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PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

RADIOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS
SUPERIMPOSITION DIFFICULTY

IN DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN HOMOGENOUS OBJECTS OF NON-UNIFORM THICKNESS.

SUPERIMPOSITION

TISUE DIFFERENCE SENSITIVITY 5%-10%

TOMOGRAPHY ( CONVENTIONAL)
ELIMINATES

TISSUE SUPERIMPOSITION INCREASES CONTRAST OF LOW SUBJECT CONTRAST TISSUES

TOMOGRAPHY

TOMOGRAPHY

TOMOGRAPHY

CT ADVANTAGES

LIMITATIONS OF CT
UNABLE

TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN TISSUES WITH SLIGHT CONTRAST DIFFERENCES < 1%.

GOALS OF CT
MINIMAL

SUPERIMPOSITION IMAGE CONTRAST IMPROVEMENT SMALL TISSUE DIFFERENCE RECORDING

CT DATA AQUISITION

SLIP RINGS

SEQUENTIAL-SLICE BY SLICE SCANNING

SCANNING

TRANSMISSION

RELATIVE TRANSMISSION=Io I

Tot ! " o# t$ %&' () &*$)()%t&+ " o# ,-).& / " o# $ 0& -% ) 12 ,-).

ATTENUATION

DATA AQUSITION GEOMETRIES


CONTINUOUS STATIONARY

CONTINUOUS

STATIONARY

CT 130-140 5VP
REDUCED

DEPENDENCY ON ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT REDUCED CONTRAST INCREASED PHOTON FLU!

ORIGINAL CLINICAL CT SCANS COMPOSED OF

"# ! "# MATRI!

PI/ELS

6400

ISOCENTER

SCAN FOV

SFOV

DETECTORS

SCAN FOV-SMALL

SFOV

DETECTORS

SFOV - HEAD

TOO SMALL OF SFOV 7 OUT OF FIELD ARTIFACT

SCAN FOV-RESOLUTION

SFOV

RECONSTRUCTION

RECONSTRUCTION

CT&

SCAN FOV-RESOLUTION

SFOV

DISPLAY FOV ,& SCANNING FOV


DFOV

CAN BE E'UAL OR LESS OF SFOV SFOV ( AREA OF MEASUREMENT DURING SCAN DFOV - DISPLAYED IMAGE

PI/EL SI8E

PI/EL SI8E+

FOV ((()9 MATRI/ SI8E

MOST SCANNERS PI/EL SI8E 1 TO 10((

E/AMPLE:
FOV=

)# CM= )# ! 1# MM=)## ** MATRI!= +1, ! +1, = +1,,

)## +1, = #.-" ** 0'; ((

EACH PI/EL IN CT HAS RANGE OF GRAY SHADES


,

,+. SHADES , 1, = )#/. SHADES = -1## TO 0#/+ SHADES OF GRAY


"=

PI/EL ,& VO/EL

PI!EL

VO!EL

PI/EL SI8E DEPENDS ON:


MATRI! FOV

SI$E

VO/EL SI8E DEPENDS


FOV MATRI! SI$E SLICE THICKNESS

IMAGE DISPLAY

GRAY SCALE DISPLAY MONITOR RESOLUTION IS RELATED TO THE SI8E OF THE PI/EL MATRI/
.)

! .) 1," ! 1," ,+. ! ,+. +1, ! +1, 1#,) ! 1#,) ,#)" ! ,#)"

(HIGH PERFORMANCE MONITORS)

MATRI/

PI/EL MATRI/

IN CT DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTED IMAGE IS CONVERTED IMAGE IS CONVERTED INTO A GRAY SCALE IMAGE'

DIGITAL

DAC

ANALOG

T2) 2-<2 =)$#o$( %1) ,->)o >-&=! 0 o# t2) (-1$o1o(=*t)$ -& 1o%%)1t)> to t2) &0&t)( ,% -%t)$# 1) ?o $>' T2) ,->)o >-&=! 0 -& #o$( o# 1 t2o>) $ 0 t*?) &o()t-()& $)#)$$)> to & $ &t)$ >-&=! 0' T2) t)$( $ &t)$ >)&1$-?)& t2) t)12%-@*) o# =$o>*1-%< t2) =-1t*$) o$ t)At .2-12 -& #o$()> ?0 ?) ( o# )!)1t$o%& t2 t $)=) t)>!0 &1 %& 1$o&& t2) &1$))% to #o$( *%-#o$( = tt)$% o# 1!o&)!0 &= 1)>B 2o$-Co%t ! !-%)& (t2) $ &t)$)B 1o,)$-%< t2) )%t-$) &1$))%' T2) &1$))% 1o%&-&t& o# =2o&=2o$ t2 t 1o%,)$t& t2) )%)$<0 o# t2) )!)1t$o% ?) ( -%to ,-&-?!) !-<2t' A =-1t*$) -& #o$()> ?0 Dt*$%-%< o% %> o##D t2) )!)1t$o% ?) ( t ==$o=$- t) =o-%t& -% t2) &1 %%-%< o# t2) &1$))% &*$# 1)'

CRT OPERATION

IMAGE FORMATION ON THE MONITOR

IMAGE FORMATION ON THE MONITOR

CT NUMBER

LINEAR ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT ( 1(-1)


BONE BLOOD G. MATTER W. MATTER CSF WATER FAT AIR

#.+," #.,#" #.,1, #.,10 #.,##.,#. #.1"+ #.###)

CT " ,& BRIGHTNESS LEVEL


1 1###

-1###

CT "

1000

CT "

- 500

CT " OF CYST

CT " OF LIPOMA ( FATTY TUMOR)

-100

W 1,# L )#

W "# L )#

DATA FLOE IN CT
REFERENCE DETECTOR REFERENCE DETECTOR

ADC

PREPROCESSOR

COMPUTER RAE DATA

PROCESSORS
RECONSTRUCTED DATA BAC5 PROFECTOR CONVOLVED DATA

DISK

TAPE

DAC

CRT DISPLAY

CT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

E!CELLENT LOW CONTRAST RESOLUTION WINDOWING- IMAGE MANIPULATION TAILORED TO OBSERVER NEEDS SPIRAL CT-SINGLE BREATH HOLD STUDIES 2 CTA3 MPR3 VIRTUAL REALITY CT3 CT ENDOSCOPY4 CT ASISST IN RADIATION THERAPY BONE SCAN PACKAGE !ENON CT PERFUCION CT DIGITAL PROCESSING ABILITY