61 views

Uploaded by api-248766679

- Learning Outcome 3 - Ac 1 (Analytical Methods)
- 1stlab Hypothesis Testing
- LP in msc
- Final Report
- Hypothesis Testing
- Marketing Research
- Usiness Research Nature Amp Scope
- Hypothesis is a Tentative Explanation That Accounts for a Set of Facts and Can Be Tested by Further Investigation
- StatisticalTests (1)
- Statistical Analysis Basics
- D6518-Standard Practice for Bias Testing a Mechanical Coal Sampling System
- Two Way Analysis of Variance
- SAS document
- Adhitya_article; Scripted Songs
- BSDM Hypothesis Testing Presentation
- 9.10.Scientific Writing Exp. (10 -11)
- Stat Report 4.Pptx
- 1 Parametrik Dan Nonparametrik
- Determining Idf Equations for the State of Rondonia
- Psychology Practice Test

You are on page 1of 13

The five-step model used for all hypothesis tests contains the following steps: Step 1. Evaluating assumptions.

Step 2. Stating the research hypothesis and the null hypothesis and setting alpha

Step 3. Selecting the sampling distribution and the test statistic Step 4. Computing the test statistic Step 5. Making a decision about hypotheses

Evaluating Assumptions

All hypothesis tests assume the sample is representative of the population assured by random sampling Assumptions about the distribution of variables. e.g. normality, equal variances Assumptions about sample size, e.g. no cell with expected frequency less than 5

Hypotheses

The research hypothesis states relationship we think is true, e.g. mean of one group higher than other, or two variables are related The null hypothesis contradicts research hypothesis, e.g. means of all groups are the same, or two variables are independent. Usually a statement of equality or no difference. Both hypotheses are statements about the population that will be tested on sample data.

Alpha

Alpha is the probability that we could make an error in rejecting the null hypothesis and supporting the research hypothesis. Alpha is the risk that we will make a Type I error a true null hypothesis is rejected. We can also make an error when the null hypothesis is false, but we fail to reject it a Type II error. When alpha is higher, it is easier to reject the null hypothesis and the chances that we may be making a mistake are larger.

Alpha

We choose alpha based on the consequences of making a Type I error or a Type II error. If rejection of null hypothesis leads to action with serious side effects, we set alpha lower (making it harder to reject null) so that we do not risk the side effects too easily. Type I error is less likely. If rejection of the null hypothesis lead to an action that may be helpful and has no serious side effects, we set alpha higher (making it easier to reject null) so that we take advantage of helpful action. Type II error is more likely.

We choose the statistical test based on the research question and the conformity of the variables to the assumptions for the test. First, we eliminate statistical tests for which we cannot satisfy the level of measurement requirements and other assumptions. Second, we choose the statistical test that treats the variables at the higher level of measurement. For example, we could test the relationship between two ordinal variables with either regression analysis or with a chi-square test of independence. We would choose the regression analysis, because the variables are treated as interval rather than nominal.

If the p-value of the test statistic is less than or equal to alpha, we reject the null hypothesis and find that our research hypothesis is supported.

Independent samples t-test Level of measurement Dependent: Interval (ordinal) Chi-square test of independence Dependent: Nominal (dichotomous, ordinal, grouped interval) Independent: Nominal (dichotomous, ordinal, grouped interval) Minimum sample size: no expected frequency < 5 One-way ANOVA Dependent: Interval (ordinal) Hypothesis test of r2 Dependent: Interval (ordinal)

Independent: (dichotomous)

Assumptions

Independent samples t-test Null Hypothesis Group means are equal Chi-square test of independence Variables are independent (Expected frequencies = observed frequencies) Variables are related (Expected frequencies <> observed frequencies) One-way ANOVA Means of all groups are equal Hypothesis test of r2 Variables are not related (r2 = 0)

Research Hypothesis

Alpha

Independent samples t-test Sampling distribution Test statistic t t Chi-square test of independence X2 X2 One-way ANOVA F F Hypothesis test of r2 F F

Independent samples t-test Compute Test Statistic Chi-square test of independence One-way ANOVA Hypothesis test of r2

Independent samples t-test P-value <= alpha Chi-square test of independence One-way ANOVA Hypothesis test of r2

Fail to reject null hypothesis (risk type II error) No support for research hypothesis

Chi-square test of independence supports the existence of relationship between variables. It does not tell us about strength or direction of relationship, i.e. which cells produce the difference. For this we use post hoc test of standardized residuals. One-way ANOVA identifies that one or means are different, but does not indicate pattern of differences between groups. To identify which means are different from one another, we use a post hoc test, such as Tukey HSD test.

- Learning Outcome 3 - Ac 1 (Analytical Methods)Uploaded byChan Siew Chong
- 1stlab Hypothesis TestingUploaded byPutri Senna Rahayu
- LP in mscUploaded byMczoC.Mczo
- Final ReportUploaded byPiyush Sharma
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded bySheetal Chavan
- Marketing ResearchUploaded byObby Purba
- Usiness Research Nature Amp ScopeUploaded bysadathnoori
- Hypothesis is a Tentative Explanation That Accounts for a Set of Facts and Can Be Tested by Further InvestigationUploaded byScreaMonster Pic
- StatisticalTests (1)Uploaded byAugustine Elinwa
- Statistical Analysis BasicsUploaded byNishant Sharma
- D6518-Standard Practice for Bias Testing a Mechanical Coal Sampling SystemUploaded byAya
- Two Way Analysis of VarianceUploaded bymanjinderchabba
- SAS documentUploaded bySandeep Uniyal
- Adhitya_article; Scripted SongsUploaded byAdhìtyà KàKà
- BSDM Hypothesis Testing PresentationUploaded byPreethi
- 9.10.Scientific Writing Exp. (10 -11)Uploaded byNg' Xiang Yun
- Stat Report 4.PptxUploaded byPoverty 304
- 1 Parametrik Dan NonparametrikUploaded by3rlang
- Determining Idf Equations for the State of RondoniaUploaded byFrancisco Evandro
- Psychology Practice TestUploaded byseethurya
- MSR-App Sampling ProblemUploaded byMichael Smith
- final paper for last submissionUploaded byapi-249533478
- QNT 561 Genius Education Expert/qnt561geniusexpert.comUploaded bycritter
- Mabini CollegesUploaded byRoderick Gatdula
- Selected Statistical TestsUploaded bySuhas Adusumilli
- An OvaUploaded byJen Sapin
- The Run TestUploaded byNelica Rotoni
- chapter13-chisquareUploaded byDawood Khan Barozai
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byrenaisans
- Fisher, R. a. (1925) Statistical Methods for Research WorkersUploaded byberorakun

- Mystery of Scientific DiscoveryUploaded bysoloipse
- SurveyUploaded byhuyen
- Expert SystemUploaded bypunisher22
- PredictionUploaded byMari Jayne Magpoc Mendaro
- Asngmnt Thinking SkillUploaded byFarouqAffero
- l25Uploaded bynishit0157623637
- (1978) PRUF--A Meaning Representation Language for Natural Languages [Zadeh]Uploaded byGeorg Ohm
- Rules for Valid Categorical SyllogismsUploaded byAlfred Edison Cimafranca Tan
- AI Recommendation ProblemsUploaded byaboalfotoh
- CGPSC Prelims Exam., 2012 General Studies (Paper-II) Solved PaperUploaded bymailbkrao
- 14-wlsUploaded byMaulik Madhavi
- R Command2 (2)Uploaded byTakahiro Kogawa
- SCHMILL, Ulisses-Consideraciones sobre Derecho y Logica de Hans KelsenUploaded byLuis Monterrosa
- PennerUploaded byAlexander Rigas
- Extra Questions on Facts, Inferences and Judgements (FIJ)Uploaded bytheanuuradha1993gmai
- Authority in Indian Philosophy - Saksena, S. K..Uploaded byLangravio Faustomaria Panattoni
- Section3 Group15 WentworthUploaded bymukesh_shah1987
- Hypothesis+Testing+Complete+SlidesUploaded byghabel11
- Chap 007Uploaded byDipesh Jain
- CriticalThinkingTest-Solutions.pdfUploaded byeevanuy
- social studies 5th 2017Uploaded byapi-267803318
- Unit 11 - Analysis of Variance - 4 per pageUploaded byAnonymous gUySMcpSq
- DrawbacksUploaded byAshish Suryawanshi
- Statistics Campak MeongUploaded bytrihasanbasri
- Slides Session 4Uploaded byAdarsh Agrawal
- How to Be an AtheistUploaded byScott Kirkland
- Logic#1.pptUploaded byPatrick Cruz
- 2013QMEA Lecture05 MLR AsymptoticsUploaded byเป๋าเด็ดกระเป๋าคุณภาพราคาถูก
- Indian Logic for AI system Design : Presented at Vigyan Bharati Seminar at IISc- Bangalore in 2006Uploaded byProf. (Dr) Ananda M Ghosh.
- 04 Inference Rules Proof MethodsUploaded byFiroiu Irinel