uSualod moqmedi samarTlebrivi normebisagan. Ee. i. saxeze unda iyos
konstituciis, materialuri kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze
mopovebuli mosarCelis uflebisaTvis an interesisaTvis

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administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ar gamocemiT pirdapiri da uSualo zianis miyenebis faqti. SesaZloa mosarCeles garkveuli interesi gaaCndes davis sagnis aqtis
gamocemis mimarT, magram es interesic kanonieri, anu moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT misTvis miniWebuli uflebebidan
unda gamomdinareobdes. amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia is
garemoebac, rom pirdapiri da uSualo (individualuri)
zianis safuZvliT sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmebisas avtomaturad mowmdeba - aqvs Tu ara mosarCeles kanonieri
ufleba sasamarTlos saSualebiT idavos moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze.
Tu moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
ar gamocema (uari aqtis gamocemaze) piris samarTlebriv
mdgomarobaze pirdapir da uSalo (individualur) zians
ar iwvevs, maSin sarCeli aris dauSvebeli. gasaTvaliswinebelia iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba zianis Taobaze. kerZod, miCneulia, rom sarCelis dasaSvebobis dadgenisas sakmarisia imis varaudi, rom irRveva
mosarCelis subieqturi ufleba. namdvilad darRveulia
Tu ara mosarCelis subieqturi ufleba, es dgindeba sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas (p.turava, n.wkeplaZe,
administraciuli samarTlis damxmare saxelmZRvanelo.,
Tbilisi, 2005w. gv.105). pirdapiri zianis, dainteresebuli
piris cnebis Taobaze ixileT aseve zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis mux.2, naw.1, qvepunqti b, aseve am cnebis
komentari, romelic mocemulia avtorTa koleqtivis z.
adeiSvilis, g. vinteris, d. qitoSvilis mier momzadebul
kodeqsis komentarSi, 2002w., gv.34).
SesaZlebelia, rom mosarCele iyos, rogorc administraciuli aqtis adresati, aseve mesame piri, romlis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul uflebas an interess pirdapir da
uSualo (individualur) zians ayenebs administraciuli
organos uari. Aam SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa mis sasarCelo moTxovnas warmoadgendes ara sruliad axali aqtis gamocema,
aramed ukve gamocemul aqtSi damatebis Setana. magaliTad,
mezobeli, romelic asaCivrebs mSeneblobis nebarTvas,

337
moiTxovs nebarTvis gacemas damatebiTi pirobebiT (e.w.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis srulyofa). aseve
DdasaSvebia, rom sarCeliT moTxovnil iqnes ukve gamocemul aqtSi nawilobrivi cvlilebis Setana, maT Soris, administraciuli aqtis nawilis baTilad cnoba da mis nacvlad axlis gamocema.
3.2.3. gasaCivrebis vadebiM
aqtis gamocemis davalebis Sesaxeb sarCelis dasaSvebobis aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens gasaCivrebis vadis
dacva. sarCeli sasamarTlos unda waredginos moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos uaris miRebidan erTi Tvis vadaSi.
uari SesaZloa gancxadebuli iyos rogorc werilobiTi aqtiT, aseve mis gareSec. werilobiTi uaris (individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis) SemTxvevaSi vadis
aTvla daiwyeba uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqtis dadgenili wesiT
miRebidan erTi Tvis vadaSi.
rogor unda gadawydes es sakiTxi maSin, roca gamocemuli ar aris werilobiTi aqti da saxezea administraciuli organos mier administraciuli aqtis gamocemisaTvis
dadgenili vadebis gaSveba umoqmedobiT uari? Aam SemTxvevaSi, sarCelis sasamarTloSi wardgenis vada ganisazRvreba administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 23-e muxlis
moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sarCeli sasamarTlos waredgineba aqtis gamocemisaTvis dadgenili vadis gasvlidan erTi Tvis vadaSi. aRniSnuli sakiTxi administraciuli wesiT gasaCivrebisaTvis gansxvavebulad aris mowesrigebuli zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 180-e muxlis
me-3 nawiliT, sadac miTiTebulia, rom gasaCivrebis vada
ar SeiZleba dadgindes administraciuli organos mier
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis vadis
darRvevis SemTxvevaSi.
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom gasaCivrebis vadis Sesaxeb moqmedi procesualuri kanonmdebloba 23-e muxlSi damatebis
(2005w) Setanamde, TaviseburebiT xasiaTdeboda. adminis-

338
traciuli aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT sarCelis sasamarTloSi wardgenis vadas dasaxelebuli muxli ar iTvaliswinebda, Tumca normaTa urTierTSejerebis gziT, imis gamo
rom werilobiTi uari zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT
gansazRvruli administraciuli aqtis ganmartebidan gamomdinare (szak mux.2.qvepunqti d) individualur aqtad
ganixileba, - naTeli iyo, rom kanonmdeblis nebas warmoadgenda gasaCivrebisas sask-is 22-e muxlis me-3 nawiliT dadgenili vadis dacva.
3.2.4. diskreciuli uflebamosileba
garkveul Taviseburebebs iwvevs iseTi administraciuli aqtebis gamocemis davaldebulebis Sesaxeb sasarCelo
moTxovna, romelTa gamocemac administraciul organoTa
diskreciul uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba. Uunda aRiniSnos, rom administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi srulyofilad ar awesrigebs am sakiTxs.
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis sakiTxi materialur
normebTanaa dakavSirebuli (ix. zogadi administraciuli
kodeqsis me-2 muxlis 1-li nawilis l qvepunqti da me-6
da me-7 muxlebi). administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis
33-e muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo ar aris
uflebamosili TviTon gamosces moTxovnili administraciuli aqti, Tu sakiTxi ganekuTvneba administraciuli
organos diskreciul uflebamosilebas.
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba administraciul organos aniWebs Tavisuflebas, rom kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisi ramdenime gadawyvetilebidan SearCios
yvelaze misaRebi gadawyvetileba, magram am gadawyvetilebis miReba unda moxdes aucileblad kerZo da sajaro
interesebis dacvis safuZvelze. Ggarda aRniSnulisa, administraciuli organo valdebulia, rom diskreciuli
uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas daicvas kanonis sxva
moTxovnebic. anu, diskreciuli uflebamosileba unda
ganxorcieldes kanoniT dadgenil farglebSi, mxolod im

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mizniT, romlis misaRwevadac miniWebuli aqvs es uflebamosileba. diskreciuli uflebamosilebisas gamocemuli
samarTlebrivi aqtiT piris kanoniT daculi uflebebis
da interesebisaTvis miyenebuli ziani arsebiTad ar unda
aRematebodes im sikeTes, romlis misaRebadac igi gamoica. garda amisa, diskreciuli uflebamosilebisas gamocemuli aqti unda iyos dasabuTebuli, anu aqtiT gaTvaliswinebulma zomebma ar SeiZleba gamoiwvios piris kanonieri
uflebebisa da interesebis dausabuTebeli SezRudva. Ee.i.
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas administraciuli organo SezRuduli ar aris arCevanSi, mTavaria, rom is kanonis farglebSi ganxorcieldes. Ddainteresebuli pirisaTvis problema warmoiSoba swored am arCevanis Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebisas.
diskreciul uflebamosilebasTan dakavSirebiT dasaSvebia ramdenime SemTxveva. EerTi, rodesac dainteresebuli
piri moiTxovs, rom sasamarTlom TviTon gamosces iseTi
aqti, romelic administraciuli organos diskreciul
uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba. Aam SemTxvevaSi, rogorc
ukve aRvniSneT, 33-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo SezRudulia da ar aris uflebamosili TviTon gamosces aseTi administraciuli aqti. Mmagram, rogor unda
moiqces sasamarTlo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu administraciulma
organom diskreciuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi kanonis dacviT gamosca administraciuli aqti uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb da dainteresebuli piri ayenebs moTxovnas, baTilad
gamocxaddes es aqti da davaldebuldes administraciuli
organo, gamosces misTvis sasargeblo administraciuli
aqti, romlis gamocemac kvlav administraciuli organos
diskreciul uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba? bunebrivia,
sasamarTlo arc am SemTxvevaSia uflebamosili daavaldebulos administraciuli organo, rom man sasamarTlos
miTiTebebiT ganaxorcielos diskreciuli uflebamosileba. sul sxvagvarad dgas sakiTxi im SemTxvevaSi, roca
administraciuli aqtis gamocemisas darRveulia diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis kanoniT

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dadgenili moTxovnebi. swored am sakiTxis pirdapir mowesrigebas ar axdens saproceso kodeqsi. saqmis ganxilvisas sasamarTlos SeuZlia gamoarkvios, rom diskreciuli
uflebamosilebis farglebi gadametebulia/darRveulia.
e.i. administraciuli aqti gamocemulia zemoT miTiTebuli
materialuri normebis moTxovnebis darRveviT. sasamarTlo uflebamosilia analogiiT gamoiyenos 33-e muxlis
pirveli nawili. anu daavalebs administraciul organos
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis dacviT gamosces administraciuli aqti. faqtobrivad es iqneba mopasuxe administraciuli
organos davaldebuleba, rom man administraciuli aqti
gamosces sasamarTlos mier dadgenili samarTlebrivi
moTxovnebis dacviT.
sarCelis dasaSvebobis sqema
zogadi saxis dasaSvebobis winapirobebi
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis
davalebis Sesaxeb sarCelisaTvis
1. gansjadi sasamarTlo
- sajaro-samarTlebrivi dava.
1. dasaSveboba
- administraciuli organos uari;
- pirdapiri da uSualo (individualuri)
ziani;
- sarCelis aRZvris vada erTi Tve;
- sarCelis mizani moTxovnili aqtis
gamocemis davaleba;
1. sasarCelo uflebamosileba;
2. winaswari mimarTvis savaldebuloba;

341
3. mopasuxe administraciuli organo, romlis
uflebamosilebaSic Sedis moTxovnili aqtis
gamocema;
4. winaswari mowesrigebis moqmedebis SeCerebis
efeqti ara aqvs;
5. dasaSvebobis sxva winapirobebi
- monawileobis uflebamosileba;
- saproceso uflebamosileba;
- dadgenili wesiT Sedgenili sarCeli;
- samarTlebrivi dacvis zogadi moTxovnebi.
3.3. sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgena
3.3.1. zogadi
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis dadgenis safuZvelia
sask-is 33-e muxli.
sask-is 33-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sarCeli administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT aris dasabuTebuli, Tu administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze uari kanons ewinaaRmdegeba an darRveulia misi
gamocemis vada da es pirdapir da uSualo (individualur)
zians ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu mosarCele uflebamosilia, moiTxovos Sesabamisi administraciuli organos
davaldebuleba aqtis gamocemaze. uflebamosili mosarCelis mimarT administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos uari kanons ewinaaRmdegeba da es pirdapir da uSualo (individualur) zians
ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess. sarCeli dasabuTebulia, aseve, Tu mosarCelis mier warmodgenilia misi moTxovnis damadasturebeli faqtobrivi da
samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi. AaRniSnuli ar gamomdinareobs

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mxolod safuZvlis procesualuri bunebidan, aramed mas
aqvs materialuri bunebac. Aaqve unda aRiniSnos, rom TviT
sasamarTlosac SeuZlia inkviziciurobis principis gamoyenebiT safuZvliani gaxados saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetileba. Aaq SesaZloa erT gamonaklisze gavamaxviloT
yuradReba, rodesac saqmis ganxilvis dros administraciuli organo Tavad aRiarebs misi uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqtis
ukanonobas da baTilad gamoacxadebs mas, an nawlobriv
daakmayofilebs moTxovnas (ix. kavSiri sarCelTa sxva saxeebTan). Aam SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos winaSe dadgeba saskis 32-e da 33-e muxlebis erTobliobaSi gamoyenebis sakiTxi. dasabuTebulia aseve mosarCelis mier warmodgenili
moTxovna, Tu igi faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis nacvlad emyareba administraciuli organos diskreciul uflebamosilebas da mis safuZvelze amyarebs
moTxovnis safuZvlianobas. Aaqve gasaTvaliswinebelia is
garemoeba, rodesac administraciuli organos diskreciuli uflebamosileba nuls utoldeba. Ees im SemTxvevaSia,
rodesac administraciul organos erTaderTi gadawyvetilebis ufleba aqvs da mas arCevanis Tavisufleba ar
gaaCnia, Sesabamisad, mis mier miRebuli yvela sxva gadawyvetileba miiCneva ukanonod.
sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu aqtis gamocemis davalebis moTxovna Sesabamis materialur normebs emyareba. Aaq
igulisxmeba is samarTlebrivi normebi, romlebic administraciul organos aniWebs moTxovnili aqtis gamocemis
uflebamosilebas da dainteresebuli piric uflebamosilia moTxovos aqtis gamocema. magaliTad, mSeneblobis
nebarTvis miRebis moTxovniT saTanado administraciuli
organosaTvis mimarTva. mosarCelis moTxovna SesaZloa
gamomdinareobdes rogorc uSualod moqmedi kanonmdeblobidan, aseve konstituciidan (magaliTad, socialuri
dacvis sferoSi) da dasaSvebia gamomdinareobdes administraciuli xelSekrulebidan, Tu igi Seicavs aqtis gamocemis davalebas da TviT xelSekruleba ZalaSia.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze ua-

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ris kanonierebisa Tu ukanonobis dadgenisas unda Semowmdes:
1.administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovnis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi da
2. administraciuli organos sagnobrivi, teritoriuli
da instanciuri uflebamosileba.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze uaris kanonierebis dasadgenad mowmdeba ara uaris Tqmis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi, aramed aqtis gamocemaze mosarCelis uflebis samarTlebrivi safuZveli. aqtis gamocemaze uari an misi gamocemis vadis darRveva aris ukanono,
rodesac mosarCeles aqvs aqtis gamocemaze kanonieri ufleba an interesi.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze
kanonieri uflebis an interesis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi
faqtobrivad dadgenilia mosarCelis subieqturi uflebis xelyofis faqti, ramdenadac administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovnis samarTlebrivi
safuZveli aris, rogorc administraciuli organos mxridan administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis
valdebulebis, aseve mosarCelis subieqturi uflebis
warmoSobis safuZveli. administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemis vadis darRveva ki aucileblad ar iwvevs
piris subieqturi uflebis xelyofas da, amdenad, is gansakuTrebul Semowmebas saWiroebs.
3.3.2 uflebamosili administraciuli organo
aqtis gamocemaze uaris kanonierebis Semowmebisas mowmdeba administraciuli organos uflebamosileba. arauflebamosili administraciuli organos uari administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze aris ukanono,
magram es sarCels ar xdis dasabuTebuls, ramdenadac sasamarTlos SeuZlia gaauqmos arauflebamosili organos
uari (administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti), magram ar
SeuZlia daavalos mas (arauflebamosil organos) gamosces administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. rodesac dain-

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teresebul pirs gancxadeba Seaqvs arauflebamosil administraciul organoSi da es ukanaskneli ar gamoscems
moTxovnil administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts, is ar
arRvevs kanons. administraciuli organos mxridan kanonis darRveva mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is arRvevs mis mimarT
szak-is 85-e muxliT dadgenil administraciuli organos
mier samarTlebrivi daxmarebis gawevis movaleobas da
szak-is me-80 muxliT dadgenil uflebamosil administraciuli organosaTvis gancxadebis gadagzavnis valdebulebas.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis aucilebeli winapirobaa,
rom aqtis gamocemaze uaris an umoqmedobis subieqti iyos
uflebamosili administraciuli organo.
3.3.3. mosarCelis kanonieri ufleba an interesi
mosarCelis kanonieri uflebisa da interesis arsebobas
vadgenT materialuri samarTlis normis safuZvelze. kanonieri uflebisa da interesis samarTlebrivi safuZveli
SeiZleba iyos kanoni, kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqti,
adamianis konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis
ganmsazRvreli norma, administraciuli organos dapireba, an administraciuli xelSekruleba.
martivia mosarCelis kanonieri uflebis dadgena, rodesac kanoni zustad gansazRvravs administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis (uflebis warmoSobis)
samarTlebriv safuZvlebs da piri akmayofilebs kanoniT dadgenil am moTxovnebs. mag., kanoni sapensio uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb, sadac mocemulia sapensio daxmarebis
miRebis winapirobebi.
sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze ufro metad dakavSirebulia nebarTvebis mopovebasTan, romelic gamoicema adresatis gancxadebis safuZvelze da axdens konkretuli sakanonmdeblo akrZalvis moxsnas da konkretul saqmianobaze uflebamosilebis

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dadgenas. tradiciulad xdeba nebarTvis gacemis SesaZleblobis dadgenis ori formis gamoyofa:
- prevenciuli akrZalva nebarTvis gacemis SesaZleblobiT da
- represiuli akrZalva, akrZalvis moxsnis SesaZleblobiT.
moqmedi kanonmdeblobis mixedviT samSeneblo samuSaoebis warmoeba saWiroebs Sesabamisi administraciuli
organos Tanxmobas. samSeneblo saqmianobis prevenciuli
akrZalvis mizania, ara konkretuli moqmedebis, mSeneblobis akrZalva, aramed is aZlevs administraciul organos
prevenciuli Semowmebis saSualebas: xom ar ewinaaRmdegeba ganzraxuli moqmedeba materialur-samarTlebrivi
normebis moTxovnebs. mag., ganzraxuli mSenebloba konkretul miwis nakveTze xom ar ewinaaRmdegeba qalaqmSeneblobis gegmebs an mezoblis interesebs da sxva samSeneblo-samarTlebrivi normebiT gaTvaliswinebul moTxovnebs.
mSeneblobis ufleba, es aris adamianis konstituciiT garantirebuli ufleba. mSeneblobis uflebis realizaciis SezRudva, masze administraciuli organos mxridan winaswari nebarTvis gacemis aucileblobis dadgeniT,
miznad isaxavs ara am uflebis SezRudvas, aramed, axdens am
uflebis realizaciis procesis samarTlebriv CarCoebSi
moqcevas. prevenciuli akrZalvis masobrivi gamoyeneba
aixsneba im ubralo mizeziT, rom mxolod am gziT aris SesaZlebeli Tanamedrove teqnikidan gamomdinare saSiSroebis Tavidan acileba. bunebisa da janmrTelobisaTvis saSiSi manqana-danadgarebis eqspluataciaSi Sesvlamde masze
nebarTvis aucilebloba anu misi eqspluataciis akrZalva
masze nebarTvis gacemis SesaZleblobiT iZleva efeqturi
kontrolis saSualebas.
amis sawinaaRmdegod, represiuli akrZalvis mizania
konkretuli moqmedebis (saqmianobis) akrZalva da mxolod
konkretul SemTxvevebSi, saqmis garemoebaTa Seswavlis
Semdeg, SeiZleba masze gansakuTrebuli nebarTvis gacema.
aseT represiul akrZalvasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac akrZa-

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lulia garkveuli saxeobis sabrZolo iaraRebis damzadeba da SesaZlebelia, gamonaklisis saxiT, gaices nebarTva
aseTi iaraRebis damzadebaze.
rogorc vxedavT, nebarTvis mopovebis procesSi SeuZlebelia erTi konkretuli sakanonmdeblo aqtis safuZvelze mosarCelis kanonieri uflebis dadgena.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas mniSvnelovani yuradReba eqceva administraciuli organos diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis sakiTxs. Tu
mosarCelis mier moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemasTan dakavSirebiT administraciul organos miniWebuli aqvs diskreciuli uflebamosileba, es zRudavs sasamarTlos mxridan misi gadamowmebis
SesaZleblobebs. sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili gadaamowmos administraciuli organos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebis mizanSewoniloba anu misi diskreciis ganxorcielebis marTlzomiereba. yovelive es ar iwvevs sarCelis dausabuTeblobas. mosarCeles aqvs ufleba moiTxovos administraciuli organos mxridan diskreciuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi gamoyeneba. sasamarTlos aqvs
SesaZlebloba gadaamowmos, saxeze aris Tu ara Secdoma
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebaSi.
mosarCelis kanonieri uflebisa da interesis warmoSobis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos administraciuli organos
dapireba. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas
mowmdeba dapirebis szak-is me-9 muxlTan Sesabamisoba. dapireba es aris administraciuli organos werilobiTi dokumenti, romelic adasturebs, rom mocemuli qmedeba ganxorcieldeba (am SemTxvevaSi administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti gamoicema), rac SeiZleba gaxdes dainteresebuli mxaris kanonieri ndobis safuZveli. uflebis dacvis
TvalsazrisiT aucilebelia, davadginoT, administraciuli organos saqmianobis romel samarTlebriv formasTan
gvaqvs saqme. formalur-samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT is

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ar aris individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv
aqti, ramdenadac ar arsebobs cnebis elementi: ,,awesebs,
cvlis, wyvets an adasturebs. administraciuli organos
dapireba ar axdens konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis mowesrigebas, igi Seicavs momavalSi aseTi mowesrigebis ganxorcielebis dapirebas. gamomdinare aqedan, calsaxad SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom administraciuli organos
dapireba jer kidev ar qceula individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtad. miuxedavad amisa, szak-is me-9
muxlis me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, is ganixileba, rogorc individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti da mis
adresats eZleva SesaZlebloba, gamoiyenos individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gasaCivrebisaTvis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesi.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobisaTvis mniSvnelovania,
rom saxeze iyos administraciuli organos dapirebidan
warmoSobili dainteresebuli mxaris kanonieri ndoba,
anu ar unda gvqondes dapirebis mimarT kanonieri ndobis
gamomricxveli garemoebebi, romelic mocemulia szak-is
me-9 muxlis II nawilSi.
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis samarTlebrivi safuZveli SeiZleba iyos adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis damdgeni konstituciuri norma. Tumca es ufro iSviaTobaa, vidre normaluri SemTxveva. gamomdinare iqidan,
rom konstituciiT garantirebuli moqmedebis Tavisufleba ar saWiroebs administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCeliT mopovebas, aramed, davis
SemTxveveaSi, am uflebis dasadgenad sakmarisia aRiarebiTi sarCeli. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac kanoni adgens
konstituciiT garantirebuli uflebis realizaciis samarTlebriv CarCoebs, mosarCelis kanonieri uflebisa
da interesis samarTlebriv safuZvels qmnis es kanoni da
ara konstituciis norma. amis sapirispirod Tanasworobis konstituciuri principi SeiZleba iyos aRmWurveli

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administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze subieqturi uflebis warmoSobis safuZveli. administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCeli SeiZleba
iyos dasabuTebuli, rodesac administraciuli organo
TviTneburad uxvevs Camoyalibebul mravalwlian praqtikas da iRebs dausabuTebel gadawyvetilebas, an kidev, rodesac dausabuTeblad uars ambobs am praqtikis Secvlaze.
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis romelime mxaris kanonieri
uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudva an kanonmdeblobiT gauTvaliswinebeli raime upiratesobis miniWeba
administraciuli organos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebas
xdis ukanonos, rac Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba gaxdes administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis safuZveli.
3.4. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelTan dakavSirebiT
Tu sasamarTlo sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebis
safuZvelze dadgens, rom administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze uari an gamocemis vadis darRveva
aris ukanono da es pirdapir da uSualo (individualur)
zians ayenebs mosarCelis kanonier uflebas an interess, is
gamoitans gadawyvetilebas mosarCelis dakmayofilebis
Sesaxeb. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelTan (sask-is 23-e muxli) dakavSirebiT
sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba SeiZleba iyos ori saxis: 1.
sasamarTlo administraciul organos avalebs, gamosces
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti da mxaris moTxovniT adgens aqtis gamocemis vadas, an 2. sasamarTlo TviTon
awesrigebs sadavo sakiTxs.
ras gulisxmobs administraciuli organosaTvis administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis davaleba?
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moT-

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xovniT dainteresebuli mxaris gancxadebaze gadawyvetilebis misaRebad aucilebelia aqtis gamocemis faqtiuri
da samarTlebrivi winapirobebis Semowmeba. swored am Semowmebis Sedegebs eyrdnoba administraciuli organos
uari administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze.
mTel rig SemTxvevebSi administraciuli organos mier gadawyvetilebis miRebisas bolomde ar aris Seswavlili saqmis faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi anu sakiTxi
ar aris im donemde Seswavlili (administraciuli warmoebis nayofi ar aris momwifebuli), rom SesaZlebeli iyos
masze gadawyvetilebis miReba.
miT umetes, administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemis vadis darRvevis anu administraciuli organos
mxridan dainteresebuli piris gancxadebaze umoqmedobis
SemTxvevaSi aSkaraa, rom organos ara aqvs Seswavlili aqtis gamocemis faqtiuri da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi.
es ori SemTxveva, anu is rom administraciul organos
srulyofilad ara aqvs an saerTod ara aqvs Seswavlili
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi, ar warmoSobs sasamarTlos uflebamosilebas, daavalos administraciul
organos, gamosces administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti
an daavalos mas, rom Seiswavlos saqmis faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi da amis safuZvelze gamosces administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. orive SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo valdebulia TviTon Seiswavlos saqmis faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi mxare, anu saqme unda gaxados imdenad momwifebuli, rom SesaZlebeli iyos gadawyvetilebis miReba administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema. Tumca es arc Tu ise iolia. mTel rig SemTxvevebSi
aucilebelia saqmis garemoebaTa damatebiT gamokvleva,
romelic mxolod administraciuli organos SeuZlia ganaxorcielos. es migviyvanda xelisuflebis danawilebis
principis darRvevamde, Tu sasamarTlo sruliad Secvlida administraciul organos da gadawyvetilebis momzadebidan saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde daikavebda mis

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adgils. gamomdinare aqedan, sasamarTlo administraciul
organos utovebs saboloo gadawyvetilebis administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis - prerogativas.
sasamarTlo, aseve im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac daadgens
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze uaris
ukanonobas da mosarCelis subieqturi uflebis xelyofas,
avalebs administraciul organos gamosces es administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, rodesac saxezea Secdoma
diskreciuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebaSi (amaze
zemoT gvaqvs saubari), ramdenadac sasamarTlo ar aris
uflebamosili TviTon ganaxorcielos administraciuli
organosadmi kanoniT miniWebuli diskreciuli uflebamosileba.
sasamarTlos aseve ar SeuZlia TviTon gamosces administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, rodesac gadawyvetilebis misaRebad aucilebelia saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebis administraciuli organos mxridan Sefaseba. mag.,
gamocdebis SedegebTan dakavSirebiT administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos SeuZlia Seafasos gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesualuri mxare, magram is ver aiRebs Tavis Tavze gamomcdelis funqcias da ver Seafasebs mosarCelis specialur
codnas.
ra SemTxvevaSia sasamarTlo uflebamosili Tavisi ganCinebiT moawesrigos sadavo sakiTxi?
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebis Semdeg sasamarTlo amzadebs saqmes masze gadawyvetilebis misaRebad.
mosarCelis moTxovnaa aRmWurveli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti aris aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis mmarTvelobiTi funqciebis ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi
forma. rogorc wesi, sasamarTlos SeuZlia daadginos administraciuli organos valdebuleba yovel konkretul
SemTxvevebSi mmarTelobiTi funqciebis ganxorcielebaze, is ver SeiTvisebs am funqciebs. zogadi administraciu-

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li kodeqsi gamonaklisis saxiT uSvebs sadavod qceuli
mmarTvelobiTi funqciebis sasamarTlos mier ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas, mTeli rigi winapirobebis dacviT.
sasamarTlo mxolod im SemTxvevaSia uflebamosili Tavisi
ganCinebiT moawesrigos sadavo sakiTxi, Tu aRniSnuli iTvaliswinebs individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemas da ar saWiroebs saqmis garemoebaTa
damatebiT gamokvlevas, amasTanave, sakiTxi ar miekuTvneba administraciuli organos diskreciul uflebamosilebas. am winapirobebs unda davumatoT kidev erTi, arcTu
umniSvnelo moTxovna: sasamarTlo Tavisi ganCinebiT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi moawesrigebs sadavo sakiTxs, rodesac
saqmis interesebidan gamomdinare, aucilebelia gadawyvetilebis swrafi miReba da misi gadagzavna administraciuli organosaTvis gaumarTlebeli iqneboda.
rac Seexeba RonisZiebis samarTlebriv formas, sasamarTlos mier sadavo sakiTxi wesrigdeba ara individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemiT,
aramed ganCinebis saxiT, rac zRudavs mesame pirebis SesaZleblobas, gamoiyenon sask-iT administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisaTvis dadgenili uflebis dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualebebi. swored es Taviseburebac miuTiTebs
sasamarTlos mxridan sadavo sakiTxis ganCinebiT mowesrigebis sagamonakliso xasiaTze.
sayuradReboa 33-e muxlis 1-li nawilis bolo winadadeba, romelic imperatiuli xasiaTisaa, anu sasamarTlo
valdebulia, rom administraciuli aqtis gamocemaze administraciul organos davaldebulebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebaSi, mxaris moTxovniT daadginos aqtis gamocemis
vada. rogorc vxedavT, sasamarTlo mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
daudgens administraciul organos administraciuli aqtis gamocemis vadas, Tu amas mxare moiTxovs. Mmagram kanonmdeblis mier sasamarTlos aseTi SezRudva, ar aris mizanSewonili. sasamarTlos mier msgavsi saxis saqmis ganxilva
bevrad efeqturi iqneba, Tu 33-e muxli Seivseba. sasamarTlo mxaris moTxovnis gareSec unda iyos valdebuli, rom

352
administraciul organos daudginos aqtis gamocemis gansazRvruli vada da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisi safuZvlebis arsebobisas, gaagrZelos es vada.
rogorc vxedavT, am SemTxvevaSi, samarTlos ar akisria
valdebuleba sakuTari iniciativiT daudginos administraciul organos administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemisaTvis gansazRvruli vada. sasamarTlo praqtikam ufro konkretulad moawesriga es sakiTxi da umravles
SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo, mas Semdeg rac gaarkvevs, rom aqtis gamocemaze uari kanonsawinaaRmdegoa an darRveulia
aqtis gamocemis vada, gadawyvetilebiT avalebs administraciul organos gansazRvrul vadaSi, magaliTad, erT
TveSi gamosces moTxovnili aqti.
dasaSvebia, rom administraciulma organom sasamarTlos mier dadgenil vadaSic ar gamosces moTxovnili administraciuli aqti. ra xdeba am SemTxvevaSi? Kkanonmdebeli
am sakiTxis pirdapir mowesrigebas ar axdens, magram sasamarTlo uflebamosilia aseTi SemTxvevis mosawesrigeblad gamoiyenos 33-e muxlis me-2 nawili. Aanu, dainteresebuli piris xelmeored mimarTvis safuZvelze sasamarTlo
uflebamosilia TviTon gamosces administraciuli aqti,
Tu misi gamocema ar saWiroebs saqmis garemoebaTa damatebiT gamokvlevas da sakiTxi ar miekuTvneba administraciuli organos diskreciul uflebamosilebas.
3.5. administraciuli aqtis gamocemis davalebis Sesaxeb sarCelTa saxeebi da kavSiri sarCelTa sxva saxeebTan
iuridiul literaturaSi pirobiTad gamoyofen administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis davalebis
Sesaxeb sarCelTa saxeebs: moTxovnili administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze sruli an nawilobrivi
werilobiTi uaris Tqmisas aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos davalebis Sesaxeb sarCeli, an kanoniT
dadgenil vadebSi administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
ar gamocemisas (e.w. administraciuli organos umoqmedo-

353
bisas) administraciuli aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos davalebis Sesaxeb sarCeli.
moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
gamocemaze sruli an nawilobrivi werilobiTi uaris Tqmisas, aqtis gamocemaze administraciuli organos davalebis Sesaxeb sarCeli eqspertTa azriT, moicavs aseve uaris
Tqmis Sesaxeb individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobis (ex nunc) Sesaxeb sarCelsac,
radgan SeuZlebelia sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebam aqtis
gamocemis davalebis Sesaxeb moaxdinos zemoqmedeba da
saTanado Sedegs miaRwios, Tu baTilad ar gamocxaddeba
administraciuli organos is aqti, romliTac uaryofili
iqna/uari eTqva moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze. amdenad, miCneulia, rom saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 22-e muxlis
pirveli nawili da 23-e muxlebi kavSirSia erTmaneTTan.
Aaqve gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom sasamarTlo
praqtika icnobs iseT SemTxvevasac, rodesac mosarCele ar
ayenebs uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqtis gauqmebas da iTxovs aqtis gamocemis davalebas administraciul organoze. Ees im
SemTxvevaSi xdeba, rodesac TviT uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqtis damoukideblad arseboba an ararseboba mis mimarT arsebiT Sedegs ar iwvevs da misTvis mniSvnelovania moTxovnili aqtis gamocema. am dros is uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb aqts
iyenebs mxolod rogorc sask-is 23-e muxliT dadgenili
dasaSvebobis winapirobad.
aseve dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan sask-is 23-e muxli
da 32-e muxlis me-4 nawili. KkerZod, Tu sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, romliTac dainteresebul pirs uari eTqva administraciuli aqtis gamocemaze, gamocemulia saqmisaTvis
arsebiTi mniSvnelobis garemoebis gamokvlevisa da Sefasebis gareSe, igi uflebamosilia sadavo sakiTxis gadauwyvetlad baTilad cnos individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqti da daavalos administraciul organos, am garemoebaTa gamokvlevisa da Sefasebis Semdeg ga-

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mosces axali aqti. saqmis garemoebaTa gamokvlevis Sesaxeb
moTxovnas adgens zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 96-e
muxli.
aseve dasaSvebia, rom administraciuli saCivris ganmxilvelma organom saCivari ganixila administraciuli
warmoebis normebis arsebiTi darRveviT, ramac gamoiwvia
mis mier sadavo gadawyvetilebis miReba, sarCelis wardgenis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo daavalebs administraciul
organos, rom man warmoebis normebis dacviT gamosces
moTxovnili administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. am sakiTxTan mimarTebiT sasamarTlo uflebamosilia gamoiyenos sask-is 32-e muxlis me-4 nawilis debuleba.
warmoebis normebis Sesaxeb zemoT aRniSnuli, Tanabrad
moqmedebs iseTi sarCelis mimarT, romelzec davis sagans
warmoadgens administraciuli saCivris ganmxilveli administraciuli organos mier aqtis gamocemisaTvis kanoniT dadgenili vadis gaSveba. Sesabamisad, dainteresebuli
piri sasamarTlos saSualebiT iTxovs daevalos administraciul organos warmoebis normebis dacviT gamosces
moTxovnili aqti.

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis


davalebis Sesaxeb sarCelis dasabuTebuloba
dainteresebuli piris mier uflebamosili
administraciuli organos mimarT moTxovnis wardgena;
administraciuli organos uaris kanonsawinaaRmdego
xasiaTi
- uari ekuTvnis uflebamosil
administraciul organos;
- uariT mosarCeles adgeba pirdapiri da
uSualo (individualuri ziani);

355
-
-

administraciuli warmoebis darRvevis


arsebiTi xasiaTi;
moTxovnis materialuri da procesualuri
safuZvlianoba.

4. sarCeli moqmedebis ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovniT


4.1. sarCelis dasaSveboba
moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxs awesrigebs sask-is 24-e muxli. sarCeli moqmedebis ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovniT aris mavaldebulebeli sarCelis erTerTi saxe. sarCelis mizania iseTi qmedebis ganxorcieleba,
romelic ar gulisxmobs administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis gamocemas.
mosarCelis moTxovna mimarTulia realaqtis ganxorcielebisaken, romelic unda ganxorcieldes administraciuli organos mier. ar aris gamoricxuli, mosarCelis
rolSi gamovides administraciuli organo da moiTxovos
moqalaqis mier realaqtis ganxorcieleba. administraciuli organos mier realaqtis ganxorcielebis moTxovniT sarCelis wardgena mxolod im SemTxvevaSia dasaSvebi,
rodesac saxelmwifos miznis misaRwevad sxva samarTlebrivi saSualeba ar gaaCnia. mag., moqalaqe, rogorc administraciuli xelSekrulebis erT-erTi mxare iRebs valdebulebas saxelmwifos miyidos mis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli
miwis nakveTi. SemdgomSi man gadaifiqra da uars ambobs
yidva-gayidvis xelSekrulebis xelmoweraze. saxelmwifos SeuZlia Seitanos sarCeli moqalaqis mier qmedebis
ganxorcielebis moTxovniT, ramdenadac mas ara aqvs sxva
meqanizmi, rom aiZulos moqalaqe xeli moaweros aRniSnul
xelSekrulebas.

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sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapirobaa administraciul
organoSi saCivris wardgena. Tumca am zogadi moTxovnis gavrceleba sarCelis am saxis mimarT ar aris marTebuli. sask-is 24-e muxlis safuZvelze sarCelis wardgena
ar unda iyos damokidebuli administraciuli organosadmi saCivriT mimarTvasTan, ramdenadac sarCelis mizani
ar aris administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema.
saCivarze miRebuli adminitraciuli organos gadawyvetileba warmoadgens individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqts. es faqti Tavis mxriv warmoSobs kiTxvas
sarCelis sagans warmoadgens am aqtis gauqmebis moTxovna
Tu qmedebis ganxorcieleba an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis
Sekaveba. miuxedavad imisa, rom qmedebis ganxorcielebis
an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovniT Setanil saCivarze miRebuli gadawyvetileba gamodis individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis formiT,
sasamarTloSi sarCeli unda Sevides sask-is 24-e muxlis
safuZvelze.
sasarCelo moTxovna SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes
- pirvandeli mdgomareobis aRdgenis moTxovnis administraciul-samarTlebrivi uflebidan;
- administraciul-samarTlebrivi realaqtis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis uflebidan;
- administraciuli xelSekrulebiT dadgenili valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovnis uflebidan;
- administraciul-samarTlebrivi sainformacio xasiaTis realaqtis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis uflebidan da
a.S.
4.2. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze sarCelTan dakavSirebiT
4.2.1. zogadi
moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebis kriteriumebi mocemulia sask-is

357
33-e muxlSi, romlis Tanaxmadac sarCeli dasabuTebulia,
Tu sasamarTlo daadgens, rom administraciuli organos
mier raime moqmedebis ganxorcieleba an uari raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebaze ukanonoa.
dainteresebuli mxaris ufleba, administraciul organos mosTxovos raime qmedebis ganxorcieleba, SeiZleba
gamomdinareobdes uSualod saqarTvelos konstituciis
normidan, konkretuli kanonidan, kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqtidan, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtidan, administraciuli xelSekrulebidan an
administraciuli organos dapirebidan.
4.2.2 uflebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi
qmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis samarTlebriv safuZvels SeiZleba warmoadgendes adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis ganmsazRvreli norma. mag.,
konstituciis me-17-e muxlis Tanaxmad, adamianis pativi da
Rirseba xelSeuvalia. konstituciis es norma dainteresebul mxares aZlevs SesaZleblobas administraciul organos mosTxovos masze gavrcelebuli pativisa da Rirsebis
Semlaxveli informaciis sajarod uaryofa. konstituciis
24-e muxlis Tanaxmad, yovel adamians aqvs ufleba Tavisuflad miiRos da gaavrcelos informacia. konstituciis
es norma SeiZleba gaxdes administraciuli organos mier
garkveuli sajaro informaciis gacemis moTxovnis safuZveli da a.S.
moqmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis samarTlebriv
safuZvlebs ZiriTadad qmnis individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti. swored individualuri aqti
gansazRvravs piris uflebas, moiTxovos administraciuli organos mier raime moqmedebis ganxorcieleba, Sesabamisad, administraciuli organos valdebulebas, ganaxorcielos garkveuli moqmedeba. moqmedebis ganxorcielebis
ufleba warmoiSoba aseve administraciuli organos mier
individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis

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gamocemis an raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad
damdgari zianis SemTxvevaSic.
moqmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis samarTlebriv
safuZvels SeiZleba qmnides administraciuli organos
dapireba realaqtis ganxorcielebaze. ramdenadac administraciuli organos dapireba ar aris mimarTuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemaze, uflebis dacvis samarTlebriv saSualebas qmnis
sask-is 24-e da 33-e muxlebi. sarCeli administraciuli
organos mier dapirebuli moqmedebis ganxorcielebaze
aris dasabuTebuli, Tu:
(1) is gacemulia uflebamosili administraciuli organos mier;
(2)is gacemulia werilobiTi formiT;
(3)is gamoxatavs administraciuli organos nebas, rom
mocemuli qmedeba ganxorcieldeba;
(4)saxeze ar aris administraciuli organos dapirebis
mimarT kanonieri ndobis gamomricxveli erT-erTi - szakis me-9 muxlis II nawilSi mocemuli winapiroba.
aseve SesaZlebelia administraciuli organos mier
raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebis valdebuleba Caidos
administraciul xelSekrulebaSi. mag., rodesac romelime kerZo firma Tanaxmaa, naklebad ganviTarebul raionSi
gaxsnas fabrika iq mcxovrebTa dasaqmebisa da regionis
socialuri problemebis gadaWris mizniT. am sawarmosa da
raionis gamgeobas Soris ideba xelSekruleba, sadac Cadebulia gamgeobis valdebuleba gaiyvanos fabrikamde misasvleli gza.
uflebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis Semowmeba SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs davadginoT administraciuli organos valdebuleba raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebaze an
moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekavebaze. uflebis samarTlebrivi
safuZvlebis arseboba TavisTavad miuTiTebs am uflebis
matareblis kanonieri uflebebis an interesis xelyofa-

359
ze. amdenad, rodesac davadgenT dainteresebuli mxaris
uflebas moiTxovos raime qmedebis ganxorcieleba, es miuTiTebs administraciuli organos mier raime moqmedebis
ganxorcielebis an ganxorcielebaze uaris ukanonobaze
da Sesabamisad dainteresebuli mxaris kanonieri uflebisa da interesis xelyofaze.
sarCelTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlos gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba, romliTac administraciul organos avalebs
gadawyvetilebaSi mocemuli sasamarTlos daskvnebis gaTvaliswinebiT ganaxorcielos es moqmedeba an Tavi Seikavos
am moqmedebis ganxorcielebisagan.
5. aRiarebiTi sarCeli
aRiarebiTi sarCeli warmoadgens procesualuri dacvis
erT-erT myar samarTlebriv instituts da is ar gamomdinareobs mosarCelis materialuri uflebebis uSualo ganxorcielebidan. es ganpirobebulia imiT, rom materialuri uflebis dRevandeli gageba, romelic samarTlebrivi
urTierTobis safuZvelia da ayalibebs mas, - ar iZleva am
urTierTobis amocnobis saSualebas. ramdenadac aRiarebiTi sarCeli ar gamomdinareobs materialuri uflebebis
ganxorcielebidan, amdenad ar aris molodini imisa, rom
samarTlebrivi urTierToba yovelTvis konkretizirebuli da garkveuli iyos. amis gamo aRiarebiTi sarCeli ukve
iZens gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas imisaTvis, raTa gairkves/aRiardes uflebebi da valdebulebebi158. sarCelTa
saxeebs Soris aRiarebiTi sarCeli yvelaze rTulia. erTerTi sirTule TviT davis sagnis mravalferovnebidan gamomdinareobs. aRiarebiTi sarCelis davis sagania uflebis an samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis
dadgena, administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ararad
aRiareba. Semdegi sirTule dakavSirebulia TviT samarT158

Rolf Schmidt, Verwaltungsprozessrecht, 7. Auflage, 2003.,S. 177

360
lebrivi urTierTobis mravalgvarobasa da mravalmxrivobasTan. mosarCelec da sasamarTloc valdebulia gansazRvron, rom swored esaa is konkretuli, individualuri,
ukve arsebuli Tu momavalSi SesaZlo samarTlebrivi urTierToba, romelic aRiarebiTi sarCelis davis sagania.
sask-is 25-e muxlis ganmartebidan gamomdinare, aRiarebiTi sarCeli davis sagnis gaTvaliswinebiT, SesaZloa pirobiTad daiyos Semdeg saxeebad159:
germanul samarTlebriv literaturaSi miRebulia aRiarebiTi sarCelis dayofa saxeebad davis sagnis mixedviT. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom germanuli kanonmdeblobis mixedviT aRiarebiTi sarCeli ufro mkafiod da naTladaa
Camoyalibebuli, vidre es saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 25-e muxlSia. kerZod, germaniis administraciuli sasamarTlo wyobilebis Sesaxeb kanonis 43-e muxlis
pirveli abzacis Tanaxmad, aRiarebiTi sarCeliT SesaZlebelia
moTxovnil iqnas samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgena an administraciuli aqtis ararad aRiareba,
Tu mosarCeles amis kanonieri interesi aqvs. rogorc vxedavT,
aq ar aris miTiTeba uflebis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenaze,
romelic Cveni saproceso kodeqsis 25-e muxlis erT-erT davis
sagans warmoadgens. aRniSnuli garemoeba SedarebiT amartivebs
germanuli kanonmdeblobiT mowesrigebul aRiarebiT sarCels.
uflebis, rogorc aRiarebiTi sarCelis calke davis sagnis arseboba ki arTulebs saqarTvelos marTlmsajulebis praqtikaSi
mis realizacias. radgan umravlesad sirTules warmoadgens
gaimijnos ufleba da samarTlebrivi urTierToba erTmaneTisagan, rameTu samarTlebrivi urTierTobis erT-erT elements
uflebac warmoadgens.
Semdegi ganmasxvavebeli niSani sask-is 25-e muxlis me-2 nawilSia. Aanu, aRiarebiTi sarCeli ar SeiZleba aRiZras, Tu mosarCeles SeuZlia aRZras sarCeli 22-24-e muxlebis safuZvelze.
Gdasaxelebuli germanuli kanonis 43-e muxlis me-2 nawili ki
met SesaZleblobebs iZleva aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSvebobis
Semowmebis mizniT. kerZod, miuTiTebs, rom mosarCele ver aRZravs aRiarebiT sarCels Tu mas SeuZlia an SeeZlo aReZra igi
aqtis gauqmebis an mavaldebulebeli sarCelTa saSualebiT. Aaqve

159

361
1. administraciul-samarTlenrivi aqtis ararad aRiarebis Seaxeb;
2. uflebis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis Sesaxeb;
unda aRiniSnos, rom aRniSnuli dasaSveboba ar vrceldeba Tu
aRiarebiTi sarCeliT aqtis ararad aRiareba aris moTxovnili.
Ggermanul samarTlebriv literaturaSi samarTlebriv normaze
dayrdnobiT gamoTqmulia aseve mosazreba, rom aRiarebiTi sarCeliT SesaZloa moTxovnili iqnes ara mxolod is rac dasaxelebuli 43-e muxliTaa dadgenili aramed, sasamarTlos SeuZlia
administraciuli organos mier ukve gauqmebuli an sxvagvarad
aRsrulebuli administraciuli aqti aRiaros kanonsawinaaRmdegod/ukanonod, Tu mosarCeles amis kanonieri interesi aqvs
(germaniis administraciuli sasamarTlo wyobilebis Sesaxeb kanoni, mux. 113, 1-li abzaci, winad. 4.).
msgavsi saxiT aRiarebiTi sarCelis definicias Cveni kanonmebloba ar Seicavs. garda amisa, germaniis dasaxelebuli kanonis
173-e muxlze dayrdnobiT, germanul samarTlebriv literaturaSi miuTiTeben, rom Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili, administraciul procesSi dasaSvebia gamoyenebul iqnes
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis normebi aRiarebiT sarCelTan
mimarTebiT, Tu es TviT samoqalaqo da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis gansxvavebulobis gamo ar gamoiricxa. aRniSnuls
SualobiT aRiarebiT sarCels uwodeben, rac procesualuri samarTlebrivi urTierTobis aRiarebas iTvaliswinebs. germanul
iuridiul literaturaSi ganasxvavebenen Semdegi 5 saxis aRiarebiT sarCels:
1.zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis Sesaxeb; 2. prevenciuli (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiTi sarCeli, romelic mimarTulia
momavalSi moqmedebaze. 3.administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
ararad aRiarebis Seaxeb sarCeli; 4.gangrZobadi aRiarebiTi sarCeli, romelic mimarTulia ukve gauqmebuli an aRsrulebuli an
sxvagvarad dasrulebuli individualri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis ukanonod aRirebaze da 5. SualobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli, romelic rogorc aRvniSneT, procesualuri
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis aRiarebas iTvaliswinebs.

362
3. samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis
dadgenis Sesaxeb (zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli).
5.1. sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb
aRiarebiTi sarCeli SeiZleba aRiZras administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis ararad aRiarebis moTxovniT. Aarara aqti gamocemisTanave araraa, is ver axdens iuridiul
zemoqmedebas, anu iuridiuli Zalis armqonea, ar SeuZlia
Secvalos samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba, amdenad mis mimarT
ar daiSveba aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zaladakargulad
gamocxadebis Sesaxeb sarCeli160.
160 germanul iuridiul literaturaSi, arara aqtis ararad
aRiarebis interesidan gamomdinare, miTiTebulia ZalaSi myof
da ZalaSi armyof aqtebs Soris gansxvavebaze. gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom Tu individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti ar aris kanoniT dadgenili wesiT ZalaSi Sesuli/gamoqveynebuli, maSin es niSnavs, rom is iuridiul zemoqmedebas
ver axdens/iuridiuli Zalis armqonea (arara aqtia). Aamdenad,
avtorTa mosazrebiT mis mimarT daiSveba aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCeli, magram germaniis umaRlesi administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT miCneuli iqna, rom dasaSvebia
Cveulebrivi, zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli, ramdenadac am
SemTxvevaSi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb sarCeli, an mavaldebulebeli sarCeli ar aRiZvreba.
germanul iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba,
rom dauSvebelia sarCeli normatiuli aqtis ararad aRiarebis
Sesaxeb. germaniis kanonmdebloba normatiuli aqtebis mimarT
icnobs normis kontrolis Sesaxeb warmoebas, romlis farglebSic germaniis umaRlesi administraciuli sasamarTlo amowmebs
aris Tu ara normatiuli aqti kanonier ZalaSi (kanonieri). Tu
sasamarTlo daadgens, rom normatiuli aqti ar aris kanonier
ZalaSi(ukanonoa), maSin acxadebs mas ararad.

363
aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelis davis sagania
arara aqti, romelmac mosarCelis kanonier interess miayena ziani. gasaTvalsiwinebelia, rom SesaZloa sarCelis
SetanisTanave ver gairkves sadavo aqti aris arara, Tu is
aris kanonsawinaaRmdego. Eam problebas mosarCele SesaZloa ver ascdes, amdenad umjobesia, roca mosarCele darwmunebuli ar aris aqti araraa Tu ara, Tavdapirvelad man
aRZras sask-is 22-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli sarCeli,
romelic SezRudulia sasarCelo xandazmulobis vadiT.
bunebrivia, erT-erTi winapirobaa, rom sadavo aqti ukve
iyos gamocemuli. is rom TviT aqti araraa, aris ara dasaSvebobis, aramed sarCelis safuZvlianobis piroba. Tu sasamarTlos mier aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCeli
uaryofili iqneba imis gamo, rom sadavo aqti ar aris arara, maSin mosarCeles isRa darCenia, rom aRZras sarCeli
ask-is 22-e muxlis safuZvelze, mxolod, rogorc zemoT
aRvniSneT, Tavidanve yuradReba unda miaqcios sasarCelo
xandazmulobis vadas. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, aRiarebiT sarCels aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb SesaZloa
kavSiri hqondes aqtis baTilad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb sarCelTan.
Tu aRmoCnda, rom administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis Sesaxeb aqti aris arara, maSin dasaSvebia ara
aRiarebiTi sarCeli, aramed aqtis gamocemis davaldebulebis Sesaxeb sarCeli.
aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelze administraciuli organosaTvis winaswari mimarTvis valdebuleba ar
aris dadgenili. administraciuli organo valdebulia sakuTari iniciativiT an dainteresebuli mxaris moTxovniT
TviTonve aRiaros aqti ararad (szak. mux. 59.naw.2.).
aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelis aRZvraze uflebamosilia piri, romlis kanonier interesze zemoqmedebs arara aqti. Sesabamisad, aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCeliT mosarCeles aseve aqvs kanonieri interesi. Ees
SesaZloa mimarTuli iyos, magaliTad, arara aqtis safuZvelze dadgenili valdebulebebis Tavidan acilebisaken.

364
aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCelze aseve ar aris
dadgenili sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada. sask-is 25-e
muxli vadaze ar miuTiTebs, igi aRniSnuli administraciuli gasaCivrebisaTvis materialuri samarTlis normiTaa
mowesrigebuli. szak-is 59-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, arara aqtis mimarT ar vrceldeba administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtebis gasaCivrebisaTvis zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT dadgenili vadebi.
5.2. aRiarebiTi sarCeli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis
arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis Sesaxeb (zogadi saxis
aRiarebiTi sarCeli).
zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli SeiZleba aRiZras samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arsebobis (pozitiuri aRiarebiTi sarCeli) an ararsebobis (negatiuri aRiarebiTi
sarCeli) dadgenis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, davis sagania samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgena.
zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSvebobis wina pirobaa ukve arsebuli konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba. Aaqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aRiarebiTi sarCelis davis
sagani SesaZloa iyos momavali samarTlebrivi urTierToba. Aamis Taobaze ufro konkretulad ganxilulia prevenciul (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiT sarCelSi.
samarTlebrivi urTierTobaSi moiazreba sajaro samarTlis normidan gamomdinare konkretuli Sinarsis urTierToba rogorc konkretuli pirisa sxva pirTan, aseve
konkretuli saganis mimarT161. samarTlebrivi urTierToba
moicavs mxareTa konkretul uflebebsa da valdebulebebs,
SesaZloa Segvxvdes aseve administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtidan, administraciuli xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare
161 F. Hufen, Verwaltungsprozessrecht., 4. Auflage., Mnchen., 2000., S.349.

365
uflebebi da valdebulebebi, moTxovnebi valdebulebis
Sesrulebis an moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb. radgan nebismieri sajaro-samarTlebrivi dava SesaZloa, rom
aRiarebiTi sarCeliT gairkves. swored amis gamo, kanonmdebelma daawesa dasaSvebobis wina pirobebi aRiarebiTi
sarCelis mimarT ask-is 25-e muxlis me-2 nawilSi.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis aRiarebis kanonieri
interesi SesaZloa warmoiSvas ara mxolod samarTlebrivi
urTierTobis monawileebs, aramed monawileebsa da mesame
pirebs Sorisac. Aam SemTxvevaSi mesame pirebi aRZraven aRiarebiT sarCels mopasuxis mimarT. Mmesame pirebis aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasaSvebia maSin, rodesac aRiarebis interesi mimarTulia urTierTobis monawileTa mimarT da es samarTlebrivi urTierToba mesame piris kanonier interess
arRvevs. Aaqedan gamomdinareobs Semdeg ukve sasarCelo
uflebamosileba da Sesabamisi aRiarebis interesi162.
aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, samarTlebrivi urTierToba moicavs Semdeg sam elements:
konkretuli saqmis garemoebas,
sajaro-samarTlebriv urTierTobas
pirebs Soris an pirsa da sagans Soris,
aseve, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom samarTlebrivi urTierTobis damoukidebeli elementebi, gansakuTrebiT,
konkretuli uflebebi da valdebulebebi, SesaZloa aRiarebiTi sarCelis davis sagani iyos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es ar
warmoSobs kavSirs sarCelTa sxva saxeebTan.
samarTlebrivi urTierToba mxareebs Soris unda gamomdinareobdes garkveuli samarTlebrivi normidan, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtidan an administraciuli xelSekrulebidan.163 A
amdenad, dasaSvebi ar aris aRiarebiTi sarCeli, Tu igi
mimarTulia:
162 Rolf Schmidt, Verwaltungsprozessrecht, 7. Auflage, 2003., S. 184
163

Rolf Schmidt, Verwaltungsprozessrecht, 7. Auflage, 2003.,S. 180

366
- abstraqtuli samarTlebrivi sakiTxis an samarTlebrivi normis Sinaarsis mimarT. magaliTad, dasaSvebi ar
aris dava administraciuli organos zogadi uflebebis an
valdebulebebis, samarTlebrivi normis iuridiuli Zalis
aRiarebis Taobaze mosarCeleze pirdapiri, konkretuli
zemoqmedebis gareSe.
- wminda faqtobrivi interesis, samarTlebrivi sakiTxis
winaswari garkvevis, faqtobrivi garemoebis an samarTlebrivi urTierTobis aradamoukidebeli nawilis mimarT;
samarTlebrivi normebi, administraciuli xelSekrulebebi da calkeuli gadawyvetilebebi individualuri
aqtebis saxiT Seicaven uflebebsa da valdebulebebs, romlebic samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis da amiT, SesaZloa
aRiarebiTi sarCelis sagani gaxdes.
aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSvebobis winapirobis - mosarCelis kanonieri interesis - mizania Tavidan iqnas acilebuli popularuli sarCeli anu sxvisi uflebebis dasacavad
sasamarTlosadmi mimarTva. es moTxovna aseve emsaxureba
imas, rom Tavidan iqnas acilebuli sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi daxmarebis (advokatis) rolSi danaxva.
sasamarTlos valdebulebaa sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmebisas gaarkvios samarTlebrivi urTierTobis mimarT
subieqturi xasiaTi mosarCelis kanonieri interesi.
Kradgan zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCelis davis sagania
ukve arsebuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba, amdenad aRiarebis interesi mxolod im SemTxvevaSia aSkara Tu sarCelis aRZvris momentisaTvis samarTlebrivi urTierToba
kvlav saziano zemoqmedebas axdens mosarCeleze. U
kanonieri interesis safuZveli SesaZloa ganivrcos,
erTi mxriv, is mWidro kavSirSia pirad uflebebsa da TavisuflebebTan da aseve, SesaZloa, iuridiuli interesis
saxiT warmogvidges, rogorc es samoqalaqo procesis aRiarebiT sarCelSia (sssk-is mux. 180) miTiTebuli. e.i. umTavresia, rom konkretuli interesi samarTlebrivi normebiT iyos daculi.

367
samarTlebrivi normebiT daculi/kanonieri interesi
unda gaaCndes uSualod mosarCeles, raTa sasamarTlos
saSualebiT moxdes misi aRiareba. Sesabamisad, Tu aSkaraa
konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba da samarTlebrivi dacvis uflebamosileba kanonieri interesi, - mosarCelis sasarCelo uflemosileba naTelia164.
aRiarebiT sarCelze kanonieri interesis gansazRvrisas
ar SeiZleba viyoT gadaWarbebulad mkacrebi. yovelgvari
samarTlebrivi, finansuri an ideuri interesi SeiZleba
gaxdes aRiarebiTi sarCelis wardgenis safuZveli. mTavaria, rom is unda emsaxurebodes mxareebs Soris warmoSobili davis gadawyvetas. aRiarebiTi sarCeli uSualod ar
iwvevs davis gadawyvetas, aramed aRiarebiTi sarCeliT
miRweuli Sedegi SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos davis gadawyvetas.
aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu uflebis dacvis miznis miRweva SeuZlebelia sarCelis
sxva saxis, kerZod, sask-is 22-24-e muxlebis safuZvelze. es
moTxovna emsaxureba procesis ekonomiurobis miRwevas;
Tavidan unda aviciloT viTareba, rodesac, pirvel rigSi,
dadgindeba uflebis arseboba da SemdgomSi dadgeba aqtis
gauqmebis an gamocemis moTxovna. aseve aRiarebiTi sarCeli ar unda gaxdes sarCelis sxva saxeebis dasaSvebobis winapirobebisagan Tavis daRwevis saSualeba.
Teoriulad SesaZlebelia administraciuli organos
164 germaniis dasaxelebuli kanonis 43-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSvebobis erT-erT pirobad garda kanonieri interesisa miTiTebulia swrafi aRiarebis
interesi. AaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT germanul samarTlebriv
literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasaSvebobis wina piroba moicavs or: subieqturs (kanonieri interesi) da
drois (swrafi ariareba) komponents. srafi aRiareba miuTiTebs, rom aRiarebis interesi swored sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gamotanis droisaTvis miiRweva da rom aRiarebas ara aqvs
moqmedebis SeCerebis efeqti.

368
mxridan aRiZras aRiarebiTi sarCeli kerZo piris winaaRmdeg, an gansazRvruli saxis administraciul organoebs
Soris (mag. saministrosa da TviTmmarTvelobas Soris).
TviT mTavrobis SemadgenlobaSi Semaval administraciul
organoebs Soris aRiarebiTi sarCelis aRZvra dauSvebelia, radgan mTavrobis struqturis, uflebamosilebisa
da saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad sakiTxi wydeba urTierTSeTanxmebiT an ukidures SemTxvevaSi mTavrobis mier.
zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCelisaTvis savaldebulo
ar aris winaswar administraciuli organosaTvis mimarTva, aseve aRiarebiTi sarCelis aRZvrisaTvis sasarCelo
xandazmuloba ar aris dadgenili.
sqema: dasaSvebobis winapirobebi zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCelisaTvis

1. gansjadi sasamarTlo
-sajaro-samarTlebrivi dava
2. dasaSveboba
- unda gamoiricxos, mosarCelis mier sarCelis
aRZvra sask-is 22-24 muxlebis safuZvelze;
konkretuli
samarTlebrivi
urTierTobis
arseboba-ararsebobis dadgenis aRiareba;
uflebis
arseboba-ararsebobis
dadgenis
aRiareba;
- aqtis ararad aRiareba;
3. sarCelis aRZvris gansakuTrebuli interesi
kanonieri interesi;
4. sasarCelo uflebamosileba;
5. winaswari mimarTvis arasavaldebuloba;
6. sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada dadgenili ar
aris;
7. mopasuxe samarTlebrivi urTierTobis sxva
monawileni;

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8 winaswari mowesrigebis moqmedebis SeCerebis
efeqti ara aqvs;
9. dasaSvebobis sxva wina pirobebi
- monawileobis uflebamosileba;
- saproceso uflebamosileba;
- dadgenili wesiT Sedgenili sarCeli;
- samarTlebrivi dacvis zogadi moTxovnebi.

5.3. prevenciuli (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiTi


sarCeli, romelic mimarTulia momavalSi moqmedebaze
prevenciuli (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiTi
sarCeli dasaSvebia, roca mosarCelis mimarT arsebuli
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis SecvliT arsebobs zianis
safrTxe da samarTlebrivi urTierToba imdenad konkretulia, rom winaswar SeiZleba ganisazRvros momavalSi
mosarCelis mimarT misi negatiuri Sedegi.
Sesabamisad, winaswari samarTlebrivi dacvis aucilebloba maSin arsebobs, rodesac mosarCeles ar SeuZlia
daelodos mis mimarT dawesebuli SezRudvebis ZalaSi Sesvlas da sasamarTlo winaswar uzrunvelyofs, rom garkveuli moqmedeba akrZalos an, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararseboba
aRiaros. aseT SemTxvevaSi realurad, SesaZloa, winaswari
dacvis mizniT aRiZras rogorc moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb sarCeli, aseve winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb aRiarebiTi sarCeli, romelic mimarTuli unda iyos momavalSi
konkretuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis aRiarebisaken.
zemoT aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, winaswari dacvis
Sesaxeb aRiarebiT sarCelsa da moqmedebis ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb sarCels Soris mijna Zalian
mcirea. DSesaZloa, orive saxis sarCeli gamoyenebuli iqnes
msgavsi SemTxvevebis mimarT. praqtikaSi, maT Soris germa-

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niis sasamarTlo praqtikaSic ki, es farglebi ar aris dadgenili da sistematizirebuli.
germanul samarTlebriv literaturaSi gamoTqmulia
aseve mosazreba, rom winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb aRiarebiTi sarCeli SesaZloa mimarTuli iyos aseve SemzRudveli
administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtisagan dacvisaken. am
SemTxvevaSi aRiarebis moTxovna sakmaod SezRudulia.
magaliTad, prevenciuli (winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb) aRiarebiTi sarCeli SesaZloa aRiZras konkurentebis mier sajaro moxelis daniSvnis winaaRmdeg vakantur adgilze daniSvnis proceduris/warmoebis dawyebamde. am SemTxvevaSi
sasamarTlos uwevs administraciul organoSi mimdinare
warmoebaSi Careva, amdenad, rogorc wesi, mosarCeles moeTxoveba daelodos individualuri an normatiuli aqtis
gamocemas da Semdeg moiTxovos maTi dacvisagan winaswari
uzrunvelyofa (sask-is 29-e, 30-e, 31-e muxlebi).
winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb aRiarebiTi sarCelis interesia momavali samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis savaldebulo aRiarebis mopoveba. rogorc wesi,
mosarCeles moeTxoveba, rom daelodos administraciuli
organos gadawyvetilebas. winaswari dacvis aucilebloba
arsebobs maSin, rodesac dainteresebul pirs, samarTlebrivi urTierTobidan gamomdinare, ziani an gamousworebeli zarali emuqreba da mogvianebiT 22-24-e muxlebiT gansazRvruli sarCelebiT Tavis dacvas ver SeZlebs.
winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb aRiarebiT sarCels gansakuTrebuli sasarCelo uflebamosileba ar moeTxoveba da
igive moTxovnebi rCeba, rac zogadi aRiarebiTi sarCelis mimarT. Mmxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac aRiarebiTi
sarCeli mimarTulia konkretuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis an faqtobrivi moqmedebis/realaqtis
Seusruleblobisaken, - mosarCele valdebulia winaswar
daasabuTos, rom samarTlebrivi aqtiT an realaqtiT misi
kanonismieri uflebebi dairRveva.

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5.4. ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli
aRiarebiTi sarCelis erT-erTi formaa ganvrcobiTi
aRiarebiTi sarCeli. administraciuli procesis es instituti ucxo ar aris qarTuli kanonmdeblobisTvis. is
erTgvari SezRuduli formiT gxvdeba sask-is 32-e muxlis
me-3 nawilSi. sasamarTlos mier individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv aqtTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde administraciuli organos mier misi
baTilad cnobis SemTxvevaSi, mxare uflebamosilia moiTxovos am individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqtis sasamarTlos mier baTilad cnoba. es moTxovna dasaSvebia im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanamde an sarCelis ganxilvamde mosarCele kargavs
uflebadamcav interess (mag., sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebis
Secvlis gamo piri kargavs moTxovnis uflebas; drois gasvlis gamo azrs kargavs sakiTxis gadawyveta da a.S.). sasamarTlo baTilad cnobs aqts, rac gulisxmobs misi ukanonobis aRiarebas, ramdenadac ikveTeba ara baTilad cnoba
misi klasikuri gagebiT, romelic iwvevs Sesabamis samarTlebriv Sedegebs, aramed sadavo aqtis ukanonobis dadgena,
romelic SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos Semdgom moTxovnas.
sasamarTlo im SemTxvevaSi aris uflebamosili gaagrZelos procesi da cnos es aqti baTilad, rodesac masze arsebobs mxaris kanonieri interesi. aseTi interesi aSkaraa,
rodesac
1. arsebobobs igive mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis ganmeorebis SesaZlebloba (mag. pirs ar misces nebarTva Tbilisobis zeimze gamoetana sakuTari produqcia. davis ganxilvamde Tbilisobis RonisZieba Catarda, magram ramdenadac arsebobs imis varaudis safuZveli, rom pirs momaval
Tbilisobazec imave safuZvliT uars etyvian RonisZiebaSi
monawileobis miRebaze, pirs aqvs kanonieri interesi, sasamarTlom aRiaros uaris ukanonoba);
2. rodesac es gamarTlebulia reabilitaciis interesebidan gamomdinare. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac aqtis Sede-

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gebi misi baTilad gamocxadebis Semdegac grZeldeba (mag.,
demonstraciis darbevis Sedegad dazaralebuli piri gadis aucilebeli mkurnalobis process saavadmyofoSi.
administraciuli organos mxridan gadawyvetilebis baTilad cnobis miuxedavad pirs aqvs kanonieri interesi sasamarTlom aRiaros gadawyvetilebis ukanonoba, rac SeiZleba gaxdes misi reabilitaciis moTxovnis safuZveli);
3. rodesac sasamarTlos mier baTilad cnobili gadawyvetilebis ukanonobis aRiarebis mizania, zianis anazRaurebis moTxovna.
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCelis mimarT, Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare, garkveul problemebs warmoSobs sityva
dasrulebulia. Ggasarkvevia, Tu ras gulisxmobs es sityva. Ggarda amisa, ar arsebobs erTmniSvnelovani Sexeduleba imaze, - kanonis analogiis gamoyenebiT, daiSveba Tu ara
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli sarCelis aRZvramde moqmedeba dasrulebuli aqtebis mimarT. Aaseve, ismis kiTxva,
dasaSvebia Tu ara, rom ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeliT
ukve dasrulebuli an Tavidan acilebuli realaqti aRiardes kanonsawinaaRmdegod.
miCneulia, rom ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli gansakuTrebuli dacvis saSualebaa policiur da administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa samarTalSi, radgan am saxis
aqtebi, Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, mokle droSi aRsruldebian da administrciuli procesualuri dacvis
sxva saSualebebi araefeqturi xdeba.
dasaSvebobisas gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli, rogorc aRvniSneT, Tavdapirvel
process momavalSi agrZelebs. Sesabamisad, dasaSvebia sarCeli, roca sadavo individualur-samarTlebrivi aqtis
moqmedeba sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gamotanis momentisaTvis mTlianad dasrulebulia. ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasaSvebia maSinac, roca aqtis moqmedeba dasrulebulia aqtis gsaCivrebisaTvis dadgenili vadis gasvlamde. sityvis dasrulebulia definicia mravalmxrivia
da SesaZloa, aseve gamomdinareobdes TviT individualu-

373
ri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis Sinaarsidan. administraciuli aqtis moqmedeba dasrulebulia, roca ukve
aRar eqvemdebareba aRsrulebas da aseve, gauqmebac misi
Sinaarsis gaTvaliswinebiT yovelgvar azrs moklebulia.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom moqmedeba dasrulebuli sadavo
aqti aucileblad kanonsawinaaRmdego da mosarCelis mimarT kanoniT dadgenili uflebebis SemzRudveli unda
iyos. aseve, SesaZloa, dasadgeni iyos farglebi sadavo aqtsa da faqtobriv moqmedebas (realaqts) Soris. anu, unda
gairkves individualuri aqtia gasaCivrebuli, Tu faqtobrivi moqmedeba. Radgan, rogorc aRvniSneT, ganvrcobiTi
aRiarebiTi sarCeli daiSveba mxolod ukve dasrulebuli,
an sxvagvarad aRsrulebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis mimarT. administraciuli aqtis moqmedebis dasrulebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebia,
magaliTad: aqtis gauqmeba administraciuli organos mier,
axali aqtis gamocema, ZalaSi Sesuli sakanonmdeblo cvlileba, romelic aqtis moqmedebis Sewyvetas iTvaliswinebs,
administraciuli xelSekrulebis gauqmeba, romlis safuZvelzec aqti gamoica, an sxva RonisZiebani, mag. dakavebuli
piris gaTavisufleba. administraciuli aqtis moqmedebis
dasrulebis faqtobrivi safuZvlebia, magaliTad, aqtis
SinaarsiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebis faqtobrivi
dasruleba, aqtis moqmedebis vadis gasvla, valdebulebis
amowurva an sxva faqtobrivi cvlilebebi.
samarTlebriv literaturaSi gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis Sesabamisad, dasaSvebia, rom aRniSnuli wesi analogiiT
gamoyenebuli iqnes realaqtis mimarTac, Tu mosarCele
daasabuTebs, rom dasrulebuli realaqtiT mis kanonier
uflebebs miadga ziani. Tumca specialuri samarTlebrivi normis ar arsebobis gamo rTulia relaqtis mimarT misi
analogiiT gamoyeneba, radgan realurad ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli individualuri administraciuli aqtis
Taobaze wardgenili sarCelebis safuZvelze warmoiSveba.
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi moTxovna, rogorc davinaxeT,
moqmedebas iwyebs mas Semdeg, rac sadavo individualuri

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aqtis moqmedebis dasrulebiT samarTlebrivi interesi
ekargeba aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad cnobis Sesaxeb sarCeliT an mavaldebulebeli sarCeliT moTxovnils
da mosarCelis kanonieri interesis arsebobisas ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeliT grZeldeba dava am sadavo aqtis
ukanonod aRiarebis moTxovniT. rogorc samarTlebriv
literaturaSia aRniSnuli, SesaZloa dasruldes ara mxolod individualuri aqtis moqmedeba, aramed administraciuli organos faqtobrivma moqmedebamac dakargos Tavisi iuridiuli Zala. Mmagram es ar niSnavs, rom faqtobrivma moqmedebam Tavisi uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba ar moaxdina
dainteresebul pirze. Aamdenad, aq qmedebis ganxorcielebisagan Tavis Sekavebis Sesaxeb sarCeli kargavs Tavis samarTlebriv mniSvnelobas da bunebrivia, kanonis analogiiT, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia dasrulebuli faqtobrivi moqmedeba aRiaros ukanonod.
gansxvavebulad dgas sakiTxi, rodesac Tavdapirveli
sarCeli aris Cveulebrivi, zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli. Aam SemTxvevaSi ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCelis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sadavo
samarTlebrivi urTierToba dasrulebulia, magram jer
kidev axdens gavlenas. sxva SemTxvevaSi is Cveulebrivi
aRiarebiTi sarCelia.
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli aseve dasSvebia, Tu
mosarCeles amis kanoniri interesi aqvs. aRiarebis interesi am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoixatebodes: dasrulebuli
aqtis gameorebis safrTxeSi, momavalSi mosalodneli diskriminaciis Tavidan acilebaSi (reabilitaciis interesi),
administraciuli organos Tanamdebobis piris pasuxismgeblobis an zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi
kanonsawinaaRmdego xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebaSi, ZiriTadi
uflebebisaTvis zianis miyenebaSi.
momavalSi gameorebis safrTxis Sesaxeb aRiarebis interesis dasasabuTeblad mxolod abstraqtuli garemoeba
ar kmara. Aaq savaldebuloa konkretuli mtkicebulebebi,
rom administraciuli organo gamoscems imave Sinaarsis

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mosarCelis kanonieri interesisaTvis zianis mimyenebel
aqts, Mmag. msgavsi demonstraciisas Sekrebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb. gameorebis safrTxe garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT
SesaZloa winaswar ganWvretadi iyos, maSin, rodesac naTelia, rom mosarCele Sesabamis moTxovnas kvlav waradgens
da administraciuli organos mxridan Sesabamisi faqtobrivi garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT igi kvlav uaryofili iqneba. magaliTad, adgilobrivma organom uari uTxra
pirs saxalxo zeimisas Cvenebis mowyobaze. Mman es gaasaCivra
da moiTxova saxalxo zeimze daSveba. amasobaSi zeimi dasrulda. Sesabamisad, pirs gauCnda interesi momavalSi uflebis aRiarebisa, romlis mopovebac mas SeuZlia gangrZobadi aRiarebiTi sarCeliT.
reabilitaciis interesi erTobliobaSi moicavs mraval SemTxvevas, rodesac ZiriTadi sadavo dasrulebuli
aqtis diskriminaciuli Careva misi moqmedebis dasrulebis Semdegac grZeldeba. Mmag. kanonsawinaaRmdego gamocdis negatiuri zemoqmedeba imiT ki ar sruldeba, rom pirs
xelmeored dauSveben gamocdaze, - aramed ganmeorebiT
gasuli piris imiji mis Semdgom profesiul saqmianobaze
axdens zemoqmedebas.
aRsaniSnavia, rom, roca moqmedeba sarCelis aRZvramde
dasrulda, maSin yovelgvar interess kargavs administraciul sarCelTa romelime saxiT procesis warmarTva. ArCeba mxolod zianis anazRaurebis moTxovniT sarCelis
aRZvris SesaZlebloba, magram Tavdapirvelad aucilebelia administraciuli organos Tanamdebobis piris qmedeba sasamarTlos mier aRiardes, rogorc kanonsawinaaRmdego. Sesabamisad, administraciuli organos Tanamdebobis
piris pasuxismgeblobis an zianis anazRaurebis sasarCelo
moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba qmedebis
kanonsawinaaRmdego xasiaTi.
rac Seexeba ZiriTadi uflebebisaTvis zianis miyenebis sakiTxs, yuradReba unda mieqces, rom ZiriTadi uflebebisaTvis zianis miyeneba SesaZloa moxdes ama Tu im
dasrulebuli RonisZiebiT. MmagaliTad, Sekrebis Tavisuflebis SezRudva.

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ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeliT grZeldeba Tavdapirveli sarCeli, Sesabamisad maTi dasaSveboba dadgenili
wesiT unda gairkves. amdenad, Tavdapirvel sarCelebze
uflebamosili piri ganvrcobiT aRirebiT sarCelzec uflebamosilia, mxolod mosarCelem unda daasabuTos, rom
dasrulebuli sadavo aqtiT, analogiiT qmedebiT, mis kanonier interess miadga ziani.
vadebis garkvevisas yuradReba unda mieqces aqtis moqmedeba dasrulda sarCelis aRZvramde, Tu sarCelis aRZvris Semdeg.
sarCelis aRZvris Semdeg aqtis moqmedebis dasrulebis
SemTxvevaSi, ganvrcobiT aRiarebiT sarCelze vada ar moeTxoveba.
rac Seexeba sarCelis aRZvramde aqtis moqmedebis dasrulebas, - winaswari gasaCivrebis vada gaSvebuli ar unda
iyos, anu sarCelis aRZvris momentisaTvis is gasaCivrebadi unda iyos. am dros sarCeli dauSvebelia ara vadis gaSvebis gamo, aramed imis gamo, rom winaswari gasaCivreba ar
momxdara. Sesabamisad, Tu aqti winaswar gasaCivrda da misi
warmoebis dros dasrulda sadavo aqtis moqmedeba, maSin
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasaSvebia. Aam dros erTTviani vadis dacva ar moeTxoveba.

sqema: dasaSvebobis winapirobebi ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCelisaTvis


1.gansjadi sasamarTlo;
2.dasaSveboba;
a)ZiriTadi sarCelis davis sagani: individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti;
b)aqtis moqmedebis dasruleba sarCelis aRZvris Semdeg
- analogiuri gamoyeneba sarCelis aRZvramde aqtis
moqmedebis dasrulebisas;

377
- analogiuri gamoyeneba mavaldebulebeli sarCelebis
SemTxvevaSi;
3.sasarCelo uflebamosileba;
4.aRiarebis gansakuTrebuli interesi;
a)dasrulebuli aqtis gameorebis safrTxe;
b)momavalSi mosalodneli diskriminaciis Tavidan
acileba (reabilitaciis interesi);
g) kanonsawinaaRmdego xasiaTis gaTvaliswineba
administraciuli organos Tanamdebobis piris
pasuxismgeblobis an zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis
SemTxvevaSi sarCelis aRZvris gansakuTrebuli interesi
kanonieri interesi (magram ara sarCelis aRZvramde
moqmedebis dasrulebisas);
5.winaswari
mimarTvis
arasavaldebuloba,
magram
winaswari mimarTvis vada moqmedebis dasrulebisas
gaSvebuli ar unda iyos;
6.sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada dadgenili ar aris;
7.dadgenili wesiT moTxovnis wardgena;
8.dasaSvebobis sxva wina pirobebi.

5.5. aRiarebiTi sarCelis dasabuTebuloba


sarCelis dasabuTebuloba erT-erTi aqtualuri sakiTxia. is dakavSirebulia materialur normebTan da maTi
dasabuTebulad warmoCena saTanado gadawyvetilebis
miRebis safuZvels qmnis. sarCelis dasabuTebulobisas
gamoiyofa ori mniSvnelovani momenti: kanonsawinaaRmdegoba da kanoniT garantirebuli uflebebis darRveva davis sagniT. Mmagram es ar kmara, rodesac sarCeli saTanado
mopasuxisadmi ar aris mimarTuli. aRiarebiTi sarCelis
TiToeuli saxis dasabuTebulobaze saubrisas imavdroulad gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas, zemoT, TiToeulze msjelobisas aRniSnuli garemoebebi.

378
zogadi saxis aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasabuTebulia, roca
mosarCelis mier sadavod qceuli samarTlebrivi urTierToba Semdgaria, arsebobs (pozitiuri aRiarebiTi sarCeli) an ararsebobs (negatiuri aRiarebiTi sarCeli). Mmisi
arseboba ararseboba ki materialuri normebis safuZvelze unda iqnes garkveuli. maT Soris, SesaZloa damokidebuli iyos warmoebis sworad warmarTvaze. magaliTad,
aRiarebiTi sarCeli ar unda iyos mimarTuli arauflebamosili administraciuli organosadmi. rogorc zemoT
aRvniSneT, aRiarebiTi sarCeliT sadavod qceuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arseboba-ararsebobis dasabuTeba
unda xdebodes imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ramdenad gamomdinareobs is Sesabamisi sajaro-samarTlebrivi normidan,
individualuri aqtidan an administraciuli xelSekrulebidan. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sajaro xasiaTis samarTlebrivi urTierToba arsebobs maSinac, rodesac administraciuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze administraciuli organo urTierTobaSi Seva moqalaqesTan. amdenad,
materialur-samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis SemowmebasTan
erTad SesaZloa Semowmdes, magaliTad, sakiTxi, rom mesakuTris nakveTze gamavali gza sazogadoebrivi daniSnulebis gzaa. sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebisas mowmdeba aseve ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis darRvevis sakiTxic.
winaswari dacvis Sesaxeb aRiarebiTi sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu warmoCenilia, rom mosarCelis mimarT arsebuli
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis momavalSi Secvla kanonsawinaaRmdegoa da mis kanonier uflebebs ziani adgeba. Ggansxvavebulad dgeba sakiTxi, rodesac norma ukve kanonier ZalaSia Sesuli. Aam SemTxvevaSi mosarCeles SeuZlia aRZras
sask-is 22-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli sarCeli.
aqtis ararad aRiarebis Sesaxeb sarCeli mimarTulia im
organos winaaRmdeg, romelmac is gamosca, Sesabamisad,
sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu sadavo aqti araraa. Gaqtis
ararad cnobis safuZvlebi mocemulia materialur samarTalSi (szak-is mux. 60). amavdroulad, gasaTvaliswinebe-

379
lia, rom arara aqti mosarCelis kanonier interess unda
ayenebdes zians.
ganvrcobiTi aRiarebiTi sarCeli mimarTulia im administraciuli organosadmi, romelmac dasrulebuli aqti
gamosca. am saxis sarCeli dasabuTebulia, Tu sadavo aqti,
romelic sarCelis aRZvris Semdeg dasrulda, kanonsawinaaRmdegoa da mosarCeles aqvs amis aRiarebis kanonieri
interesi.
5.6. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba
aRiarebiTi sarCelis safuZvelze sasamarTlos gamoaqvs e.w. deklaraciuli xasiaTis gadawyvetileba, romliTac ar cvlis da ar adgens, aramed aRiarebs garkveul samarTlebriv garemoebebs. magaliTad, aRiarebuli iqnes
sadavo aqti ... ararad. aRiarebiT sarCelze sasamarTlos
gadawyvetileba araviTar davaldebulebas ar Seicavs mopasuxis mimarT, igi atarebs e.w. SetyobinebiT xasiaTs.
kazusi: diRmis masivSi mdebare mravalsarTuliani binis mesakuTres gaqiravebuli aqvs saxlSi arsebuli binebi.
mravalsarTulian saxls aqvs didi aivnebi da Ria verandebi, romelTa kuTxeebSic mtredebs budeebi aqvT gakeTebuli da abinZureben saxlis aivnebsa da Ria verandebs.
Sewuxebulma damqiraveblebma araerTxel mimarTes saxlis
mesakuTres pretenziebiT, mtredebis gamo gamowveuli sibinZuris Taobaze da daemuqrnen qiris safasuris SemcirebiT. aRniSnuli saxlis ramdenime bina ki saerTod ver gaqiravda mtredebis gamo.
aRniSnuli pretenziebiT Sewuxebulma saxlis mesakuTrem 2007 wlis aprilSi gadawyvita Ria aivnebi da verandebi
wvrilad naqsovi badiT SemoesazRvra da saxlis fanjrebi
amgvari xerxiT daecva mtredebisagan.
aRniSnuli RonisZiebiT SeSfoTebulma cxovelTa dacvis sazogadoebis warmomadgenelma iaSvilma gancxadebiT
mimarTa garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saminis-

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tros adgilobriv warmomadgenlobas aRniSnuli sakiTxze reagirebis mizniT. garemos dacvaze pasuxismgebelma
adgilobrivma samsaxurma erT-erTi TanamSromeli gaagzavna adgilze viTarebis Sesamowmeblad. uflebamosilma
Tanamdebobis pirma saxlis mesakuTres ganumarta, rom mas
Sesabamisi administraciuli organos Tanxmobis gareSe
ufleba ar hqonda badiT daefara saxlis aivnebi. igi valdebuli iyo moexsna ukve gakeTebuli badeebi. ufro metic,
badeebs SeiZleba xeli SeeSala mtredebisaTvis budeebTan
mifreniliyvnen, rac bunebis dacvis principebis darRvevad miaCnda.
meore dResve saxlis mesakuTrem mimarTa garemos dacvis saministros adgilobriv biuros da moiTxova badeebis
damagrebis nebarTva, razec mas uari ganucxades. garemos
dacvis adgilobrivi biuros mosazrebiT, dabinZurebis
sakiTxi gansakuTrebuli sferoa, romlis mogvarebac mxolod badeebis gakvriT SeuZlebelia. amavdroulad, mtredebi am qalaqSi Cveulebrivi movlenaa da maTgan amgvari
saSualebebiT Tavis daRweva Znelia.
saxlis mesakuTres miaCnia, rom am SemTxvevaSi saqme exeba ara bunebas, aramed saxls. kerZod, saxlis sibinZurisagan dacvas da ara bunebis dacvis sferos. misi mosazrebiT,
saxlis aivanze badis gakvra saerTod ar saWiroebs nebarTvas administraciuli organosagan.
zemoaRniSnuli kazusis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare,
mosarCele pavliaSvilis mizania massa da administrciul
organos Soris warmoSobili samarTlebrivi urTierTobis
ararsebobis dadgena. mosarCeles surs imis aRiareba, rom
mis mier ganxorcielebuli moqmedeba - badeebis gakvra aivnebze - ar saWiroebs specialur nebarTvas, ramdenadac ar
ewinaaRmdegeba garemos dacvis normebs.
uflebis dacvis procesualuri saSualebaa aRiarebiTi
sarCeli.
mosarCeles gaaCnia samarTlebrivi urTierTobis ararsebobis dadgenaze samarTlebrivi interesi, ramdenadac
samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba aris sadavo da mosarCelis

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mizania, misi Semdgomi moqmedeba warmarTos sasamarTlos
mier dadgenili uflebebis farglebSi. samarTlebrivi intersis miRma gamokveTilia agreTve ekonomikuri xasiaTis
interesic. arsebuli interesi daculia samarTlebrivad,
ramdenadac is aris mesakuTre da mas ufleba aqvs Tavisi
Sexedulebisamebr gamoiyenos misi sakuTreba. misi, rogorc mesakuTris, samarTlis normiT daculi ufleba warmoadgens misi interesis samarTlebriv safuZvels.
6. saxelSekrulebo davebi
administraciuli xelSekrulebis, rogorc administraciuli organos saqmianobis erT-erTi sajaro-samarTlebrivi formis sakanonmdeblo safuZvels qmnis saqarTvelos
zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi. igi ayalibebs administraciuli xelSekrulebis legalur definicias (szak-is
me-2 muxlis 1 nawilis ,,z qvepunqtis axali redaqcia) da
axdens misi maregulirebeli specialuri normebis kodeqsis V TavSi (muxlebi 65 71) Tavmoyras. administraciuli
organo uflebamosilia dados rogorc administraciuli,
aseve kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba. administraciuli organos mier administraciuli xelSekrulebis
dadebisas gamoiyeneba zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi
da samoqalaqo kodeqsis Sesabamisi normebi (szak-is 65 II
mexli).
6.1. saxelSekrulebo davebis gadawyveta saerTo sasamarTloebisaTvis mimarTvis gziT
sask-s 25 muxli adgens saxelSekrulebo davebis ganxilvis wess. aRniSnuli muxlis I nawili axdens administraciuli samarTlis praqtikaSi damkvidrebuli wesis samarTlebriv gaformebas: saxelSekrulebo davebTan dakavSirebiT dauSvebelia administraciuli saCivris Setana. is

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SeiZleba gadawydes mxolod saerTo sasamarTloebisadmi
mimarTvis gziT.
administraciul organos aqvs sajaro samarTlebrivi
uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi formis
arCevanis Tavisufleba. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac is airCevs saqmianobis samarTlebriv formas administraciuli
xelSekrulebis saxiT, is valdebulia bolomde darCes samarTlebrivi urTierTobis am safexurze. xelSekruleba,
rogorc samoqalaqo samarTlis instituti, aris ormxrivi (an mravalmxrivi) nebis gamovlena, romelic mimarTulia samarTlebrivi urTierTobis warmoSobis, Secvlis an
Sewyvetisaken. xelSekruleba ideba xelSekrulebis mxarebis urTierTTanmxvedri, saerTo miznisken mimarTuli nebis gamoxatvis Sedegad. Tu saxeze ar aris ormxrivi neba,
Sesabamisad ar aris administraciuli xelSekrulebac.
administraciuli organo ar aris uflebamosili individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemiT calmxrivad moawesrigos xelSekrulebiT nakisri
valdebulebebis Sesruleba, is valdebulia xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili davebis gadawyvetis mizniT mimarTos
sasamarTlos da rogorc xelSekrulebis Tanasworuflebianma partnoirma moiTxovos misi uflebebis dacva. xelSekrulebis meore mxarec moqalaqec ar aris uflebamosili saCivari Seitanos administraciul organoSi da
moiTxovos administraciuli warmoebis ganxorcielebis
gziT misi uflebebis dacva. administraciul saCivarTan
dakavSirebiT administraciul warmoebas aqvs mTeli rigi
Taviseburebebi, romelic ver gavrceldeba saxelSekrulebo davebis ganxilvasa da gadawyvetaze. am SemTxvevaSi
erTaderTi gzaa Tanasworuflebian subieqtebs Soris davis sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvis gziT gadawyveta.

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6.2. administraciuli da kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba
sask-is 25-e muxlis II nawili mijnavs administraciuli
da kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SesrulebasTan da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebul davebs da gansazRvravs saerTo sasamarTloebis mier maT Sesabamisad
samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisa da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT ganxilvis valdebulebas.
administraciuli organo uflebamosilia gamoiyenos
saqmianobis rogorc sajaro-samarTlebrivi, aseve kerZo-samarTlebrivi formebi. szak 65 muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli organo uflebamosilia dados kerZosamarTlebrivi xelSekruleba. gamomdinare aqedan, ibadeba
SekiTxva, Tu ra SemTxvevaSi iZens administraciuli organos mier dadebuli xelSekruleba administraciulsamarTlebriv xasiaTs. Aam SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas aqvs saproceso-samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba: administraciuli
xelSekrulebis dadebasTan, SecvlasTan an SewyvetasTan
dakavSirebiT warmoSobil davebs ganixilaven da wyveten
saerTo sasamarTloebi administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT (sask-is 25 II muxli).
administraciuli da samoqalaqo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis gamijvnas emsaxureba administraciuli xelSekrulebis cnebis legalur definiciaSi mocemuli elementi: ,,sajaro uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis mizniT. xelSekrulebis samarTlebriv bunebas gansazRvravs
xelSekrulebis mizani. ar aris arsebiTi xelSekrulebis
mxareebis samarTlebrivi statusi; is faqti, rom xelSekrulebis erT-erTi an orive mxare aris administraciuli
organo, ar gvaZlevs imis SesaZleblobas, rom is miviCnioT
administraciul xelSekrulebad. SesaZlebelia, or administraciul organos Soris daidos samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi xelSekruleba. M
xelSekrulebis mizani unda ganvsazRvroT misi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare. arsebiTia imis dadgena, Tu rogoria
saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebis, gansakuTrebiT, xelSek-

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rulebiT nakisri valdebulebebis an dadgenili moTxovnebis samarTlebrivi buneba. administraciul xelSekrulebasTan gvaqvs saqme mag.,
rodesac is administraciuli samarTlis normebis
Sesrulebas emsaxureba;
rodesac is individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis an sxva mmarTvelobiTi RonisZiebis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas Seicavs;
rodesac is moqalaqis sajaro-samarTlebriv uflebamosilebebs an valdebulebebs adgens.
administraciuli xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili davebis gadawyvetis mizniT saerTo sasamarTloebis ganxorcielebul samarTalwarmoebis process axasiaTebs mTeli
rigi Taviseburebebi. saqmis warmoebis gaxsnis safuZvelia
dainteresebuli mxaris sasamarTloSi werilobiTi formiT wardgenili gancxadeba, romelic unda pasuxobdes
sssk-is 178-e muxlis moTxovnebs. Tu gancxadeba akmayofilebs kanonis moTxovnebs, maSin sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas sarCelis miRebis Sesaxeb, xolo rodesac sarCeli
araa Sedgenili sssk-is 178-e da 179-e muxlebis moTxovnaTa
dacviT, maSin sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas xarvezis
Sevsebis Sesaxeb da mosarCeles aZlevs vadas mis Sesavsebad. sarCelis miRebaze uaris Tqmis safuZveli SeiZleba
iyos sssk-is 186-e muxlis romelime punqti.
saxelSekrulebo davis gadawyvetis moTxovniT sasamarTloSi Setanili gancxadebis mimarT moqmedebs sarCelis miRebis Sesaxeb ganCinebis gamotanis xuTdRiani vada,
romelic gaTvaliswinebulia sssk-is 183-e muxliT, xolo
ganmwesrigebeli sxdomis instituti, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia sask-is 26 muxliT da emsaxureba sarCelis dasaSvebobis sakiTxis garkvevas, ar gamoiyeneba saxelSekrulebo davebze sarCelis dasaSvebobis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi.

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6.3. saxelSekrulebo davis ganxilva kerZo arbitraJis mier
sask-is 25-e muxlis III nawili uSvebs administraciuli
organos mier dadebuli kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare davis mxareTa SeTanxmebiT gansaxilvelad kerZo arbitraJisaTvis gadacemas.
administraciuli organos mier kerZo-samarTlebrivi
xelSekrulebis dadeba ar emsaxureba sajaro samarTlebrivi uflebamosilebebis Sesrulebas. kerZo-samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi administraciuli organo moqmedebs,
rogorc samoqalaqo samarTlis subieqti. kerZo-samarTlebrivi xelSekruleba ideba samoqalaqo kodeqsis safuZvelze. mis SesrulebasTan dakavSirebuli davebis gadawyvetac xdeba samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze da,
bunebrivia, administraciuli organo ar SeiZleba iyos
SezRuduli gamoiyenos kerZo samarTlis iseTi mniSvnelovani instituti, rogoricaa kerZo arbitraJi.
kerZo arbitraJisaTvis mimarTvis aucilebeli winapirobaa mxareTa Soris SeTanxmeba, dava ganixilos kerZo
arbitraJma. SesaZlebelia, es SeTanxmeba winaswar Caidos
xelSekrulebaSi. SesaZlebelia, agreTve aseTi SeTanxmeba
davis warmoSobis Semdeg iqnas miRweuli.
7. uflebis prevenciuli dacva
7.1. zogadi
administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba, rogorc arsebuli praqtika adasturebs, ramdenime weli grZeldeba. SemzRudveli aqtis adresati iZulebuli iqneboda sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlamde moeTmina
am aqtiT gamowveuli SezRudva, Sesabamisad, aRmWurveli
aqtis gamocemiT dainteresebuli piri ver miaRwevda Sedegs davis dasrulebamde. igive problemas vawydebiT realaqtis SemTxvevaSic. dagvianebuli da, amdenad, uflebis

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araefeqturi dacva ara marto ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxls, aramed negatiur gavlenas
axdens saxelmwifosa da moqalaqis urTierTobaze.
saqarTvrelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis Tanaxmad,
yoveli pirisaTvis uzrunvelyofilia uflebis sasamarTlo wesiT dacva. administraciuli marTlmsajulebis
organizacia da procesi unda pasuxobdes moqalaqis konstituciur uflebas, sajaro xelisuflebis mimarT misi
uflebis efeqtur dacvaze. efeqturi marTlmsajuleba
gulisxmobs ara marto represiul dacvas, anu darRveuli uflebis aRdgenas, aramed droebiT dacvas, romelmac
unda uzrunvelyos, rom saqmeze saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde sajaro xelisuflebam ar daayenos piri realuri faqtebis winaSe. uflebis droebiTi dacva aseve gulisxmobs uflebis prevenciul dacvas, anu mosalodneli
RonisZiebebis Sedegebis Tavidan acilebas. E
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi gvTavazobs uflebis droebiTi dacvis dualistur sistemas, romelic dakavSirebulia administraciuli sarCelis saxeebTan. Tuki
sarCelis dasaSvebi saxea sarCeli aqtis baTilad cnobis an
Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT, uflebis droebiTi dacva xorcieldeba sask-is 29-e muxlis Sesabamisad,
xolo yvela sxva saxis sarCelisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia
sask-is 31-e muxlSi mocemuli meqanizmi.
sask-is 29-e da 31-e muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualebebi efeqturi marTmsajulebis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelyofas emsaxureba.
29-e muxlSi gansazRvruli sarCelis suspensiuri efeqti
swored uflebis droebiT dacvas emsaxureba, romlis mizania, daicvas piri mmarTvelobis RonisZiebebis Sedegebisagan davis saganze administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis
procesSi gadawyvetilebis miRebamde. Tumca es moicavs im
SemTxvevebs, rodesac davis sagania ukve gamocemuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, xolo, rodesac saqme
exeba mosalodnel mmarTvelobiT RonisZiebas - individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemas an

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moqmedebis ganxorcielebas an ganxorcielebisagan Tavis
Sekavebas da aqedan gamomdinare, piris uflebebis mosalodnel SezRudvebs, am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania piris
uflebis prevenciuli dacvis meqanizmi, romelic Caido
sask-is 31-e muxlSi. aRniSnuli muxli mxares aZlevs SesaZleblobas, sarCelis aRZvramde mimarTos sasamarTlos
moTxovniT, davis saganTan dakavSirebiT miiRos droebiTi
ganCineba, rodesac arsebobs saSiSroeba, rom arsebuli mdgomareobis SecvliT xeli SeeSleba ganmcxadeblis uflebis realizacias an aRniSnuli mniSvnelovnad garTuldeba.
sasamarTlos droebiTi ganCineba gamoiyeneba aseve sadavo
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis winaswari mowesrigebisaTvis, Tu es mowesrigeba aucilebelia mniSvnelovani zianis,
an arsebuli safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad, an sxva safuZvlebis gamo. orive SemTxvevaSi droebiTi ganCinebis
mizani erTia - davis saganze saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde iseTi mdgomareobis SenarCuneba, romelic SesaZlebels gaxdis sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebis
aRsrulebas. maT Soris gansxvaveba miznis miRwevis saSualebebSi mdgomareobs - pirvel SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos
droebiTi ganCinebis mizania, SeinarCunos arsebuli mdgomareoba dainteresebuli piris uflebebis dacvis mizniT
(sask-is 31-e muxlis I nawilis I winadadeba), xolo meore
SemTxvevaSi xdeba arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvla dainteresebuli piris uflebebis dacvis mizniT (sask-is 31-e muxlis I nawilis II winadadeba).
sask-is 31-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli droebiTi ganCineba, rogorc uflebis droebiTi dacvis saSualeba, gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac SeuZlebeli xdeba uflebis droebiTi dacva kodeqsis 29-e muxlis safuZvelze, anu,
rodesac jer kidev SeuZlebelia amkrZalavi (SemzRudveli) administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT sasamarTloSi
sarCelis Setana.
sask-is 31-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli droebiTi ganCinebis institutis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia:

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- maSin, rodesac individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT saCivris an sarCelis Setana avtomaturad aCerebs am aqtis moqmedebas,
droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis ufleba aqvs mxolod sasamarTlos. droebiT ganCinebas sasamarTlo iRebs dainteresebuli mxaris gancxadebis safuZvelze.
- sask-is 29-e da 31-e muxlebiT dadgenil uflebis droebiTi dacvis saSualebebs is saerTo aqvs, rom orive SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli xdeba arsebuli mdgomareobis SenarCuneba, romlis mizania, daicvas piri mmarTvelobis RonisZiebebis Sedegebisagan davis saganze administraciuli
samarTalwarmoebis proceSi gadawyvetilebis miRebamde.
- sask-is 31-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul uflebis dacvis
saSualebas SeuZlia ufro meti, vidre arsebuli mdgomareobis SenarCunebaa. sasamarTlos droebiTi ganCinebis
gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia aseve sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierTobis winaswari mowesrigebisaTvis, anu mas SeuZlia
arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvla administraciuli organos mxridan mosalodneli gadawyvetilebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, roca es aucilebelia mniSvnelovani zianis,
arsebuli safrTxis an sxva safuZvlebis gamo.
7.2. gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba
7.1.1.sarCelis suspensiuri efeqti
szak-is 29-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sarCelis miReba sasamarTloSi aCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas. sarCelis sasamarTloSi miReba iwvevs gasaCivrebuli aqtis moqmedebis
avtomatur SeCerebas, sasamarTlos mxridan yovelgvari
damatebiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebis gareSe. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti adresatisaTvis oficialuri gacnobiT iZens Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalas da inarCunebs am Zalas, sanam igi ar

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Sesruldeba (aRsruldeba) an ar gauqmdeba. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gasaCivreba Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zalis Sewyvetas ki ar iwvevs,
aramed droebiT aCerebs mis aRsrulebas (gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas).
praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs sakiTxs, saCivris suspenciuri efeqti aris Tu ara damokidebuli saCivris dasaSvebobis sakiTxTan. imis garkveva, Tu ra igulisxmeba kodeqsis formulirebaSi - ,,sarCelis miReba sasamarTloSi,
mniSvnelovania misi Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT: mxare,
romelic sasamarTloSi warmoadgens sarCels (an administraciul organoSi saCivars) gasaCivrebis vadis gasvlis
Semdgom, an sakuTari subieqturi uflebebis darRvevis
gareSe SeZlebs Seaferxos aRmWurveli individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis adresatis interesebi misi moqmedebis SeCerebiT. meore mxriv, Tu ki dasaSvebobis Semowmeba iqneboda saCivrisa da sarCelis suspenciuri efeqtis winapiroba, es gamoiwvevda gasaCivrebis avtomaturi Sedegis mniSvnelobis ugulvelyofas da yovel
konkretul SemTxveveaSi sarCelis dasaSveboba damokidebuli iqneba administraciuli organosa da sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebaze. uflebis dacvis prevenciuli saSualebis mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebiT, saCivris suspensiuri efeqti ar aris dakavSirebuli sarCelis dasaSvebobis
sakiTxTan. amas adasturebs szak-is 184-e muxlis Canaweri
,,...administraciuli saCivris registraciis momentidan,
aseve ask-is 29-e muxlis daTqma - ,,sarCelis miReba, rac ar
gulisxmobs sarCelis dasaSvebobis aucileblobas. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba ar SeCerdeba mxolod sask-is 29-e muxlis me-2 nawiliT
an specialur kanonebSi dadgenil SemTxvevebSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi saCivris suspensiur efeqts cvlis sasamarTlos
gadawyvetileba uflebis droebiT dacvaze.
sasamarTlo uflebamosilia sask-is 29-e muxlis me-2
nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi SeaCeros gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

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aqtis moqmedeba, aseve SeuZlia gaauqmos individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba, romelic gamowveulia sarCelis suspensiuri efeqtiT.
sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas iRebs mxaris moTxovnis safuZvelze. moTxovnis wardgenis safuZvelia sadavo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTloSi sarCelis wardgena.
moTxovnis wardgena aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb
dasaSvebia sarCelis aRZvramdec. ramdenadac daculia
gadawyvetilebis miRebisaTvis aucilebeli formaluri moTxovnebi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas iRebs saqmis faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis sumaruli Semowmebis Sedegad, rac gulisxmobs individualuri
administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis aRsrulebasa da
aRsrulebis SeCerebaze arsebuli interesebis urTierTSepirispirebas. interesTa balansi dgindeba sarCelis
perspeqtiulobis gaTvaliswinebiT, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis sumaruli SemowmebiT. aqtis aRsrulebaze (sajaro) interesis upiratesoba
aSkaraa, Tuki saCels aqvs warmatebis naklebi perspeqtiva,
amis sapirispirod, sarCelis suspenciur efeqtze interesi aSkaraa, Tuki naTlad ikveTeba sarCelis dakmayofilebis Sansebi, ramdenadac SeuZlebelia arsebobdes sajaro
interesi ukanono aqtis droebiT aRsrulebaze. aqve Tavs
iCens erTi problema: sarCelis warmatebulobis perspeqtivis dadgenaSi mosamarTlis saqmianoba ar unda gadaiqces sarCelis dasabuTebulobis Semowmebad (sasamarTlos
mTavar sxdomad).
7.2.2. droebiTi ganCineba individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis an qmedebis
ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb
sask-is 31-e muxlis Tanaxmad, samarTalwarmoeba mxolod gancxadebis safuZvelze xorcieldeba. procesualuri TvalsazrisiT is warmoadgens damoukidebel procesu-

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alur moqmedebas. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebelia sarCelis dasaSvebobisa da dasabuTebulobis Semowmeba marTlmsajulebis praqtikaSi damkvidrebuli sqemis mixedviT,
mTeli rigi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
1. gansjadoba. sarCelis dasaSvebobis Semowmebisas, pirvel rigSi, unda Semowmdes sasamarTlos uwyebrivi qvemdebaroba, anu unda dadgindes, Sedis Tu ara saqmis ganxilva
sasamarTlo organoebis uflebamosilebaSi. amis Semdeg
varkvevT sasamarTlos sagnobriv da teritoriul gansjadobas sask-is me-2, me-5 da me-6 muxlebis safuZvelze. gansjadobis sakiTxs awesrigebs aseve sask-is 31-e muxlis II nawili, romlis Tanaxmadac droebiT ganCinebas iRebs saqmis
ganmxilveli sasamarTlo. aseT sasamarTlos warmoadgens
pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo, xolo, rodesac dava ixileba saapelacio instanciaSi saapelacio sasamarTlo.
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gancxadeba droebiTi ganCinebis
miRebis moTxovniT sasamarTloSi Semodis sarCelis aRZvramde, uflebamosil sasamarTlos warmoadgens is sasamarTlo, romelic uflebamosilia ganixilos da gadawyvitos sadavo sakiTxi. gancxadebisAaragansjad sasamarTloSi
wardgenis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo sarCels gadaugzavnis
gansjad sasamarTlos da amis Sesaxeb acnobebs mosarCeles.
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo ar aris uflebamosili miiRos droebiTi ganCineba, ramdenadac is saqmes
ar ixilavs pirveli instanciis wesiT. es ar niSnavs imas,
rom saqmis sakasacio wesiT ganxilvis procesSi davis
saganTan dakavSirebiT dauSvebeli iyos sadavo saqmeze
droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis moTxovna. dainteresebul
mxares SeuZlia, moiTxovos misi uflebebis dacva droebiTi ganCinebis saSualebiT. aseT SemTxvevaSi droebiTi
ganCinebis miRebis sakiTxs wyvets is sasamarTlo, romelmac bolos ganixila es dava. aseTs warmoadgens saapelacio sasamarTlo.

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2. sarCelis saxe. droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis moTxovniT Semosuli sasarCelo gancxadebis dasaSvebobis Semowmebisas, mowmdeba sadavo saqmeze dasaSvebi sarCelis saxe.
mniSvnelovania imis dadgena, dainteresebul mxares SeuZlia Tu ara uflebis dacva sask-is 22-e muxlis safuZvelze.
Tu pirs SeuZlia aRZras sarCeli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad an Zaladakargulad gamocxadebis
moTxovniT, am SemTxvevaSi, dauSvebelia uflebis dacvis im
samarTlebrivi saSualebis gamoyeneba, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia sask-is 31-e muxliT. Tu davis sagania ukve gamocemuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi
aqti, misgan Tavis dasacavad droebiTi ganCinebis miReba
saWiro ar aris, ramdenadac sarCeli sask-is 22-e muxlis
safuZvelze aCerebs am aqtis moqmedebas. dainteresebuli
mxaris ufleba, moiTxovos droebiTi ganCinebis miReba,
gamomdinareobs misi uflebidan, aRZras sarCeli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovniT, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocemis moTxovniT,
qmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovniT an aRZras aRiarebiTi
sarCeli. es is SemTxvevebia, rodesac sarCelis Setana TavisTavad ar iwvevs mosarCelis uflebebis dacvas da aucilebeli xdeba damatebiTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba
piris samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis dasacavad.
mas Semdeg, rac gairkveva sasarCelo gancxadebis dasaSveboba, aucilebelia, sask-is 31-e muxlis teqstis Tanaxmad da im TanamimdevrobiT, rogorc es aq aris mocemuli, gairkves, Tu risi miRweva surs mosarCeles: surs mas
droebiTi ganCinebis miRebiT arsebuli mdgomareobis SenarCuneba (sask-is 31-e muxlis I nawilis I winadadeba), Tu sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierTobis winaswari mowesrigeba
(sask-is 31-e muxlis I nawilis II winadadeba).
gancxadebis dasaSvebobis aucilebeli winapiroba ar
aris administraciuli organos mxridan moqmedebis ganxorcieleba, droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis moTxovna
daiSveba administraciuli organos mxridan umoqmedo-

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bis SemTxvevaSic. aucilebelia mxolod administraciul
organoSi gancxadebis Setana. administraciul organoSi
moTxovnis dayenebis (gancxadebis Setanis) Semdeg ixsneba gza sasamarTlosken. droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemaze
moTxovnis uflebis aucilebel winapirobas ar warmoadgens aseve davis saganze sasamarTloSi sarCelis aRZvra.
3. sarCelis aRZvris uflebis Semowmeba. sarCeli droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis moTxovniT aris darRveuli an
sadavo uflebis dacvis saproceso saSualeba. am saSualebiT SeuZlia isargeblos pirma, romelsac surs subieqturi uflebis sasamarTlos meSveobiT dacva. dauSvebelia
sarCelis Setana sxvisi uflebebis dasacavad. mosarCeles unda SeeZlos sakuTari uflebis miTiTeba, romelic
darRveulia an emuqreba xelyofa; sarCelis aRZvramde
davis saganTan dakavSirebiT droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis
moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi, gancxadebaSi naTlad unda iyos
warmodgenili is saSiSroeba, rom arsebuli mdgomareobis
SecvliT xeli SeeSleba ganmcxadeblis uflebis realizacias an aRniSnuli mniSvnelovnad garTuldeba. rodesac
mosarCelis mizania sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierTobis
winaswari mowesrigeba, man naTlad unda warmoaCinos, rom
es mowesrigeba aucilebelia mniSvnelovani zianis an arsebuli safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad.
4. uflebadamcavi interesis arsebobis Semowmeba. sarCelis aRZvris uflebis SemowmebasTan erTad unda Semowmdes
droebiTi ganCinebis mimarT mosarCelis uflebadamcavi
interesi. gancxadebiT moTxovnili droebiTi ganCineba
unda iyos mosarCelis uflebis droebiTi dacvis aucilebeli saSualeba. aseT aucileblobasTan ara gvaqvs saqme,
rodesac mosarCeles sxva ufro ioli gziT SeuZlia sakuTari uflebebis dacva, an rodesac sarCelis uSedegoba an
misi ganzrax aramiznobrivi gamoyeneba aSkaraa.
mosarCelis uflebadamcavi interesi ar arsebobs, Tu
mosarCelis mier dasmuli sakiTxi jer ar gamxdara admi-

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nistraciuli organos gansjis sagani (mag., piri iTxovs
misi uflebis droebiT dacvas mosalodneli privatizaciis Tavidan asacileblad. sinamdvileSi am Senobis privatizeba jer kidev ar gamxdara administraciuli organos
msjelobis sagani. piris varaudi mosalodnel safrTxeze
ar aris sakmarisi. safrTxe unda iyos realuri).
administraciuli organos mxridan davis saganTan dakavSirebiT droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi, misi uflebadamcavi interesi ar arsebobs im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac is uflebamosilia sakuTari gadawyvetilebiT moawesrigos es samarTlebrivi urTierToba da,
Sesabamisad, Tavidan aicilos es mosalodneli saSiSroeba
(mag., administraciul organos ar SeuZlia mimarTos sasamarTlos da moiTxovos droebiTi ganCinebiT akrZalos
mosalodneli gaficvebi, romelsac miznad isaxaven xelfasiT ukmayofilo meriis TanamSromlebi, aramed TviTon
unda moawesrigos es samarTlebrivi urTierToba.).
uflebadamcavi interesis gamomricxavi garemoeba SeiZleba iyos aseve dasaxuli miznis miuRwevloba, rodesac
sadavo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ukve miRebulia kanonier
ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba an, rodesac SeuZlebelia
arsebuli mdgomareobis droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis gziT
Secvla an kidev, rodesac arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvla
SesaZlebelia droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis gareSec, nebismier dros.
uflebadamcavi interesis gamomricxavi garemoebis
warmoSobis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos TviT ganmcxadeblis
qceva. rodesac ganmcxadebeli sakuTari moqmedebiT Caiyenebs Tavs iseT ,,cud mdgomareobaSi, rogoricaa: uflebis
dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualebebis gamoyenebis saproceso vadebis daucveloba, administraciuli warmoebis
procesSi mtkicebulebebis warmoudgenloba an warmoebis
procesSi monawileobisagan Tavis arideba.
5. gancxadebis forma da Sinaarsi, gancxadebis miReba.
sasamarTlos droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis safuZvelia

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dainteresebuli piris mier uflebamosil sasamarTloSi werilobiTi formiT wardgenili gancxadeba, romelic
unda pasuxobdes sssk-is 178-e muxlis moTxovnebs. Tu gancxadeba akmayofilebs kanonis moTxovnebs, maSin sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas sarCelis miRebis Sesaxeb, xolo,
rodesac sarCeli araa Sedgenili sssk-is 178-e da 179-e
muxlebis moTxovnaTa dacviT, maSin sasamarTlo gamoitans
ganCinebas xarvezis Sevsebis Sesaxeb da mosarCeles aZlevs
vadas mis Sesavsebad. sarCelis miRebaze uaris Tqmis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos sssk-is 186-e muxlis romelime punqti.
droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis moTxovniT sasamarTloSi Setanili gancxadebis miRebisa da ganxilvis vadebis
mimarT moqmedebs gansakuTrebuli wesebi: sarCelis miRebis Sesaxeb ganCinebis gamotanis xuTdRiani vada, romelic
gaTvaliswinebulia sssk-is 183-e muxliT, aseve gamwesrigebeli sxdomis instituti, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia
sask-is 26 muxliT da emsaxureba sarCelis dasaSvebobis
sakiTxis garkvevas, ar gamoiyeneba droebiTi ganCinebis
dasaSvebobis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi. gancxadebas droebiTi
ganCinebis gamocemis Sesaxeb gadawyvets davis saganTan dakavSirebuli sarCelis ganmxilveli sasamarTlo gancxadebis Setanis dResve, mopasuxis Seutyobineblad. am SemTxvevaSi analogiurad gamoiyeneba sssk-is 193-e muxli.
6. dasabuTebuloba. droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemasTan
dakavSirebiT Semosuli gancxadebis dasaSvebobis Semowmebis Semdeg, sasamarTlo gancxadebis dasabuTebulobas zepiri mosmenis gamarTvis gareSe amowmebs.
davis saganTan dakavSirebuli gancxadeba sasamarTlos
saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde arsebuli mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad droebiTi ganCinebis miRebis moTxovniT, CaiTvleba dasabuTebulad, anu sasamarTlo daakmayofilebs ganmcxadeblis moTxovnas, rodesac dadgindeba, rom arsebobs realuri safrTxe, arsebuli mdgomareobis SecvliT xeli SeeSleba ganmcxadeblis uflebebis
realizacias an aRniSnuli mniSvnelovnad garTuldeba. e.i.

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droebiTi ganCineba arsebuli mdgomareobis SenarCunebaze gamoicema, rodesac saqme exeba arsebuli faqtobrivi an
samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis SenarCunebas. mag., Senobis
privatizaciis akrZalva, konkursSi gamarjvebulis samsaxurSi daniSvnis akrZalva, skolis daxurvis akrZalva sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebamde da a.S.
gancxadeba droebiTi ganCinebis sadavo samarTlebrivi urTierTobis winaswari mowesrigebis mizniT gamocemis moTxovniT dasabuTebulia, anu sasamarTlo miiRebs
droebiT ganCinebas, Tu dadgindeba, rom es mowesrigeba
aucilebelia mniSvnelovani zianis an arsebuli safrTxis
Tavidan asacileblad. mag., auqcionSi, konkursSi, misaReb
gamocdebze, leqciebze daSveba, fuladi daxmarebis (pensia, stipendia) gacema sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebamde.
7. ganCineba droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis Sesaxeb. dainteresebuli mxaris gancxadebis dasaSvebobisa da dasabuTebulobis Semowmebis Semdeg sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCineba droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis Sesaxeb, romelic unda
pasuxobdes ganCinebisaTvis sssk-is 285-e muxliT dadgenil
moTxovnebs. droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis an gamocemaze
uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb gamotanil ganCinebaze SeiZleba kerZo
saCivris Setana, rac SeaCerebs am ganCinebis aRsrulebas.
8. sasamarTlos droebiTi ganCinebiT gamowveuli zianis
anazRaureba. Tu sasamarTlos mier miRebuli droebiTi
ganCineba gaumarTlebeli gamodgeba, imis gamo rom davis
saganTan dakavSirebiT ar dakmayofildeba misi moTxovna
da dadasturdeba, rom Tavidanve ar hqonda mas am moTxovnis samarTlebrivi safuZveli, maSin mxare, romlis moTxovnis safuZvelzec gamoica droebiTi ganCineba, valdebulia aunazRauros meore mxares is zarali, romelic mas
droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis Sedegad miadga. aqedan gamomdinare, naTelia, gansxvaveba uflebis droebiTi dacvis im saSualebebs Soris, romlebic gansazRvrulia sask-

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is 29-e da 31-e muxlebiT. droebiTi ganCinebis gamocemis
moTxovna Seicavs garkveul risks, rac ar axasiaTebs saskis 29-e muxliT gansazRvrul uflebis dacvis droebiT saSualebas sarCelis suspensiuri efeqtis saxiT.
zianis anazRaurebis moTxovna SesaZlebelia davis saganTan dakavSirebiT saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebis
Semdeg. zianis anazRaurebis sakiTxs wyveten saerTo sasamarTloebi samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis wesiT.

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Tavi VI
apelacia da kasacia
saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis Tanaxmad, yoveli pirisaTvis uzrunvelyofilia uflebis sasamarTlo
wesiT dacva. administraciuli marTlmsajulebis organizacia da procesi unda pasuxobdes adamianis konstituciur uflebas misi uflebis efeqtian dacvaze. efeqtiani
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas emsaxureba uflebis dacvis samsafexurebrivi sistema. administraciuli
marTlmsajuleba xorcieldeba saerTo sasamarTloebis
mier davebis pirveli instanciiT, apelaciisa da kasaciis
wesiT ganxilvis gziT. uflebis dacvis samsafexurovani
sistemis mimarT arsebobs marTebuli kritika. es ganpirobebulia im uaryofiTi mxareebiT, rac am sistemas axasiaTebs. saxelmwifos finansuri problemebis da sasamarTlo
procesze mzardi moTxovnilebis fonze saxelmwifos ar
ZaluZs uzrunvelyos davaze samjeradi sasamarTlo procesi. Msakasacio sasamarTlos mimarT mzardi moTxovnileba iwvevs mis gadatvirTvas, rac aisaxeba marTmlsajulebis
xarisxze. samsafexurebrivi marTlmajulebis uaryofiTi
mxare vlindeba aseve uflebis dacvis TvalsazrisiTac.
davis ganxilva sam instanciaSi iwvevs saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgenis gaWianurebas mxaris interesebis sawinaaRmdegod. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom sakasacio
marTlmsajulebis mizania rogorc pirovnebis darRveuli
uflebebis dacva konkretul sadavo sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, aseve erTiani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebisa
da samarTlis ganviTarebisaTvis xelSewyoba, am amocanebis
jerovnad Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa SeuZlebeli xdeba,
Tu ar moxdeba sakasacio sarCelis dasaSvebobis SezRudva.
am mizniT sask-is IX TavSi Setanil iqna mTeli rigi cvlilebebi da damatebebi.

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1. saapelacio da sakasacio gasaCivrebis dasaSveboba
administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 1-li muxlis II
nawilis Tanaxmad, Tu am kodeqsiT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili, administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gamoiyeneba
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis debulebebi. gamomdinare aqedan, sasamarTlos administraciul
gadawyvetilebaTa gasaCivrebas saapelacio da sakasacio
wesiT awesrigebs samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis me-8 da
me-9 kari, im SezRudvebisa da Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac dadgenilia sask-is 34-e muxliT.
sask-is 34-e muxlis I nawili uSvebs administraciul
davebze saapelacio da sakasacio saCivris Setanis SesaZleblobas davis sagnis Rirebulebis miuxedavad. A samoqalaqo davebze saapelacio saCivari dasaSvebia mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu misi Rirebuleba aRemateba 500 lars, xolo
sakasacio saCivari qonebriv-samarTlebriv davebSi dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sakasacio saCivris sagnis
Rirebuleba 50 000 lars aRemateba. sssk-is 365-e muxlisa
da 391-e muxlis me-2 nawilis es moTxovnebi administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi ar gamoiyeneba.
administraciul davebze sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis winapirobebi mocemulia sask-is 34-e muxlis III nawilSi,
rac qvemoT dawvrilebiT gvaqvs ganxiluli.
2. saapelacio saCivari
saapelacio saCivris obieqtia pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. sasamarTlosadmi uwyebrivad daqvemdebarebul administraciul saqmeebs pirveli
instanciiT ganixilaven raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloebi da magistrati mosamarTleebi. werilobiTi formiT
Sedgenili saapelacio saCivari Setanil unda iqnes im pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi, romelmac gamoitana saapelacio wesiT gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba. saapelacio

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saCivris savaldebulo rekvizitebi gansazRvrulia ssskis 368-e muxliT. saapelacio saCivris Setanis Semdeg pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo dauyovnebliv gadaugzavnis
saapelacio sasamarTlos mTlianad saqmes da damatebiT
Semosul yvela masalas. Tu saapelacio saCivari Setanilia
uSualod saapelacio sasamarTloSi, maSin es ukanaskneli
saqmes gamoiTxovs Sesabamisi sasamarTlodan.
administraciul saqmeze pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis saapelacio wesiT gasaCivrebis
ufleba aqvT: mxareebs (mosarCeles da mopasuxes), mesame pirebs damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT, maT uflebamonacvleebs, Tanamonawileebs (TanamosarCeles da
Tanamopasuxes), maTi Tanamonawileobis safuZvlebiT gansazRvrul farglebSi, pirebs, romlebic ar monawileoben
saqmeSi rogorc mxareebi, magram sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT ganisazRvra maTi uflebebi da movaleobebi erTerTi mxaris mimarT.
saapelacio saCivris Setanis vada Seadgens erT Tves,
romlis arc gagrZeleba da arc aRdgena kanoniT ar aris
daSvebuli. vadis dena iwyeba mxarisaTvis gadawyvetilebis
gadacemis momentidan. ,,gadacema gulisxmobs gadawyvetilebis damowmebuli aslis mxarisaTvis an misi warmomadgenlisaTvis uSualod sasamarTloSi xelze micemas, rac
man unda daadasturos Tavisi xelmoweriT. gadawyvetilebis fostis meSveobiT gagzavnis SemTxvevaSi gasaCivrebis
vada aiTvleba gadawyvetilebis aslis fostisTvis an kurierisTvis Cabarebis momentidan. saqmeSi aucileblad
unda iyos cnoba, rom am wesiT gagzavnili gadawyvetilebis
asli Cabarda adresats. Tu dasabuTebuli gadawyvetilebis gamocxadebas eswreba saapelacio saCivris Setanis uflebis mqone piri, saapelacio saCivris Setanis vada iwyeba
misi gamocxadebis momentidan.
sssk-is 370-e muxlis Tanaxmad, Tu gadawyvetilebis
gamocxadebis Semdeg mxare sasamarTlos an mowinaaRmdege
mxares werilobiTi formiT ganucxadebs uars saapelacio
gasaCivrebaze, Semdgom sapelacio saCivari aRar daiSveba.

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ver gaviziarebT iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTxmul mosazrebas, rom aseTi midgoma TiTqos ewinaaRmdegeba saapelacio saCivris Setanis kanoniT gansazRvrul vadas,
romlis ganmavlobaSic mosarCeles an mopasuxes nebismier
dros aqvs ufleba Seitanos saapelacio saCivari165. saapelacio gasaCivrebaze uaris Tqma mxaris uflebaa. am uflebis realizacias ukavSirdeba meore mxaris kanonieri
ndoba am uarze. aqedan gamomdinare marTebulia, rom mxare, romelmac aseTi uari ganacxada, kargavs uflebas gaasaCivros gadawyvetileba saapelacio wesiT.
saapelacio saCivris Semosvlidan 10 dRis ganmavlobaSi saapelacio sasamarTlo amowmebs saapelacio saCivris
dasaSvebobas. kerZod, mowmdeba daculia Tu ara saapelacio saCivris wardgenis erTTviani vada, pasuxobs Tu ara
saapelacio saCivris Sinaarsi sssk-is 368-e muxlis moTxovnebs, apelants sssk-is 370-e muxlis Sesabamisad uari xom
ar aqvs naTqvami saapelacio gasaCivrebaze, gadaxdilia Tu
ara saxelmwifo baJi. Tu saapelacio saCivris dasaSvebobis Semowmebis Sedegad aRmoCndeba, rom arsebobs misi dasaSvebobis yvela piroba, saapelacio sasamarTlo miiRebs
ganCinebas ,,saapelacio saCivris gansaxilvelad miRebisa
da misi momzadebis Sesaxeb, aqve sasamarTlo niSnavs saapelacio saCivris ganxilvis dRes, ris Sesaxebac mxares
atyobinebs am ganCinebis miRebidan 3 dRis vadaSi. Tu saapelacio saCivris dasaSvebobis Semowmebisas dadginda, rom
saCivris dasaSvebobis esa Tu is piroba ar arsebobs da es
xarvezi sasamarTlos mier dadgenil vadaSi ar iqneba Sevsebuli, maSin sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCineba ,,saapelacio
saCivris ganuxilvelad datovebis Sesaxeb.
saapelacio sasamarTlos mier saapelacio saCivris
gansaxilvelad miRebisa da misi momzadebis Sesaxeb ganCinebis gamotana aCerebs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis
kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlas im nawilSi, romelic gasaCivrebu165 v. loria, gv. 226, saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso
kodeqsis komentari, Tbilisi 2004 w.

402
lia. Tu saapelacio saCivari Setanilia iseT gadawyvetilebaze, romlis mimarT gamotanilia ganCineba kanonier
ZalaSi Sesvlamde misi dauyovnebliv aRsrulebis Sesaxeb,
saapelacio saCivris Setana avtomaturad ar aCerebs dauyovneblivi aRsrulebis Sesaxeb adre gamotanili gadawyvetilebis moqmedebas. aseT SemTxvevaSi saapelacio sasamarTlos apelantis SuamdgomlobiT SeuZlia gamoitanos
ganCineba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis dauyovnebliv
aRsrulebis droebiT SeCerebisa da aRsrulebis RonisZiebebis gauqmebis Sesaxeb.
saapelacio sasamarTlo, marTalia, aris meore instanciis sasamarTlo, romelic amowmebs pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebas, magram saqmeTa
ganxilvisas igi saqmes xelmeored Seiswavlis faqtobrivi
da samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT.
3. sakasacio saCivari
sakasacio wesiT SeiZleba gasaCivrdes saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi. sakasacio saCivris Semotanis
ufleba aqvT mxareebs da sask-is me-16 muxlis II nawiliT gansazRvruli wesiT saqmeSi Cabmul mesame pirebs. sakasacio
saCivari Seitaneba werilobiTi formiT im sasamarTloSi,
romelmac gamoitana gadawyvetileba. sakasacio saCivris
Semosvlis Semdeg saapelacio sasamarTlo dauyovnebliv
gadaugzavnis sakasacio sasamarTlos sakasacio saCivars
da mTlianad saqmes. sakasacio saCivris savaldebulo
rekvizitebi gansazRvrulia sssk-is 396-e muxliT. sakasacio saCivris Setanis vada aris erTi Tve. kanoni ar iTvaliswinebs vadis gagrZelebis da aRdgenis SesaZleblobas.
gasaCivrebis vada aiTvleba mxarisaTvis gadawyvetilebis
aslis uSualod sasamarTloSi gadacemis momentidan an
fostiT gagzavnis SemTxvevaSi fostaSi an kurierisaTvis
Cabarebis momentidan. Tu dasabuTebuli gadawyvetilebis
gamocxadebas eswreba sakasacio saCivris Setanis uflebis mqone piri, sakasacio saCivris Setanis vada iwyeba misi
gamocxadebis momentidan.

403
sakasacio saCivris Semosvlidan 10 dRis ganmavlobaSi
sakasacio sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos, dasaSvebia Tu ara
sakasacio saCivari. am mizniT sakasacio sasamarTlom unda
Seamowmos:
a. Semotanilia Tu ara sakasacio saCivari uflebamosili piris mier;
b. Semotanilia Tu ara sakasacio saCivari kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul vadaSi;
g Seesabameba Tu ara sakasacio saCivris Sinaarsi sssk-is
393-e da 396-e muxlebis moTxovnebs;
d. saxezea Tu ara sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis saskis 34-e muxlis III nawiliT dadgenili erT-erTi winapiroba;
e. gadaxdilia Tu ara saxelmwifo baJi;
3. sask-Si Setanili damatebis Sedegad ganisazRvra
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier sakasacio saCivris miRebis safuZvlebi166.
sask-is 34-e muxlis III nawilis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier sakasacio saCivari daiSveba, Tu:
g. saqme mniSvnelovania samarTlis ganviTarebisa da

erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis;

es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac arsebobs sayovelTao interesi samarTlis konkretuli normis erTgvarovnad gagebisaTvis da es problema ar yofila sasamarTlos gansjadi
(an qvemdgomi sasamarTloebis interpretacia saWiroebs
Semdgom Sefasebas), rac Tavis mxriv, mniSvnelovania samarTlis mecnierebisa da praqtikis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis.
166 sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis winapirobebze ix. ceno raihenbeheri, Salva papuaSvili: ,,samarTlis ganviTareba samoqalaqo procesSi kasaciis daSvebis axali safuZvlebis ganmartebisaTvis, JurnalSi:
,,marTlmsajuleba da kanoni, gv. 72, Nr.4.2005.

404
saqme mniSvnelovania, rodesac mosalodnelia rom masTan dakavSirebiT sakasacio sasamarTlos mier miRebuli
gadawyvetileba xels Seuwyobs samarTlis normaTa erTgvarovan gagebas an samarTlis Semdgom ganviTarebas. amis
pirveli aucilebeli winapirobaa, rom es samarTlebrivi
sakiTxi eqvemdebarebodes garkvevas, anu saqme unda exebodes samarTlis iseT normas, romelic eqvemdebareba gadasinjvas. sakasacio wesiTGgadasinjvas eqvemdebareba mxolod is samarTlebrivi sakiTxebi, romelic moicva saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebam, aseve is sakiTxebi,
romelzedac saapelacio sasamarTlos unda mieRo gadawyvetileba. amis sapirispirod is samarTlebrivi sakiTxebi
ar SeiZleba gaxdes sakasacio gadasinjvis sagani, romlebic wamoiWreboda saapelacio sasamarTlos mier saqmeze
sxvagvari gadawyvetilebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi. sakasacio
wesiT gadasinjva moicavs saapelacio sasamarTlos ganxilul samarTlebriv sakiTxebs da mis mniSvnelobas awmyoSi
da ara imas, rom saapelacio sasamarTlos sxvagvar gadaewyvetilebas ,,arsebiTi mniSvneloba eqneboda.
saqmis mniSvnelobis gansazRvris meore aucilebeli winapirobaa, rom samarTlebrivi sakiTxi saWiroebs garkvevas. sakiTxi ar saWiroebs garkvevas, rodesac is udavoa,
ramdenadac pasuxi yovelgvari damatebiTi dasabuTebis
gareSe gamomdinareobs kanonis teqstidan. sakiTxi aseve
ar saWiroebs garkvevas, rodesac masTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. Tumca es
ukanaskneli SemTxveva ar gamoricxavs sakiTxis Semdgomi
garkvevis saWiroebis warmoSobas, rodesac uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtika gaxdeba farTo mecnieruli gansjis
sagani da mosamarTleebisa da mecnierebis mier warmodgenili argumentebi ubiZgebs uzenaes sasamarTlos sakuTari
mosazrebebis gadamowmebisaken.
kasaciis dasaSvebobis am kriteriumTan mimarTebaSi
gvinda yuradReba gavamaxviloT mis formulirebaze. normis teqstSi mocemuli formulireba ,,samarTlis ganviTarebisa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyali-

405
bebisaTvis, ar gulisxmobs, rom aucilebelia orive winapirobis erTdroulad dakmayofileba, aramed, sakmarisia
erT-erTis arseboba. Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba, rom am ori kriteriumis erTmaneTisagan gamijvna
TiTqmis SeuZlebelia, ramdenadac, rodesac saqme mniSvnelovania samarTlis ganviTarebisaTvis, igi aseve mniSvnelovania erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis da piriqiT.
g. saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gansxvav-

deba am kategoriis saqmeebze saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos manamde arsebuli praqtikisagan;

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier sakasacio


marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba miznad isaxavs ara marto samarTlebrivi davebis gadawyvetas da mosarCelis uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis dacvas, aramed erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebas. kasaciis
dasaSvebobis es kriteriumi yuradRebas amaxvilebs saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebasa da uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier damkvidrebuli sasamarTlo praqtikas
Soris Seusabamobaze. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac erTi da
igive samarTlis normis safuZvelze miRebul saapelacio
da sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebaSi
xdeba am normis gansxvavebuli interpretacia.
kasaciis dasaSvebobis am kriteriumis gamoyenebis aucilebeli winapirobaa uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtikis
arseboba, romelic ar gulisxmobs saqmeze didi palatis
gadawyvetilebis arsebobis aucileblobas, sakmarisia
erTi konkretuli yvelaze axali gadawyvetilebis arseboba. am niSniT kasaciis daSveba miznad ar isaxavs ,,urCi saapelacio sasamarTlos dasjas, aramed zrdis saapelacio
sasamarTlos rols samarTlisa da sasamarTlo praqtikis
Camoyalibebis saqmeSi. saapelacio sasamarTlos gansxvavebuli gadawyvetileba, romelic jerovnad aris gaazrebuli da dasabuTebuli, ar unda darCes yuradRebis miRma.
uzenaesi sasamarTlo valdebuli xdeba saTanadod Seafa-

406
sos saapelacio sasamarTlos gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba,
aRiaros is an mecnierulad daasabuTos sakuTaris upiratesoba. yovelive es biZgs aZlevs marTlmsajulebis praqtikis srulyofas.
g. saapelacio sasamarTlos mier saqme ganxilulia

mniSvnelovani procesualuri darRveviT, romelsac


SeeZlo arsebiTad emoqmeda saqmis ganxilvis Sedegze.

procesualuri darRveva rom gaxdes saapelacio saCivris dasaSvebobis safuZveli, aucilebelia, am darRvevas
hqondes iseTi xasiaTi, rom aSkara iyos misi uaryofiTi zegavlena saqmis ganxilvis Sedegze. procesualuri darRvevis xarisxis gansazRvris or SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme:
qarTveli kanonmdebeli TviTon axdens im saproceso
darRvevebis gansazRvras, romlebic aucileblad iwvevs
gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas. sssk-is 394-e muxliT gansazRvruli sakasacio saCivris absoluturi safuZvlebi aris
sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis kanonmdeblis mier imperatiulad dadgenili norma da aq sasamarTlos mixedulebisaTvis adgili ar rCeba. sakasacio sarCeli dasaSvebia,
Tu:
a) saqme ganixila sasamarTlos arakanonierma Semadgenlobam;
b) sasamarTlom saqme ganixila erT-erTi mxaris dauswreblad, romelsac ar miuRia Setyobineba kanoniT dadgenili wesiT an misi kanonieri warmomadgenlis gareSe, Tu
aseTi warmomadgenloba kanoniT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli,
garda im SemTxvevisa, roca aseTi kanonieri warmomadgeneli cnobs sasamarTlo procesis warmarTvis marTlzomierebas;
g) gadawyvetileba gamotanilia saqmeze, romelic sasamarTlos uwyebrivad ar eqvemdebareba;
d) gadawyvetileba miRebulia saqmis zepiri ganxilvis
safuZvelze, romlis drosac darRveulia procesis sajaroobis wesebi;

407
e) gadawyvetileba iuridiulad ar aris sakmaod dasabuTebuli, an dasabuTeba imdenad arasrulia, rom gadawyvetilebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlianobis Semowmeba SeuZlebelia;
v) gadawyvetilebas xels ar aweren is mosamarTleebi,
romlebic gadawyvetilebaSi arian aRniSnulni;
z) gadawyvetileba gamotanilia im mosamarTleebis mier,
romlebic am saqmis ganxilvaSi adre monawileobdnen;
T) saqmeSi ar aris sapelacio sasamarTlos sxdomis
oqmi.
sakasacio saCivris absoluturi safuZvlebi ufro viwroa, vidre sask-is 34-e muxlis III nawilis ,,g qvepunqtiT
moazrebuli saproceso darRvevebi. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi ar ifargleba am CamonaTvaliT, aramed
uSvebs sakasacio sasamarTlos mier saproceso darRvevis
xarisxis Sefasebis SesaZleblobas. kanonmdebeli adgens
mxolod Sefasebis masStabebs: ,,romelsac SeeZlo arsebiTad emoqmeda saqmis ganxilvis Sedegebze. sasamarTlo
saproceso darRvevis Sefasebisas unda gamovides am moTxovnidan.
sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis Semowmebis Sedegad
sakasacio sasamarTlos mier gamotanili ,,ganCineba sakasacio saCivris gansaxilvelad miRebis Sesaxeb avtomaturad SeaCerebs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis kanonier
ZalaSi Sesvlas im nawilSi, romelic gasaCivrebulia. Tu
gasaCivrebulia gadawyvetileba, romelic dauyovnebliv
unda aRsruldes, sakasacio sasamarTlos SeuZlia kasatoris moTxovnis safuZvelze droebiT SeaCeros aRsruleba
da gaauqmos aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebuli RonisZieba.
sakasacio marTlmsajuleba Semoifargleba saapelacio
sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebis ganxilviT mxolod samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT, anu sakasacio sasamarTlo ar
axdens saqmis arsebiT ganxilvas. amiT igi gansxvavdeba saapelacio sasamarTlosagan, romelsac SeuZlia Seamowmos
gadawyvetileba rogorc faqtobrivi, ise samarTlebrivi
dasabuTebulobis TvalsazrisiT.

408
efeqturi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis principidan gamomdinare, davis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis gaWianurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, administraciuli kategoris saqmeebze sakasacio saCivris warmoebaSi miRebis da
ganxilvis vadad ganisazRvra eqvsi Tve.

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