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QL\}t Stutients' Scrirs of ILatm Classtcs

VIEGIL'S AENEID

BOOKS I-YI

WITH IXTRODUCTIOX, NOTES, AND

VOCABULARY

BT

H. R. FAIRCLOUGH, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR OF LATIX, LELAND STANFORD JCNIOR

UNIVERSITY

AXD

SELDON L. BROWX/a.M.

PRINCIPAL OF WELLESLEY (mASS.) HIGH SCHOOL, CO-AUTHOI OF THE DANIELL-BROWX LATIN COMPOSITIOX

ov TToXV aXXa '/ro\v

BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO.

CHICAGO

NEW YORK

1920

BOSTON

COPTRIGHT, 1908,

BY

d. fi. FAIECLOUGH and SELDON L. BEOWN,

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PREFACE

The cliarni of the Aeneid has for nineteen centnries exer-

cised its

geuerations.

spell over the minds aud hearts of successive

Yery early it became a

school-book, aud,

strangely enough, it is still as a text-book that it makes its

strongest and most general appeal.

The Aeneid fills a larger place in the education of our

boys and girls than any other epic.

This is a fact of great

significance., a fact which justifies the earnestness and

enthusiasm with which editors have striven to so present

it as to secure the maximum of return for so much time

and attention.

Failure to attain this means an economic

loss as well as a pedagogic error.

The ideal book must contain enough material to insure an adequate.presentation, yet not so much as to dismay the

beginner by its amount or to perplex him by its subtlety. It is a question of perspective and proportion which must

be adapted to the learner's point of view ; he alone is to be

considered.

The progress of the im^il, not the display

of the editor's erudition, must be the constant objective. With this ideal in view we have worked out the details

of this book.

If in certain respects we have failed to reach

it, we shall find ourselves in the best of company: if in

some degree we have succeeded, our toil will not have been

in vain. It is far easier to teach over the head of the beginner

than to meet him on his own plane of comprehension ; and

iii

4275SI

IV

PREFACE

it is here that he must be met.

It is a simple matter to

load down a book with a mass of scholarly material which few teachers and fewer pupils are able to use ; it is a much

more difficult one to present in correct coordination and subordination just the material which the learner will be

able with profit to make his own.

We must always remember that it is not what a pupil

might do, but what he can and will do, which sets the limits

of correct text-book making.

The time of the secondary

school pupil is so filled to-day that the number of hours

which can be devoted to any one subject is by no means

Under these conditions it is very easy to miss the

large.

mark, to so direct the pupil that he sees this great epic

"through a glass darkly " and not "face to face." While no

book can obviate the inevitable effects of poor teaching, a well-made one greatly increases the efficiency of a real

teacher and frequently saves an indifferent one from disaster.

To sucli demands and to such limitations the present

volume has been rigidly subjected at every step of its

preparation.

well be spared, on the other hand no essential has been

neglected.

A good book could easily be made L^rger, but

a smaller one could not meet the demands of our best

secondary schools to-day.

In the process of mastering the Aeneid, the student must

first grapple with the linguistic difficulties, and for sec-

ondary school purposes no edition is of much use which does not give all necessary assistance in this respect. But

it is almost criminal to limit the study of so great a poem

to tlie grammaticalside. Professor Woodberry has recently

stated that in his opinion "tlie Aeneid is the greatest single

book written by man." Tliis may be an exaggerated esti-

AYhile nothing has been admitted that could

PREFACE

mate, but in any case the Aeneid is a literary masterpiece,

one of the great " world-poems," and should be studied as

such. It is because of this conviction tliat we have intro-

duced much of the material to be found in this edition.

VirgiFs beautiful personality has been emijhasized in the

Introduction, and the student is encouraged to look for

In the :N"otes the 3es-

traces of its influence in the poem.

thetic side of the poem has received more attention than

is usually given to it, and it is hoped that this edition will

help to foster a more general study of the poetical means

employed to secure artistic effects.

In four of the books

will be found special notes in small type, which deal mainly

with the stylistic features of important paragraphs or sec-

tions. It is not intended that these shoukl iucrease, but rather that they should relieve, the burden both of student

and teacher. It is recommended that they be utilized mainly

in connection with review work, w^hen a class, after master-

ing the primary difficulties of the text, may turn with relief

to the beauties of form and substance. The teacher must

use his own judgment as to the mode of handling them, and

in any case they need not receive much attention until the

student has acquired some facility in reading the text, and

has mastered the elementary principles of Latin verse.

The Aeneid occupies a peculiar position in the history of the world's best literature. Much of Homer has been ab-

sorbed by Virgil, and in his turn Virgil has exerted incal-

culable influence on mediaeval and modern literature. A

student of the Aeneid should not only have his literary taste

and judgment awakened, but he should also be introduced

to at least Homer, Dante, and Milton.

A school library

should contain not only copies of the great English poets,

but also good translations of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the

VI

PREFACE

Divine Coinedi/, and froin time to time a few rainutes may well be spent in reading aloud passages froni tlieni bearing

upon tlie Aeneid.

Thus the Roman epic may beconie the

means of opening the eyes of the young to great literary

fields, which otlierwise may remain unknown to them.^

Correspondence with a iiumber of teacliers has convinced

us that a harge majority of our fellow-workers will be glad

to find the long vowels marked in Book I.

While we be-

lieve that such marking soon becomes unnecessary for the

of

teachers, who desire at least one book marked thus, as an

important adjunct in teaching the fundamentals of versi-

tieation.

The questions following tlie notes at tlie end of each book

will be found to demand the exercise of many powers be-

well-taught pupil, we also agree with the majority

1 Translations recoinmended are :

Tlie lUad of Homer : translated into blank verse, by Williani

Culleii Bryant (Iloughton, Mifflin, & Co.).

The Iliad: done into Englisli verse, by A. S. Way (London,

1880-1888), 2 vols.

The lUad of Ilomer : done into EngHsh prose, by Lang, Leaf,

and Myers (Macinillan).

The Odysscy : done into English verso, by William Morris

(London, 1887).

The Odyssey of Ilomcr : h\ English verse, by A. S. Way (Mac-

millan, 11)04).

The Odyssey of Ilomer : done into English prose, by Butcher

and Lang (Macmillan). The Divine Comedy : translated by Longfellow (Iloughton,

MitHin, &Co.).

The Divine Comedy : translatcd in vci-se, by E. II. riumptre

(Hoslon), 2 vols.

Inferno, l^itrfjatorio, l\iradiso : text and prosc translation

(Dent & Co., Templc Classics), 3 vols.

sides memory.

PREFACE

VU

Investigation, selection, comparison, judg.

ment, all will need to be used by the student who answers

them.

As this feature is in line with the best standards

of teachers and examiners, its value will be obvious.

No edition of the Aeneid in common use contains a com-

plete and satisfactory list of the figures of sj^eech used

Scattered in various grammars and dic-

tionaries they may be fouud, but these aids are often not

at hand, frequently incomplete, and so always precarious. The list included in the Introduction will, we trust, be a

marked convenience. IUustrations drawn from many sources have been freely

used. The coordination

parallel development are in harmony with the teachings of

history and the most advanced pedagogy.

in Latin poetry.

of

art

and literature

and their

As a vocabulary is the sheet-auchor of a beginner's Virgil,

great care has been taken to make this accurate, adequate,

and easy to use. It has not been made an occasion or excuse

for philological display.

From the immense mass of mate-

rial which it might contain has been selected what we

believe to be the maximum which the pupil of the secondary

The difterent meanings, pro-

school will be able to utilize.

ceeding in general from the primitive and literal to the

figurative and unusual, have been carefully chosen and so

grouped as to suggest in very many cases the natural de-

Here

In the marking of

all long vowels have been marked.

hidden quantities we have gone no farther than a decided

velopment of the ideas associated with the word.

preponderance of evidence will warrant.

No text-book

can properly be made the arena in which to settle philologi-

cal differences.

Sufficient mythological, geographical, and

historical material has been included to insure an intelligent

Vlil

PREFACE

reading of the text, in case reference books on these sub.

jects are not available.

The text has been carefully prepared, but no one authority

has been uniformly foUowed.

In tlie comparatively few

cases of disputed readings, the evidence of the major Vir-

gilian Mss and. ancient commentators, as ^vell as the views

of modern scholars, has been carefully weighed before a decision has been reached.

It would be practically impossible to enumerate tlie many authorities to whom an editor of Virgil is necessaril}'' in-

debted.

One advantage which we have had over previous

editors is the use of Heinze's important work, Virgils Epische

Technik, and of Norden's brilliant edition of the Sixth Book.

To both of these we

are under special

obligation.

To

another recent work, Glover's Studie.'! in Virgil, our Intro-

duction probably owes some of its color, if not of its actual

material.

To the many teachers who have shown an interest in our

work we express our dee^o appreciation.

If the book itself

shall meet with their approval, our " labor of love," which

has been a pleasure in itself, will have been well repaid.

JUNE, 1908.

H. R. F. S. L. B.

A demand for a fresh reprint gives us an opportunity to

thank the numy teachers in all parts of the country who have shown their appreciation of our work. A number of

For this we are especially in-

errors have been rectitied.

debted to Miss Esther Spencer, assistaut in Latin iu Stan-

ford University, aud iMr. rl. V. Nourse, of the Lowell Iligh

School, San Francisco.

JUNE, llilli.

«

H.

S.

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L.

x^

F.

B.

LiST OF Illustratioxs

Introduction :

CONTENTS

Life and Works of Virgil

Virsiirs Place in Literature

A Critical Study of the Aeneid

The Story of the Aeneid

The Traditions and Character of Aeneas

 

.

The Aeneid in relation to Art Versification and Style

 

Figures of Syntax Figures of Rhetoric

 

Temis of Prosody

Chronological Table -^ Sample Translation

.

,

-

Tennyson's Tribute to Virgil

 

Text

NoTES .

••

.

VOCABULART.

.

.

iz

.

.

.

.

PAGE

XI

.

xvii

xxix

xxxii

xxxvi

xli

xlviii

.

1

liii

liv

Iv

Ivi

Iviii

.

Ix

1

187

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

riGlTHE

1. Dante, Homer. and Virgil. A group from The Parnassus,

one of RaphaePs mural paiutings in the Vatican.

Frontispiece

PAGE

2. Facsimile of the Codex Mediceus of Virgil, a manuscript

of the fif th century. In the Laurentian Library in Florence.

The passage given in the illustration is Aeneid V. 668-696. xvii

3. The Ludovisi Juno. In the National Museum, Rome. Of

this Goethe said, " No words can give any idea of it ; it is

4.

5.

like a verse from

Homer"

The Judgment of Paris.

Naples

A Pompeian wall-painting.

In

The Jupiter Otricoli (so called, because found at Otricoli,

near Rome). In the Vatican Museum. It is the most

famous representation of the god extant

6. The Young Augustus and Julius Caesar.

portrait busts in the British Museum

Two marble

7. Augustus, as emperor.

8. The Diana of Versailles.

In the Vatican.

See Introd. § 36

Now in the Louvre, Paris.

See

Introd. § o6

9. Venus Genetrix. In the Louvre, Paris.

See Introd. § 36 .

10. The Death of Laocoon. This famous group of the Vatican

was made by three sculptors in the island of Rhodes, viz.

Agesander, Polydorus, and Athehodorus, about the begin-

ning of the first century.B.c.

11. The Wooden Horse in Troy.

This Pompeian wall-painting

shows a moonlight scene. Hence the elongated figures. In Naples .

.

.

.

12. Minerva.^ She wears an aegis, with the Gorgon's head, and

in her right hand supports a winged Victory. At Deep-

dene, Surrey

xi

1

2

10

12

13

14

27

38

40

^2

Xll

LTST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIOrRE

13. The Tabula Iliaca, a small gypsum tablet, with sculptured

sceiies of the sack of Troy.

In the centre we see Aeneas

PAOS

and his family leaving the city under the guidance of

Hermes (Mercury).

Aeneas is carrying Anchises (the

latter holding the Penates), and leads Ascanius by the

hand, while a female figure (presumably Creusa) follows.

Lower down, to our right, the party is embarking. The

helmsman Misenus brings up the rear, but tlie woman is

The tablet is in the Capitoline

no longer to be seen.

Museum at Rome

-^14. Map of the Wanderings of Aeneas

15. A Roman Sacrifice.

A marljle relief in tlie Louvre, Paris .

16. A Roman Harbor. with Ships, Lighthouse, Triumphal

Arch, Statues, and Blazing Altar. A relief in the Museo Torlonia, Rome

17. Mount Aetna from Taormina. From a photograph .

.

18. The Leconfield Venus.

In a private collection in Londoni

19. The ApoIIo Belvedere. (See Byron, ChihU HarohVs Pil- grimage, Canto IV, Stanza lOL) In the Vatican

.

.

20.

Mercury. In the Vatican. " A lovely, thoughtful, charm-

ing hea.d'^ (Votter, TJie Art oftheVatican)

21.

22.

Atlas supporting the Heavens, which are represented as a

gl()l)o witli tlie signs of tlie zodiac.

A statue in Naples

.

The Death of Pentheus. A bronze mirror in tlie Collegio

Roniano, l^ime

23. A Sea-deity and his Family. An enlarged gem .

24. Bronze Statue of a Boxer. In the National Museum, Rome

25. Paiaemon, seated on a Dolphin. In the Glyptothek, Mu-

.

.

nich

26.

Daedalus and Icarus.

A cameo in Naples. The figure be-

60

61

74

80

82

92

94

96

98

105

124

130

140

hind Daedalus is probably Pasiphae. The seated goddess

is Artemis

'

27.

The Cumaean Sibyl, by Michacl Angelo.

thc Sixtine Chapel, Hoine

On the ceiling of

28. Proserpina becoraes the Bride of Pluto. A Greek vase-

The picture shows Demeter, a winged Eros

painting.

150

151

1 Soe Furtwaiiglcr, Jldsterjiieces of Greek Sculpture, p. 343.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

nOURE

xiii

PAGB

(symbolic of love), Hecate with her torch, and Hermes

pointing out the way .

.

.

»

154

29.

Charoa receiving a Dead Woman from Hermes. A Greek

 

vase-painting.

In Munich

161

30.

Hercules and Cerberus. On a vase in ^Naples

.

.

.

165

31.

Cybele turrita. A statue from Formiae

 

180

32.

The Glorification of Augustus.

A famous cameo in Vienna.

All the interest centres in the emperor, who sits enthroned,

holding in his left hand a sceptre, and in his right the

litiius of an augur.

Above him is the star of his nativity

(Capricorn).

Beside him sits the goddess Roma.

An-

other goddess holds a crown of oali leaves above his

 

head.

Caelus and Terra (withher children) are spectators

of the scene.

On the left, Tiberius is stepping from a

chariot driven by a Victory. The boy is Germanicus.

 

In the lower part are captives, while Roman soldiers

 

are raising a trophy

180

33.

Julius Caesar and Pompey, the former with laurel wreath

and star. Two gems in Berlin

182

34. Marcellus the Younger. Tlie uppermost portion of the

 

great Paris Cameo, of which the main subject (set forth in

a lower scene) is the glorification of the emperor Tiberius.

In the part reproduced we see the deified Augustus with

a sceptre.

The soldier with a shield is Drusus, brother

of Tiberius, who died in 9 b.c.

The figure in Phrygian

garb, poised in the air before Augustus, is Aeneas, the

ancestor of the Julian family, who holds in his hands a

sphere, symbolic of world-power.

The figure

on

the

winged horse, which is led by a Cupid, is Marcellus,i the

 

adopted son and heir of Augustus, whose early death in

23 B.c. was much lamented

.

.

184

35. Ganymede and the Eagle. Greek mirror, with relief .

.

193

36. Neptune. Lange^s restoration of the Posidon of Lysippus

 

(end of fourtli century, b.c.)

203

37.

Head of the Venus of Milo. the most famous of the treasures

 

of the Louvre in Paris

213

1 So Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen.

XIV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

FIGURE

PAGB

38.

A Coin of Carthage

234

39.

Head of a Statue of Af)ollo. Iii the National Museum, Rome 245

40.

Acanthus on a Corinthian Capital

250

41.

Diomedes, Ulysses, and the Palladium. An ancient gem . 272

^ 42. Hector dragged round the Walls of Troy. From a marble

 

tablet in the Capitoline Museum, Rome

 

281

43.

A Victim ready for Sacrifice.

From a Roman bas-relief

.

291

44.

Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius. Coin of Antoninus

 

.

309

45.

A Coin of Aenea, shovving the head of Aeneas

.

.

.

316

46.

Tripod of ApoUo. The god, dressed in a long robe, is seated

as he plays the cithara.

An ancient gem

 

320

47.

Magna Mater. The goddess wears a turreted crown and is

seated in a chariot drawn by two lions.

In her left hand

she holds a tympanum. A relief from a Roman altar

.

322

48.

A Boy Praying. Bronze statue in Berlin

 

330

49.

Scylla. From a vase-painting.

In Naples

339

50.

Chain-armor. In the Mainz Museum

343

51. Arethusa. From a coin of Syracuse

354

52. A Hunting Scene. Roman mosaic from Carthage

.

.

366

53.

Jupiter Hammon. Coin of Cyrene

 

369

54.

Mitra, a Phrygian cap

371

55.

Mercury.

Note the talaria on his feet, the purse in his

right hand, and the herald's wand in his left. Pompoian wall-painting

From a

373

56.

A Bacchante. A gem in Florence

376

57.

Hecate. Slie has one body, but three heads and six hands. On each head is a calathus, and in her hands are twodirks,

 

two whips, and two torches.

Beside her are two cistae

 

surrounded by serpents. A man is dancing before her. A bronze amulet

395

58.

Carchesium

407

59.

A Serpent as .7P?ii?<.'? Zoci.

AVall-paintiiigfrom Ilerculaneum

 

408

60. Figure-head of a Roman Ship

 

409

61. The Long-distance Foot-race.

liiifish Muscum

From a Greek vase in the

.

.

.

419

62. Cretan Labyrinth and the Minotaur. l^arly Cretan coin . 432

63 Neptune («jr, prubably, Augustus in tlio role of Neptune")

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOXS

XV

FIGtTBE

PAGE

driving his steeds over the sea. A beautiful gem now in

Boston

64. Somnus.

.

.

'

Represented as a winged and bearded man. A

gem in Berlin

65. Theseus and the Minotaur.

The figure

on the right is

442

444

Minos ; on the left, Ariadne. From a Greek vase-painting 450

66. Orpheus and Eurydice. An intaglio of comparatively late

 

date. In Munich

 

456

67. Castor and Pollux in the Lower World. Pluto is on a rich

 

throne, and beside him is Cerberus. A gem in Berlin

.

456

68. Triton and his Conch. Engraving from a lamp .

 

.

.

460

69. Pavor and Pallor on Roman Coins.