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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT


Ll.

GRIFFITH,

M.A.,

F.S.A.

>S7.V77/

MEMOIR

COLLECTION OF

HIEROGLYPHS
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF EGYPTIAN WRITING
BY

F.

Ll.

GRIFFITH

WITH NINE COLOURED PLATES


From ROSALIND
and
F.

facsimiles by

E.

PAGET, ANNIE PI 111


'

HOWARD CARTER

SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND

LONDON
SOLD AT

The OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


and at
b'-K

37,

Gueat Russell Street, W.C.

Temple Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

and by

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Paternoster House, Cuaring Cross Road. W.C. ASHER & Co., 13, Bedeord Street, Coyest Garden. W.C; B. QUAR1TCH, 15, Piccadilly, W.
;

1898

The Stephen Chan


Library of

Fine Arts

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY public serv.ce a r JtP university in the


i>,

LIBRARIES

7 au-w*

'

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT


Edited
by
F.

Ll.

GRIFFITH,

M.A.,

F.S.A.

SIXTH MEMOIR

COLLECTIO N

( )

HIEROGLYPHS
BY

'

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF EGYPTIAN WRITING

F.

Ll.

GRIFFITH

WITH NINE COLOURED PLATES


From
facsimiles by

ROSALIND
and

P.

E.

PAGET, ANNIE PIRIE

HOWARD CARTER

SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FIND

LONDON
SOLD AT

The OFFICES OF
and by

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


and at
5f>,

37,

Great Russell Street, W.C.

Temple Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRLTBNER & CO., Paterkoster House, Chamng Cross Road, W.C. ASHER & Co., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C. B. QUAR1TCH, 15, Piccadilly, W.
;

1898

TSESZ^

LONDON
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND R1VINGTON, LIMITED, EX. ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWEM.,

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.


president.

SIR

JOHN FOWLER,

Bart.,

K.C.M.G.

Uicc=iPrc3iC>cnt6.

Sir E.

Maunde Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D.

The Hon. Chas. Tne


Hon.
(Canada).

L.

Hutchinson (U.S.A.).
Geo.
Bourinot,

Lt. -General Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.M.G.,

John

D.C.L.

K.C.B.

The Rev.

Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D.


Esq., L.H.D.,

Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (France).

Charles Dudley Warner,


(U.S.A.).

LL.D.
D.C.L.

Prof. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany).

The Rev. W.
(U.S.A.).

C.

Winslow,

D.D.,

Josiah Mullens, Esq. (Australia).

M. Charles Hentsch

(Switzerland).

Iboit.

treasurers.

H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A.


F. C. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

Andrew

Mills, Esq.

(New York, U.S.A.

II3011.

Secretaries.

J.

The Rev. W. The Rev.

C.

S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L. (Boston, U.S.A.).

Ciias.

R. Gillett

(New York,

U.S.A.).

Members
T.

of

Committee.

H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., Q.C., V.D.


(for Boston).

The Marquis of Northampton.


D. Parrish, Esq. (U.S.A.).

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D.

Somers Clarke,

Esq., F.S.A.

Francis
Prof.

W.

E. Crum, Esq., M.A.

Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., LL.D.


t

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.

(for Chicago).

Arthur John Evans,


Mrs. F. Ll. Griffith.

Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

F. G.

Hilton Price,

Esq., F.S.A.

F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

Mrs. Tirard.

Farmer Hall, Esq. John Horniman, Esq., M.P.


T.

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. The Lord Bishop of Truro. Hermann Weber, Esq., M.D.
Major-General
Sir

Mrs. McClure.

Charles

W.

Wilson,

The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A.


A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.

K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.

CONTENTS.
PAGE
I j I

ST

IF

ABBREVI ATIONS

ix

Preliminary Note on the Transliteration op Egyptian


Table of the Egyptian Alphabet

X
xi

Note on the Semitic consonants a lif and

ain

xii

CHAPTER
Introductory
1 :

I.

Previous work on
their study
...

the hieroglyphic

signs

materials

available

for
1

2.

Powers of the signs

history of their

employment

CHAPTER

II.

Hieroglyphs collected by the Archaeological Survey:


1

Sources of the facsimiles ...


Discussion of the signs in natural groups

9
11

2.

Addenda
Errata
(to

67
Hieroglyphs and Bent Hasan

III.)

68

Order op the Signs


Index to Facsimiles

...

60

...

71

PBEFACE
The
The
publication of detailed hieroglyphs,

&c,
it

in

Beni Hasan

III.,

seems

to have

met

a want, to judge by the welcome with which


criticisms of

lias

been received
et

in the scientific press.

Maspbro (Rev.

Grit.,

xliii.,

pp. 201

seqq.)
is

and Borchardt (A.


positively

'.,

1*97, pp. 103 et seqq.) have at once displayed

how

little

known with
some

regard to the origins of individual signs, and furnished new material and ideas for
the study of them.

Piehl (Sphinx,

ii.,

pp. 33

et

seqq.) has also contributed

suo-Tstions and M. Loret, in a private letter, has communicated a


ing observations on those representing natural objects.

number
last

of interestalso

At the

moment
iii.,

appears a long and friendly notice by M. FoTJCART


vol. xxii., pp.

in

the Rev. Arch. (Ser.

1898,

20

et seqq.).
is

The present work

in continuation of the task

begun

in

Beni Hasan

111.

that

hieroglyphic characters. of ascertaining and illustrating the history and origins of the hoped that Much special study has meanwhile been devoted to the subject, and it is

the present Memoir, besides being

more

elaborate, will

show a marked advance


in

in the

explanation of the signs upon

the

somewhat hasty descriptions

the preceding

volume.

The

oTeater

number of the coloured


II.

facsimiles given herewith are from hieroglyphs

of the Xllth Dynasty, copied by Mr. of Tehutihetep at El Bersheh.

Carter (a few by Mr. Blackden), in the

tomb

This tomb has been already published in outline


is

onlyin El Bersheh
The
to

I.

There

also a considerable collection of

XVIlIth Dynasty

sims from the temple of Deir


relief-sculpture

el

Paget. Bahri, beautifully copied by Miss R. F. E.


at

and colouring of the inscriptions


fine.

Deir

el

Bahri are well

known

be exceedingly

The

signs selected are from parts of the temple already

Lastly, preservation. published by M. Naville, and the originals are in very good Survey, for use in the Miss A. Pirie has most kindly presented to the Archaeological of hieroglyphs from the tomb present volume, her facsimile drawings of a number of The tomb of Paheri was published in the Xlth Memoir of Paheri at El Kab.

viii

PREFACE.

the Egypt Exploration

Fund by

Mr.

J.

J.
It

Tylor and myself, as well as separately


is

by Mr. Tylor
Deir
el

in

an

edition

de luxe.

of the same

age as the temple

ol

Balm.
order to extend the enquiry over a wider
the text has not been confined to the
field,

In
results,

and so obtain more

solid

new

collection
111.

of hieroglyphs, but

includes most of those


plates of

already published in

Beni Hasan

and

in

the coloured

Beni Hasan

I.

It will

be observed that a special fount of alphabetic hieroglyphs has been made


This has been done
in

for this volume.

order to obviate some of the standing


in the

difficulties in transliteration, a

matter discussed below

Preliminary Note.

Neat and clear though they


use are very unsatisfactory.

be, the founts of general hieroglyphic type


late forms,

now

in

They were modelled on

and often without

understanding of the objects and actions which the signs were meant to represent.

few of the most misleading have here been corrected, but materials are not yet

available for a thorough revision.

In parting from the pleasant task which has long occupied him, the author would

crave

indulgence
to
it,

for

the

many
in

imperfections
definite

of

his

work.
often

After

much

close

application

time
results

spent

research

has

appeared

almost

wasted
in

when

its

were compared with those afterwards obtained casually


of

pursuing

other

branches
fails

Egyptology.

Scarcely

an

hour

now spent

in

looking over inscriptions

to reveal

new and

often decisive evidence touching

upon one
pages.

or another of the innumerable points of discussion raised in the following

It is useless at

present to hope to achieve anything like finality in the study.

The whole

field

needs investigation, and many thousands of good facsimiles are

required to put the subject of the origins of the hieroglyphs on a firm basis.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
TERMINOLOGY.
Ab. Alph.
Det.

Abbreviation (p. 7). Alphabetic phonogram

(p. 3).

Dyn.
Id. Id. trans.

Determinative Dynasty.

(p. 6).

M.K. N.K. O.K.


[pp. 3, 5).

Middle Kingdom.

New Kingdom.
Old Kingdom. Phonogram (p.
3).
3).

Ideogram (representing

idea,

not somid;

cf.

Ideographic transference

(p. 3).

Phon. Phon. trans. Rad. ext.

Phonetic transference (p. Radical extension (p. ?>).

REFERENCES.
Ab.,
i., ii.

A.
A.

Z.
T.

Mariette, Abydos, 2 vols. Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache, Berlin.

Methen. Miss. Arch.

Dyn. III. IV.

tomb

in L., D.,

ii.,

2 et segq.
Caire,

Mission Archiologique Franeaise


mi/moires.

au

Lepsius, Aelteste Texte. Beni Hasan, 3 vols. (E.E.F., A.S.) Book of Dead, ed. by Budge. JH-. of />. Bosojii, Sarcophagus of Oimenephthah (i.e Box., Sore. Sety I.). Breasted de Hymnis. Breasted, de Hymnis in So/em. Brugsch, Dictionnaire Geographique (with Br., D. G. supplement).
B. H-.
i-, ii., iii.

Morgan,
Xnqada.
Paheri.

Becherches.

J.

de Morgan, Becherches sur


rSgypte, 2 vols.

les

Oriyines de

Petrie, Naqada and Ballas. Ed. Tylor and Griffith, in Ahnas and
Paheri (E.E.F.).

Pap. Any.

,,

Eb.

Thes.

Thesaurus.
vols.
V( >ls.

Har.

Papyrus of Any (Brit. Mus.). Papyrus Ebers, 2 vols. Facsimile of a Papyrus (Harris) of

the Reign

Wtb. and Suppl. Bui. Pap.


Ch., Mon.

Worterbuch and supplement, 7 M a uiette, Papyrus du Musee de Boulaq, 3

Petrie, Dec. Art.


T. Piankhy.
e.

of Barneses III. (Brit. Mus.). Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art.


Tell el Amarna. Stela of Piankhy, in Mar.,
segq.

Chajipolliox, Monuments de
la Nubie. J.

I'Egi/pte et de

A.

M.

D., PI.

i.

et

DaAehour.

de Morgan,
el

Fouilles a Dahchour.

D.

el B.,

i., ii.

Deir

Bahari, 2 vols. (E.E.F.).


Historische Inschriften, 2 vols.

Prisse, Art.

Prisse, L'Art fojyptien, 2 vols, and text.

Deshasheh.
DiJM.,

(E.E.F.)

Mons.

Monuments.
logy.

H. I. Peduamenap.
Pes.

Dumichex,

P. S. B. A.

Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeo-

der Grabpalast des Peduamenap,

3 vols.

Ptahhetep.
der
. .
.

Tomb

Resultate
Theil
i.

Expedition,

Pyr.

published in Quibell, Ramesseum. Pyramid texts (Maspero, Les Pyramides de


Saqqareh).

El B.

i., ii.

Elm., Gr.

Hetnub

graffiti.

El Bersheh, 2 vols. (E.E.F., A.S.). Erman, Aegyptische Grammatik. Blackdex and Fraser, Hieratic Graffitifrom
the Alabaster

M.

of

Merenra.

X
P-

of Neferkara
of

Quarry of Hetnub.

Horhotep.
Ilia hurt.

Kahun. Eah. Pap.


Koptos.

In Miss. Arch., Tome i., pp. 136-180. Petrie, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob. Kahun, Gurob and Haivara.

w. Bee. de Trav.

of Recueil de Travaux relatifs a la Fhilologie a V Archeolofjie Egyptiennes et et

Pepy Pepy I. Unas (Wnys).

II.

A ssyriennes.
Bev. Arch.
Bev. Bel.

Laxz., Biz
L.,

d.

Mit.

D.

Griffith, Kahun Papyri. Petrie, Koptos. Laxzoxe, Dizionario di Mitoloyia Eyizia. Lepsius, Benkmiiler aus Aegypten und
Aethiopien.

Revue Archeologiqve.
Bevue de tHistoire des Religions. Rosellixi, Monumenti delta Egizia Nubia: Monumenti Ciri/i.
C.
e

Ros.,

M.

C.

delta

Lebensmiider.

Erman, Gesprach eines Lebensmuden mit seint r Seele (from the Abhandlwngen of the
Berlin Academy, 1896).
S.

M. d. M.S.

del Quito.
Storici.

texten.

Schack, Index.
Schiap., I.
d. F.

Schack-Schackenburg, Index
miden SCHIAPABELLI,
Coffin in A. T.

zu den Pyra-

Levi, Foe.

Levi,

Vocabolario

Geroglifico

Coptico

Libra

del

Funtrali,

2 vols

Ebraico, 8 vols.

text. 3 vols, plates.

Mar., Alb.

Cat.

MARIETTE, Album du Musee de Boulaq. Catalogue des monuments d'Abydos.

Sebekaa.
Sh., By. Ins.

IK el B. Mast.

Deir el Bahari. Les Mastabas de VAncien Empire.


vols.
el

Shelley, Bird*.
Sign pap.
si nt.

Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, 2 Shelley, Birds of Egypt.

series.

M.D.
Mom.
roy.

Masp., Et. Eg.

Monuments Divers. Maspero, Etudes Egyptiennes, 2

(in Miss. Arch.,


i.)

In Two Papyri from Tunis (E.E.F.). Griffith, 77k- Inscriptions of Si&t and Der
Bifeh.

les momies royales de Deir

Bahari

Todt.

Todtenbuch, ed. by Lepsius. by Navilib, and by Budge (Book of the Dead).


I.

Table d'offrandes.

(in Bev. de IHistoire des Religions,

Tomb. Sety

Lefebure,

Tombeau de
ii.

Sety I, in

Mil

1897-8.)
Trois ar.nees.

Arch.,
Miss. Trois annees.

Trois annies de fouilles in

Maspero,

Trois annies de fouilles, in Miss.


i.

Arch.,

Arch.,
i.

Math. Pap.

Eisexlohr, Bin Mathematisches Handbuch.


Petrie, Medum. Steixdorff, Der Grab des Mentuhotep.
r.

'mi.

Inscription of Una, in Mai:.. Ab.,

ii.,

4445.

Medum.
M, ntuhotep.

M.

G.

Zeitschrift

der

Deutschen Morgenlandischen

Gesellschaft.

Addenda,

PRELIMINARY NOTE

THE TRANSLITERATION OF EGYPTIAN.


In previous volumes of the Archaeological Survey we have followed the highly conventional transliteration of hieroglyphs into a system of consonants and vowels such as has become

customary
the
sio-ns

in

England.

But

since our present discussion involves especially the true


(as far as

powers of

and the origin of their phonetic values

we can

ascertain them), that system,

unchecked, would here be misleading.


consist of a certain
this

The

roots of Egyptian words, like

those of Semitic,

number

of consonants, and as perhaps will

become

clearer

on perusal of

Memoir the

phonetic value

of almost

every sign in hieroglyphic writing corresponds

simply to these bare consonantal roots of one, two, or three consonants (or semi-vowels). Any person acquainted with a Semitic language, say Hebrew or Arabic, will comprehend at once the In Egyptian, as in force of these statements as regards both the palaeography and the language.

unpointed Hebrew, and Arabic written without vowels, occasionally a semi-vowel is used in good To transliterate = as da writino- to indicate a vowel, but it never becomes a mere vowel-sign.
in the following pages, without warning,

would be

as misleading as to transliterate say J^c\

by

aaul in a discussion of the verbal roots and the values of the letters in Arabic. In the latter case, J c wl happily in be given than if the vocalization were unknown, no safer transliteration could
:

Arabic we are generally saved from such atrocities by the simplicity of its own alphabet, which It is not so with the highly complex makes conversion into any other almost superfluous.
hieroglyphic syllabary
:

in this, for close scientific work, transliteration


signs,

is
c

constantly a necessity,
>

and occasionally a distressing group of conventional


unavoidable.

such as

or ",

seems almost

There

is,

however, one

way out

of the

difficulty.

The hieroglyphic system included

twenty-five alphabetic letters, and iu

them the values of all the phonetic signs of the system can be expressed. They thus provide a very natural means of transliteration. It is not difficult to learn the values of twenty five pictorial signs, and if words artificially expressed by this
alphabet are kept quite distinct from those in genuine hieroglyphic spelling, there seems no As Professor Petrie once suggested objection to their use where European letters fail to satisfy.
in discussing this

vexed question of transliteration, the distinction can be secured by the use of a specially small type for the hieroglyphic alphabet, which shall at once sufficiently represent the Egyptian signs, distinguish the transliterations from the true words, range with ordinary English
type, and be clear and not unpleasing to the eye.

Each of the various systems hitherto advocated employs European letters modified by diacritical points, and arouses the wrath of those who have adopted any one of the other systems. In the present work we endeavour to conciliate all by
:

the side of the inoffensive hieroglyphic transliteration, which represents in fact the basis of every system, we constantly give European spellings, and so we trust that none of our old supporters
will

be embarrassed by the additional equipment required for working on this branch of Egyptian

study.

PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE TRANSLITERATION OF EGYPTIAN.

THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET.


For
the alphabetic signs and their values see Steindorff,

Das

Altaegyptische Alphabet und seine


;

Umschreibung, Z. der Morgenl. Gesells., xlvi., 709 (cf. Baedeker Egypt, 1898, p. exxiii.) Erman, Die Umschreibung des Aegyptischen, A.Z., xxxiv., 51 (especially valuable for a clear exposition of
the consonantal character of

^,

[],

\,

), cf.

Grammar,

pp. 6-8.

In
side

many
side,

cases in the present

volume two

transliterations into

European characters are given

by

one being consonantal, the other admitting vowels in conformity with the old system.

In the following table the third column shows where either of these systems differs from that in the fourth column are given Arabic and Hebrew equivalents of values that cannot of Berlin
:

be so well expressed in English


\\

letters.

is

used at the end of a word for the vowel


a strengthened form of
y.

as a distinctive

grammatical ending.
H<\

is

I),

used after the O.K. when

I)

had

lost

the full force of

\
may

>

),

\
P

are

weak consonants

or semi- vowels.
(|,

is

also a

weak

consonant;

and

(prefixed),

(prefixed),

\\,

\,

and ^

(suffixed)

are formative letters at the beginning or end of words.

All the above

thus sometimes be neglected in deriving phonetic values from words.

\
-*-

often changes to
distinction

\,

and each at times seems

less

than consonantal.

The
was

very important
O.K.

in separating roots

between
it

and
is

lost after the

In the following pages whenever there


use the combination
-p-.

uncertainty in this matter

we

In early texts - varies with =, and in late writing

was confused

with

o.

In Coptic

becomes
s

kh, while o often

becomes

sh.

Thus the
is

sounds represented by - and


in

seem

to

have crossed each other, travelling

opposite

directions.

To

distinguish

them

as

Teh

and ch

& mere

convention.
s=>

generally changed to
distinct

t,

so that in

N.K. =>
firm.

often represents q

but

in

some words the

sound remained
even in old texts.

became d

in

many

words, and varies with

In the following pages the


the sounds are subject to

use of the combinations

=s>,

indicates

when

PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE TRANSLITERATION OP EGYPTIAN.

NOTE ON THE SEMITIC CONSONANTS ALIF AND

'AIN.

The following rough statements may give some idea of the use of Alif and 'Ain, and of the semi-vowels w and y in Semitic and Egyptian. Though regarded as a consonant, the Semitic alif (Hebrew aleph), like the Greek soft It is called a guttural, breathing and the French h, has little or no sound in pronunciation. and is often marked by an interruption of sound. It may be defined to be a breathing as the
'

support for a vowel, and


I.
J

is

of great importance both as a radical and as a formative sign.

root

As a radical it may support a syllable in the same way as any other consonant. Thus the makes sa^ala (sa'^a'la), just asfth makes fa'ta'ha. When not itself vocalized i.e. followed

by a vowel
II.

a lif lengthens the preceding


alif.

vowel in one way or another.


:

Formative

To take a
is

striking instance of this

when

in inflexion a short

vowel of

any kind
its

a, e,
is

i, o,

or u

prefixed for euphonic reasons to a

difficult

combination of consonants,
This
is

presence

indicated in writing

by an

alif written before the radical consonants.

called

" prosthetic
III.

alif."

Alif has
iy

by nature a particular

affinity to the

vowel a
it

as

y has to

i,

and

to u, so

that a'

= d,
%

=
u.)

i,

uw

a.

When

not itself vocalized,

especially lengthens preceding a to a,

and hence
indicate

is used in writing to indicate long a (a).

(So also y and

are used in writing to

and

\
two

seems to correspond to the Semitic


each rare and obscure, of
its

alif,

especially as a radical.
;

There are probably only


it

cases,

use as a formative
its

but occasionally

seems to have

been written quite superfluously, even in early texts,


confusion.
\

feeble value leading to uncertainty or

is

properly y, but the sounds of


(cf.

and
q

t\

seem to some extent to have changed places

in

very often omitted in writing at the beginning of a reduced to the value of alif at a very early been word, and in this situation may often have period. It is commonly prefixed to a root, and it may be doubted whether it does not, even in early instances, then represent "prosthetic alif" (see Sethe, Be Aleph Prosthetico in Lingua
course of time
the case of ~ and o).
is

Aegyptiaca).
It is natural that there

should

now

reign some uncertainty about the use of these


:

consonants and the signs that expressed them in Ancient Egyptian


there
is

even in

weak Semitic grammars


y.

considerable complexity about the treatment of the mutual relations of alif and
is

'Ain (Arab., Heb. 'aiyin)


It

a peculiar guttural breathing

unknown

to

European languages.

counts as a strong consonant.


it

In Egyptian 'ain

is

represented by

In the

New

Kingdom
to

was weakened, probably owing to the fact that the sound was unpronounceable
lost
is

some of the mixed population. It was quite was brought into Egypt afresh by the Arabs, and
related to this guttural.

during the Graeco-Roman period, but


constantly heard in Egypt.
I

still

is

A COLLECTION OF

HIBEOGLYPHS.
CHAPTER
I

I.

NTRODUCTORY.
STUDY.

PREVIOUS

WORK ON EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS: MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR THEIR

Until Professor Petrie published his Medum and Professor Erman his Grammar, no important work on Egyptian hieroglyphic writing

were taken without discrimination from texts


of
all

periods

moreover, the outlines of the

signs

were inaccurately rendered, their colours


determined.

had appeared
his

in recent years.

Charapollion in
issued
after

unnoted, and their phonetic and ideographic

Gram/maire

Egyptienne,

the

powers very imperfectly


represented by a sign,

Thus,

author's death in 1836, gave descriptive names


to

whenever doubt was possible


little

as to the object

large

numbers of the
nationale,

signs.

De Rouge,

external help was

in his

Catalogue des signes hieroglyphiques de


1851, attached to each

forthcoming for correct identification.

To

Vim/primerie
of

present-day student of the subject, the scholarly

many hundreds
first

of signs

and varieties of
correct.

understanding of

De Rouge and

the ingenuity

signs a short

description,

often very

of Birch are apparent, but the aid


afford

which they

In 1848, to the

volume of Bunsen's Egypt's

him

is

small.

Tlace
long

in
list

Universal History, Birch contributed a


of hieroglyphs, with descriptions and

In 1872, Brugsch, in his Gram/maire hieroglyphique, published a useful


their phonetic
list

of signs with

statements of their separate phonetic and ideo-

and ideographic values, accomhis Dictionary,

graphic values, and this

list

was revised and


In

panying them with references to

enlarged for the second edition in 18G7.


the latter year
subject,

and distinguishing some of the


and
late

specially early

De Rouge

again dealt with the

forms.

In

1878,

Rossi,

in

his

and published a catalogue raisonnee of the more usual signs in the first livraison of his
Ghrestomathie Sgyptienne.
as these first lists

Gram/matica

Geroglifica,

from

the

materials

thus furnished by Brugsch and


structed
for

others,

con-

Useful to the student

the

use of students a catalogue

were in the early stages of

raisonnee of the most ordinary signs.

The plan

decipherment, they are

now

of

little

value.

on which
the

it

is

carried out
little

is

a good one, but

For, at the time they were made, the fine early

work has
also

independent value.
careful
list

We

forms were mostly unstudied, and

the

signs

may

note

the

in

Lemm's
r,

INTRODUCTORY.
Aegyptische LesestiicJce, 1883.

Several bare

lists

home
for

students in regard to examples of form

of printers' founts of hieroglyphic signs have

the

Old

Kingdom, but

for

all

periods

been published,
Berlin, arranged
rich

e.g.

that of F. Theinhardt, at

by Lepsius, and that of the


fount in the

and

elaborate
at
Paris,

Imprimerie

detailed and trustworthy drawings and photographs are found among the enormous mass of published texts. To these may now be

occasional

Rationale

already

mentioned,

and
in

added the 105 coloured signs

in

Beni Hasan

III.

re-issued without

De Rouge's commentary

a second edition.

more numerous examples in the present volume. The writer has also had access
still

and

The only

critical list of

hieroglyphs with their


is

to

the

important

collection

of

facsimiles

at

powers published recently


printed in his Gram/mar.

that of

Erman,

University College, London,


Petrie

made

for Professor

The system by which

by Miss Paget.

large proportion of

he classifies the values obscured in the English edition by the substitution of the term " ideo-

these are copied from our

own

collections

from

Beni Hasan and El Bersheh, others are from


coffins

graph"
the

for Wortzeichen,

"word-sign"

displays
highly

of late

period,

authoi-'s

keen insight into the nature of


list itself is

graphical interest,

and have only palaeoand others again are from

hieroglyphic writing, and the


suggestive. CO

earlier coffins in the British

Museum.
in

But the
exquisite

flower of the collection


list

consists

The only native


us,

that has

come down

to

drawings of sculptured hieroglyphs, sometimes


with traces of colour, from the tomb of Ptahhetep at Saqqareh, supplemented by a few from
other tombs in the same neighbourhood, and

that

of the

Sign Papyrus of Tanis (see

IXth Memoir of Egypt Exploration Fund), is unfortunately of the Roman Period, when the original meanings of the signs had been well
nigh forgotten.
It

from the pyramid of Pepy


copied on the spot in 1895-G.

I.

These were

all

has

its

own

peculiar interest,

but seldom furnishes the smallest hint to the


seeker after origins.

In investigating the powers or uses of the


signs, dictionaries give

The famous

" Hieroglyphics

most important aid

to

of Horapollo " occasionally contains a remini-

the

student, and

it

seems ungrateful not to

scence of true hieroglyphs, but

may

well be a

mention them each by name.


the meanings, viz., the

The keywords

to

composition of the Middle Ages embodying the


tiny

names

of the objects or

modicum
till

of half-genuine tradition that

had

actions depicted, are often exceedingly rare in

survived

then.

the

texts,

and one requires every aid

in the

Scattered up and
ture
there

attempts at

down Egyptological literaare, as may be imagined, many explaining individual signs. But
to

search for them.

Brugsch's great Dictionary

(1867-1882) frequently settles with close accuracy


the meanings of the words

considered

in

it,

any endeavour

treat

Egyptian hieroglyphs
the history

supplying by quotations the proof of his conclusions.

critically, to ascertain their origins,

Despite

its

uncritical

method of com-

of their use, the original distinction or relation-

pilation, Levy's

bulky Vocabulary (1887-1894),

ship of signs that resemble each other, reveals

with
signs,

its
is
it

two supplements and long tables of


indispensable in this branch of research,

how

little

is

really

known about them.

For

the study, good examples showing detail and

since

gives a multitude of references to rare


in notable

colouring at different periods are needed, and


the evidence furnished by form and colour must

words and forms of words that occur


edition of the

publications of recent date, such as Maspero's

be checked by examination of their powers in


writing.

Pyramid Texts.

Special indices,

Professor Petrie's

Malum

is

the mainstay of

such as Stern's excellent Glossary of the Papyrus Ebers, Field's Vocabulary of the Harris Papyrus,

POWERS OF THE
Erman's Glossary of the Westcar Papyrus, and Dr. Budge's Vocabulary of the XVIIlth Dynasty " Book of the Dead," are often helpful,
Schack's great Index to the Pyramid Texts
is
i

8IGNS.

as yet unfortunately little

more than begun, but


greatest value in the

the synoptic index of parallel chapters prefixed


to

the

work

is

of the

search for variant spellings.

II.

POWERS OF THE

SIGNS: HISTORY OF THEIR EMPLOYMENT.


a

We
the

will

now

consider the connexion between


of

symbol

for father

very likely for a similar

forms and the powers


their

the

Egyptian

hieroglyphs, and
best periods.

use in writing of the

The ostrich feather, ^ \. ^ wt (shu't), is emblem of Maat, goddess of Truth, and stands for her name also. Sometimes one value of a
reason.

Eollowing
classification,

in

the

main Professor Erman's


see that the development

sign (see

we can

1, D, e -, tL) is probably derived from the name of a locality or geographical


division of

it

of the use of the signs

was somewhat thus

which

represented the badge or

At
either

first,

a picture-sign was
for

made
of

to

stand
object

symbol, for reasons of religion, mythology, local

simply
it,

the

name

the

produce or manufacture.

pictured by
action which

or for that of some

state

or

From
ways,
I.

its

Proper and other name-values the


in

it

naturally indicates.
(dr't),

Thus,
a
o

-ess-

further use of a word-sign developed


viz.,

two

stands for (]=> ^ yr't


r~> I

"eye";

for

phonetically and ideographically.

<^ hnlc, " offer."

Such may be
be
several

said to be

Phonetically.
to

The word-sign might be


other words
of the

the

Proper

uses of the picture as a word-sign.

employed
essential

write

same

Often

there

may

Proper values.

sound

as those expressing its

Proper
it

Undoubtedly the values commonly originate in


the names of the objects which the signs re-

or Transferred senses.

Thus, to begin with,

would be used by Radical Extension


added
in writing

for other

names are not always traceThe ancient name may have become obsolete at an early age, or even if it was current in historic times it may happen that it
present, but these
able.

forms of the same root, with the formative signs

when

necessary, but afterwards


for

by Phonetic Transference

any homophon-

ous words, whatever their origin and meaning.

never appears in the inscriptions.

At length it might become a purely phonetic sign,


to represent part only of a word-root, the rest

The ideographic power is often extended or transferred widely, and sometimes in a peculiar and rather unexpected way e.g. when &), a
;

of

which would have


in

to be supplied

by other
one

phonetic signs.

These Phonograms, which are

pond, or a vessel containing liquid,


the symbol of

is

taken as

very limited

number, may

indicate

womanhood

or a bone harpoon-

consonant only, in which


Alphabetic
;

case they are termed

head

is

used for polished rods, or reed stems,

and

for burial, as well as for

bone and ivory.


griffon vulture,

Mythology and religion naturally played their


part in this extension.

more than one, in which case they are termed Syllabic. There is no further difference between alphabetic and essential
or
svllabic characters.

The

named

r,

Avas the

emblem

of Mut, the mother-

The
values
likely

origin
is
still

of

many

of
it

the

alphabetic

goddess, and so stands for her

name mu-f

or m't,

obscure, but

does not seem


consciously

"mother."

Apparently k^^, the

cerastes,

was

that

the

Egyptians

ever

b 2

INTRODUCTORY.
resorted to the principle of acrophony,
i.e.

of

consonants had to be abolished from

its

value

assigning to a symbol the value of the

first
it

and
the

the

radical

consonants

alone

retained.

only of several sounds in the word which


represents.

When we remember

the readiness with which

In the

Old Kingdom there

are

no homophones among the regular alphabetic


characters.

Of these there
v\
;

are

twenty-five,
this

Arab recognizes the few radical consonants upon which his highly organized verbal conjugations are built, we can better understand the
ease with which the Egyptians reduced their

including the vowel-sign

but

was not

used as such until the Middle Kingdom.


"syllabic"

The
at

word-signs to their radical values.

phonograms
and

in

regular use

development of

The gradual a phonetic system would enable


supply the flexional

good period do not much exceed 40.


It
is

them
to

in course of time to

interesting

essential

further

consonants by the addition of separate phono-

research to note the principles on which signs

grams.

Let us take as an illustration the sign


This represents a basket, and the root of
" hold,"

were employed
It

for the expression of sound.

^7
to

was convenient as well


the word
itself

as

natural

the

Egyptian name

is
/

nh,

with the

employ a given word-sign


root to which

for all forms of the

feminine termination

nb't,

"the holder."
to spell

belonged.

In

The

sign very naturally

was required

the

(sub-Semitic?)

language

spoken

by the

nh or nine, "holder, master" (masculine), nb't,

Egyptians the root of each word lay in consonants,

"holder, mistress" (feminine),

rib'w,

"holders,
itself

and the inflexions no doubt consisted

masters" (masc. plural).

Hence ^37 by
it

largely in vowel-changes, though these are not

may

stand

for

a "basket," nb't;

may

also

traceable in hieroglyphic writing.

For

instance,

stand for " master," and, with the addition of

the

root

ktp

might

perhaps take, amongst


hatp, hotpe,
lf
l

o
of

t,

for nb't, "mistress," or with the addition

others, such forms as hdtep,

'l'-

%>

v, for

rib'w,

"masters."
the
sign

When
uh,

this stage

Likewise, from the root rwd (which

we

con-

had

been

reached,

was

easily

ventionally write rinl) might be forms rowed,


ra/wd (reduced to rami, the vowel

applied to the spelling of a verb

"swim,"

and semi-vowel
from
(which

and of another verb

nh,

"melt," each with a


that

coalescing

and forming a diphthong), rowde


reived.

number

of vowel

inflexions to

we cannot

(reduced to rude),

And
mi)

;/;;

now

follow,

owing

the

incomplete record

we
in'm,

conventionally write
inni,

there
fine),

might be
and wen.

of sounds in hieroglyphics.

We

thus see that

owne (reduced to
accent

when a
it is

sign

is

employed

for its phonetic value,

Possibly,

under

special circumstances depriving

used to represent the skeleton only of the

the word of

all

("construct" state),

some form of wn might be reduced to a mere /'// yet radically w and n would be recognized
;

word for which it stands, i.e. the unvocalized and uninflected root (v. Addenda). Even the root was generally reduced to its
simplest form,
for

as

still

underlying.

Thus,
\ >=

^
d
;

" offering," " to


;

through inherent weakness

be propitiated," stands for


" knot," stands for =

h-t-p

"q\ " firm,"

of consonants or the coalescence of the last


radicals in

two

\
/->

*= r-w-d

.^fau

" run like

any root
(cf.

in

which they happened to

a hare," stands for


Inflexion
sisted
viz., 8

w-n.
also con-

be identical

Semitic seauulae geminatae)

and derivation, however,


addition
of certain

there might be a shortened form of the root


itself.

in

the

consonants,

Thus the hoe ^=,

!'->'-'

him (henen),

prefixed (for the causative form),

pre-

has the syllabic

value hn; and several of the

fixed,

an added

/,

/',

or

?/.

Thus, when the

alphabetic signs appear to

owe
:

their value to a

word-sign was used for

all

forms of the word,

single geminated root letter

the vocalization and the flexional and formative

see description of

below, pp. 45, 47, 38.

On the other

TOWERS OF THE
hand, the plant or rush
--> i-> r~, ,~*
.

SIGNS.

nn'fc

used for

nn, has to be doubled in writing, evidently


its

because
11

value would otherwise be reduced to

(see below, p. 29).


I),

The weak consonants are \, They seem to have been more or


according
to

^>

and

=>.

less fugitive

means of the Pyramid Texts, but in the case of many words not found in the Old Kingdom, we cannot tell which s is correct. Such cases are here indicated by -pWhen the two allied consonants _j and I came together in a word, these being difficult
so
to

circumstances.
it
is

Terminal r in

pronounce, the

*
I),

was, in

the

Middle

many
texts

cases

where

found in the earliest

was

lost,

or changed to a vowel in course


j

Kingdom, often written and, generally, there is some uncertainty about their use. Cf. G\,
|, sign
is
\

of time.

Thus ,
r

<=>

hr, "face,"

with the

changed perhaps

to

became h[r], y, to which it


was required
r,

^;
is

also

in

S, |. The last ;, ^, many words * &, but in " navy " it


f

^,

had a tendency.
to write a

And

if

in

good writing, after


it

.
also there are early

the earliest times were passed,

With other consonants


in

word or

syllable hr with a strong

instances of change or loss, especially perhaps

the spelling had then to be


p[r], y But
1

" house,"

So

also with

the

case of

<->,

but at present they have

m[r],
r,

" channel,"

&c.
of

not been reduced to rule, and are altogether


obscure.
II.

<s>- yr retains its


yr't,
<=,

because the
presence

name
of

the

eye was

and the

the

Ideographically
i.e.

sign

becomes

feminine ending
the
r

preceded by a vowel, saved

Determinative,
spelled
in

it

is

placed after a word


in

weak

final

radical.

are

best

studied

in

The effects phonograms


the

of final of

phonograms
indicate the

or

word-signs,

in

two
with

order to
either
in

meaning of that word,


specifically.

consonants,

because

of

frequency

general
of

or

w
of

is

the
J)

which they enter into combinations, but doubtless it prevailed also

determinative
of

proper
&c.

names

men,
a

with word-signs of three

those

of

women,
is

^J

is

specific

consonants.

determinative of words meaning ox, bull, &c,


\

Final \{aUph),

(//</),

and

^>

(when

radical)

but UX, a hide,


all

a general determinative for

could often likewise be neglected, as might be

beasts,

and may follow the name of any.


is

judged from Semitic analogies, though


degree
still

in

what

The use
this, as

of determinatives

found to decrease

remains to be ascertained.

In the

the further one goes back into antiquity, and

Pyramid Texts (, ^, is used alternatively for kh, and ITJ h seems to have been originally n\, and H g, a\. Initial is often negligeI)

Erman remarks

in his

Grammar, shows

the comparative lateness of their use, and agrees

with their natural place in the evolution of the


script.

able,

but

in

such cases

it is

perhaps not radical.


(]

From
had

picture-signs derive word-signs,

It has

long been

seen

that

must
is

often

be

from word-signs phonograms, and then recourse


is

euphonic prefix like the prosthetic alif in

again

to

picture signs,

or

at

least

Semitic,

and

in that position

it

always weak

ideograms, for determinatives to phonograms.

and

liable to

change or disappear.
also

Changes take place


consonants
time
"""j
;

among

the strong
in course of

The development

of the hieroglyphic system

thus, in

most roots

of writing did not take place according to rule,

changes to =, here indicated by


here indicated by =>.

^,

and the employment of the signs cannot be


completely and
single

and

sto,

neatly

tabulated even for a

The

distinction

between p and

was altogether
by

period

of the writing.

We may

in a

lost after the

Old Kingdom.

For vast numbers

general

way

distinguish Classical from Archaic

of words avc can verify the ancient form

usage, the spelling in the Old

Kingdom being

INTRODUCTORY.
very variable, while in the Middle Kingdom
it

hn

these,

and
say

others,

may probably
It

be conis

had become more or


so

less fixed

in principle

and

sidered
difficult

as to

" false

derivatives."

often

continued

into

the

New.

Some
:

special

where

Avord-sign

ends

and

developments and usages are as follows


1.

phonogram begins.
3.

In classical writing strong flexional con-

There are two phonograms which are used

sonants are as a rule written separately from


the

solely for

marking
stands
in
ti,

inflexions.
for

The

eagle (p. 19),

word-sign.

Thus

<s=-,

"

7^

in

the

Old

\\

tub]

the
1 1

plural

ending

of

Kingdom may

often stand for

()

=
" c

^
j.

yr't (art),

adjectives

and

as a

" eye," but later the spelling


late

2>

is

Even

chiefly as the termination of the dual,


in

phonogram is i, and of
(flO

adjectives derived

from substantives.

in

writing,

however,
is

if

no

ambiguity can
at,

good texts

is

used only for terminations, or at


for final radical
1

result

and conciseness
is

aimed

the word-sign

most as a substitute

or

alone

made

to stand for a derived

form with

^;

when
is

it

replaces the sound of the latter, "^\


as
well.

a strong consonant.

This

is

the case not only

generally written

In the special

with the o of the fern, ending, as , for /-> ^ n't, " city," but also with prefixed as when |^
;

spelling for foreign


it is

used for y in

names in the any position.)

New Kingdom

d,

5 *-*

<3

hnlc,

stands for

^ I^^ m'hnk
for

in

Certain vowel-endings,

being of particular

a certain

title
c

(Sethe, A.
(ad),

Z., 1893, p. 99),

and
m' d
also
c

x^c,

<=

stands

^.js
So

importance, were rendered by special devices

(m'dd), in the

name
<-->

of the sun-boat.
_*

the scribe's palette,

^ n " (nda), constantly


P

stands for the causative

<-, _i>

_j

tn"

(i'ndd),

Thus the dual and the adjectival formative i was in the Old Kingdom sometimes rendered by (1, and the same dual ending and the termination of adjectives by "\\ (in Pyr. and Una,
1.

" grind fine," in the prescriptions of the Ebers

30)

later,

took the place of these.

Medical Papyrus.
i
\

%
sins'.

Again, the knot, properly


I)

sometimes represents the vowel u as masc.


termination of nouns.
the attempt was

"=*

V"

(adr), stands for ==

=>

dy'r (see
deri-

In the

below, p. 44).
vative of
It
is

*yr,

Here dy 3r is treated as a and is perhaps so in reality.


m,

New Kingdom
names
w
in

made

to spell foreign

open

syllables of a

consonant and a vowel, the

a remarkable fact that the flexional or


/,

latter being represented

by

<R\

v\, or

(see

formative consonants
radical, are apt to

w,

y,

even when

Erman, Gram.,
4.

70).

drop out of writing, probably


This

When

an ideogram or a phonetic sign has

by a kind

of " false analogy."

may
? ys

help

several values, or

when
with

it

closely resembles in

to explain the occasional omission of

at the

writing that
or

is

not detailed another ideogram

beginning or in the middle of words, and of ~


at the end,

phonetic

sign

different

value,
it

and the constant omission of and \ in early writing, while \ v always stands firm at the beginning of words.
\

phonetic complement was attached to

in the

classical period, as a constant indicator; e.g. stn

Sometimes a word-sign, say of two radicals, not being a phonogram, was used in spelling another word of three, which happened to have
2.

5.

Occasionally a sign ideographic of a group


is

of ideas

used to indicate particular words

belonging to that group, by the help of one or

the appearance of a derivative from the bilitera]


root, a formative

more jmonograms which point out the


meaning.
In such cases the ideogram

special
is

consonant being prefixed or


is

not

suffixed.

Thus "fear"
;

sometimes written
,

merely a determinative, nor yet quite a wordsign.

l>T

as if s'nz

" strong,"

as if

ri'ht

" of

Avood"; "statue,"

Vr_

/VWWA
,,,

Thus the club

(sec

I!.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

77),

as if derived

from

ideogram or determinative of foreign peoples,

POWERS OF THE SIGNS SPECIAL USAGES.


cannot by
foreign
itself
;

stand for the

people

but

^= ^^
n

name

of

any
]
,

tional

way, either because of some magical


attributed
to

power

tbem,

or

in

order

to

present the reader with a puzzle for his amuse-

ment, or for his bewilderment


writing.

as

in

secret

Groups written with such hieroglyphs

occur in the
these

words

meaning

respectively

" Semite,"

Kahun Medical Papyrus,

the Ebers

"Libyan," "negro," and "Libya."

It is possible

Medical Papyrus, and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Short inscriptions in the same style

that originally the form of the club

may have
when

varied to indicate the particular race, and that the

phonetic complements were added

became too precarious in free The use- of J\ (q.r.) in its phonetic compounds for verbs of motion is on the same
this distinction

Hasan in the tomb of Chety, and at El Bersheh in the tomb of Tehutihetep, and long mythological ones in the tombs of the Kings of the XlXth and XXth Dynasties at
are found at Beni

writing.

Thebes.
10.

In the

Pyramid Texts
and

signs representing

principle.
6.

human
and
also in other writing. for the
>

beings are systematically deprived


legs, so that

of

Abbreviations of various kinds are used


whole
&
"""I

their bodies

only heads and

in writing accounts,

arms appear.
in

The animals
way,

are generally treated


_as

Sometimes a determinative stands


word, as
dmz,
is

in
"""i

accounts
;

^-^-,

for fafa

<=*

" total "

or
in

the
the

principal

sign
T*
|
'

alone
f r

t^ are Apparently this was an often cut in two. signs of magic motion. deprive the attempt to
the
Similarly,
in

same

and

and

written,

as
f^,

group

funerary texts

of

the

Middle

<-,

f
is

(anfch, uza, senb), "Life,

Prosperity, Health."
sort

Incomplete writing of one

Kingdom, birds and animals are sometimes deprived of their legs and serpents of their
tails.

or another

very

common
in

(cf.

Erman,

These mutilated signs are of course to


for the purposes of this

Defective Schreibungen, A. Z., 1891, p. 33).


7.

be read as though they were complete, and

Sometimes, even

good writing, the

may,

volume, be treated

word-sisrn or determinative of a
ferred
as

word

is

trans-

as identical with the complete signs to

which
be

determinative (not word-sign) to a


its

they correspond. Various other tricks of the scribes


detected.

honiophonous word to which


appropriate
;

meaning
" hand,"

is

not
in

may

e.g. .-"- in

"

^
a

The transferred use


different

of ideograms,

"flax."

It

then seems determinative of

and the
as

employments of certain signs


scribe.

sound, not of sense.

In hieratic of the

New

phonograms, vary with the period and even

Kingdom such

common. Sometimes we have a monogram or 8. graphic compound of two phonetic signs, each
uses are very

with the individual


certain word-signs

At some

periods

were employed as phonoso

grams which are not


e.g.

found at other periods

to "

be

read separately,
;

as

in

la.J=>

ht-hr,
its

Hathor"

of an ideogram or syllabic with


|

J/

Q, commonly used as phonogram for o \ (hha) in the Pyramid Texts, has elsewhere a

phonetic complement, as in
of an ideogram or

"^ hz,

"white"; or
its

very restricted use until the end of the

New

phonogram with
hz,

deter-

K ingdom.
It

minative, as

in

5^
also

"silver."

These are

may

almost be presumed that the farther


into antiquity the greater exactifind in the use of the signs.

written respectively
9.

My
" sportive " hieroglyphs

There are

we push back tude shall we


the
early

To

(Erman, Gram.,

71).

These are often ex-

scribes

each

sign
its

had a
origin,

distinct

ceptional signs, and always used in an excep-

meaning connected with

but with

INTRODUCTORY.
the development of cursive writing, and indeed
the

used for mp, and even that for


for
tr,

mp
p.

was used

spread

of writing

into

common

use,

the
of

although the latter had no

The sound

scribe gradually

made himself independent


signs.

the delicate differences which distinguished the

and meaning of each word being obvious from the more systematic spelling out by a group
of

forms of allied

The tendency was


distinct sign or

to

several

signs,

there

was

little

practical
.

express words either

by one

by

a group so arranged that the meaning would

importance in the distinction between { and { As might be expected, the colouring and
details of the signs of

be unmistakable, even when the individual signs

which the origin was not


less

might be confounded.

This led to a larger use

very obvious, were given with


intelligence.

and

less

of determinatives and of phonetic complements,

In the following pages few re-

and eventually to a handling of signs and


use
to the forgetting of their origins.

as con-

ferences occur to the uses and forms of signs


after the

ventional symbols even in hieroglyphic writing,

XXth
set
is

Dynasty.

By

that time corrup-

Even
in

in

tion

had

in strongly

from various causes,

good writing of the Middle Kingdom improper


of

and there

seldom much trustworthy light to

the

signs

had crept
this
is

in,

and

the

be obtained from examples of this date on the


original significance of the signs.

XVIIIth Dynasty
Thus, for
sprout
<=> r-A d

still

more marked.
times
<=>

To

trace the

example,
|
,

in

the

early

the

origin and history of each sign minutely through


its

(?)

having the two values ^


often

tr

and
an

different uses
latest,

and forms, from the

earliest

mp, was
and

compounded with
<=r> or D, to
d

times to the

would be a stupendous work,

alphabetic catch-sign,
value,

show the

analagous to the construction of an elaborate


dictionary " on historical principles."

the fern. =>

<~a

rnjo'i

was generally

But even
information

compounded with a (see below, p. 26). In the Middle Kingdom these began to be confounded in the New Kingdom the compound for tr was
:

from brief excursions into


trodden
field of research,

this

comparatively un-

much new

may be gained and many current errors corrected.

SOUECES OF THE FACSIMILES.

CHAPTEE

II.

HIEROGLYPHS COLLECTED BY THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


I.

SOURCES OF THE FACSIMILES.


Plates

Hieroglyphs of the XVIIIth Dynasty, from Deir el Bahri. Copied Miss by E. F. E. Paget.
I.

-IV.

East wall

(]>. el B., L,

PL

x.), figs.
figs.
1,

27-29, 50.
2,

(D. el B., L,
23, 25.

PL

xi.),

13-14,

These hieroglyphs are of the age of Hatshepsut,


fourth

West
46.

wall, unpublished, figs. 10-12, 37-39,

monarch of the XVIIIth Dynasty (about


winter of 1895-6.

1520 b.c), and were copied in her great temple


in the
first

Niche,
I),

North
el

wall
L,

(inscription

beyond
xvi.),

The

B.,

originals

were

PL

xv.

cf.

PL PL

sculptured in relief and then

figs. 5, 34, 43, 45.

coloured.

All those here published are from portions of the temple already described and published

Xiche, South wall [D.


figs. 3,

el

B., L,

xvi.),

by

22, 40, 41.

memoir on Deir el Bahari, Parts I. and II. The greater number are from the chapel of Thothmes I., but some are from
M. Naville
in his

North- West Hall of Offerings

West or East wall (D.


xxii.), fig. 36.

el

B., L,

PL

xix. or

scenes not included in the plates of the memoir.

AVest wall \d.

el

B., L,

PL

xxi.), fig. 24.


el

In
i.,

this chapel, according to

M. Naville (D.

el

B.,

Middle Colonnade, northern half (D.

B.,
4,

ii.,

p. 4), the transparent varnish with which the

PL

xlviii.,

right-hand end),

figs.

33,

paint was
yellow.

overlaid

has turned to an opaque

42, 44, 47, 48.

The

effects of this are seen

on many

of the hieroglyphs here published, in which the

white ground
original

is

smudged with yellow or the


obscured

colours
figs.

and

altered,

e.g.

Plates V.-VI. Hieroglyphs of the XVIIIth Dynasty, from the Tomb of Paheri at El Kab. Copied by Miss A. Pirie.

PL

iv.,

23, 27-29, 40,

our examples are from the


Offerings,

Some North- West Hall


&c, &c.

of of

From
that

the table of his genealogy

it is

evident
of

Paheri died in or about


III.

the

reign

and others from the Birth Terrace,

Hatshepsut and Thothmes

(Paheri, p. 9).

from an inscription parts of which have escaped


mutilation.
as follows
:

As

the decoration of the

tomb was probably


it
is

The

positions of the originals are

not finished

much
el

before his death,

thereas the

fore of almost precisely the

same date

Altar Court, fragmentary inscription,


lished
(cf.

unpubfig.

temple of Deir
in

D.

el B.,
I.

i.,

PL

v.,

&c),

30.

The small inscriptions the chamber are incised and coloured black,
Bahri.
relief

Chapel of Thothmes

but the large ones are well formed in


fig.

and

Position uncertain,

35.

coloured.
ix.),
figs.

There are no indications that the

End

wall (D.

el

B., L,

PL

G-9,

tomb-chamber was ever closed or hidden, and


the destruction of the facade has exposed
it

15-21, 26, 31, 32, 49.

to

10

SOURCES OF THE FACSIMILES.


the
fifth
v.,

the full effects of atmosphere, wind, and wind-

king of the XIIth Dynasty (El B., L,


p. 3).

borne sand.
are
in

Although

as a

whole the sculptures

PL
it

and

Our

collection of signs
in

from

excellent preservation, the colour


detail.

and
In

was begun by Mr. Blackden, who


fragments of the painting.

December,

relief

have suffered considerably in

1892, copied six, which I believe he found on


fallen

the winter of 1896 Miss Pirie,


at

who

was staying

The remainder,

El Kab, copieJ some of the signs and kindly

104 in number, were copied chiefly from the


Avails

gave the copies to the Archaeological Survey.

of the

tomb by Mr.

Cai-ter in

May and
difficult

The exact

situation

and context of each of

June, 1893.

All are from the inner chamber,

these signs was carefully noted, and this pre-

but their precise positions are generally


to identify.

caution adds considerably to the value of the

examples.

No

great accuracy was observed

Good examples

of most of the facsimiled signs


xviii.,

by the draughtsman or sculptor in the use of V (PL iii., top of the signs. The 1 left), copied by Miss Pirie, though not here

% %
brown

may

be found in El B., L, Pis. xv.,

xx.

(right side), xxii.; the originals of several of the

hieroglyphs were probably on small fragments,

published,

is

the

" eagle," rather

than

the Egyptian vulture, and on

PL

x., east side,

which have not been included in the plates of In the following cases, however, that memoir.
the exact positions
of the
originals

we have
<=>
(1

instead of {

as

determinative of
[i

may

be

in the

name

(1

noted

The
in

positions of the originals are as follows


plates

El Bersheh

I.

the

of Paheri,

all

being from the

interior of the

chamber
ii.,

PL PL

xii.,

right, fig. 126.

xv.,

row

1, fig.

161.
fig.

Front

wall,

PL

fig.

51.

West

wall
iii.,

PL

cornice line,

figs.

57, 59, 60, 62, 70,

71, 77, 83.

upper

left, figs.

63, 66, 69.

PL

iv.,

cornice line, figs. 61, 64, 72, 75, 78.

row row row row PL xviii., row row

2 (or 3?),
3, fig.

117.

148.

4, fig. 149.
5, left, figs.
1, figs.

158, 191.

154-156.
119, 179, 180.
97, 98,

3, figs.

upper middle,
lower right,

figs. 53, 67, 76.

PL

xx.,

right, figs. 90,

136, (top)

fig.

52.

150.

East wall

PL PL
PL

vi.,

offerings, figs. 79, 81.

PL xxv., figs. 122, 186. PL xxxiv., top, fig. 11*.


Not
in the publication'(?), figs. 86, 165, 167, 190.

upper
vii.,

left, fig.

80.
56.

cornice line,

fig.

upper
viii.,

left, figs.

68, 73, 74.


82.

cornice line,

figs. 55, 65,

upper

left, fig.

58.

Facsimiles previously Published.


Hi hi

middle,

fig.

54.

Hasan,

i.,

Pis. xxvii.,

xxviii.

These two

Plates VII.-IX. Hieroglyphs of the XIIth Dynasty, from the Tomb of Tehutihetep at El Bersheh. Copied by Mr. Howard

coloured plates are taken from the tomb


of

Chnoinhetep

(temp.

Usertesen

II.).

They contain
glyphs.

several interesting hiero-

Carter and Mr. M. W. Blackden.


The completion of the fcomb of Tehutihetep must be dated in the reign of Usertesen III.,

Beni Easan,

iii.,

I'ls. i.-vi.

(See B.

If., iii.,

p. 3).

The

dates

of the

tombs

in

Avhich the

HUMANITY.
hieroglyphs were copied are as follows
(for

11

Tomb Tomb

2,

of

Amenemhat
Chnemhetep
;

Uscrtesen

I.

the proofs, see B. II,

i.,

pp. 7

et

(second king of Xllth Dynasty).


3,

seqq.)

:
Chety
;

of

Usertesen
:

II.
is

Tomb Tomb

17, of

end of Xlth Dynasty.


;

(fourth king of Xllth Dynasty)

it

14, of

(first

Chnemhetep Amenemhat king of Xllth Dynasty).

I.

thus very nearly contemporary with the

tomb of Tehutihetep

at El Bersheh.

II.

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS IN NATURAL GROUPS.


A.

Humanity.

Word-sign
in the

for

=><=

hrd (chred), "child":

w>

Fig.

184.

Man
i.e.

seated on the ground in

name of Heracleopolis Magna, Hwn{?)'n 'stn


it is

the usual attitude,

kneeling on one knee,


if in effort

(Huiienseten),
for
8

regularly written, apparently

both arms bent, with hands closed as


to rise (?).

4"

f\

"youth,"

\\^
i.,

hvm (Brugsch,

A. Z., 1886, p. 76, from- a variant hn in Todh,


cap.

In O.K. occasionally perhaps word-sign for

125,

1.

9).

In B. H.,
to

PL

xxxii., in a
PI.

h
for
1.

s,
<=

"man," "person," and repeated

^v&^a
(

group corresponding
1.

B.

II.,

i.,

xxvi.,
/-*

=s)

rmt, in the sense of "


id.

men "
is

189,

it

stands by exception for / o

vhn

Una,
(iirkheti),

21).

After O.K.,
its

of
H

first pers. sing,

masc,
det.

"infancy," "innocence," "simplicity."


it

standing for

In late times
suffix,

was used

for

ms, "child,"

y (a).

It

of
is

male persons in general, and


the earliest period.

in particular

\
*?
face,

(sa), " son."

used regularly after proper names, except in

Figs. 25, 182.

Front view of human


artificial beard.

showing ears and


J

Fig.

152;

B.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

79.

Woman

Properly

<=>

hr,

" face,"
i,

lit.

" the

upper

on the ground, closely wrapped, with long wig hanging over back [and shoulders].
seated

(thing)"; written position hr, " u|3on."

which

is

also the pre-

Probably occurs as word-sign for


"

&,

^ hmi,
in
all

The

final r

was soon weakened or


it

lost

and

woman."

Corresponds precisely to n in

employing

as a word-sign, almost if not


it was usual, except at the add <=> in writing if the r

its

uses as suffix and det.

quite as a phon.,
earliest period, to

'I
from

Group

of

man and woman


El
B.,
i.,

with plural

remained strong.

Thus #

*=,

not ,
of

is

the
for

sign after O.K.

(figs.

184 and 152 were taken


PI. xv.).
(e.g.

regular spelling for hr.


/i[r]
is

The use

this gi'oup in

probably restricted to the two words

Word-sign
p. 35).

for rm't,

"people"

Kah.

Paj).,

already mentioned.

Det. of

human

beings in general, of

their classes, tribal names, &c.

A
its

Fig. 59.

Upper part
(Ichait),

of face, showing

nose and eye in profile.


Fig. 162.
nurse, sucking
artificial
its

baby, as carried by

Name
Pi/r.

o r^

^ hnt

with radical
;

/,

lit.

finger [and with a lock of


its

" the foremost (part of the

face) "

cf.

especially

hair

hanging from one side of

M.,

I.

306.

In late texts
it

it

is

word-sign
for other

head].

for hnt.

Gradually

was substituted

12

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


and and
so stood for
for
it
p /-*

signs ideographic of the nose,


its

As

det. it is also substituted for

and

for

name <-*^
P P

fnz, "nose,"

sn,

O-fl (q.c).

" smell,"
det.

Sin, " breathe."

Thus

became

of

all

actions

of

the

nose smelling,
also of pleasure,
(?)

<^

Fig.

172;
*

B.

IF.,

iii.,

fig.

53.

Human

breathing, kissing
festivity,

sometimes

hand, open.

disgust,

and of gentle behaviour

Name,
giving,"

'

d't,

"hand,"

lit.

probably "the
just
as

or

"placing

(thing)";

the

palm
^s>-

is

called

"the receiving (thing)"


"

(v.

2Sc),
=

Figs. 19, 188.


!)<== yr't
Tr.,
xvii.,
j.

The human
see

eye.

the
c

shank " the running (thing)

Name,
Bee.
ih
(Pyr.),

(art),

Spiegelberg,
-cs=-,

ir

rt (itart), and the thigh "the firm (thing)"

93:

written

^s>-^
q

|^f~>.Q mirt.

The name
it,

of the

numeral

is

and
Det.

Common
words of

phon.
seeing,

for

perhaps connected with


tion of this
div'
is cf.

but the pronuncia;

yr

(dr).

of

not un-

not certain

perhaps

it

may

be

commonly.
=>
[B.
fig.

(dim)

below.

In Pyr., c^a as a
cf.

verb, varies with


77.,
iii.,

v* c=^> wd (ml);

Masp.,

GO.]

Side -view

of

St. Ei/.,

ii.,

123.

mouth.
In El

From

the
as

above name of c=>


alph.
for

is

derived
for
t,

i.,

PI. xxvii., the title


i.,

written with

its

value

(or

rather

this sign in B. If.,


5

PI.

xxx.,

is

rendered with

Ar. L).
Fig. 131.

('/''),

which

in that instance
lips.

may

very well
J

represent the outline of the


the

In any case,

The human
(De

foot

and leg from


I.

word probably reads

o/-^(<=>).^ hn(r)'t or

below the knee.

In inscriptions of Dyn.

the
ii.,

hn-t (Jehen-t).

form
fig.

is

=^D

Morgan,

Becherches,
the

786),

but the length of

shank was
slender.
b,

<=>

Fig.

157;
r,

B.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

57.

Lips of

quickly increased, and this part of the sign soon

human mouth,
Name, <=>
sign for prep,
I

slightly

open (interior white).

became disproportionately long and


Since

" mouth," Copt, put.

Word-

=^,

is

alph.

for

we

may

r,

" to,"

and alph.

for

r.

probably assume this to be derived from an


ancient word for " foot," or something similar
;

Fig.

100;

B.

iii.,

fig.

59.

Hu man

the

common word
_f

for foot is

rd, in

which the
J

arm

to

above the elbow, showing hand outf

sign shows the leg above the knee, so that

stretched.

and
nl

might correspond
a

in

the

same way as
is

Name,
however,
a

(a),

"hand," presumably
There

inis,

c =m

and

for " hand."


^>

There

in fact a
i

cluding a portion above the wrist.


little

common word J

hir

(bu),

difference of

and <=s as
c

meaning between word-signs, and in parallel texts


(cf.

N.K. but almost invariably J (for Pyr. see Schack, Index) that seems
the origin of the alphabetic value.
It

in J \\ in early texts to

written

be

they are sometimes interchanged


is

).

means

alph. for

(a),

Arab,

e,

Heb.

V.
i~*

In Pyr.

it

"place,"
in

"situation,"
like

"condition,"

especially

appears to stand often for <= arm," or " upper

arm "
vw.

(?)

rmn, "

foreis

later, ^--^

and

then usually distinguished by alphabetic com-

"good state," "felicity," &c. perhaps we may compare the English "footing" for status. The compound
expressions

bw

nfr,

plements <^> or

Sometimes

it

takes the

^\

^7
or

rifrf}

'

nb

means
" every

" everybody,"

place of ^_fl for the "cubit," *J


A
a

mh, and of

which may be
class,"

literally

condition

or
like

"give."

perhaps

better

" every foot,"

AXTIIKOI'OMOKI'HIC
i,

HKITIES

13

another compound expression for


lit.

taken for mere symbols, but at Luxor they are


of full figure size.

"everybody,"
It

" every face."


is

Thus

it

may seem
life,

that the

may

be noted that in Pyr. ^d3


,

det. of a

sign repivsents a god of long


of years.
also the

of a multitude

J => J ^ {T., 312, &c), which perhaps word means "footstep," "tread," or "foot," and of
r=>

On

the other hand, he seems to be

o " sandal."

god of teeming productiveness. Hh, ^T, means a "vast number," and is an expression for higher numbers than 100,000 but L., D., iii., 77, c) (Mar., D. el B., PL viii.
;

B.

Anthropomorphic Deities; Ranks and Classes.


Fig.

Human

its

sense, like that of

was rather vague, and

it is

never used in real accounts.

149.

Human

figure seated on the

ground, closely wrapped, with ibis-head or mask

and heavy wig.


Word-sign
hetep,
for Thoth.

king with ^} Fig. 148. The figure of a uraeus on forehead, false beard, wig, and pigtail, seated on the ground and closely wrapped,
his

In the tomb of Tehuti-

hand alone appearing and holding the f\


Usually he holds the crook likewise.

who was

priest of this great

god

at the

(<j.r.).

centre of his worship in


is

Upper Egypt, the

sign

In El B., L,
of the

PL

xv.,

row

3, this

figure

is det.

used as det. of

,-*=><=> ntr,

"god," as well as

word H~\

yty (dty), "king."


is

It is the

of the

name

of Thoth.

usual det. of royalty, and


of

the royal sign of

The representation

Thoth

as

an ibis-headed
L., D.,

the pronominal

suff. of first pers. sing.

man

occurs as early as the

IV th Dyn.,

This raises the question whether the ii., 2, c. early Egyptians did not conceive of the god as existing in this form but the type may very
;

|$

Fig.

61

person of high rank walking


(?)

with
other.

tall staff in

one hand and mace

in the

well have arisen as a graphic

compound

of the

The sign usually has the addition ram's horns and two plumes on the head,
(Pap. Any,

of
j|

figure of the (anthropomorphic) god with that of his sacred bird to distinguish him from other

PL

i.,

1.

8).

Usual

det. of the

word

yty (dty), " king."

gods.

So

also

with Anubis, Ra, &c.


is

The

det,

of a god's

name

commonly

Fig.

47.

A beardless

figure, completely
;

enveloped, except head and arms

seated on a

bearded figure, seated, i.e. kneeling on one knee, arms extended and hands raised, perhaps to symbolize counting by tens
Fig. 21.
;

animal legs and ornament like a papyrus-head behind; over the low back a
chair with
cloth or skin.

on

his

head the symbol of a year or season.


is

In El B.,

i.,

PL
\

xv., this sign

is

det.

of
it

^^
in-

There
&c).

also the

form

f-fl^j

(Siut,

tomb
is

i.,

1.

227,

"master," and
dicates

- "father";

possibly

This god or symbolical figure

represented

were deceased, or it may signify that those persons were such as were
that they
to be treated with respect.

in the vignettes of the TodL, cap. xvii., as a

god

of moisture, and in Pap. Any,


is

PL

viii.,

his

name
fef)

given | $ Heh. His function is well shown in the birth scene at Luxor (L., D., iii., 74, c),

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

74.]

Watchman.

The
xxii.,

but the object on the staff here resembles Q,

where two such


life.

figures

uphold the symbol of


el

form

varies

greatly

(cf.

Medum,

Pis.

At Deir

el

Bahri (D.

B.,

ii.,

PL

li.),

xxviii., Cf. also

and the figure


|,
p. 02.

in the boat,

PL

xxiv.).

the two figures are so small that they might be

14

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


Word-sign
for

VS"
-

*'""'

i*"' '),
I)

"watchyri (dri),
is

titles

disappeared very early, probably at the

man," with phon.


" concerned

trans.;

and

for

=>

\\

end of the IVth Dynasty.

with."

The

fern.,

yr't,

often

written with a female form

L&
quiver

Fier.

159.
of

Soldier holding
;

bow and
and
alert-

Human

Action.
standing,
raising
his

full

arrows

lightly

clothed

kneeling on one knee in an attitude of


ness
ix.,
;

hands on either side of


Regular
5_^_jj h
cc

Fig.

163.
det.,

Man

his head.
for

generally wearing a feather,

cf.

Medum,

and occasionally word-sign and


after

&c.
for

(had), "rejoice,"

Word-sign
"soldiers,"

l& "$
for

O.K.
it

for

"host," "infantry,"

&

<i

(qa), "

high "

for either of these


el A., xxii.,

may

and

J$ ^_^ an "expedition"

stand as ab. (Petrie, T.


Pap., xiv.,
1.

13; Kah.

with an

army, either for peaceful objects

33).

quarrying and conveying stone


apparently
except as " fighter."
it
c

or

for

war;
]

never stands for a single


of the

soldier,
lit.

[-A

Fig.

34.
for a

Man

building a rectangular

clet.

name h\vli
8,

(ahauti),

enclosure with battlements.

Word-sign
Z.,

qd, " build," not

used in

Bbugsch, A.
p.

1880, p.

and

Pieiil,
rik\

I.e.

O.K., at which time, however, the enclosure


itself is det. of

by
is

135, have

shown that the

title
.?.,
J

in the = -F

the word, and sometimes has the

XXXth
ss

Dyn. varies with *~1


shes),

in

mr

form f*\

(1'yr.

M.,

1.

566, &c.), but generally


.

(mer

and that J$

is

actually at that

breadth (A7 1174; Methen, a rectangle of varying '


L., IK,
ii.,

7, 6).

time written for *,


linen."

ss (shes),

"rope"
-f-

or "fine
ss is

Apparently, therefore, =>


It is
c

the

\B.

IT., hi., fig.

54.]

Arms

held down-

reading of this sign. read

at present generally

wards, with or without vase, corn-rubber, or

J^-^ ms
title

(mesha), through equating the

O.K.
as

^
;

other object which they are taking or holding.

jx.

r~^ pj| with the


wrong

later

^k.

Jk

Word-sign
l

for - o

/->

shn (sehhen), and

a\

mr ms

but an examination of the former


is
:

shows that the equation

" embrace," "comprehend," &c, with l"f (l"'U' )i <-* a hpt, also det. of J o ynq phon. trans.
;

<=>

(|

%21#i^'
mr ms
c

L" D-

ii -'

4 -v, j,

(dnq),

which have a similar meaning.

nfrw,

" director

of the

marching of
J^.
^

recruits," corresponds exactly to

Jg^
ss,

yo l|f

Vp

Fig.

165;

B.

II.

iii.,

fig.

43.
J

(q.v.)

WWW, L., D.,


the writing

between the two arms held downwards.


O.K. the arms are held more squarely.

In
3

ii.,

97, a,

mr ms

" director of

the marching of trained soldiers," and although


of the
;

Graphic compound denoting 8<-^-^I hale


(hen
Tea),

latter title varies greatly

" /.'/-servant," or " 7&-priest."


is

The
|

(Medwm,

ix.

L.,

D.,
div.,

ii.,

21,

22)

down
the

to

second element
this

the usual form of

lc'

in
it

-^

""

fjjf

i^on.

PI.

xx.),

three

compound group,

probably

because

elements

can
(

always
Una,
1.

be

distinguished,

and

would have been considered irreverent


the sign for "servant" above that for

to place
the;

ka,

w'

^f

c^

25, for the


title)

same spelling
is

independently of the

w&
ss.

www

though

also

is

found.
(

So

also in the earliest

evi-

inscrij)tions

we have

),

but when compounded


it is

dently a separate word, viz.

Both of these

with ^*, for " the spiritualized lea"

turned

HUMAN
downwards (Dk Morgan, Becherches,
figs.
ii.,

ACTION.
I

15

p. 240,

%> 1/V)
is

(Mar., M. D., xc.

b.),

which, from the

802 and 806).


sign [_J
is

context,
J

certainly the verb

yh\ "fight," and

The

phon. for *=*\ h

(lea).

not hw, " strike."

Much

has been said on the ka of Egyptian

religious belief,

but I

am

not aware that any


its

Vp

Fig. 68.

Two arms

grasping a paddle,

explanation of the sign by which


written

name

is

as in paddling, issuing
like (S,,

from an object shaped


like

has

been

attempted.

If,

as

seems

but in M.K. more


for

<=>

(hollow).
>-**

probable, the sign was intended to represent the


lea

"Word-sign

"paddling,"

No

symbolically,

and not merely phonetically,


as the source

early variants of the sign are known, but a few

one

may

perhaps believe that the latter was,

very late ones give

<-.

hn (khen), and
it

this is

from one point of view, regarded


of muscular

probably accurate, since

never occurs in the


is

movement and power, as opposed


which
set it in

to

name

of the m'hn't boat, and there

already

1^

ba, the will or soul

motion.

the semi-phon.

y^
The

for

^
(?) h'

Tin

(chen).

The
it is

The human arms, hands, and fingers are the members of the body which carry out the most intelligent and intricate promptings of will and
desire,

use of \cp

is

confined to a few words, and

hardly a phon.
indication of
its

&

(Ma) may be an

phonetic value.

and produce the most surprising

results.

They might therefore well be chosen to represent the muscular


of
life,

the energy and activity

W
or
P.,

W^
,

Arm, or two arms, holding magic wand named &><=|> mJcs,


[B. H.,
hi., fig.

50.]

man.

On

the other hand, they might be


[_), to

<->

<=>

nhb't; for which see Mentuhotep,

considered as held up,


sun,

receive

life

from the

p. 18, no. 7,

and Pyr.
for
T.,
1.

and

offerings after death,

and downwards,
hen-lea.

Word-sign
1.

^P

=>

zsr,

"sacred," &c. (Pyr.

A, to receive the service of the


this

But
jjT)
J

121
is

175), the sign indicating that


is

seems
k'-t

less

probable.

The word
and

>

what

evil

and profane

warded

off.

Used

^\>~

(Jca't),

"labours," "handiwork,"
;

is

with rad. ext.


V

not improbably from the same root

may be
1\

the origin of the value for the sign (see ^z^>).

Fig.

22.

Human arm,

the hand holding

a short stick.

Ql Fig. 177. Human arms holding shield the form of the shield varies in and mace different instances (Malum, PL xii., L., D., ii.,
;

This sign
O.K.)

is

found (probably not


In N.K.
nht
1.

till

after

as det. of strength

and of actions demandit

ing strength.
sign for
Ble.
<-*&<=.

occasionally

is

word-

91a, &c).
or

The printed type shows a halberd


det.)

(nefcht),

"strength" (Budge,
it

war axe for the mace. Word-symbol (but not


1.

of D., p. 11,

1),

and so

agrees in use

of

fighting,

almost precisely with f

= ^11" fight,"
have Ql, N.,
T.,
1.

with rad. ext.

In Pyr.

we
& o Fig. 64. A human arm in the open hand a cake or other mass of material. From O.K. onwards this is the word-sign
;

689

170.
j[

In M.K.
(see p. 17).

M., 1. 179 = q^J, a changed to (j, as usual

before
(Todt.,

5), Horhotep,

1.

104

1.

529

for the verb x^_fl,

f^

>

a l so written

cap.
is

The proper name


tomb

J\

m,
e.g.

(]|

J^
and

which

is

found only in the imperative m,


1.

Yh 3 (Aha)
of Ql,
PI. xxi.,
it.

apparently the alphabetic spelling

Pyr., N.,
m'le,

660, and as an optative with suffixes

e.g.

El
it

P.,

ii.,

8,

p.

38,

m'tn,

having the force

of

the

English

though

does not actually vary with


(1

"Behold"

thou (or ye) a certain thing in a

In

XXVIth Dyn. we have

8 Qj.

(for

certain state.

One might be disposed

to connect

16

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.

its

meaning with the


correctly

of
I)

J$ss
fe,

'

{Pyr. N. 1002

M. 604)
in

j
msb,

sb,

"conduct
")
;

"

more

ym

(dm),

(used

also
1

as

phon.

" offer

and

=
it

.'/("')>

" come," &c.

or with their word-

"give," "place," and of


(md), "

|^

a^J\, JJ my

sign, e.g. a sins, " follow," ^g?> ism, " conduct."

Come
A

"
!

&c.

"We should then suppose

to indicate "giving," " placing," like the graphic

compound

I\

D,

of
d

[/?. II.,

iii.,

fig.

94.]
in

Vase on a pair of
O.K. the shanks are

dy

(da),

"place"

(see

human "feet"

(v.

below), with which


especially as a

it is

often confused in print,


is

J);

(which

really

<~*

thick in proportion to their length.

To

give

hnlr,

prominence to the
than in
~rs~,

"present") sometimes stands for

O
~>

they are closer together


.

G_-fl.

But

but are otherwise identical with J\


for
()

in Paheri, PI. iv., top middle, the sign

figures as det. of ;$&

Q
in

Word-sign
rad. ext.
;

yn

(an),

" carry," with


it

sp (shesep),

probably

"receive."

The idea
o

enters into

as

forming

JAo seems thus to be

of " receiving " rather than " giving," " placing," A

a good picture-compound with -A, the det. of

Q,

while

motion, and as supplying approximately

the

can symbolize apparently either


to
deities,"

phonetic value by

its

own value

n(w).

"receiving," m, or "offering

hnk.
^>
,

Hence expressions
me,

like

^~^ %\

^
I

-^^x

%>

k'^l^lll'^^l
I

m'Jc
i.e.

wy y'kwy," Behold thou

am

arrived,"

"Behold,
like, "

am come

"
!

D.
I

Mammals and Parts

of Mammals.
of
lion,

literally

mean something

Receive me,

am

come," "receive" having here the sense "perceive," "behold" (v. Addenda).
After O.K.
,

Forepart ^JD Figs. 91, 93. showing head, shoulder, and foreleg.

&_q

is

often written

t\;

or

with det.

_r,

or

f\

alone

and k,

whether formative or otherwise, at the beginning of words,


is

The name of this portion of an animal's 8--.- l/'t (ljd,-t), "front part," body is and thence it has, by phon. trans., the value of

very frequently written with


texts)

1/,

occasionally changing
e.g. in
v. <r.

to

1/ (ha) (see

_Q

(3

in
Cf.

some

or

its

equivalent

p. 5):

l/'ti,

"heart," in M.K. sometimes

-J.

Ebm., Gram., 35, 102, 256.

hHi,

J\
(<j.v.),

Fig. 156.

pair of

human

"feet,"

joined at the top and striding.

The title ~=^, in spite of its spelling, is an -j ^ h -fi (hd'ti), ab., and ought to be read " he who is at the front," " leader," " dux "
c
\

\\

Word-sign for the common verb J\\\ "travel," " step," " come," which varies with J\ in the name of the goddess Iws-da's (Pyr. P.,

derived from the above ^=^


clearly

li't.
;

This

is

pretty
early
c

%^
is

proved by N.K.
fern,
is

texts

and

in

times the

written
c

=^ jj-oq
-ti.

-tt,

1.

423

N.,

1.

1210),

and therefore reads


for
all

corresponding to a masc. h

yw (du). uncommon
"
visits."

, apparently ywwt,

a not
sk
tiaca),

expression

"movements" and
by
of

Also det. of

words of motion.
with
their

The desert hare (Lepus aegypcommon in Egypt the length and size
Fig. 2.
;

number

of verbs of motion are written


this

its

ears are always absurdly exaggerated in

compounding
consonant, (used
also

sign

e.g.

cjp
rad.

<?

k
;

sm

principal " (shem), " go


I)

Egyptian drawing.

In

fig.

175 the ears are

by

ext.)

^p = =

rs>

ytt

(dthefh),

for

tt

"take," "seize" (used also as phon. in bit, " colic ?"); -^- s, " pass (?) "

TT =

more preposterous even than usual. In the tombs of Beui Hasan the hare is called o xAW (sechd't). But in Ptahhetep, .p. < _j PI. xxxii., and elsewhere, -^> /% \ r~> von
.

MAMMALS.
(un), " ran,"

17

"bound along

swiftly

"

Met., outit

Its

name

is

-p- =*

sr,

ecoov, "sheep,"

in

the

stretched legs joined at thighs), suggests that

tomb

of Renni at El Kab,
t\\r

where

it
ii.,

is

distincxlii.,

was once called "the swift runner," or


rate that
it

at

any

guished from
3).

goats (C, Nous.,

PL

symbolized such motion.


phon. for

It

was sacred to Clinem, and


it

is

det. of his

Common
after

<~

"'

(")> especially

name.

O.K.
Fig. 175.

was sacred to Osiris At Mendes under the name of $y^, meaning " soul " or perhaps, with reference to the employment
;

v^p

The hare

as a sacred

badge
58),

of

rams

in agriculture (L..
v.

!>..

ii..

1066), really

raised on the sacred perch

^-

(q.v.,

p.

" plougher,"

with food as usual, planted in the symbol of a

to be otherwise

f^, but a name for


B.
II.,

this

does not seem

the ram.

nome, tott

The nome-sign of the XVth nome of Upper Egypt (Hermopolis Magna) compare that of
;

&&
fig.

Fig.

48;

iii.,

fig.

31.

An

in-

determinate-looking animal newly dropped, in


18

the
p. 6.

XVIth nome,

B.

II.,

hi.,

frontispiece,

and

having some of the features of an

ass's

It is difficult to ascertain the reading of

foal,

but with sprouting horns.


it

As Borchardt

this class of symbols.

The nome-signs appear


ph't,

remarks,

can hardly he a calf; possibly a kid


as the type.
H

to

be of the feminine gender, for the qualifying


"upper,"' and
'lower,"
fern,

was intended
Phon.
onwards.
for

adjectives hnt't,

yw

(du)

in
\

the

O.K.
yirr

and

which occur with several of them, are


in

As

the

word

inscriptions of
for
1.

good period

(see

Ptahhetrp,

"conceive," generally
written
{J

\ <= U1$^<=>,
//"'[*']

(dur),

is

sometimes
clear that
r
;

PL xxxv.,

Tomb

hi.,

XXth-XXIst nomes, and Siut, 21, for Xlllth nome of Upper


also
is

%^

in

Pyr. (M. 406),

it is

this sign
cf.

has an affinity to
Kah. Pap.,
p. 11,

with weak

Egypt).
written
early
viii.,
i., 1.

The p resent symbol

often

also

for further evidence

^
1, ix.,
1.

with

fern,
xiii.
cf.

termination in the
2
;

M.K. (El
1.

It., ii.,

Eetnub

Graffiti,
1.

j^ may thus be taken as " the conceived thing," " embryo (?)," properly written
of this.
.y"[r],

1,

&c.

Siut,

151).

The badge

itself,

Tomb iv., J=s, may have

36,
its

but used regularly for yw.


case.
<\

Cf.

for a

very similar

It is possible that it

has also

usual value

wn

(see

above), especially as the

a word-sign value

nome

capital

(('mi) (see

was named Hetmih Graffiti,


almost

^"O^K, Wnw
i.,
1.

y , the root of the word cf. Pyr. M., for "heirship," "inheritance," &c.
~*
;

7, viii.,

1.

11);
1!

1.

760,

(j

a^S.^"
t&^a

heir."
c
,

But an

occa-

and the whole nome-sign may thus read


(Un't).
It is

n't

sional variant,

certain that
(/.

ffffl=

has no

y
is

indicates

that the

reading
separate value in this sign
a*).

in

this
its

case

really

yw

<

(dud),

the

"foal" having

ordinary value (yw) as phon.;

3&} [B. H.,


zontal horns.

iii.,

fig.

35.]

Ram
are

with hori-

and

this is the opinion of the best authorities.

Similar animals

shown

in

the earliest sculptures (Naqada,

PL
ii.,

lxxvii., top

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

55.]

Shoulder and fore-

right;
it
is

De Morgan,
difficult

ltechcrches,

PL

iii.),

but

leg of an animal.

to

say whether

they represent

Word-sign

for

oo^

hps

(Ichepsh),

"shoulder"
In
its

sheep

or goats.

(The variety of sheep with


this kind,
first

(as a joint of meat),

"strength of arm."
}/,

curved horns, ^J^l, which superseded was the animal of Amen, probably
secrated to

N.K. the name of the scimetar,


shape
;

from

conit

later,
:'i!oii:'i

a word

for the

human

arms, as in
It

him
m

in

N.K.
rhui.)

as the sacred

ram

Coptic

(Sign Pap., passim).

seems

was

called =>

^w

never to mean "the haunch," though in the

is

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


perhaps for some similar reason, the signification
" reward."

printed sign the jointing corresponds to that of

the hind leg.

Fig.

21

This sign, resembling a spiked


is

Figs. 46, 166.

A
;

conventional picture
;

club in outline, at Meduin

coloured black and

of the heart with arteries

the vessels at top

white, most of the "head" being white.

Petrie

and sides trimmed short

in the first example,

(M< ilma,

p.

30) pointed out that the projections

the paler colouring of the upper part of the

are clearly

mammae, and

that the sign represents

heart itself seems to indicate a covering of


Fig. 166
is

fat.

the teats and other sexual parts on the belly of

a very

common

type

the markings

an animal.

upon

it

may

indicate conventionally the interior


Cf.

The word for "belly," "loins," "womb," is ^"j h't {chet), and this is evidently the origin
of the alphabetic value h.

structure as displayed in section.


PI. xiii.,

Medum,
from

and the lute

(?), T.

-= constantly

The
teristic

heart,

O, must be
in granite,

distinguished

varies with rrrn in O.K., while

does so only
o

the heart-shaped vase, which, being a charac-

very rarely.

The

distinction

between

and

form
^t

is

word-sign and det.

was pointed out by Steindorff very recently, and it is found that the two signs are seldom
confused until a very late period.

&s

&s m

(math), " granite."


for
1.
I)

Word-sign
Ac.

J yb

(ah), " heart," " desire,"


T.,
1.

{Pyr. W.,

451

259).

Det.

of

f-jioi,, in M.K. sometimes

\>

q\s, Ifti, Iffi

^=^

Fig. 155.
(/'.'/

A
i.,

rib bone, in the present


xviii.,

(Jidti, liuti),

another word

for "heart."

example

B.,

PI.

1)

very clearly
Fig. 47.

represented.
lip, /-=v sp-t.

Often identical in form with the

difficult

sign

to

explain,

but
of the rib
is
p

probably representing in a conventional

The name

o <=>

Spr.

Used with

phon. trans, (usually accompanied by the alph.

complement <=>
i

r).

manner some internal portion of mammalian anatomy such as a pair of glands and the duct belonging to them the kidneys or the liver (?).

Word-sign
g3j Fig. 192. trimmed and shrunk by boiling. This joint was of two kinds,
tables of offerings respectively
4

for

The haunch or shoulder,


called
,

^ \, ^\%, *m\ m (sma,


3

saw), generally with the meaning "unite."


is

the

name
(?),

of the kidneys
<?

(?),

with perhaps the


is

in

the

liver;

andT^k
and

in

Pap. Eh.

" colon "(?),


I.

->a

" or
p

"liver"
T.,
1.

in Pyr. the plural (IF.,

518';

ynf or
(Sut),

if

(dud or da), and


/
;

]^\q,
is

^>

<=>

328) stands for kidneys (so Maspero), with

swt

perhaps with radical

one

probably
in

perhaps the liver and other edible portions of


the viscera; and
is

the shoulder, the other the fore-leg

(cf.

N.K.
Leyd.

T"! sm'-fi (dual) in


One or other
origin of

Pap. Eh.

tT^

C^) ^^ I
hi., PI.

"sut of the fore-leg

(?),"

" testiculi "

(?).

of these

two

Mon.,

xxiv.).

words must be the


former name
it is

the

phonetic

With

the value
to

of the

value.

transferred

other

meanings,

and

written with the alph. complement

is

then
o.

In

<*=<u

\ II.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

46.]

Hide of domestic
In
tightly twisted,

"S,
it

it

is

also word-sign for

\ ys'w

(dsu),
1.

animal, stripped off and wrapped together.

"reward," "price."

seems possible

From Slut, Tomb i., 276, that when an ox was given for
customarily set apart
hence, or

Veshasheh,
with
a

PI.

xxv.,

it is

shown
end,

peg
to

through
the

one

perhaps with
" pull,"

sacrifice, the awa-joint. was

reference

common

meaning

for the special benefit of the donor-

" strain," of the word-sign.

BIRDS.

1!'

Word-sign
and
PI. xix.,

for

srf,

"pull," 'strip

off,"

to the use of a

compound colour from which the


;

for sd'w, "water-skin,"


is

which

in
its

Deshasheh,
det.
;

vegetable element has disappeared

it

has been

very clearly shown hy

the

remarked that the green may have been mixed


with pink madder (used in

last use suggests that sd, " dragged

off," is

one

Roman

times,

cf.

name

for a hide.

Also phon. for


its uses,

sd.

Loret

Russell
grey.

in

Malum,

p.

47) in order to obtain a naked,

has studied the sign and


xl, pp. 117-131
(r.

Rec. de Trav.,

The

flesh at the base of the bill is

Addenda).

and the scanty feathering beyond often makes


the neck appear

thin;

in

O.K. drawing
and Methen,

this

j?

Cf. Fig.

167.

Hide of wild animal.


Vi

long sparse
crest (see
ii.,

feathering

appears as a kind of
L., D.,
bill

Word-sign

for "^ J

{ah)

from the
ii.,

earliest
;

Medum, PL

xiv.,

times (De Morgan, BechercTies,

fig.

786)

it

6).

These characteristics, and the weak

may be
T

connected with the much-prized hide

combined with the short neck, determine the


species absolutely.

of the leopard, the


iv

name Max Muller

of that animal being

thinks

it

the origin of

The name
are

of the bird and the origin of


J
,

its a),

V>, Rec. de trav., ix., 159. the phon. j Det. of hide, names of animals, &c.

alphabetic value

i.e.

alif (conventionally

unknown.
Fig. 76.

*1|

Fig. 167.

hide

perhaps hung as
dart.
1

bird of raptorial aspect,


tufts

target

pierced by an arrow or
stt

but with two small


no original colour

at the

back of the

In O.K. word-sign for

p^
W.,
ii.,
1.

(sethrt),

jf"^ apparently "shoot," "throw," and prostt

head and a longer tuft on the neck.


left

There

is

on the example figured

bably equivalent to

(written with 5t=^, Pi/r.

good examples of
are

this curious bird-hieroglyph

422;

T.,

1.

242),

"engender"
Later
it

(cf.

B.

much

needed.

In early instances the head-

II.,

PI. iv.,

top row,
St,

left).

stands for
is

tufts are absent,

but an additional tuft somealmost


tufts.

allied

words

"sprinkle" (which
stt,

perhaps

times hans;s like a beard or wattle from the

only a simplified form of

reduplicated =>

base of the beak, and often the form


that of the chick \\, with one or

is

being sometimes
-f<=

=><=>)

and

others with value

more

st,

and

is

completely interchangeable with

Probably

it

will

prove to be not raptorial.


nh,
in
i.,

Name, AJk'n^s ^i
(Budge, 3D7,
1.

Todt,

cliii.

b.

1.

12,

cf.

Nav.,

PL

clxxviii.,

13).

Phon. for nh.

E.

Birds and their Parts.

V\
Figs. 4, 73,
It is

Figs.

1,

75.

brown

raptorial bird,

120

B.

II.,

hi.,

fig.

13.

having fully feathered neck and strong beak.


In the fine example,
fig. 1, it
is

very satisfactory to be able to


bird

illustrate

must be an eagle
distinctive.

this

and

the

eagle

by

such

decisive

In

fijr.

75

the

form

less

In

examples as
often

figs. 1

and
in

4.

Their outlines are


writing,

Medum,
is

frontispiece, figs. 1, 3, the appearance

very similar

inferior

and

very different, but

may

still

be an unsatis-

copyists generally confound them, but in hieratic

factory rendering of the eagle.

the

two birds are always distinguished, and


This bird
is

The

sign has the value

<=

\\

tiw (tin) as a

generally in linear hieroglyphs.

grammatical termination,
ending of adjectives in ^
substantives in ^
/.

this
\\

being the plural


derived from
fern.
is

the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).

ti

In early examples the colouring of the wing

is

The

origin of this value

grey or blue.

Later

it is

green, probably

owing

at present obscure.
c 2

20

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


[cf.
II.

//.,

a male bird, fairly


colour.

Sparrow-hawk; well represented in form and


iii.,

fig. 5.]

substituted

for

grey

as

in

the

case

of

the
dis-

Egyptian vulture
appears (see
/>'.

and
IT.,

the breast
fig.

marking

iii.,

14,

Chnemhetep,

Det.
its
II,

of,

but apparently never word-sign


\

for,

and below,
the

fig. 99).

(e)

In the present instance

name
flies

<=*

byh (hah).

Word-sign
lit.

for l-=>-\

green remains, but the under parts are


orange.

(the god "Horus"),

"the

soarer,"

"he

flushed with

The form
it

(a)

seems to
riparia)
;

who

up

"

(See '^T, the hawk-perch).

represent

the

sand martin

(Gotyle

without the dark mark


[\] [B.
II., iii.,

may

be the

common

5.]

Graphic compound of

martin
for

(('.

urbica).
(l>)

The

substitution of green

and the sparrow-hawk. Word-sign for ;=-?=


Professor

grey

in

is

apparently of no specific

Ilt-ll,

(Hathor).
the
literal

significance.

An

orange or rufous tinge on


(<),

Maspero

considers

that
is

the under parts, as in


swallows.

is

found

in

some
its

meaning " House of Horus "


sisted

not to be inis

on,

and that the compound


spell

merely

The

true swallow (Hirundo rustica) and


h
i i

n] in

an attempt to
phonetically.

the

name

of the goddess

congeners are named

<=>,

'L

<-->

<->

mn't,

and

are pictured in the vignette of Tod!., cap. 86,

sometimes with true swallow


Figs. 7, 183,

tail,

at

others

185;
but
is

B. II.,

iii.,

fig. 7.

I'd j,.

Bui.,

iii.,

PL 21)
is

Avith that of the martin.

Owl

the type

varies

not

long-eared

The
in

latter

form

well

shown on a
p.

stele figured

until

very late times.


for the alphabetic value

Maspero, Premieres Melees,

536

Lanz.,

To account
possibly a

be suggested that the Coptic

m it may name uotms is


first

Biz. d. Mlf.,

PL
is,

cxviii.

The
which
is

sign
as a

however, phon. for ^ => wr


great," " old,"

it

compound, of which the


in

element,

word means "

and

m (?),
which

represents the ancient name.

Note the
bubo,

supposed that a bird

^^ JX1.

wr (with det. of
Loret, A.
in
if

owl-names in Ar. bum,


it

Latin

from
be

deity) occurs in Pyr. N.,

157.

Z.,

would

appear

that

would

1892, p. 28,

quotes this group


identifies the bird

connexion
bird
it

onomatopoeic.

very curious use of the sign


it

with

Sr=t,

and

be,

occurs in Pyr., where


hs/j,

stands as det. for


1.

and not merely "the

great (deity) "

with the
the rock-

" chop off" the head or limbs, in N.,


1.

904

Coptic ovaa, baa, which in a

compound word
i.e.

while in M.,

26,

&c,

-=\X

is

the symbol for

seems to mean "domestic pigeon,"

the same word.


-

Perhaps

this points to the


it

owl

dove (Golumba
stated,
cf.

livia,

not G. oenas, as has been


p.

bein" a bird of ill-omen, which


to

was

desirable

Shelley, Birds,
seems
possible,

211).
in

His exPiahhetep,

behead when caught.

|)lanation
PI.
xli.,

for

^
Swallow
outline

Figs. 3,
:

99;

ll.

II.,

iii.,

figs.

'.),

14.

to include

under

this

term perhaps

Dim., Res., PL xiii.), the name of the pigeon, ^ ~ ^, mnwt (menu't), is apparently determined by a
third

row

of offerings

(=

^^

martins and

swifts

(C'///w//^).

The general
tail

bird of

^3te=3

outline.

%= does
xxxvii.,

not, however, in

and

broad,

slightly

forked,

are

the least resemble the pictures of pigeons in


Ptahhetep,
Pis.

constant, but colour and


siderably,
(a)

markings vary con-

xxxi.,
it is

and

II.

II.,

i.,

In the earliest examples (M~nlinu,


;

PL xxx.
figure in sculptor,

and due

not improbable that the


is

frontispiece, fig. 4
is

II.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

',

Ameny)
is

it

Ptahhetep

a slight mistake of the

grey, with white belly and a black spot on

also in part to the close similarity

breast,

though
(cf.

in

Medum

the

Latter

often
is

of

absent

Ghelidon urbica).

(b) Later,

green

names mnwt, "pigeon,' "swallow" [v. Addenda).


the

and

mn't,

BIRDS.

21

Figs. 5,

189

Ji.

H.,

iii.,

fig.

15.

Chick

the ground or ooze in search of food in the

of a gallinaceous bird.

newly-sown corn-fields;
/>'.

Tr

in fact, in Pyr.
(/'),

is

The chick

referred to in

If.,

iii.,

p. 8,

as

occasionally word-sign for J %, h'


see

"soul,"
l>\

figured in Ptahhetep, apparently for the typical


quail of the farmyard, appears in PI. xxxi, of

Schack, Index.

c^

is

also phon. for

the

new

publication of that tomb.

Probably

must commonly spelt

J ^&*]j^(once

I 11 tue stereo-

the eggs of quail (and occasionally partridge),

typed group ^fes ^r?6


Eg.
Ins.,
ii.,

b&^^z^,
is

Su.,
ii.),

found abundantly
hatched

in

the

harvest

field,

were

22,

1.

10,

from

Louvre, C,

artificially in the

farmyard, and thus


Quail flying

"servant," "serve," "work," there

no need
;

the chicks were familiar objects.

to assign a special value, bk, to the sign


as usual,
//

it

is,

over a cornfield are very well rendered in the

simply b\
b

As
'

in so

many

cases, the

tomb
PI.

of

Khaemha
The

(Prisse, Art,

ii.,

11

= Mons.,

changed to

in the N.K., hence the rare


bk, Rec. de Ton-., v., 74.

xl.).

sign

^K

is

perhaps not without

N.K. spelling
'%.-;

significance too in connexion with the peculiar

form of the adult bird.


//

The alphabetic value

Cf. Fig.

168.

Sacred

ibis ([hi* rr/i^iusa),

(u) for V>

is

perhaps onomatopoeic.

white, with black unfeathered skin on head and

neck, black legs (and


Fig. 28.

tail).

The bird
cf.

of Thoth.
fTJ

An

unfledged bird with open


;

Name,

ra

j hb,

lit,

" plougher,"

mouth, eager to be fed

as often represented in

JJ
1.

"plough," Pyr.

/'.,

1.

763

uests in paintings of the

N.K.
(tha);

[T]

J ^,
ibis

M.,

764.

The name
just hatched

for a chick either in the shell or


is

$^',
"

= 1,

t'

cf.

Breasted

V
perch,
place
cf.

Fig. 168.

"Sacred"
58)
;

on sacred

De Uymnis,
is

p. 44.

The meaning
(from =>

of the
"),

name
owing
which
Phon.

^r

(q-v-, P-

the usual food held in


(?)

probably " taker

" take

by a peg (other food


PI. xxi.

beneath

its

feet),

to the eagerness of the nestling to take its food.

Medum,

See the fine outline in Medum,


is

PI. xxi.,

Emblem
the

of the

XVth

noine of Lower Egypt,

very suggestive

of

this

meaning.

name

of which

was apparently

\ Q

for =>

\
Fig.

Z/in-t

(Zhu'i).

Hence must be derived the


of

well

known name
(Kahun,

the
v.;

nome - god
El
B.,
ii.,

^
of the
breast.

74

II. II., iii.,

figs. 3, 10.

bird

^l^.^w
Zhirii,

PL
lit.

&c.)

type of the Grallatores, with tuft on


In

"Thoth,"

O.K.
;

generally

without the tuft


xli.,

pare Osiris called

-a

r~.

"the Zehutiau " comu . ^ w Anz'ti, "he of


;
'

(Medum, PI. xxi. row of offerings).

Ptahhetep, PI.

fourth

Anzet," from the IXth


Fig. 118;
ibis (Ibis

nome

of

Lower Egypt.
fig.

This type

may have
plover,

been
ibis,

suggested in a general

way by

B. 1L,

iii.,

4.

Crested

crane, or snipe, but does not agree with any

comata).
flesh

This bird

is

glossy purple,

particular species.
bustards.

It

reminds one also of the

with naked red

on head.

It is

now found
It

in

South Algeria and across Abyssinia into Arabia

Name unknown.

Word-sign

for

% V

(/')

(Heuglix, Omithologie,

p.

1144).

has ap-

meaning, amongst other things, "soul" (v. ^7), and "hoe," "break up earth," sometimes
written

parently never been recorded from Egypt, but


There
is

no other bird with which the type can

S*

We may
of

best connect

its

value
well

be identified.

with the habit of the plover tribe


as of

(as

The value
or perhaps
A

as a word-sign,

Q&s

//

//

(dakh)
is

the

crane)

digging

their

bills .into

only with phon. transf.,

given

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


by Pyr.
117//.,

IT.,

1.

51)0,

by variants quoted

in

Br.,

dently Anser albifrom in spring plumage, though


the colouring of the head
is

and by the variation with


If this

ifh in later
bird,
it

inaccurate.
is

times.

was the name of the


"'the glossy."

In L.,
its
it it

J).,

ii.,

616, the bird

figured, with

probably means
of ifh

The
c

radical idea

name
is

5J

as the first

may

be that of red light, like the light of


(cf.

was the largest


rarely

thus suggesting that


the geese there; but
It is the
I'ii/l

-of all

the rising or setting sun

'

ll

,Q
;

y'h't

shown

as domesticated.

(dalch't), " the place of sunrise or sunset")


it

but

wild goose
ILir.

refers especially to the glorified state of the


in

^J^^>
verso, p. xii.,
11.

*J-\
7. !))
;

gb-w, of
it is

(500
the

perhaps

dead
sun

heaven, as spirits illuminated by the


the quotation below,
of
s.v.
"
).

(cf.

In a few
" glorified

also

S^Jffi^r-^
god fe^
jl

of Pap. Eb.
Krjfi,

The

passages
spirit,"

the

TodL,

the

'^,

name

of the
ijh,

Greek

varies with

appears as something parallel to the

SJ

ajj^
j).

gbb* (gebba),
;

&c,

see

Brugsch,

V7^fe* (ba), and the \_J {lea), as if it might be, like them, a distinct part of the human organism.

A. Z., 1886,
xvii., 94.

Spiegelberg, Bee. de Trav.,


is

As

a word-sign the goose


J
.

always
In form

But such

instances are extremely rare.


I

In the
is

distinguished by the complement


it is

Lebensmiider

read

it

that

the

man
xvii.,

not

probably often confused with the duck of


11.

conversing with his '^>, but with his ^b^ (ba),

fig.

"soul"

for &

in hieratic sec A.

'J'.,

1.

40.
is

In late Egyptian and in Coptic the

word

used for "ghost," "demon," with no suggestion


of blessedness, but the reverse.

[II.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

12.]

In

spite

of

its

rather short neck, apparently a white-fronted


goose, in pale winter plumage, and domesticated.

Word-sign

for

l<*%>

him,

written
"

|
is

"^

/JT Fig. 97.


with
fish,

White plumeless egret

(.

rdea),

generally

meaning

" supply,"

fill,"

and
per-

(represented with the present value in

"destroy."

" Supply," " completeness,"

various attitudes seizing or swallowing the fish


cf.

haps the idea here indicated by the


5

fat

goose
is

Ptahhetep, PI.
PI. iv.
;

xli.,

fourth
ii.,

row
70,

of offerings j"
(?)

ready

for

killing.

How
In
that

far

the
it

species
is

Pahei'i,

L.,

Jj.,

heron

with

constant in the early hieroglyphs


impossible to say. El P.,
of
i.,

as yet

plumes).

PI. xxv.,

the

Word-sign
" catch fish."

for

\^

J/m {hum),

later
is

km,

outline

resembles

the

pin-tail

duck,

The

pelican in Coptic
?inii (fern.).

named

which likewise was domesticated and fattened.


In
II.

"the

fisher,"

?im (masc),

//.,

iii.,

j).

8,

the

name

of the material

^,
JT
^'^'

was read
is

-- "^

As';

but the spelling of

^'

The flamingo (P/weracoptems


portrayed
in
fig. G.
'

the
Q
r

name

constant, the only variant being

antiquorum),

characteristically

(Di'M.,

Peduamenap,

PI.
it

xx., no.

'11),

so

Milium, frontispiece,

there can be no doubt that


=

reads him.

The name
is

of the bird,

mo

dj$r

(desher),

preserved in the late text of Leps., TodL,


1.

^^
(Ihijihi

Fig. 11.

brightly
in

coloured
tin;

duck
latter

cap. xxxi.,

!),

unfortunately not found


It

in

the

with two long feathers


peculiarity
is

the tail: the

earlier papyri.
rad.

means " the ruddy," and by ext. flic sign i< used for all other words derived from flic same root.
II.

copied
Tin.'

from

pin-tail

duck
is

acuta).

colouring,

however,
a.

much

exaggerated,

evidently

as

general

distinction of ducks from <j:a^r.


//.,
iii.,

fig.

(!.]

Wild goose;

evi-

This example

(fig.

stands for the word

BIRDSREPTILES.
"son,"
-hi-

23

s.

In
,

/'//;.

we have

the

word

for

Word-sign
fear"
geese,
easily
;

for

f--,^

snz,

"fear," "helpless

"son" written .
In

that for " daughter "

7^.

probably due to the practice of plucking

by exception the colouring of the bird is more sober, and thus more like that of the pin-tail. The domesticated duck,
xiii.,

Medum, PL

&c,

alive, the feathers

being then more

removed.

Det. of

<->

wsn (ushen),

" prepare birds for table."

named
is

s't,

which, like the small ser-duck,


'!

never absent from scenes of the poultry-farm.

Fig.

150.
as

The head and neck


is

of duck

has the two long central tail-feathers of the


pin-tail,
e.g.

(as

here) or goose

a
at

frequent ab. for the


all

in

Piahhetep,

PI.

xxxvii.

It

is

whole

bird

det.

periods.

In the

thus clear that the Dafila acuta, which abounds


in

present instance the sign probably accompanied

Lower Egypt (Shelley,


To
^
is

Birds, p 284),

is

the

(destroyed)

as

part

of

det.

of
5
"7

o o o

Egyptian type of a large duck, and was regularly


domesticated.
all

"offerings."

In Ptahhetep, PL xxxix., table of

appearance
--

it

is

also
if
J

offerings, different sorts of geese are represented

identical with the phon. for


so, its

J
-v

(sa),

and
s
sfe

by a phonetic

indicator, followed

by

det. of a

name

no doubt from a root


(cf.

goose's head, viz. <) "/--goose," <\

" trp-goose."

perhaps s\ "keep"
p. 30).

i<

sb,

from root

J
,

[/>'.

E.,

iii.,

fig.

72.]

Feather

(of ostrich?).

Goose and duck being closelv similar in outline, are

Word-sign

for

swt,

"feather,"

with

rad.

generally written with phonetic com-

ext., having such meanings as " desert-waste,"

plements to distinguish them,


*^. J \gb; <^.htm.
to
this

thus:

shadow," " empty," the god Shu,


;

i.e.

"empty

The
,

principal exceptions

space

"

the first-born of the Sun, &c.


for the

rule

are

^^

sg^ " son," and

^^
duck

Word-sign
Truth,

name
-t

of the goddess of

" daughter."
[B.

k^k-"-- m

(Mad't), " the true" or

"just," with phon. trans.


II.,
iii.,

The connexion be-

figs.

1,

8.]

Plying

tween the feather and truth or justice may partly


be suggested

by the feathering of an arrow,


it

(pin-tail, Dafila acuta).

Word-sign
for

for

p' (pa), " fly," and phon.

which allows

to
""
,

fly
a

" straight."
jj

Tlie just

p\
[B.
II.
,

man
to 11

is

said to act
side."

" not leaning

one

The

lightness of a feather, which


affect

"5>
type
is
;

iii.,

fig.

B.

If.,

i.,

PL

xxvii.].

would not materially

the weight

in

Duck, fed
species
is

to repletion.
it

In both instances the


is

rude and primitive balance, might also be held


as symbolic of justice, that will not introduce

the same, but

difficult to fix the

perhaps the widgeon (Mareca penelope)

personal bias into a question

(r.

also

ft).

intended.

Word-sign

for

^^
L,

/cJ

(iisha),

"feed by
P.,
ii.,

cramming"
62,

PL xxvii.; cf. L., fourth row, and I02l>). The reading


(B.
If.,
'

F.

Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, &c,


Fig.

in the

group "Sv^- '> B' B-, id-, p. 7, is uncertain; perhaps it is "|* "iv ~f {->'/"), a word for rich
l

83;

11.

If. ,

iii.,

figs.

102,
tail,

103.

Piece
spines
spines,
;

of

crocodile-skin,

from

the

with

food (fatlings
for det.

?),

which in N.K. has

this sign

or in the third example, offish-skin with

from the hack of the

fish.

This

is

apparently the " crocodile's tail" of Hwapollo,


<2>
[Cf. B. II.,
iii.,

fig.

29.]

Goose or duck

plucked.

According to Borchardt, a suggestion of Schafer's that the sign represents a heap of


i.,

70.

24

Discussion ov the ^igns.


is

charcoal from which flames issue,

confirmed

less

snake.
1.

In the Gnostic papyrus of Leyden


21) of about the second century a.d.,
of

by the ancient examples. This explanation would account for the meaning ''black," lem,
but
it

(p. xvii.,

the
det.

"gall," shy (selchy)


ussi

=^=_(j(]

///

(with

is

not confirmed by our facsimiles.


for =
is

or ^=^)
a slug,

is

prescribed, and this cannot


gall.

Word-sign
phon.

lem,

probably not used as

apply to
fore

which has no

It

is

there/'//,

word (J^lzdIx, var. (W ylcm (akem), meaning "shield," which occurs constantly on M.K. coffins, &c. Not improbably
There
a
the crocodile plates, or
fish
!)

certain that at that time the H

no

doubt our *^~f, was considered Borchardt states that on the


(M.K.) at Berlin, the
$^.
is

to be a cerastes.
coffin

of

Antef

scales,

were

regularly figured

known by
"shield."
Jem.

the same name,

;.,

ylcm {ahem),

with a forked tongue; so here again


the cerastes.
It

we have
after
all

This would account for the value


(]

Cf.

to

>= the ^K

J =
value J
//,
iii.,

ybh (dbeh), " tooth," giving


J

seems,

therefore,
cerastes,

that

the

*^=

bh

represents the
artist

and that the Theban


PI. 62),

(Prisse, Mons.,

ii.,

seeing a slug

[!'

fig.

21.]

Green
is
;

lizard.

ascending a stem, noted


*u^_,

its

resemblance to the
for

The name
/ml', or

of the lizard
fully, hnfy'io.
r

>\

(-'^\>)

and drew

it

in the

manner prescribed
to

more

that.

Perhaps a confusion between the slug


the
cerastes
led

"Word-sign for -*<=>\

(asha),
in

"numerous,"
which
it

and
(ii.,

Herodotus'

account

presumably from the numbers


found anciently.

was

74) of a small, harmless, twodiorned serpent.


to

which was sacred

Zeus (Amen)
is

at Thebes.

Figs. 16, 173.

A
snake, often

slug,

Avion ater,

recorded

from

Egypt,

with

according to Mr.

Edgar Smith of the British

green band below the throat.

Word-sign

for

^ L,
perhaps
trans,

z%
X., for
to

"serpent," written
11.

"^

in

Pyr.

703,

!J55.

&c, which
viper,
in

stands

the the

Echis
uraeus.

or

contradistinction

By

phon.

used also as word-sign for the "body,"


:

Museum. In ancient times it may have been more common in the gardens of great houses and in the marshy lands. From the earliest period we meet with p^ 3 probably "rock or mount of the *,- ," as the name of the Xllth nome of Upper Egypt. This
,

^,
for

27(,

'

eternity," &c.
z.

expression implies

serpent rather than


of
Q=a
,

a slug.

Alph. for

Opposite the
jp}

nome

on the east of the


y
,

The group
]Zt III'

(in

which

fig.

16 occurs)

is

ab.

Nile, lay the Xlllth, that of

on the west

k<^$
;

zd mdw,

"say words/'
69.

of the river,

and beyond
the

this the

XlA r th, which


in'If
lb;.,
is

was of the same name.

Late inscriptions
of
,/tf

^^
Cerastes

Figs.
(?).

35, 151
Slug
ii.,

B.

II.,

iii.,

tig.

dicate
(atcf),

that or

reading
:]-_

l^"
(see

(?).

This animal, according


62 (reproduced
in
//.

perhaps

(at*-/)

to Prisse, Mons.,
iii.,

PI.

//.,

D. G., p. 6).

But probably, on the analogy


divide
this

of
i-i

p. 23),

was capable of creeping up the stem


animal
it

f^
(afrf),

we should
and
the

into

\t

of a water-plant, and should therefore be a sing

to
many

ancient
(?)

reading
of the

may

have

which

hears
a

considerable

reas

semblance
without

or

been

)&-- "Perch

*__," like
(?)
'/'.,

perhaps

snail
it

represented

its

shell.

But

also

resembles
the

(]1\
in

~^\,
\N,

which probably means "Perch


'''

points

the

cerastes,
d,

with
in

-'horns"

of the
I.

''"'

griffon

vulture (Pyr.

immensely exaggerati
Todt., cap.
1"><>

and
it

the vignette- of
a

76).

*^_ appears
'jo ollt.

also in the late hieroglyphs


enter.'

(Nebseny),

varies with

horn-

REPTILES SBELLS;
Alph. for/.
Especially

common

as represent-

which one may guess


'

to
I.e.,

mean

" to be flexible,"
is

ing the suffix of third pers. sing. masc.

This

to

be jointed," and

lxxviii., 9,

worm,
flesh.

be derived from fy, the name of the cerastes, but as the name fy occurs only in the
value
latest

may

apparently living in n qWrsi, Possibly the centipede shared

human its name


1.

with

period,

that

name may be only

a late

any worm or grub.


J

In Pyr. W.,

329, &c,

derivative from the /value.


In the
j

Hsss*

,sy;

is

the dead body, perhaps in connexion

common groups
=>,

reading
earliest

with the articulated skeleton, or perhaps with


the idea of the chrysalis.
Cf.
~|

yt (at), "father,"

and found from the

ft for the

times as variants of
the v.

\^ (Ekm., Gram., 31),


/',

body,

'

'

h^t (cha't) for the corpse.


that of

The
3Hffi,
P

root
o

may

be considered as the suffix

used

must not be confused with


Sj,

<=

redundantly for some cause or other, perhaps to


give the

t.

nome.

word

more
it

distinctive

appearance.

On
true

the other hand,


id.

may

be regarded as a

&
shell
I'n in,
I'l.

Fig.

72

B.

II.,

hi., fig.
;

33.

bivalve

or det., possibly from some superstition

of variable

form

in

O.K. generally a

connected with the cerastes or slug.


the plural of the

In N.K.
fathers."

a hue example being in


In Pyr. N.,
1.

Mar., M. Ik,
has scalloped
Professor
the:

word

is

often
',

(1

*^_ "

94.

1136,

it

There
(at

edges,
is

and

is

presumably a

sea-shell.

also a variant j>\

l|c-^-,o<= yt ntr

Maspero has noticed the resemblance of


neter),

"divine father," as
of a
1.

the

name
(Pyr.

or

sign to the fans used for fanning flame (Rev.


Arch., xxxii., p. 27); but

description
1.

kind

of clothing

M.,

though the form

in

118;

/'.,

94), for

thus indicates that

j^ w. (N., 1. 57), which ^=_ may sometimes actually


Perhaps
(1

B. H.,

iii.

may

suggest this identity, the colour

does not, nor do I


sign in which
it is

know

of

any instance of the

be read
serpent,"
just as

!|

yt

(at).

=u=_, the yt
(at),

"fy

(?)

furnished Avith a handle such

represented

" father,"

as is invariably found with the fan.

>N, the raer-vulture (see above) repre^s-

The name of the


shells

shell is

not known.

Pearl

sented AN. n,

Q m't, " mother."

engraved with the names of kings are


dating from the

One may perhaps derive the phon. value /


for

found

Xllth Dynasty, and


ruins, Sec,

from the suffix of the third pers.

sing,
" to

were evidently valued,

are

comtitle

masc,

/,

supposing the symbol for " father

mon among
~~1

prehistoric remains.

In the

be taken as representative of " he," " his."

Cf.

sw, p. 29,

and

s,

p. 45.

"V I tendent of horns, hoofs, feathers, and shells,"

(j^j we may perhaps read "superinof metals one sees a similar

and
Fig.

in

some names

98.

The

bulti

(Chromis
fish.

nilotictus),

sign.

But

here, as so often,

we

are in

want

of

the most delicate of the Nile

facsimiles to settle the identity.

The example
fish

is

taken from a group of three


kinds,

of different
=

used as word-symbol
it

The sign is regularly found at all periods in the word o\ \-^ hawt (Tchawt), "altar," and
perhaps only in this word; but
of
it is

for

^ rm'w,
;

"fish," in which

takes the
is

a peculiarity
is

place of honour
variable.
yn't (dn't),

but
is

this

position
1

not in\ <-

the

Pyramid

Texts

that

(x

in

them

The
and

bulti
is

named (l'^ ^,
/WVAA
Q i-

used very commonly, not only as a word-sign,

phon. for

yti

(an).

but also as phon. equivalent to T for o


(kha),

and apparently
It
is

for

alone

in

many
a very

^==<

Fig. 45.
for
,
.

A
is

centipede (Myriapod).

words. In
late

not so found again

till

Word-sign
Pap.
Eh.,

-*- a

\
a

sp

(sepa)

and

sp.
:x-

period.

From

its

special
it

use

in

spelling

11,

verb

the

word

for 'altar,'

would seem that the

26

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


was called
//

she]]

V/

rather than h'

on the

commonly a
/>'.

special
viii.,

form,

=>,

is

found, e.g.

other hand, the

name

of the lotus leaf,

T h%

is

II.,

i.,

PI.

and

in

many

symbolical

probably derived from the same root, on account


of
its

representations, apparently indicating the succession of years

shell-like outline

or

vice versa.

by an

artificial

multiplication of
(u) or
(/<)

the buds

upon the
(r)

shoot.

Whether
is

were derived one from the other


to say.
It
is

difficult
=>=>

also
('/'.,

word-sign for
1.

rr,

G.
s=r^-

Trees, Herbs, Grasses, &c.

written j
tree

in

Pyr.
" to
tr,

63;
"
;

P.,

1.

162), pro-

Fig. 170.

Trunk or branch

of

bably meaning

renew

and

(</)

word-sign

cut

down and roughly trimmed.


~),

or det. for ^ <=

"season of year," "time of

Word-sign for ^7% o^hf (khet)(with radical

day," written
value,
tr.
1.

^
j

also phon. for the

same
,

"wood," "timber," "tree."


for

Used by phon.

then written
(<?)

(once perhaps
it

N.,

many

other words, including the pseudo^\fi nht, "strong,


of objects

975).

After O.K.

began
-=11.

to be written

derivative(?)

"strength.

after

any word ending

in

This value

is

Det. of

wood and

made

of wood.

apparently derived from

(e),
ft

the ancient
:

==,
j
,

which now sounded <z=> j ry (rd) ^ <=> was thenceforth written


|

ancient
(1

to

Fig. 57.

Pod

of carob bean

('?).

correspond.
is

In Sign Pap., p. xvii., no. 2, this


as T

described
In
tree."

N.K. there was great confusion

in the use

1\

^X ~w

"

pod of the nzm

nzm means "sweet," "pleasant" of flavour, odour, &c., and is the word-sign value of this pod, the latter must be the pod of the

As r-,^

{
[B.

1-

II., iii., fig.

ID.]

Herb.

The form
fait

is

very variable in early times.

Of the present
il

carol)
lire,

bean,

as

has

been

de Trav., xv., 114.

shown by Loret, The sign is used also


1

example M. Loret remarks, "


une fleur nee a mi-hauteur de
par exemple Yacorus."
In

penser

in

spelling the

pseudo(?)-derivative

jA
|

la tige,

comme
xv.,

Medum, PL

we

s'rvzm, "sit on a chair."

have a single stalk terminating in four short


shoots irregularly spreading from the top.

Fig. 69.

Graphic compound of

with

iName,
to as a
I<U

"^

\t

hit,

a marsh-plant, referred
in

the phon. <^=>.


the
first

The former seems

to represent

sprout from a root or seed with a bud

type of greenness
p. 23,

Pyr.

'/'.,

1.

100

cf.

I!., ii.,

Pap. Wb

and T.
Ini.
is

el Y., PI.

xxv.,

at the side.
11.

1(5,

The first element symbolizes (1) yearly growth, and so years and renewal (2) seasons, since the
;

21

Phon. for
(?)

Another name
ft

for

the same
(as)

marsh-plant
p.
;

II
\

\f[,

p-

<Towth of vegetables took place after the humdatioii,

ys

(Br.,

Wtb. Suppl,
i.,

14;

Pap.

fib.;
<[

and at other regular seasons by help of Its value- are, then-lore, (a) wordirrigation.

Maspero,
is

Ef. Eg.,

p.

237)

for this value

used with phon. trans., and stands alone by


tovys,

sign,

>->

rnp,

"grow
j

all.

freshly,

vigorously,"
\

"old" (AW/,

Pap.,

PL

xx., 24).

generally written

in

early

texts.

mp't
as

Det, of herbaceous plants, and of leaves anil

probably
offering.
(//)

means "young
This
value
=
<-%

twigs of trees.

vegetables"
be

an

may

derived

from

word-sign
in

<=

rnp't,

"year," Copt.
rarely

y
p. 1

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

83.]

Flower
j/
^

(?).
_",
//.

puune, [^,
(L., P.,
ii!,

dates

j^, more
1.

116a; Pyr. N.,

754).

Q, j Not unj

The geographical name,


85, has the variant

//.,

i.,

si
,

z.

i' 1

B.

If.,

i.,

PI. vii.

FLOWEBS AND SEEDS.


(with
the

27

god

Chnem).
Boyales,

In pp.

XXIst
713-4)

Dyn.
occurs
is

l'<^ y (a)

of the

reed

{Pap.

Eb.,

xlix.,

2;

(Masp.,

Momies
o

Loret, Bee. de
word-sign
it is

Tr., xiii., 199).

Transferred as a
I

(with the god Amen).

This sign
=

often writ ten


0(1(1

therefore the frequent word-sign p for


"flourish."
It is also

rd
c

and the plural


spelling

yv)

("'")
!)

is

y (a) in Pyr., transferred to


(an), " to

word-sign

for 1^,-j

-=-

the

auxiliary verb

\ yv

(mar), "successful" ; later, ^_a=.=.

m rd
c

(with-

be"
(a).

(Setiie, A. Z., 1897, p.

out
also

=,

Sh., Eg. [use,


is

ii.,

PI. 83,

1.

11).

Probably
/<y/[r],

Kah. Pap., xix.,

11.

Alph. for y 59, &c, suggest that


6).
is

it

p,

the word-sign for j

<-* <=>

the root of the


this value

name

of

really

y\ and
;

for

"sweet."
Fig.

may sometimes
are
doubtful.

be phon.
Cf.

but the
s.v.

indications

below,

108.

Three curiously-shaped bands,

Initial

l)

seems generally to have been reduced


J

apparently garlands, strings or chains of white


flowers, tied together at the top.

to the

sound of

(alif),
it

and

tin

nigh "\\

is

never

Such garlands

substituted for
is

in

good writing,

in early texts

are frequently represented as offerings, &c, on

constantly omitted altogether, even in cases


in the Coptic.

the

monuments
el

of the

N.K., and remains of

where y reappears
stances perhaps
it

In such
in

in-

such have been found on the N.K. Deir


Bahri, &c.
for
"!..,.

mummies

of

had been preserved


official

some

popular dialects, while in the


ms, meaning
it

language

Word-sign and phon.

was reduced
the

to alif.

" produce" children, " form" images, &c.

Pro-

After O.K. 00 appears to have been


for
H

used
it

bably these elaborate garlands made of white

ij

at

end of words, but


probably

in

O.K.
to

woven of separate petals, were named ms, "the artificial" as opposed to the simple flowers. At Medinet Habu, in the time of Rameses II. and Rameses III. (Dum., Opfi rfestliste, passim), they are named
flowers,

or

occasionally appears (e.g. in

y\^)
is

mark

the

dual,

where

dual

(H\*

ywi

V/), and so stood for the dual ending wi.

O
floor.
ii.,

Figs. 32, 87.

Corn on the threshingL.,


!>.,

for

which Pap. Mar.,


-

i.,

73,

1.

has a variant
is

With
top.

fig.

32 compare Methen,

jj^TT

'<[,

k J
that msb

rtisb.

This

evidently

5,

The simple form

is

commoner.

connected with the word


Is it possible
is

sb, " bring," " offer."

It

appears to represent a circular heap of corn,

a late word, due to

or a circular floor covered with grain and sur-

a false etymology deforming an original


ms, "artificial garland"?

name

rounded by a wall of bricks or of sheaves.


It

may

be doubted whether the animals were


;

For construction of garlands


fuktii, Ueber

see

SchweinBot.

driven round the outside of the stack


scenes (e.g. Paheri,

the

Pflanzenreste, Deutsch.
p. 353.

Ges.

PL
the

iii.)

and the sign

BericMe, 1884,
Fig. 106.

rather

indicate

that

animals trampled a

central space surrounded


(1

by heaps

of corn in

Reed-head
is

with, flower (Calamus).


;

the ear

(v.

Addenda).
for
-*- o

The present example


shoAvn
in
;

a poor one
xi.,

detail

is
i.,

Word-sign

xjrt,

which often means

Hal inn,
of

PI.

&c.

B.

H.,

"what
remains
liquid.

is

spared" from

destruction,

PI. xxviii.

see also Ch., Mori., cexxi., 79, for

"

of an infusion after boiling

"what down the

representation
for

reeds
"

flowering.

<

!f.

This sense can easily be connected with

Po.a

sht (selchet),

meadow," and

p^

sm,

the grain that remains on the floor

"herbage," where
heads.

probably stands for grass

and chaff have been eliminated.


this
is

when straw But though

probably the radical sense of the word,


it

The reed-stem, or

its

head,

is

named

the

in

scenes of farm-life

occurs rather with the

28

DISCUSSION OK
that
is

Till:

SIGNS.
In the present

meaning of the corn

to he threshed.

In

a zigzag,
to
lie
a,

instance

it

seems

tombs of the Vth and Vltli Dynasties we see


sheaves of corn with short stalks, brought from
the field on asses and thrown into heaps, with

papyrus stem.
for
(as
, /i

Word-sign
Probably ?=>
DO
I

\
J

^^
,

wdn (uden), "heavy."

opposed to
illiii,

^= ^=\
)

j,~^,

the inscription

^JP Q
like
II.,
i.,

or

which must

^>

jihr

(pelchw),

wdb

mean something
floor."

"preparing the threshing,"

(ml, -It), qb,

with the general sense of "curve,"

"heaping the corn," or "preparing the threshingin FA


PI. xxxi.,

&c),

signifies

where a troop of
on a raised heap,
fits

weight.

crushed or bent down by its own Also in the sense of " offering," wdn
pile

asses are treading out the corn

seems

to

have the radical meaning of "


"present
in

up

"

the inscription (on fragment 12, which


is

to 2)
"

offerings,
for

abundance"
(pestle
J

(cf.

p. 32,

S'll Used by rad.

lX D

"Ashing
1

the

same
a

idea).

and mortar), and


weight,

the p-* by
trans, as sp.

distinctly

sign
\

of

crushing
in all its

ext.

and phon.

frequently replaces

meanings.

Pool with ffi [B. II., i., PI. xxviii.] The poo] may he either oval or flowers.

lotus
rect-

three papyrus stems.

Fig.

143;
for

II.

II., iii.,

fig.

16.

Clump
II.

of

angular;

there

may

be buds alternating with

Word-sign
p. 9, for

1/

(h) see

If.,

iii.,

the flowers, and the flowers the water, or


PI.

may

almost rest on

a possible explanation

and
for
II., w"
iii.,

phon. for

may have
in

long stems (Medum,

the same.
It
is

xix.); but

good instances the flowers

sometimes substituted

as wordI.e.),

always have serrated edges, indicating the petals


of lotus.

sign for
()=s.f

JJ

Dih,

"north"

(/'.

for

This raises the question whether the


lotus,

ydh (ddh), "papyrus marsh," and


(dakh). " be verdant."
11
1 1 1

for

f\\

Nelumbium, or Indian
the water,
its
is

which

rises

out of
;

i/li

(The name of the

i-.

not sometimes represented

but

papyrus
I

is

AWW

ft

A.

\\J

mult.)

absence from Egyptian water-scenes appears


In Pyr.
]'.,
1.

to prohibit this explanation.

440,

Fig. 125.

Papyrus stem, highly conventhe

the flowers on the


det.

2^
(|

are termed nhb'wt, with

tionalized

as usual,

a lotus-flower,
in

W.

The word-sign
is

J5

compact

(see

II. II. , iii.,

umbel represented as pp. 9 ct seqq.; Bokchardt,


scales at the base.
ir'z

found

Pyr.

for

\s

"verdant," probably
therefore

Pflanzensaule, pp. 25

et *< j </</.);

represents papyrus, not lotus, and


distinct

Word-sign
"flourishing."

for
]

\ "^

(uan), " green,"


is

from
=>
7

this.
J

Wert, "the green,"


the

the

Name,
J/.,
1.

(sha),

cf.

Pyr.

I'.,

1.

440, with

name

of

the

goddess of

North (Uazet,

ii"i(i

" lotus pools."


in

As

these were most

Buto), of

whom

the I was probably the symbol.


it

important items
J

gardens, the

name became

almost synonymous
&c.

with "garden," " vineyard,"

As an amulet or symbol it is named w 3z, and is commonly placed in the hand of goddesses
especially
in

Phon. for

Ptolemaic

times

probably
mh'ti,

as

emblem
fe= Fig. 54;
stem, bent hack
II.

of

freshness.
7-1'Z

The N.K. combination


" the

//.,

iii.,

fig.

58.

A
The
or

(lowerobjecf

ft

often stands for

two lands (South


"south,"

on

itself

twice.

and North)," or as
"north."

adj. for

rs'i,

depicted varies,
sign
is

but the
the

general

form of the

always

same

stem

band

bearing some kind of head, and invariably benl


in

^
In

Fig.

66;
.1/.,
1.

II.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

17.

Highly

much

the

same way.

In

Pyr. sometimes

il

conventionalized rush
Pyr.

(?).

ha- the form of a lotus hud, with stem benl

in

239

A.,

1.

616,

it

is

stated

RUSHES,
that a large sack or basket,
=>

&c.

29

with handle for


is

1.

12).

Ii'

this reads sio't


i.e.

swti,

it

would per-

" transport,"
<=>

^*

yV

(i/nr),

made
(of.

of
Lat.

haps mean '-feather,"


1 (?)";

"plume-head, of the

^Gt*

/WWW B salix "osier"!),

twn {tun), "the springy"

otherwise

it

would mean "king's plumes,"

and the "containing" nei-basket


i.e.

as a plant-name.

The plant
If

occurs
texts,

in

^^
-s -\

(q.v.)

of 4>4-~ *"<[ ""/, "the limp,"


non-resilient

Todt., xcix., Einl., see the

M.K.

Maspero,

almost

certainly the

rush,

II

/WWW /&

from
this

Trois Annees, p. 1G3, &c.

any of these words

"be weary,
n,

motionless."

From
;

read swt, they

may be

the origin of the phon.

name comes
its

the word-sign value mi

to avoid
it

value sw of 1, in good writing always distin-

reduction to

and to distinguish
it
is

from

guished as

*K,
of

the

next value, nhb,


-1-4

in this case

always
I

written

The King
,
i

Upper Egypt

is

designated
1

is

usec^ * s P e ^ the pseudo('r)T -www


I

causative

p /- <~>

inn, "image," &c.

generally abbreviated
also transferred to the

to

stn

or

The ancient name

of El

Kab

is

^sj
1

Nhh
J

stni.

is

homophonous

(Nekheb), usually spelt with this sign,

f-

<* r~*

w stni, " butcher."

R
1

/www

QS

stn,

as the

Perhaps the rush {Juncus maritimus


in the desert valleys behind

?)

was found

name
origin

of the

crown of Upper Egypt, has


late texts,

as yei

El

Kab, and so

been found only in


of

but might be the

symbolized the
reinforced

city.

After O.K. the group was


J.

the

nisbe
I

or
is

adjectival
to be read

form
stn,

stni,
is

by the vase O, thus


This group
is

9, J

OJ
name
1.

unless the above

and

possibly referring to

some other product


is

of the

thus

its

early equivalent.
to

If this be

the case,

place (natron?).

always written
of

we have
1 v\

seek elsewhere for the origin of

with the

and

only found in the

=
is

sw.
in the

conspicuous example
sic,

of

this

the city and the derived

name
(v.

of

its

presiding
7C>2,

value

word
the

"he," absolute pronoun


;

goddess, the vulture Nekhebt

Pyr. M.,

of third pers. masc. sing.

possibly the

king
Cf.

for the spelling), except that in very late times

was taken

as

"He"

par

excellence.

the
1. J

tall

rose-lotus

Nelumbium

(?)

was
its

called

$~

perhaps symbol of " father," representing

by confusion, on account of
j nhb.

name

the suffix " he," " his."

/-> |

As
to

the vulture-goddess Nekhebt was repreof the South, the resemblance of


-4-j
1

^
peu
a

\B.

IL,

iii.,

fig.

20.]

Sedge. (Scirpus).

sentative
.

Loret remarks: "L'identifioation du *L*approehe

and

is

very remarkable

compare the
in particular

peu de

la verite.

C'est bien,

en

effet,

une

quotation from Plutarch by Loret (in the next

graminee a
j'y verrais

epillets

roux.

Au
le

lieu de scirjms,

column), which

may

perhaps refer

un juncus, parceque Plutarque nous


sud et
le

to the present sign.

enseigne que, pour designer

Eoi, les

Egyptiens dessinent
Fig.

un jonc
et
to
is

{dpvov).

Pourtant

109.

The plant-symbol

of rule in

il

pu confondre un jonc
36.

un

scirpus."
Tside
et

The

Upper Egypt. The symbol


I.

reference to Plutarch
is
P

De

Osiride,
II.,
iii.,

perhaps

named 1, Kah. ^ ^ swt cf. also a


;

Pap.,

PL hi., similar word


" serfs
(?),"

cap.

Since the publication of B.

Borchardt has supplied some

interesting
in

re-

in

I.e.,

PL xxxiv.,
L.,

1.

10,
3,

and
6,

%^
J
i i i

marks on the plant of Upper Egypt


excellent
p. 20.

his

Methen,

D.,

ii.,

probably to be read

work Die Aegyptischen


for
a

Pflanzensaiile,

p$~*$
(T q\\iii r
}
i

swtiw

(su-tiu),

and

"
P

? in
(viii.,

Word-sign
written

\fcin Pap. 1

^R%Afl^ El,=l t /ww^ r _a ii mi

^ -j
for

y///

(qema),

"south

country," "south," with phon. transf., frequently

in

the corrupt writing of Anastasi IV.

-^

and

<=> -P-

*, adj.

"southern,"

30

DISCUSSrON OF THK SKINS.


=L, i.e.

frequently written JL, also

with

which

the

"kha

of earth,"

i.e.

the place on earth in

may

be the same plant before flowering.

which Ra (and the dead king likewise) purifies


himself, apparently before he rises into heaven, in the

morning

(?).

In the same

way

a temple

H.

Sky, Earth, and

Water.
coloured red

is

called the
his

(m s, o

j|

1i

ij

(khdy) of a god,

i.e.

resting-place

on earth, to which he

Fig. 10.

The

sun's

disk,

descends and whence he also ascends.

thus

and edged with yellow.

seems to represent pictorially the effulgence of

Word-sign
the Sun-god

(1) for <=>-a

(L'a), the

name
alone

of

the sun at the point

where he

rests

on earth.

in
is

Pyr. usually written

and no doubt of the sun


s
i

O
itself.

(Though the "kha


nothing

of earth" as a place for the

sun-god's purification by ablution


it,

may

suggest

nli

(rd neb)
lit.

common
(2)

phrase for " every


ra<=

else bears

out the idea that

may

day,"

"each sun."
as

For

" day,"

opposed to night
(3)

\ hrw and also

(lira),

be intended for a rainbow.)


of this

The other

senses

as

word are

easily obtained

from the notion

measure of time.

In

dates,

days of the

of divine effulgence.

month
r

are denoted

by O,

in the Xlltli

Dynasty

Also

phon. for o

r
j>

//.

(kha), but probably

often written
,

n, with the geographical det.

not before the

XlXth Dynasty.
Star of five points, the present
at the centre
;

as indicating limited time.


is

In Coptic the
~k

corresponding word
in late

cor, a word often found

Fig. 31,

Egyptian texts as

1^0,

(.

O
,

s s'"'
'

example having a disk


here look broad and

the rays

(sesu), for the

day of the month.

This word

solid,

existed at a fairly early period (111


in

and are marked with

plu.
for

transverse lines at intervals, like the tire-stick,


fig.

Paheri,

PI.

ix.,

1.

4,

meaning " dates

42.

festivals"),

and Erman has suggested recently

that

it is

the true reading for

(1)

The

name
(a

is

\\

as "

day of the

J*

sb,
(cf.

"star,"

lit.
i.,

"instructor," "guiding star"


1.

Siut,

Tomb

month."
Det. of words concerning the sun and times

264,

"I was

man), the guiding star (*


j
J

I)

of his equals, the director of those older than

and seasons, the sun being the principal regulator


of days, seasons,

he

").

Hence, being from the root

J
.s/*

and years.

(sba), it
(2)

was transferred

to various
is

words
</'

as sb

3
.

Another word-sign value

Figs. 37, 137.

^^\

('/"")>
lie-

semicircular

figure

"early morning" and "praise," apparently


cause to the Egyptians,

formed of half a disk and lour concentric bands


of different colours
fifth

blue,

who

retired into their

green, and red.

houses soon after sunset and rose before dawn,


stars

and cresting band, sometimes marked with


the
xv.,

and starlight were much connected with


morning,

radiating lines, does not extend to the diameter.


Cf.
l'ls.

jewelled
1
;

hieroglyph
i.

early

which was
thr
1

therefore
for
">

written
closely

in

Dahchour,

<|\

O-

To
is

the

word

is

xix..

similar,

and the representation of the star with


clearly connected

The meanings
(hhd)

of the word-sign
(cf.

S,

o _* 1/

five

points

with this cir-

not

-ji

Xe(f>pr)v

for

Cq

<

"]|

cumstance.

{''>)

The hours

of the night being

and Coptic

;-jai)

are

" royal
in

crown,"
(like

" to

be

crowned," "to appear


god), used of king or

glory"

the sun-

regulated by the stars, "hour," (muff), is written *.


)*r

<~*

<=>

iimwt

god coming

forth

from
'/'.,

is

also det. of stars

and of hours.

palace or temple.

Also we have

^
'

" {Pyr.
'(kha

1.36;

P.,

1.

387),

8-|i4

n ta),

r^/i

[//.

//.,

i.,

PI.

xxviii.

cf.

II.

II.,

iii.,

DESERT.
fig.

31

80.]

Hilly desert,

coloured to represent

chour, p.

10

1).

Traces of this value are seen

sand and rocks or stones.

also in late writing.


ii.,

Word-sign

for fV l^ r) q, L., P.,

3,

"desert,"
:

r^i

%> ^x^,

^\

dw, "

evil,"

is

read by some
its

" foreign land,"

and perhaps " foreign tribe "


,

o\

hie (Ichu),

apparently on the ground of

usually spelt
(L., D.,
ii.,
1

=
12tZ;

but rarely
J'.

v\

Q
sm't

varying in very late times with

/j^V!
o,

word
Z.,

of similar significance.
is

M,

however, in
so that

1874, 35).
10) sm-t

According
is

to

Ebman

late texts

often confused with A


is

(A. Z.,

1892,

the true
s

confusion with A"

not surprising.

The two

reading.

1\

in the

neighbourhood of
;

or s
spelt

words occur separately


and cannot
" evil,"
'

in the Prisse Papyrus,


(^)

seems curiously negligeable


with
L.,

cf.

smkt't

Y
D.,
i.,

be identical.
in
fact,

sk.
ii.,

For the
1006
;

title

mr
ii.,
'

sm'iot
PI.
.

compare
with

y>^^
,

"worthless,"
to
l
i

is,

of allied

7?.

H.,

xxiv.,

meaning

"desert," "mountain," which had


evil significance to the agricultural

always an

7i. 7/.,

tomb

in.,

passim

v^

III/

mind

of the

Another word
(Ifhnslrhct),

for desert

is

ifc^

'

^^"i

Egyptians.

In the

Kahun

calendar (Kah. Pap.,

Mar., Must.,

188, which

may

be

quite distinct from


in Pyr. (with

<h,

"vx

r^A h 3s't

(Ichas't)

PL xxv.), and elsewhere, red ink was employed in writing the word c^i "\\ %^> "evil (day)."
Red, the colour of sand, as opposed to black, the
colour
of alluvium,

).

It is possible that
is

one or

other of these words


for

an occasional reading

was considered ominous,


its

fwn and we have


,

as yet

no certain reading

evidently on account of
sterile desert, c^i, rv^n
,

connexion with the

for the sign as word-sign for " foreign tribe

the haunt of demons.

(P.S.B.A., 1897, 297).


Dot. of desert, foreign lands, kc. (as opposed
to the alluvial land of Egypt).

50. expanse of sandy


cum
Fig.

x\

narrow oval ridge


c^_i.

or

desert, coloured as

"We

may
r^i

probably consider this sign as representing

Fig.

38.
with

A
red

desert mountain, showing


crests

(1) a

sandy island in the river;

(2)

an island

a valley between two


variegated

(pinkish
;

yellow
at

of sand appearing through the alluvium, such


as the

for

the stones

the

Arabs

still

call gezireh

(3)

any sandy
island,"

base a line of green to indicate


Cf.

fertile

land).

ridge or expanse.

Medum,

Pis. xiv., xxviii.,

and

p. 30.

As n

As word-sijm we have
which varies
(dwt),

it

in

(fertile

ground) means a "slope," "height," so


mountain, was chosen to represent

in late times with

^^
;

\\^ ft
this
is

c=3, a desert
hill

and so perhaps reads


in

(da)

or rock, while q^i, a kind of plural form,

common word

Egyptian geography

for islands

stands for "desert"; but in the earliest instances

both in sea and river, and so probably denotes


also sand-islands in the alluvium.

{Medum, I.e.) like two n

C^i

is

more
is

like

two

hills

and

less

^ ^\
,

Det. or

id.

of

zw

(::n),

"mountain," "hill,"
worthless" (see below,
it

^
a

= c2), 4&o-~
dual
or

y'tyt

(dahh't),

"horizon";
is

the

adjectival

" rock,"

lit.

"the

evil," "

form
tion,

ad

fin.).

Sometimes, however,
lit.

seems to read
;

commonly

written =?^ by abbrevia-

" the two horizons," each horizon being


ideas.

^ r^
hill,"

mm, " rock,"

common

" the firm (?) " e.g. the " upon his (?) title of Anubis,

sandy desert according to Egyptian

In

@
I

O.K. the sign


districts

is

common

det. of

names of

or " upon the


(j

hill
,

of the

*e=

(q.v.)"

is

and places, probably on account of


sandy
districts or

^^ A *^ rendered by f
in the

k-

\\

ftpirmyf,

their being in

connected with

remarkable inscription of Auabra (Duh

a Deltaic gezireh.

Early towns in the Delta

32

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


Later,
it

were founded on such "islands."

be-

also

as

phon. for
for

\
ra

(as

and RJ similarly
for

came

det.

of certain specific localities only, as

served

in the present case,

where

it

is

used with

Ta-zeser, the sandy

domain of Anubis
phon. at the beginning

\, and reasons), and required no other though combinations with al


.

a^

and

the

same
with
very

biliteral
\,

are

the dead.

numerous.
,

On

the other hand, the alphabetic


?

In

N.K

is

characters k^_, ~w^ <c=> and c=^a

show no
was
so

trace

of words, apparently for

\\

(da).

of such a use, their derivation implying no

the combination of these with


Cf. Fig.

rare

14.
c

Apparently compound
i

id.

that no phon. was needed for


(Cf.
fig.
is

it.

of the sand-island
It

and the water-line .

seems not to occur before N.K.

71.)

Two

heaps of provisions.

Word-sign
of the god

for

(I
1

Ymii (Ampii), the


/VWV\<\

name
in-

This group

treated here because in the

Tomb

Amen

in late times.

Perhaps

of Paheri, according to a copy by Miss Pirie,

dicates nni, "firm,"


lioti
(fern.),
it is

by combining /(?)"/, Coptic "island," and n. In very late

the two a in colour


as
fig.

ftA

71

same form and taken from the same line


are of the
iii.,

times

used for

Nhn.
Flat alluvial land,

of inscription (Paheri, PL
L.,

cornice-line).

In
of

=
are

IK,

ii.,

103a,

we

see

a heap

of coi*n

[/.'.

IF., ill.,

fig. 9").]
ii.,

precisely the form of a.

coloured black (L, P.,

20), later blue.

Often

In

Pyr.
JA

?\
'

" ea t "
ii'iini

varies
(iinewi)

with
;

^"
>WW^

HA
CJi

=^=, with three grains

c (q.v. p. 34),

indicating

A
A,
5U (?)

and
to
<U

the sand underlying the alluvium.

These grains
in

A A

is

wrongly

called

"3
1.

pits (or

caves)"

used
the

as

phonetically

equivalent

wnm
(?),

Sign Pap.,

p. xiv.,

4.
(ta),

(unem), another form of the loan-word

(1
I

Word-sign
soil" (e.g.

for

~\ f

/WWW

"earth," "black
"alluvial
land."

]W,

ijiuii

(amen), "right hand," " West" (Ebman,

under the

nails),
t' (/").
""-j
<=>

A.Z., 1893, pp.82, 127; 1894,67).


later history of this

For the
Be-

In late times phon. for

By

id. trans., det.

of

z%
(//.

" eternity," as
//., iii., p.

word

see

JV,

p. 37.

being of unbounded horizon

30).

sides the word-sign value,

^
J

is

also in Pyr. det.

of

wsb (usheb),
c
J

sb,

" provisions,"
It
is

and of J

*>

/<

//.

(bah), "

abundance."

A
in

Fig.

71.

Mound
P.,
ii.,

of earth

(not desert),

therefore

id.

of eatables,
its

abundance of provisions;
clearer
it is

natural or artificial; coloured black, like

but to make
Pyr.,

meaning

usually, in
flA

O.K.

(L.,

21), later

green or grey.

accompanied by auxiliary
in

dets.,

or

Desert slopes are represented with similar outline

vjO,
signs.

manner very unusual with other


of the heap
is

but different colour, as


If., iii., p.
.">,

fig.

60.

The doubling
4th
row, 3rd

not merely

In B.

this sign is derived


"
;

from
Pyr.
('/"")>

intensive.
ings,
t

In Ptahhetep,
col.

PI. xli., table of offer-

the

word
1.

Q
z)"\
,

" high ground


a

but

in

M.,

202, there
a

is

word

-4

]jk

1^ A

q"

from right, we have

1 \N

A A gswi

slnv(7),

"two

halves, or sides,

determined by
24, d (W),
it is

of sign like a,

provisions,"
II.,
i.,

which

may

be

explained

by

and
(][)

in L., P.,
J

iii.,

given as
place,"

^^

B.

PI. xvii.,

table of offerings,

2nd row,
sides

_/\, q y (qay),

9th

col.

from

left, />'/ n't

wdn wp

gS'ioi," food

meaning

" lofty

" pile,"

" eminence."

of heaped-offering divided into two


halves)."
stuff?

(or

The weak
betic

radical

is

neglected in the alpha-

mass of offerings

common
into

bread-

value q of /, but A seems to have served

was thus perhaps made

two heaps

WATEK.
on either hand of the recipient, and provisions

33

As
also
a
."-'7,

det., ~wvw

occurs apparently in the sense

were probably served in the same


plentiful feast in the earlier times,

way at any when abunconsidered.

of " level " in the

word

^1

" eternitv," written

"[
but in

Sometimes

this latter

may
I

be read

dance of fond was doubtless


In
L., V.,
ii.,

much

many

cases (Pyr., e.g. W., 521,

70, gs

is

determined by three heaps,


is

&c, and
it

in Ptahhetep, IT. xxxix.,

&c,

*%-

*"

^|

AAA

(for

the plural), the colour of which


that
of the

can only be explained as det. of level surface,

black, like
(I.e., ii.,

bread and of

&

=q

such as water always presents, like


(tn),

=>, <*\ V
p. 30).

G9).

"level land" (see B.

II., iiL,

The
to be

instances of this use are too


TOff Cf. Fig.

numerous

175 and
(?)

B.

II. , hi.,

Frontispiece.
lines

accounted for as due to the confusion of -w^

Land-area marked with rectangular


irrigation

for

and

in hieratic.
i.e.

canals

at

regular intervals,
lines,

the
s

/vww\

ends open or closed by


i.,

E^
i

three

*^w,

is

the

plural

word
In a

In El B.,
i

mir (in"), "water," later used as singular


p. 14,

PI. xxvii. 11, a plain rectangle


Ft=B3
,

perhaps

(Kim., Pluralbildung,

Gram.,

15).

an unfinished
latter.

seems to take the place of the


i.,
1.

In Siut,

Tomb
P

228, the

downward

few (pseudo-compound) words the sign which certainly better is phon. for m/io.

lines are oblicpie.

than
o

represents a rippled surface

is

also

Word-sign
(meaning?).

for

\- ~

sp^t,

"nome," "terri(zat't)

the regular det. of water and of liquids.

tory of a city," and for

^~\%.^'<=> zH't
p. 31.)

(See Kah. Pap.,


a

Det. of

(PTTTTT1

Fig.

90.

rectangular tank or arti;

nomes and of

_j>

" south country."

ficial

pool

(cf.

Medum, passim)
,

in

N.K. often

represented as empty, f=3 though in O.K. this

Figs.

12,

176.

Waved

line

of the
Cf.

may have

a distinct meaning.

The ordinary

surface of water, coloured black or grey.

printed form

nn

is

taken from linear hiero-

Medum, passim. The waved line


sentations

glyphic writing, in which the distinction of the


is

constantly seen in repreof water,

lank sign from other rectangular signs has been

&c, and seems properly to belong to the rippled surface, but


of jiools
it

reduced to two purely conventional strokes.

A tank, pool, or
whence
It is

lake

is

named

^, ^

s(she),
s.

became the sign of water


curved
stream

in general.

Thus,

this sign obtains its alphabetic value

while the

of

water

pouring
is

also det. of hut,

"pool," " pleasure garden

downward from
waved to show tomb of Methen
example,
of
its

the hand or from a vessel

(surrounding a pond)."

often smooth in early times, or only slightly

spiral flow
(L.,
/'.,

yet
4)

even in the
there
is

Fig.

58:

B. II, hi., fig. 88.

This

may

ii.,

an
a

be taken for a section of a water-channel with

being waved

like

as

running water, or a pond, or a transparent


vessel containing liquid, or a crucible containing

conventional representation of water.

The
distinct

single

^ww has not yet been found


sign.
It is
is

as a

word

used almost exclusively


in
is

molten metal, or the matrix in the ground into which the molten metal was run to form ingots.
In o-ood texts
rippled
(1)
it is

as alph. for n,

and n

an important element

often

xy, i.e.

with surface not

the words for water.

Thus

^\

Nw

(Nu)
iS

is

a form of the base period.

varies with

-^,

of pi (peh), which

"the

primordial

water,

y
1.

'

"stream of water."

In Pyr. A.,

132,

means a marsh or pool left by the inundation. But this use is not known before N.K.
(2) In a great

seems actually to be det. of the

latter.

number

of

words

it

is
I)

phon.

34

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.

for j

H\

by* (bda).

clue to the reason


J

may
J
1

used instead of

to denote the plural,

and

perhaps he found in the word


1

0^,
it

especially in Pyr.

-o

denotes the singular, in

Inj

(bda), "liquid abyss(?) of heaven," "acthereal

place of

(</.''.).

space," probably with the idea as

were of a

great lake or stream of aether in which the sun

and heavenly bodies

travel.
:

Or we may
is

prefer

I.

Buildings and their Parts.

the following explanation


called

There

a substance
det., it

J|^,
sun's

possibly,

from the
said

tional

Fig.

142;

B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

76.

Convenin

denotes transparent crystal, or perhaps metal.

figure

apparently
the

representing

The

throne
hi/
(1

in

heaven

is

to

be

summary manner
Word-sign
for

plan of a village with

cross streets within a circular enclosure.

Jfj^o
a sledge).

(bda),

"of

crystal (?),"

or

ada-

town or

city,

Det. of

mant, or J

v\

Jn

" smoothly gliding

" (like

names

of villages, cities,

and sometimes more


(Erm., Pluralbildung,

Heaven

itself,

or space,

is

widely of inhabited regions.

" the liquid stream " (Ptahhetej),


J

PI. xxxix.), or
is

The reading
p. 9),

is

/-~>.^ n't

" the crystal(?) aether."


'

There

also the

or perhaps better nn't.

The name

of the

ver

" vanish

\J^
(?),"

JJ|^:fe'
like

'*

by* (bda),

goddess
senting the

(////7(?), v. o), especially as

repreis

or " glide smoothly," like a sledge,

lower hemisphere
'in N.lv.
:

of

heaven,
it is

or perhaps

"melt"

metal.

Gliding and

written ?,
(Jr.,
1.

in Pyr.
11.

transparency, one or both of which ideas are

219),

].].^
cf.

(IF.,

289, 557),

included in the root by\ are both qualities of


liquid.

^^

(M.,

1.

455,

W.,

1.

239).

(3)

By

id.

trans.

principle in

T^L,

C stands for the female ^ T (= vulva); the reading


h*'t

Cf. Fig.

34.

Rectangular enclosure wall

with battlements, usually represented as Aery


narrow.

uncertain, perhaps

or hurt, or tt^Lyt
(cf.

(at),

which occasionally occurs

Kali. Pop., p. 6,
cle

"Word-sign for

j ynb
cf.

(dnb),

"fortified

and

for

examples see Loret, Rec.


^

Trav.,

enclosure wall," "wall";

Br., Wtb., Suppl.,


1.

xviii., 198).

It occurs in the det. of the


J

^^ in Pyr., and in ^ Jj,


Probably
its
it is

^\-

hrn't,

word "woman."
hm.

92, for variant with ynb, also Pyr. N.,


for rad. ext.

955,

from the

last

word

that
|

C obtains
^
little

very

common

Det. of " wall," and (in O.K.) of building.

value as phon. for

Fig.
Jjjjj

30
the

B.

IT., iii.,

fig.

62.

Palatial
this

Fig. 29.

Grain of sand, pebble, or

courtyard.

There are two main types of


first,

pellet (here coloured white,

and repeated

until

hieroglyph,
of
ITl,

modelled

on the
('/'/'')>

lines

the

number

indicates five).

In the compound

the second

on those of

each

sign =S5= for

=,

"earth," the grains, which


to denote the plural,

highly elaborated, as befits the sign of a royal


residence.
(1) (Type, fig. 30,

are three in

number

seem

to indicate the sand that

was known

to underlie

&c).

This

is

represented

the alluvium.

by the plan
seems to be word-sign for
"pellet," from
I/,

of a nearly square enclosure, the


is

At

times

^^

wall of

which

carried only half

way

along the

^>\

tj (tha),

"take," as
o o o

we
det.

front

and then turns in

at a right angle, enclosing


size,

speak of a "pinch" of anything,


of sand, pebbles,

is

an inner court, the outer court, of the same


being entirely open in front.

&c, and of

pellets.

It is often

The entrance of

BUILDINGS.
the inner court
wall,
is

35

at the inner end of the dividing

nected with the root


of land-area,

ra

"enter

, with det.

and in the front corner farthest from that

more

fullv written

[TJ

entrance stands the tower-like palace, | ('/.'') The enclosure wall and the tower are crested

h 'ft (hayt), is

perhaps the name of the outer

or entrance court indicated

by the

sign,

and so

with choker
p. 101), or

ornament,

(Petkie,

Dec.

Art,

the origin of
[Cf.

its

phonetic values.

with overhanging battlements.


is

The
often

tower
absent,

is

not essential to the figure, and


tyjf
;

B.

IL,

iii.,

fig.

5.]

Plan of rectbut seems to

03 m
> ,

which

it is

occupies

the

angular

enclosure,

without

battlements,
It

whole front of the inner court,


form.
\7 or

an exceptional

with small building in the corner. be a


less

^
J

for the

name

icslyt, is

commonly

grandiose form of
building, which

jFnjj

placed in the entrance.


(2)

The inner
O.K.,
is

is

type 2). (v. f|J, square in the early

Type
from

is

seldom found in the tables of


L.,

best explained as a tower to defend the


;

offerings (as

an exception see
right),
ii.,

D.,

ii.,

67,
in

entrance
xii.,
is

cf.

Maspero's valuable note (P.S.B.A.,


J

Gth

col.

but
63,

is

vary

common

247).

In good periods the narrow type

O.K.
it

&c, &c), though later This shows a comdoes not seem to occur.
titles (L., D.,
i

invariable, except in the

numerous cases when


inside the sign

names and words are written


it

plete rectangle, battlemented and containing a


clicker-topped palace in one corner, as well as
to the
left.
-

may

tben be enlarged horizontally into a

square or even an oblong, and the inner building placed in a top corner, or sometimes omitted
altogether, according as space
is

In

Pi/r. N~.,

1.

764, this sign has a

battlemented building in the corner, containing


,

required for

which

is

probably symbolic of the deity,


in

the sign or signs to be inserted.

though seldom used


cation.

O.K. with that


J,

signifi-

Word-sign
fied)

for
"

<*

hi, " fenced city," " (forti-

On

the

analogy of the

we may
is

Residence

of king, governor, or god.

consider that in this type the palace-tower

h't-ntr is a
all its

"temple," in the widest sense, with


In some of the cases
is

built over or near to the entrance (compare the

varied inhabitants.

position of the tower at Medinet


also there

Habu);

in jrpj

in

which the
J,

name

of the Residence
is J

written
det.

would probably be a private entrance


for

within

this

sign

probably only
"

of
,"

to the

tower through the adjoining wall.

the kind of place.

governor of a

Word-sign
broad,"

^po.^ wsh't (usekh't), "the " roomy," a name used perhaps not only
but also for a wide
its

seems to be the

title

of the principal sheikhs


citadel,

or lesser governors
fortified

having

or official

for the courtyard

hall.
1,

and garrisoned, Residences.

In

Pijr.

%^% with
is

variants (type

but

without the palace sign, never the


rectangle, type 2),
det. of
p

complete

Fig.

193;
the

B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

56.

Plan of

j sbh (seiekh),

the brick walls of a rectangular chamber, with

which apparently means " surround with protection."

entrance in

middle

of

the

long

side

Borchardt quotes with approval the opinion of


Steindorff, that

CI represents simply the

Avail

1T1

Fig.

146.

Plan of

nearly square

of a (roofless) courtyard.

Either explanation

enclosure resembling the |jy| (q.v., type 1), but plain, without battlements, cheJcer ornament, or

seems to
is

fit

the case.

The elongated type crm

a late invention to supply an alternative form

building shown within.

in grouping hieroglyphs.

The word which was


J

the origin of the biliteral

Word-sign
final
r.

for

o <=>

pr, "house," with


ext.,
is

weak
phon.
;

phonetic value ra^ h (lm) and the alph. value h


(see

When

used by rad.

or

n and

ffi

for similar usages),

is

probably con-

trans, for pr,

complementary <=>

added
n 2

and

36

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.

PARTS OF BUILDINGS.
apparently reckoned from his proclamation as
as
in

37

O.K., was
first
gj\

now no
to

longer

appropriate.

crown prince or king

(Setiie, A. Z., 1898, 64).

The
=|="

change was

Hr"^]).

and

then

At
sat

the
first

celebration
as

of

the

jubilee

the

king-

f\

began

to
-I-

be written in hieratic,

of

King of Upper Egypt on one the thrones, and then as King of Lower
;

and
into

easily

became

f\

$\

in

transcribing
- - Vjv

Egypt on the other see the figures in L., D., Navjxle, Bubastis, ii. ,115a; L., D., iii., lid
;

hieroglyphs.

The

group

thus

became the word-group


of
-jj-

for all the derivatives


(inn), viz.

p. 3 et seqq.

|^|j),

^>

k wn

"the eating
(v.

ulcer," " the devouring flame," &c.

Addenda).
originally
is

Fig. 191.

Perhaps a squared block of

It is

remarkable that

in

N.K.

A
|fjj,

building stone.
sign
is

(The exact provenance of


it is difficult
/////
-

this

only another spelling of

wnm

(see above),

uncertain, and
for

to identify.)

retained in religious inscriptions by the side of


-j-

Word-sign
det. of

(duer), "stone,'

and

names, &c, of stone.


Pis.

f\
iii.,

fo,
iv.,

as

if

different
;

word (Paheri,
it is

cornice line)

probably

to be

<4f

Figs. 78, 169.

Two

pieces of

wood

pronounced wnm, while the more popular word


is

crossed at right angles and joined.

In the O.K.

inn.

with equal arms,

={J=

(Methen, Ptahhetep).

In very late texts, in the group


inul a(iiiuhi),

^,

<-

=\
=$=-,

Word-sign
(ami), fern,

_bv ym't, pin. ym'w, "that which


in,

for

the adj. -

W,

-.

[Iml
is in,

"cattle,"

&c, -- replaces

owing

to its

form

in cursive writing.
\

derived from the preposition |^

" in."

The

The

original value,

>,\\
(1,

ijnii

(ami),
:

is

often

meaning suggests that the sign represents a


piece of joiner's work, the two bars being carefully fitted

distinguished by prefixed

thus

(j

4L- fj\^.

together with
is

a rebate, so being
jj

Figs.

88 105;
it is
I

B.

II., iii., fig.

41.

Wooden
For
the

" that

which
as

fitted or fixed in."

clamp.
(A. Z.,

In O.K.

a straight piece of wood.

But

was pointed out by Erman


cf.

The uses
the
early

of the

are difficult to define.

1893, p. 127,
accident
it

1894, p. G7),

by a curious

period

we may perhaps
its

give

was applied
:

also to quite a different

following statement of
(1)

uses
-

root, as follows

As
As

a numeral
<s=^~
n
I

ir

(no),

"one";
has the

In M.K. the verb wnm, "eat" (see ^), appears


in

often written
(2)

two fixed

spellings,
=$=> is

qA and HhOft-

^n

det. of unity.

From

this

it

cursive writing

identical with -[-,

and

in

following derived uses


a.

and
PI.

after
xxiii.,

the

Hyksos

period

(Math.
ii.,

Pap.,
of the
it is

In Pyr., to indicate a concrete meaning,


placed
M

but not Bui. Pap.,


is
;

after

the whole word, generally


lift (khtft),
__

45,

XHIth Dyn.) an t\
N.K. the word " eat
as - is

regularly added to the

after a word-sign or det., e.g.


-^f

second group in hieratic

thenceforward in the

"enemy

..

A/VWV\

st,

"duck";
1.

y,

Q
o

*%%
is

ng,

" appears in hieroglyphics

"bull" (both
manner,

last,

Pyr. P.,
I

441.

somein like

f\ QA

The corresponding Coptic word


and
it

times substituted for


l

in Pyr.)

And

ovum

(worn),

seems altogether that


lost

is

often placed

after a single

sign

the n of

wnm, "eat," was the word became inn, just

early, so that
is
i

when
b.

it

expresses the whole of a name, either


fern,
is

as

/ASM, which ^
i i

with or without the

ending.

I^i^'ws'" liiiiiiin't in /'///'., became hmm't in N.K. To spell the word

ra^^-^
Hp QA

When

sign

used as transferred word-

sign with the full phonetic value of the

name,

33

DISCUSSION OP THE SIGNS.


i

the

is

often

transferred

with

it,

e.g.

^
or

<-=

Fig. 116,

Wooden column

lying on the
[f

"*"V
[q]
/

^1,
ig]
I

^,
p
!

are
J

all

found for

z't,

"body."
I

ground
Petrie,

for use as the central pole of a

1)

sec

or

for

(sa) for " back,"

and
(J
I

(J

(a) for "

"

After O.K. the use of


(Eu.\r.,

in

such

p.

76

also

Medum, PI. x. and p. 30; Dec. Art, Borchardt, Pflanzensaule, p. 56

cases

becomes the rule


"land," and
(

Gram.,

51).

In M. and N.K., in such cases as


J

"T\Z,

^\
is

(who seems to have overlooked the very early example at Medum). It is seldom placed upright in good texts, though this
in O.K. (Ptahhetep, xxxviii.,
is

(ta),

v&

s,

"person," the det.

allowed even
CJ

added

after

for the sake of distinction, as =?^=


in

left).

and
able.

are

hieratic

scarcely distinguish-

Word-sign and phon.


It is

for

(da),

mean-

ing "lid," "great," "continue in a certain state."


det.

The geographical
from the hieratic
?) is
I

(in

M.K. often s,
to it

not clear that

it

is

name

of a column,
xiii., 2,

usually accompanied in M.

though there are signs of

this

(Kah. Pap.,

and N.K. by the


as a word-sign.

which belongs

when used
is

and

in late texts).

CJ
,

"great,"

may

be simply

an epithet of the roof-support.

After O.K. the suffix of 1st pers. sing,


often replaced

by

well

Fig.

139

B.

II., iii., fig.

49.

Door-bolt

known from

the pictures, and from a wooden

shrine in the Cairo

Museum,

to

have been used


outside.

The numerals up
repeated
;

to

are expressed

by

for fastening folding doors


I

on the

On

each of

(Erman, Gram.,
interesting :

them has its own name The following are 141).


n

each leaf two bi*onze rings held a

(one bolt

being considerably above the other), which was


shot into a third ring attached to the other leaf

www

represents
is

the

numeral

2,

named

of the door.

In the

Medum
s is

sculptures, " the

form of the door-bolt


sn,

and

from the

earliest times det. of duality,

remarkably contracted
line along the
lines

especially

marking the dual

in the middle, of the masc.


it

nouns
neck (Medina,
often

and has a double


PI.
xiii.).

Such

usually
of bags

ending in
written
in

wi.

In this case

is
N^>

1'ijr.

w, e.g.
It

~^ = ~^
is

show

string,

as

on the

tied
it

up necks
string;

V/
(j(J

(Pis. xiii., xv.),

and here

seems likely that

(aw), " two hands.''


can be

probable too that n


fern,

the middle of the bolt had a

round

it

found with the dual of


<*
\\

words

which could be sealed on


it

to the

door to prevent
p. 31).

ending in \
Gradually
tival

wti (uti), which, however, in

being moved " (Petrie, Medum,

The

ancient times were generally written \\ o.


1

breaking of the seal of a shrine entailed a


special

became employed

for the adjec-

ceremony

(Ah.,

i.,

p. 57).

Bobchardt,

and other forms of roots in which the termination was the same as that of the dual,
;

A. Z., 1897, p. 105, explains the string as for

drawing a bolt from the outside when the door

wi, wti

such were
for

now

written
i,

v\

,
1

\\

was fastened on the

inside (v. <$-).

and then
tinctive

any terminal

this

being the dis-

The name
(Pyr. N.,
1.

of the bolt
;

was
i.,

"the passer"
This
Pyr.
is

sound common to the two duals, masc.


i
f=Si III'
.

(iSS

cf. .I'-.,

pp. 56, 58).

and
I
1

fern.
1

presumably

to
.

be
(T.,

read
1.

s,

though

in
is

it

represents the numeral 3, hmt (hhemt), with phon. transf.


plural,

lo
of

varies with

162),

which

probably

Also

det.

a religious symbol derived from the bolt.

The

and

later of collectives.
;

name

n
1

-.v.s

(?)(.!/,, i, p. 58),

|n

Coptic lov (tiw)

the ancient

name

not

is

perhaps

tind of

lual,

on account of the

quite certain.

See

"k,

and

bolts being

two

in

number;

but cither name

VASES.

39

may
of

be the origin of the alphabetic value


(v.

Word-sign
also as det. of

for a J
a

qbh, " cold

water"
cool,"

used

Addenda).

j and f^a J,

"be

"make

cool," but not in


its

Pyr., where A

(a tree) takes

place in this capacity.

J,

Vases and Pottery: Fire.


(Wp\

Fig. 6.

Group

of stoppered fees-vases,

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

35a.]

Stone jug with long

three or four in number, the ends of a cloth

handle from rim to body, and small loop handle


opposite to
it,

ban "-in"- over the shoulders.


is

The number three


of plurality in
four,
this
,

upon the body.


is

In the present

the general indication

instance the jug

of alabaster.

General word-sign for *- >~*


this

sio-n,

but the definite number of

$m\

is

hnm

(chnem)

common from
in Medium,
xxiii.

the earliest times, e.g. four occur


ix.

may
jar.

be connected with the word hnm't,

PL
the

(Rahotep), three in Pis.

xviii.,

"well," which might be used as a term for a


lai'2;e

(Nefermaat).

In L., D.,
are

iii.,

23, S,

by
the

But one

of the seven sacred

oils,

exception
cloth.

four vessels

without

named
is

>

<->

^ n'hnm, "of (the god?) Chnem,"


iii.,

usually figured as contained in a jar of this


j>,

The

sign

is

the ordinary word-symbol for

shape.

B. H.,

fig.

100, represents a jar

,-,~ hut (Went), especially with the meanings

of this unguent.

"front,"

"foremost,"

"forward."
oif

The

first

operation in the ceremonial feasts


5

the " table

Fig. 101.

Slender water-bottle, often re-

of offerings,"

presented with a stopper.


part
is

In O.K. the upper be exof

black instead of blue, a circumstance


is

which Dr. Walker has suggested


plained

to

and probably ceremonies, was the washing of the table with the four fees-vases of water (see e.g. Maspero, In the N.K. this Table d'Offrandes, p. 5).
in all

such religious

by the black tops


pottery
(see

of

much

the
operation, usually called
s),
st
J'

"prehistoric"
p. 37)
;

Petrie,

Naqada,
thereof

Z^ f*|
r~
i

st

red with black or blue rim

may

is

often
hnti (set

styled

*f" ~ w
V

^
/vww\

set >

witu

f] "f avwv\
I

~
f. Will

fore be regarded as colouring

distinctive

hr

her

hhenti),

"pouring

in

(or
xiii.,

vessels of pottery.

with?) hhenti" (see Schiap., L. del F.,


,

PL

Name,
especially

\\~Z
ii.)
;

+ ">hs% "the
coffins
cf.
i.,

chilly"
i.,

(?),

1.

24, Text,

ii.,

p.

171

with variants,

l.c, p.

314,
|,

on O.K.

{Miss. Fr.,

200-1,

and Mar.,
var. rfjh,

Ab., L,

PL

xxxix,,.),

where

and PL
in
tj

later,

Br.,
p.

Wtb.

Maspero,
J

(^

vx

&c,

is

evidently the

name

of the rite

Eorhotep (Miss. Fr.,


the
label
I.e.,

136), restores

applying to two spouted vases,

performed with these four

vessels,

and must

(shown

PL

xii.).

This

is

confirmed by

mean

literally " the first or opening ceremony."

the fact that in inferior writing the hieroglyph


occasionally has the spout.

Hence the value of the

sign.

These

fees

vessels,
fre-

much used in quently made


Word-sign

ceremonial libations, wore


in

Fig. 141.

Globular water-pot;

in the
is
j).

bronze and precious metals,


original.

though the picture indicates a pottery


for
{

In O.K. it present instance coloured blue. coloured red, with the upper part black (cf.
It appears in j^,

fes

in all its

meanings.

and probably also in f^. In the offering of water and wine to the gods it

flj

Fig.

127;

B. TL,

iii.,

fig.

48.
it,

Spouted

was used

in pairs,

O.

fees-vase,

with water pouring from


A)

and with

The

sign indicates the contents of the vessel


itself.

or without a stand,

rather than the vessel

Thus

O O OOO o

>

40

DISCUSSION OF Tin: SIGNS.


i.e.

&c, indicate the cosmic waters,


Xn- (Nn).
the
'--

the

god

w
is

b.

In Pyr. the spelling of these two words

Perhaps

it

is

from

this

word that

variable,

and sometimes there seems to be

single
a
ir

has

its

common

phonetic value
is

confusion between them.


syl.
3

\^
c

is

there used as
after

(mi), for

which

OOO

preferred or
"

for

in
for

either

group.

But
only,

O.K.
I

often used in certain words,

mnw,

monument,"
alone for O.

stands

the

word

and

f"

is

Thnw, " Libyan," while there are indications in


l\

ir' h,

"pure," "priest," with

little

variation.

('/.'.),

and elsewhere, of the value


of the goddess
,

In the

name

",

(all in
is

^
object

Figs.

40, 133.

Globular vase-shaped

Pyr.), usually called Nut, the value of

not
of

well defined, and

may
by

be

nrrt, as the

name

the goddess of the upper sky seems hardly distinguishable, except


tricks of writing,

from

that of the goddess of the sky in the lower

hemisphere
variant

(v.

).

Maspero
in

holds
Pyr.,

that

the

The vase is surrounded at its widest part by a broad band of net-work (erased? in fig. 133). The band of net- work is one of the tinners which distinguish the vase determinative and symbolical of milk. In O.K. forms the vase is less globular, 8, more
suspended from a loop.
like the
e.g.

F=q,

common

indicates

milk vases offered in the temple-scenes,


ill.,

Nwit, by a pseudo-dual.
perhap

In M.K., ~, and

L., IK,

206*.
is,

The

teat or feeder (?) of

AWVNA

/www, stand for


II., L, Pis. In,

m
209).

hit
11.

(m chen),
193, 204,

the

milk vase ^,
y
.

however, always absent


PI. iv.,

AA/WV\ /WViAA

from the sign


xxv., xxvi.,
(I.e.,
1.

In Paheri,

we

'inside" (B.
215),

see y

and

suspended round the neck of the infant prince

for yinl

In N.K.,

after the

XVIIIth Dyn.,

Uazmes, who

sits

on the knees of

his " nurse

is

usually written

before this group,


often

have

f\

and
;

and

tutor, the

nobleman Paheri.
is
;s

in

late
7T

documents we
A/WSAA

The value
to

of U

mr, changing so early

/WW\A /WWV\ A*VW^

for
it

m
is

%^H

my

(md), and
r,

(Piehl, A. Z., 1887, 32, &c).

Thus
hn.
I

pro-

weak terminal
said to be
lost after

> s m, on account of its that its normal value may be

bable that in

y^

o, Pyr

is

really

^J my

(md)

the r in fact

is

quite

a word-sign.

the O.K., even

when

occurs as the
y
,

Probably
"""I

O
3

also
3

represents a cooking-pot,

initial

phon. of a word.
V

In Pyr.,

"like,"
later

is

->

1 \' \

z z ~w (zaza'u),

whence

it

commonly
,

constantly written t\

<=> mr, but

it is

occurs even in O.K. in the group


various meanings.
to

\\
it

with

In

"grind,"

seems In

iiiij
(]

(md).
1

:E

indicate
\

connexion with
it

cookery.

and

in

L
,

fc,

[<=>] m[r], varies

with |\^

^^^3,

|^ [=>]$-..

~ m[r]h c -t
9
>

4-0
rush

perhaps
baskets
It
is

indicates the adaptation of

(me[r~\hd't),

" tomb,"

and

in

and mats to
a

kitchen

purposes
that

kH*,
The milk
milk,

'"['>', "liver."

(v. J.).
it is

peculiarity of the sign

vase, used as det. of the


in

name
in

of

used superfluously, in transference from

depicted

the

milk-offerings

the

any of the above groups where it would be a false det., and in the group T Q nio, where
it

temples, and borne as his symbol on the head


of a

only repeats the

r-

,.

god tending the baby queen at Deir el ~ Bahri (D. el II. ii., PI. liii.), was named q
,

mr, as

may
It

be seen from
1.

(1

s=>

yHO
Fig. 132.

yrt't

mr

vase (here of the form


it.

(drthet mer) (Pyr. X.,

258),

"a mr

vessel of
fact that

nems) with water pouring from

milk."
in
is

may

also be seen

from the

This signifies both the action of purifying,

Pyr. the milk vessel ^, with variant forms,

c
l>,

and the thing that

is

purified,

_>

used as phon.

in

writing the word mr, "love,"

VASES.
thus
:

41

0,

o, at the

h
mouth
and animals.
fresh

&c

used for oxen.


ydr, as used in

The appendage
cially

of the vessel

is

word connexion with animals, has no


it

But

may be

that the

apparently a flexible teat or feeder for


suckled
infants

artifi-

pictorial relation to the hieroglyph


l'i/r.

cf.

ydr't,

Possibly,

X.,

1.

772, the peculiar det. of which

may

for

superstitious

reasons,

milk was

by

be the ancient form of this sign.

preference
projections
in

drawn through such a "teat." The at the side of the teat which we see
were probably intended
for

Fig.

154.

Ring-stand for a
J?., ii.,

jar,

coloured

some

instances,

red or white (L.,


below.
"seat,"
flat

20),

and

fiat

or curved
ffl

the child to hold, and the network band


V

as

on
to

In the tomb of Tehutihetep,


is

ns't,

also

was
its

intended

in

all

probability
;

distinguished from a

;/,

which has a
In N.K. the

prevent

slipping from the grasp

this

may,

base (El
;/

B
and

i.,

PI.

xxxi.).

however, turu out to be the fastening of the


teat to the vessel.

signs for

ns't

and dsrt

(see below) all


iniii.,

have the rounded base, and appear to be

Whether the
leather

was an amulet or plaything


soft

of

distinguishable (for the


59, a).

first

two

see L., D.,

or

other

material,

or actually a

In the early period likewise they are

feeding-bottle to
to
its

hang round the neck, certainly some extent it represents a milk vase, and
is

indistinguishable,

and

all flat

below.

Always

they have a rim at the top, often also a rim

name

identical with that of the milk vase.

As

a nursery

word

it

would be

likely to lose the

sometimes the triangular opening seems In Medum, PI. xiii., below the to be absent.

below

final r earlier

than the same word used for the

table of offerings, the hole

is
;

at the top in

;/.

ordinary milk vessel.

(For
ii.,

g,
;

see

Ptahhetep,

xli.

Methen, L., D.,

for ns't, Ptahhetep, xxxii.)

Very
ii.,
ffi

rarely

Fig. 181.

A
\

boAvl

of red pottery

(?),

there seems to be (by confusion with /J\?) a


raised edge all
g,

tied over

and sealed

at the top.
<=

round

(see

D.,

80, d, for

"Word-sign for
to cattle

ydr (ddr), a word applied


all

and

L., I).,

ii.,

64, a for ns't).

must be a

and birds of
Iter,

domestic sorts
xviii.,
,

see

ring- stand.
tall

In the sculptures and paintings,


ffl

examples, Loret,
at

de Trav.,
=*=*$.

p.

205
sd

bases of tables, and stands for jars (like

seqq.

It

is

opposed to

^^ = =
11.

elongated), generally have

the triangular hole,

(shed), "fatted up," in the case of birds (L., V.,


iii.,

but this
forms
;

is

very seldom seen in the shorter

30

h,

1.

32).

In Kali. Pap., PI. xvi.,

13, as

examples

may be found
In L., D.,
ii.,

in L.,

D.,

ii.,

14,

ydr includes |

"

y^

"draught oxen,"
to

68, 101//, 104r.

3(i,

these stands

well as food-stock.

Ydr therefore seems


it

be

are pierced both at top and at bottom.

the ordinary stock or herds of cattle, geese, &c,


that have not been specially fatted
;

may

thus
as in

Word-sign for ,-, p ^ ns't. 1.


.

This apparently
of

is

not

known
used

be an expression for " domesticated " cattle and


birds in general, as opposed to the wild cattle,
antelopes,

the
the

name

jar- stand,

but

is

figurative

sense

of " seat,"
as

" throne,"
to

and

birds.

One writer
is

considers that

"position" of
his son.
2.

person,

transferable

the select breeding stock

specially denoted

by

the word, but the passages quoted in his paper

ocdo.^
name
is

dsrt (deshert).

It is
is

strange

do not well bear this out, nor does the name

that the

of the dsrt vase, which

shaped
that

ydr seem to point to


Possibly the sign

it.

more or
be connected with the
ffl,
ffi

less as

Q,

is

determined by

ffi;

may

Q
ffi

often the spelling of the

name; and
tables of
e.g., L., D.,

preservation of meat in jars, certainly a practice


in

that

represents the vase

itself in

Ancient Egypt

or possibly with the food

offerings

and

in scenes of offering;

42

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


196.

iii.,

We

can,

however, find a partial


nms't and

last use

it

obtains the alphabetic value

g,

as

explanation in the fact that the two vases often

well as

its biliteral

value

J ;/

(go).
3,

used together,

/-^ --.=>
also
in

=c==.. Q
is

In Ptahhetep, PL xxxvi.
seems to be an instance of
" 'k
3

*u=_

%,

a there
det. of

dirt, have each the


in the
lists,

same form
use,

(Leps., A. T., 43)

used as

and

where the vase


being

repre-

(,/),

"carry,"

"support,"

usually

sented actually
statue

emptied
Ix.
is
;

over
cf.

or person
i.,

(Ros.,

D.

el /!.,

PI. xi., in

M. del C, which the vase


In

unfora

\J

[P. H.,

iii.,

fig.

34,

cf.

fig.

62.]

Cup, of
1*-*.^

tunately
distinction

destroyed).

order

to

mark

between these two important kinds of ceremonial vases, the Egyptians represented
the nms't vase

by a picture of

wood (?). Name, !. Q hn't. kift (1) as the name of


in offerings (P.
for " mistress,"
II., iii.,

Word-sign
this cup,
p. 15),

for

used for liquids


(2) as

itself,

and the

dirt vase by

and

word
is

ffl.

Probably such a stand was

probably having the same radical


p. 47).

and thus implied red pottery, which was presumably the distinguishing characteristic of dirt, "the red" vase,
in
its

practically always of pottery,

meaning

(cf.

^7,

similar vessel

named

" handful," hence in the base period


\7.

the alph. value -j of

ancieut form.

But

in Leyd.

Mon.,

iii.,

24, the

Word-sign

for

^> p

wth

(useJch),

" width,"
"

is

actually of silver,

and bronze
(go).

is

probably by reference to the " diameter


circular vessel seen in elevation
;

of the

generally represented
3.

Alph. for
of
this

g,

by red colour. and phon. for g'


is

with rad. ext.

The
the

Word-sign
through
the

in

N.K.

for -*

origin

(ah),

perhaps

value

to

be
ffl

found, on

word

-j

analogy of dsrt, in the name


1.

^b\ yj (Pi/r. P.,


is

J,

later

-*

"

an

offering," offerings being

commonly represented

707), a vessel the shape of


det.

which
is

presumably

shown by the
later for a

in vessels YJ.

The word

frequently found

placed,

cup or bowl on which fruits were and as denoting a drinking-bowl it is

D
which

Fig. 145.

Pottei-'s kiln;
is

for scenes in

the

kiln

depicted

see

the origin of the Coptic xto, xoi, a " drinking-

El
xi.,

B.,

i.,

bowl" or "cup." See also A. To sum up: ffi the ring-stand (1) was probably named ni't, "stand," which word is often found in the meaning of " throne," " seat." It was essentially a pottery form, and though occasionally made in more valuable material, it was generally of red or other coarse pottery,
being pretty well hidden from view by the vessel standing upon it. In this way (2) it

PL

xxvii. 2,

and
for
it

p.

34; B.
(i,

II., I,

PL

&c.

Word-sign
heat,"
=>

S
is

3 t

(to),

"fervent

whence
.

phon. for t\ usually written

^\

This group
r
.'
.

must not be confounded

Wlth

0'0,
[P.

-fr
Flame from a

II., iii., fig.

85.]

brazier,

with falling smoke and soot(?), often of the

form
the

(1.

Both forms of the

vessel containing

symbolized
,

the
in

red

pottery (?)
to

dirt
it

vase,

fire
c

arc found amongst the dets. of the


(.1/.,
1.

word
239;

ffl,
,

order

distinguish

from

-j
.V., 1.

h (alch), "brazier," in Pyr.

which was of the same form, but presumably of different material and (3) it symbolized the pottery (?) if vase, S^,\7,
the
nms't vase,
;

616, &c).

Word-sign

rarely used by
;

itself

for

-
$\
;

psf or pfs, " cook "

p =>
<*

srf,

" heat "

v.

shaped
si

V7,

in order to distinguish
\

it.

from other

more

often

for

""-j

" brazier,"
24.

" censer,"

irts,

such as

vl

f\ AAAAAA

_, &c, made probably

"flame," Mentuhotep,
Det, of heat,
tire,

p.

of basket-work,

wood, metal. &c.

From

this

&c.

FIRE-FIBRES.
^,

43

Fig. 70.

Censer with a flame, or small


it.

K.

Fibres, Textiles;

Basket, Mat-, and

cloud of smoke rising from


usually represented with
occurs often as
fy,
is

The flame
tip.

is

Leather-Work.
|
Fig.

a pointed

It

124.

Hank

of fibres (of flax?) in

with two

balls of incense.
all

Perhaps the sign

not found at

before the

the form of a loop thrice twisted, and with the

ends loose.
(Koptos,

In the fine sculpture of Usertesen


ix.),

I. is

N.K.

however, figured in Mentvhotep, X ^ - Sz% " censer." PI. iv., with the name In N.K. the figure occurs, often with a taller
It
is,
,
|>

PL

on the

original, this sign

clearly represented as

composed of a number

of

parallel steins or fibres.


if

The hank
it,

is

twisted as

flame, as

id.

or symbol, probably for the ex-

pression

"]
jj

beino-

wrung

to dry

doubtless after the

" incense
[J,

u P on a burning
3).

censer"

(e.g. Palieri, PI. v.,

right edge, 2nd row).


ii.,

work of beating and cleansing in water was completed. In fig. 124 it is coloured green, as
beinf of vegetable material;
yellow.
in

Det. of v-utr, "incense" (Methen, L., D.,

Medum

it

is

In the earliest inscriptions the


is

word

for incense

Parallel changes of colour are found


series of hiero-

usually spelt

jl

(Seth neter),

^ "divine perfume," but subsequent

s=,

as if p^-r-==D<=> St ntr

throughout the rope and rush


glyphs.

variants of O.K. and later,


really
P

show that
of

this

is

The form
verb |,

of the sign,
h,

and the existence of a

peculiar
S'ntr,

writing
lit.

"

making

the "

causative
or
;

made

divine."

flax fibres "beaten" out, a process which is probably shown in B. II., I, PL xi., 5th row

"beat," suggests that

^ represents

In good writing
the

^
is

occurs otherwise only in


?

B.

II.,

ii.,

PL

iv.,

2nd row;

PI. xiii.,

2nd row,
best (the
thread.-'.,

groups

,y^, $^}
name

|^,

each of which
J

the

last

representation

being the

means "soul," and


In
Fiji:
is

to be read

&
^7

1/ (ba).

inscription reads qnqn

nwt, "beating
perhaps
flax,
'

the

of the "soul," usually written

or fibres").

It

may

be

questioned

f^,

sometimes written
11.

^*\7>

"^

wr

whether the name of


HAi-i

"v^,

k? h

variant forms see P.,

270, 41

G).

In these

(with

o,

dot. of the cubit

which has the


h, "strike."

groups
so
is

Kj

evidently

corresponds

to

^, and
it

same sound)
v.

is

not a derivative from

probably a censer or brazier;


1.

also

also <=>\.

occurs in bH, P.,


there
is

015.

(Note that in Pyr.


a

From

the above word-sign value


I,

is

derived

its

frequently
to possess

found

verb

"^
he

b,
as

alphabetic value

h.

meaning "
a soul.")

soul-power," " to

(9
)
1

Cf. Fig.

86.
for the

Coil of rope.

In the usual groups for b% " soul," viz.


0.

Symbol

numeral 100.
>

and M.K.,
"digger,"

^^

N.K.

(early),
it is

$^}

&J (XlXth
lit.

Dynasty, &c),
is

clear that

and
,

name
Sarc.,

for rope is

often to rope used in


PI.
vi.).

^ ^|

The general -* $ I nw h applied <. field measurement (Bon.,


in

The standard

linear

field

only used for the soul by phon.

trans., and that ^ was added as a determinative or a distinctive word-sign ideographic of the

measurement was a rope of 100 cubits, and in rope evidently this was the standard length e ~ ht manufacture. This length was called
(lchet),

soul (as the


definition

a still clearer power of flame) for substituting was obtained by


;

"stick," or

more

fully,

^
_
1

^,

1^
ment

the picture-form of a

human

soul

as a

ht

it

nwh, "a

stick of rope.^_
is

The

J^ft arura, 100


" a stretch

human-headed hawk,
Mendes.

^;

or

^, the embodithe

cubits square,
(of the

named

1
1

_^_ c

of the "suul of Osiris" in

ram

of

rope)" a depth

of 100 cubits from the


(cf.

frontage being always assumed

P. S. B. A.,

u
xiv.,

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


417
et

seqq.).
<s
,

Hence, on account of
a rope,
is is

its

phonetic value of

st,

supplying the
3

in

*C

standard length,

the sign for 100,


<=

and

J
.s-

(v.

Addenda).
for

which

in

Egyptian

named

s't

(she't)

Word-sign
Det. of
as
if

later

f^\

st

"haul,"

(Sethe, A. Z., 1893, 112), and hence the value


s

with phon. trans.

(sh)

for

<s,

which Piehl has

identified

in

-p-

s (as), " hasten,"'

often transitive

Ptolemaic texts (Actes VIII. Congr. Stockholm,


P-

"to pull" or "drag on."


it
,

This word does

10 )(2) (3)

Word-sign

for

<=>

^
(//)

sn't (shen't), r.

@ x.

not occur in O.K., unless


.

be in the form of

the intransitive verb ~rr

var.

" pass on."

The value ^ w

for

which

this
is

sign
"q\

stands in N.K. as a substitute for


to account for.

difficult

Figs. 41

43.

Rope arranged

in a loop
is

By some
(S
;

it

is

supposed to be
^>

at

one end a noose, the other end

turned
in
it

derived from a hieratic form of

resembling that for


to

it

somewhat may be partly due


<_
,

down
(fig.

at a sharp angle, the tip pointed

and

41) a

narrow

slit

or noose in the substance


coffins

words
r),

like

]
<

^ ^
\
>
,

\\

n-'i,-'

of

the

rope.

On M.K.
and
p.

this

object

is

(uau

and )

3 \ \<~ w r

figured with, or near to, weapons (Mentuhotep,


(uar),

"cord."
Pis.
iii.,

v.,
:

18;

A. T., 38, &c.)


is

the

At

that time the advantage of possessing alter-

form varies

sometimes there
(fig.

a noose at one

native letters for forming hieroglyphic groups

or other end only

43)

sometimes we have

was strongly
late

felt,

though most of the new values

5, with a clear loop at each end (Mentuhotep,


PI. iii.),

did not enter into hieratic writing until a very


period.
\

In this

way

the horizontal

but

this

is

not a hieroglyph.
rz
;

On
rwz
1.

the coffins the

(properly,

and
with
Pyr.

ft

\s ym (dm)) was used for l^, s=> were equated with ~, )J with /->, and (3
.

(ruz).

name is = ^ This name is met with

<=>

in Pyr. N.,

975, apparently denoting the loops or knots

^>

(3
1.

for

ywr (dur). Det. of names of rope and of words indicating.,

215,

^
/.'.

iv

seems even to occur


(9

in

used in the construction of a ladder.


Pap.,
i., 1.

In Kali.

<=>

for

5, it

seems to stand for a bow-string,


;

or better, a lasso

in Box.,

Sarc,

PI. iv. d.,

1.

21,

its

use.

the word in the plural signifies the


captives

"bonds"
tied

of

by which

their

arms were

behind

Fig.
\

180

If., iii., fig.

51.
is

Cord wound
in
left;

their backs, Ah.

Clearly the proper sense of


It

on

stick.

A
97&.

fine

example
col.

PtaKhetep,
see
also

the sign

is

a noosed or knotted rope.


sling,

has
this

PL

xxxiii.,
ii.,

top,

3rd

from

been supposed to represent a


there
is

but of
it

L., D.,

no clear evidence

sometimes

may
in

Word-sign
Phon. for

for

\^

>c::

(uz),

"stick or bank

represent a halter.
Pianlchy,
1.

(Slingers are mentioned


in
/.'.

of cord"; see B.

11., iii., p.

ID.

32,

and

IT. ,
;

ii.,

PI.

xv.,

one

^ ^.
Coil of rope across a stick.

slinger seems to be figured

but they are rarely

found on Egyptian monuments.)


<J-

Fig. 86.
(A.

Hence phon.

for
for

=>

Bouchardx
this sign
for

1897, p. 105) considers that

Word

-sign

^. <Rx <=> $\
3?

(ar),

and
Other

represents a bolt,
it

with the cord


it

"^(j^^'gX
words of
this

y
<=-

(<r )>

"oppress."
"q\,

drawing

from the outside when

was

form spelt with


3

e.g.

fixed inside.
in the

An example
of
is

copied by Miss Paget


the

mr
3

(mar), "poor," "feeble";


;

p^.<= sV

(sar),

tomb

Rekhmara shows

clearly,
may

" poor"
rally

= \H
the

d yr, dy r, " restrain," geneof

but

this

form

perhaps not ancient, and

have

notion

constraint
all

in

one

be only a N.K'. invention connected with the

form or other, and are probably

derivatives

CORDS THRKAD.
of y*r,
J

45

//r.

In Siut,

stands for

=^

i)

=>
I

Tomb ^=
cf.

I.,

1.

350, &c., "q\


srf (dadr serf),

see pp. 4,
is

5.

The corresponding verb


3
,

^ s>

tt,

cl'ijr

regularly written ^jt

cf.

-A.

"restrain hot temper";


1.

Sir.,

Eg. Ins

i.,

83,

11.

Fig 111.
at each side

Rope-knot with four loops


at each end.

and one
for

jT)

Fig. 128.
I)., ii.,

cord, coloured green (so

Word -sign
"amulet";

&
a

(sa),

"guard,"

also L.,

W)),

arranged at one end in two


the side), of which

"protect," convertible with


in Pyr.

in

the sense of

loops,

apparently for a slip-knot of a special

common

word-sign for

kind (with a
detail
is

bow
is

at

the

never fully shown.

In the present

the verb " to protect," &c, but in later times confined to the substantival sense "amulet,"
" protection."
It
is

example there
fraying.

also a slight projection at the

probably a magic knot,

other end of the cord, no doubt to

mark the
are
it,

but

may

represent a particularly secure


a packet with a

way

of

tying up
for

number

of cross-

Phon.

words that
(1)

There ^ & w* (nil). may be connected with


(PyrT.,
1. J

two
viz.

strings.

fj^f]^
^

178,

&c),

Fig.

130.

Thread-line, curved

down

to

^
of

1v

'

"'

(uaua),

meaning perhaps "cord


"to
w'r
bind
(uar),

show
B.
in

its

flexibility.
fig.

In
is

Medum, passim, and


The picture of cloth and
Cf.

foundation,"

and

together."

II., iii.,

25, R

coloured red, and once


of the
det.
jf.

(2)

f]^, W~>
"cord."

"measuring

Medum
is

(PI. xi.) yellow.

cord,"

The

latter

might conceivably

object

seen in ^jf,

id.

of

be the origin of the phon. value through loss 3 of the final r, but more probably w is here the
simplified form of
ic'io' (cf.

words of similar meaning.


Horhotep
{Miss.

also

In
of
(1

Arch.,

i.,

PL
are

xiii.),

balls

pp.

4, 5).

yarn or bundles of

cloth

tied

with

Cords hanging over stretched lines are repre-

[D.

II., iii., fig.

78.]

Loop

of cord.

is

sented as

I.

debased form, derived from the M.K. cursive hieratic form for ^ used in late N.K. hieratic
for 9.

Alph. for

Heb.

fr.

The

distinction bein

tween
value
s,

and
It

to

was not observed


\\

writing
its

after O.K.
for

seems likely that


thread

obtained

Word-sign

/~ sn (shm), "surround,"
After O.K.

from the

suffixes of the fern,

pronoun
of

"encircle," so perhaps a "loop."


sth't is

si,

owing

and

cloth

working

usually written y.
sn.

all

kinds

being a woman's

occupation.

In
place

Phon. for

"sportive" hieroglyphs ^jf takes the


off).

&=*
for

Fig.

134;

B.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

22.

Short

cord ending in small loops, apparently a handle

2 Fig. 53.

Apparently a

number

of

drawing or dragging.

The sign
;

is

often

represented as a twisted cord

here

it is

green,

but in

Malum
T.,

(Pis. xi., xii.) yellow.


1.

In Pyr.
(th_eth-t),

308,

is

a word

for a binding or catching cord, there

iff

threads, regularly spaced, each looped at one horizontal end, and at the other attached to a bar of wood a thrtead passes through the loops of the parallel to the bar, and from near one end
;

latter there projects a short

curved handle

(?).
:

used as a weapon against a serpent, but perhaps also the name of the cord in the sign s=?, the
phonetic value of which would be reduced from
it

The number
they are
bar,

of threads varies from four to five perhaps never at right angles to the

to

(fh)

by the usual simplifying

process,

which seems as if it might be either drawn The O.K. handle. along, or pushed back by the

46

DISCUSSION OP THE SIGNS.


different,

form appears to have been


is

but there

tables

of offerings
it

(Medam,

xiii.,

xvi.,

xx.).

no trustworthy example to quote.

The

sign

By
in

rad. ext.

expresses ntr, "god," "divine,"


it
;

suggests a connexion with weaving, especially with the weaver's " heald " (for drawing down
or lifting a certain
in the loom,

which sense

is

exceedingly
it

common from
det. of

the earliest times divine

gradually
id.

became

number

of the

warp threads
for the

names and

of divinity, but
It

was very

and thus affording passage

rarely so used in O.K.

should be noted that

shuttle); but the

"heald" would show a separate


seems as

in O.K. the proper id. of

"god," the word-sign

thread through each loop, the threads would be


vertical

for ntr, the det. of divinity

and of the names of

and the handle


of threads

different.

It

individual gods, was j&, the sacred


perch, *-^its
('/.'".),

hawk on

its

though there were some connexion between the

and thus distinguished from

number
4,

and the number of and thumb

fiiiLivrs

wild congeners.

or

of

fingers

5.

In

the

numerous examples of the XVIIIth Dyn. the most usual number seems 4, though 5 is not uncommon. In L., !>., ii., 123/', there is an abnormal form composed of the four fingers,
|,

tf^ Figs. 61, 160, Perhaps a pleated cloth or article of dress running on a tape or string, the two looped (?) ends of which are spread out.

The

pleats
ii.,

shown vary
Hi, for a

in

number

cf.

Methen,

crossed

by the arm,

..

a,

and evidently

L., ]).,

good outline showing nine


llm'h (dmalch),
is

indicating the four digits of the palm-measure,


<]>.

pleats.

\,

Ma\

essentially

the same object as that represented by


for "

f^,

but

Word-sign
<=

palm "

of the hand, 255

<^^,

it

has only one looped (?) end.


is

The meaning of
This seems

ssp (shesep), or

^d

p (shep),

lit.

"the

ym Jh

retirement in old age with honourable


life

receiver," "holder"; also for the verb


ssp,

^^ 2&
P

case after a

of faithful service.

"receive," "hold."
to

After O.K. the sign

to be symbolized in a

remarkable manner by

was transferred
Ssp (seshep).

words originally spelt

=a

the

pleated

cloth

re\,

drawn

together

and

folded

to be put away.

Perhaps

this cloth,

or article of apparel, was ceremonial, and after

Figs. 26, 114.


(for

roll

of yellow cloth

use was folded over, and so kept in

" easy

bandaging

?),

the lower part bound or laced


as a flap at the
Cf.

and honourable retirement "

in perpetuity.

In
ten

over, the
top,

upper end appearing

Med inn,
pleats,

PI.

xiii.,

-^

has

as
all

many

as

probably for unwinding.

B.

II.,

hi.,

indicating

that in

they were very

p. 25.

On M.K.
cases
(e.g.

coffins

(e.g.

Mentuhotep) this
;

numerous.

symbol figures among the supplies


such
Sebehia)
the

in

some
part
a

The usual meaning


word-sign
is

of

^\,

\\

upright

"stretch

out,"

w ( "open

rt

'0>

as

out,"

appears to be arranged lengthwise in a hank, not rolled. In N.K. hatchets were made which

" length,"
pleats also

apparently as
indicating

opposed to
it

^\,

the

that

was capable of
as to

in outline resemble this figure, perhaps intentionally.


It is possible, indeed, that the present

great extension.

Phon. for ^w (an).

The controversy

object represents a fetish, e.g. a bone carefully

the phonetic value of this sign has been

summed

wound round with


alone
;

cloth,
is

and not the cloth

up by W.
et seqq.

Max

Mulleh, P.S.B.

.1.,

xvi ii., 187

but

this idea

not as yet supported by

The supposed value <

^>

fuo (fit) does

any ascertained

facts.

not seem to have existed in early times.

On

the coffins the

name

is

T,

jh-, r~^zs><=- ntr

(nether),

meaning probably "divine" cloth;

[ //.

//.,

i.,

'1.

xxvii.]

Ball of rush-work

(?).

the same

name

occurs

commonly

in the earliest

In O.K. yellow, with horizontal reeding (Mid inn,

BASKET-WORK,
passim, &c.)
;

Ac.

47

later green,
i.,

and generally with


being phon. for q^>
6),

"base," on which a thing


of temple furniture

may

stand

oblique reeding (El P.,

passim, &c).

whether of wood or stone,


Perhaps the word meant
of basket-work,
D, but
it is

an

article

Alph. for h (hh).

according to the det.


originally a

hw (Mk)

in

O.K.
It

(cf.

Sethe, A. Z., 1897,

this points to h (hh)

being the

name

or proper

mat or stand was the name of the object

and
only

now

value of .

may

be connected with s^ow

known from

late texts.

The ancient

city

I',

hihi (khihhi), "toss up," or with oq

hh or h'h

lay in the marshes of the Delta, where mat-

(hhahh),

"run

swiftly."

working may have been much practised.


or basket of rushFig.

^37

Cf. Fig.

22.
;

Bowl

94,

reed mat, on which


as

is

work, without handle

in early

examples yellow,
it

placed

a loaf of bread

an

offering.

The

indicating the dry rushes of which

was com-

colour of the
is

mat

(in contrast to that of ^=7, &c.)

posed,

and generally showing the horizontal


ii.,

green or blue-green from the earliest times,


it
it

reeding (L., D.,

20)

later green.

presumably because
" holder,"

was made of
PI. xiii.
;

freshlyii.,

Name,
238
;

J ^=^,
W.,
1.

<~*

nb

t,

gathered stems (Mid


19).

in,

L., D.,

preserved only in one passage


1.

of

Pyr.
s.v.

A/".,

61G, already referred to

^
nb,

The name
lit.

of an offering

is

|^a htp

(hetep),

(</('.)
lib,

with rad. ext. and phon. trans, as in

"propitiation,"

"peace"; and
all its

this sign is

"master," "holder," "possessor," and

the word-symbol for hip in

meanings.

" swim.

Q
^r^s

Cf. Fig.

13.
(?),

Loop formed
bent round,

of a

band of
to

Fig. 92.

iVeft-basket (q.v.),

with loop
distinctive

springy reeds
lashed

and the ends


as

handle outside, below the rim.


loop
is

The

together in such a

way

make
L., D.,

often

omitted in Pyr., probably by


Colouring, &c, as ~^^,

a straight base.
ii.,

Colouring as in

,=5=,

inadvertence.

Medum,
is

20.
for

Pis. xviii., xxiv.

Word-sign
In a very late text there
vl

<-->

<-

^ snnw, sum
[],

(shennu,

Alph. for Jc. plant-name ^


(Bee. de Trav.,

shenu), "circle," "ring," also a "great multi-

hh (heh), believed by Loret

tude."

The

" cartouche,"

named
is

also

snnw

v.,

87) to

mean

a "rush,"

which

(Sciiafer, A. Z., 1896, 167),

of precisely the

thus might be connected with the value h of the

basket ^z^.
root

More probably
J
,

this

is

from a

same construction as Q, but elongated for the reception of the signs composing the king's

^^

/,-

"work"
^zz^.

(v.
;

(j).

In O.K.
is

is

name

(cf.

Sethe, A.

Z.,

1897,

p. 4).

In this

it

commonly written
to every

a basket

necessary

may
sV

indicate a protective ring keeping off the


cf.

workman's

outfit,

and in Egypt would

profane;

its

use in N.K. as det. of ^/->_j

be especially appropriate as a symbol of labour.


Fig, 95.
sents
It

(shend), " hinder," " obstruct."

This picture evidently repreof reeds


tied together.

F.g.

23.

Two
;

bundles

of

reeds

or

mat-work made

rushes

(?) tied

together at the top and spread-

may, however, not be a simple mat, which was usually represented oblong, as in =^= in
;

ing out downwards

near the lower ends they

are loosely connected

by a
sign

cord.

In the early

Med uiii,

Professor Petrie calls

it

a bundle

(?).

period (in Pyr.) this


variable.
It

seems to be very
a

Colouring as in

^7.
There
is

may
for

possibly represent

straw

Alph. for p. (Schafer, A.

a rare word,

cap used in stoppering and sealing wine-jars.

Z.,

1897, 98), meaning a "stand,"

Word -sign

zb' (ztha),

which has

IS

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


meanings,
" block

various

up,"

" covering,'

Medum,

PI.

xvii.,

lower right,

it

occurs in a

" exchange," &c.

proper name.
Poll of sacred linen, with

Fig.

82

B.

II., iii., fig.

27.
;

Bag

or

pouch
id.

Fig. 27.

bag

(of leather ?) tied

and sealed
or
det.

used for precious


It occurs in

of toilet powders.

metals, powders for the toilet, &c.

Graphic compound:
cleansing the sign

the

name
1.

of a sacred

composition as

id.

of toilet

powders.

powder
(cf.

or earth.

Early variants of
28, with parallel
is

The present example is of the regular form in O.K. (e.g. Medum, PI. xiii., lower left) and in N.K. In M.K. it is often >, perhaps the same
thing opened, showing strap and loop for fastening.

e.g. Fi/r.
]

M.,

passages) give
the

ntr,

alone,

which

therefore

name

of the substance contained in the bag.

This was probably natron, or perhaps nitre.

Prof.

Maspero mentions

having found

The Greek name


Ancient Egyptian.
final r

v'npov

is

derived

from the
of ntr the

leathern bags like tobacco pouches, fastened with


a lace, containing eye-paint
(prehistoric?)
artists
;

In

many forms
it

these were from

was

lost,

but apparently

was retained

tombs

at Gebelen.
it

The

scribe-

in this

word.

always distinguish
($

from the loop of


PI.

rope,

is (shes), though that occasionally has

looped

end,

b*

(Medum,

xiii.,

lower
c

L.

Implements, Tools.
Sickle set with
flints,

right).

The name of the bag or pouch is o<=* rf (arf), of which word this sign is det., with rad. ext. but in a number of place-names it has the
;

Figs. 33, 113.


the

wood coloured
vii.,

green.

Cf. Kalian, ix.,

22

Illahun,
colour,
sec

27.
is

For the unexplained green


all

which

constant in
T.
<i

representations,
cf.

value

g,

viz.

"ft

"^\

J]

Gbtiw

(Gehilu),

Coptos
viii.,

Spurrell

in

A.,

pp. 37, 38; xxvii.

also

(Koptos, PI.

vi. etseqq.);

^^
c

(Faheri, PI.

Medum,

frontispiece; B.

II., L, PI.

cornice line, from which the present example

is

Det. of

\\^JP
sickle

'4
is

(aselch),

"reap."
'

The
or
thc

^"^ taken), variant


<^

^F

g (Fag), Eileithyiapolis;

name

Gsm, Goshen.

Some

of these

names

of the < possibly

Jj

(kh<-b),

^\\y,
to

-fcJ

(<*&)
for

"

are probably not pure Egyptian, but suggestive


of foreign origin,

curved."

"Word-sign and phon.

^\, m'

and the value of


the
J
</

tS

is

often

(ma) varying

%,

(inn).

rather
this

than

a g.

One may perhaps connect


idea
of tight

J?
its

=
|

k&-lf l
is

>

m'-h::

(mahez),

"the white via

(?),"

value with
a

packing,

thc oryx, possibly in reference to


(?).

curved

compression,
*b "b,

(;/<')

horns

"lion," and

\\

the same sign doubled,

may

represent

(ima), "slaughter"

the two bags of the

two kinds of eye-paint,


be simply intensive of
It

word

m may
J

perhaps the causative of a


Can
it

sm J J?, V^l\
is

point to the origin: but this

mesdetn and uaz, or


*&

may
I>.
'<'.,

mere conjecture.

be connected with

the idea of compression.

name
guish
is't),

represents the above


it

occurs in the place-

^^*.
*=cr_

"grasp"?

(Br.,

864),
is

where perhaps
(originally

it

g,

but

doubled to
is

distinis,

Fig. 117.

Wooden hand-hoe, made


held
in

of

from the group


or

a long bent

blade

place by a cord

"alabaster."
for
',

attached to the handle.

\ y wg' (uga), "helpxiii., 71). In (P.S.B.A., "weakness" lessness,"

Word-sign

$a

The hoc was

called
its

} <~> r~,

hnn

(/'//''

N->

1- {)

'->

&c), especially in

simplest form,

made with

IMPLEMENTS.
a forked branch,

49

^its

(Medum, PL

xv.).

being constructed by

binding the

tool

may
the

apparently owed

common
of
c

word-sign value

hence have received

its

name
mr,

cf.

^x..

mr

to

being

made
"

two pieces " bound


.,

Word-sign

for

^ =
I

used also in

together,

from

<=

mr,

"bind."

pseudo-causative

T smr, " royal friend."


-;;(

The
80,

Rarely used as phon.


Det. of hoeing, hacking, &c.

'sportive" hieroglyph

of

1 1.

II., iii., fig.

standing for i\ r^vi


Fig. 186.

mr sm'wt (mer

sem'nt),
is

Piece of grained

wood with a
its

"governor of the desert," shows that mr

word connected with


the

drilling or piercing,

loop or handle on one side in the middle of


length.

but

present

sign

can

hardly

be a tool for

In Methen (L., IK, the a

ii.,

7/')

the loop
well

is

below
present
board.
for qd

middle.
plasterer's
\\

It

may very
or

working with a bow-drill.


re-

" float "

smoothing
in

The type
is
is

commonly used
to

print

o
cap
fig.

Figs. 20,
(?),

96

B.

II., iii.,

fig.

89.
II.

DrillII.,
iii.,

quite wrong, though in very late texts


|

coloured greenish blue (in


In

the sign
form.

conventionalized

nearly

this

89, too green).


PI.
iv.

Medum

it is

black.

In

Mentuhotep,
for

("fuss-seite"),

and

p.

2S

Word-sign
&c.
;

4=

qd (qnd), "build," "shape,"

A.

7'.,

PI. 29,

where the outlines of the group


the object

with phon. trans.

of tools

are

clearer,

is

figured

along with

tools

bow-drill,

chisel,

&c.

and
more

Fig.

80.
This

Chisel, consisting of a tongueset

coloured blue-green.

Petrie's identification of

shaped metal blade


handle.
mallet.
is

in

a chisel to

wooden be driven by a
stout
fig.

the object as a black stone drill-cap seems

likely to prove correct than that of Steindorff


as

In

Medum,
is

frontispiece,

17,

and

PI. xi., the

handle
It

cylindrical (with strengthen-

ing bands).

appears to be distinct from the

The caps found with small drills are usually made of the hard dark dumiiut, and are much more conical than ^, as
a polisher.

awl worked by the bow-drill, the handle of the

indeed they are represented in scenes of carpentering,


cf.

awl being more slender.

B.

II. , iii., fig.

80.

But

at

Kahun,

The name
Part

of the object

is
AA/VSAA

c,
V

^^s

mnh

Petrie found black stone pivots or drill-caps,

(meulch) (Lei/d. Mans.,


iii.,

iii.,

24

Tomb.

Set// I.,

shaped roughly ^.
oblong or oval.

In the scenes the polishing-

PI. xiii.),

and the sign

is

used as general

stones are generally represented as white, and

word-symbol

for

mnh.

Whatever may be the object represented by


Fig.

107.

Pointed

instrument

with

this sign, its


(at),

name seems
I),

to

have been
than
/

I]

^ yt

wooden handle of peculiar shape showing that it is to be Avorked by hand; Malum, cf.
Pis. xviii., xxiv.,

with
its

fugitive

rather

alone.

Compare

homophony

as a word-sign with
(]

and

p. 32.

O.K. stela in the old


has the chisel end
in

On a Vlth Dynasty Bulak Museum the sign


a handle
ft

0, \oyt

(at),

"loaf"; with
Probably
<*

J\ ^

yt (at),

"father," &c.

"drill-cap,"

~ Q,

of rushes

(?)

bound
it is

together.

The form

also

seems

fairly

|{), "loaf," or cake of potter's clay on the wheel (Pyr. P., 424 = N 1211), all bear the

well authenticated (L., D.,

ii.,

121).

Apparently

same name

^,

owing

to

their

more

or less

a chisel or borer to be worked by hand, not

struck with the hammer.

For such use the

domed form. As phon., q


and becomes

loses

the presumptive initial


t.

;],

handle might well be of softer material, and

alph. for

50

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


p-

<

[Cf.

B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

73.]

Adze with metal


called ~ir-^.a
n't
iii.,

also

for

=s=!^o "the sharp thing," "sword,"

blade bound to wooden handle.

"blade"
24),
cf.

e.g.

of an
1.

adze

(Leyd. Mons.,

iii.,

As an ordinary
(an't),
lit.

tool

it

is

in

Pyr. P.,

81,
1.

&c,

-kVS
is

dmH;

"claw" (Tomb. Sety L,


right edge;

Tart

Metternich Stela,
hri dm't)

82,

where
in
l

PI. xiii.,

2,

and Leyd. Mons.,


;

iii.,

(i.e.

ffi

\\

^=

PI. xxiv., in lists of tools)

hence, sometimes in
rad. ext.

Eb.; with Pap. 1

Pyr. word-sign for this term in the sense of


"claw."
of

In Pap. Eb., &c, there

a verb
P

^
sw*

The sacred adzes used


I.e.),

in the

ceremony

" cut away," "remove,"


(.sua),

which may be

"opening the mouth" are


or

called

simply
1
i

" cut away," " cut down."

In Pap. Eb.,

(Leyd. Mons.,
(var.

more

particularly
"

^-^
of

^_^ o _p>^--) h a m\ the nw Anubis" (M., Ab., i., PL xxvi. i; Schiap., L.


i.,

xci., 15,

occurs a word y

^S H
34);

"to lance (?),"

which may be connected with

l^=^^osfH^,
but the usual
"

d. P.,

"knives" (P.

II.,

iii.,

p.

pp. 104, 105).

Hence phon.
v\.

for

/-

^ nw

(nu),

form, like that of the verb " to slaughter


is Sft,

oxen,

usually written
of

In Pyr. sometimes det.

n^o
J>

with radical

(v.

Addenda).

nzr,

"cut with an adze."

Det. of cutting, and cutting instruments.

[B.

II., iii., fig.

73.]

Adze and

piece of

[B. H.,

iii.,

figs.

63, 65.]

Knife or chopper

wood

(grooved).
for
rv
r

in conical handle.

In O.K. a straight-backed

Word-sign
and often
for

fan
,

stp (reason

unknown),

blade alone.

nw.

In the geographical
i.e.

Word-sign

for

^k

nm.

Nm't

is

the

name

name jr-o-o
is
r*

np't (Anp't),
it is

Mendes, which

of the executioner's block in Hades at which

spelt
^

with the adze,

uncertain whether

or

heads and limbs were lopped off; j)erhaps the

is

the

Cf.

Medum,

PI. xxi.,

more correct as word-sign. where the sign is perhaps


is

same word, but written by a


variable
Pyr.,
id., is

peculiar

and

used for the butcher's block in


is

injured, but seems to represent the handle only

where there

also a

word

^^ f

nm

of the adze.

The

origin of this value

perhaps

found iu connexion with the execution of the

to be sought in local mythology.

enemy
coloured
II.

of Osiris, P.,

11.

598, 600.

^
black.

I'hon. for

nm.

[B.

II.,

iii.,

fig.

70.]

Knife,

For
is

this particular

form

cf.

II., iii.,

p. 38, PI. ix, fig. 4,

PL

x., fig. 2.
II.,
i.,

figured
it is

taken from B.

The example PL xviii., where

|
drill

Figs. 42,

129;

B.

IT.,

iii.,

figs. 64,

68.

Fire-stick

apparatus, in

fig.

42 consisting of

with two ridges

the

name

of a locality sacred to the goddess

from slipping
B. H.,
is
iii.,

standing

to

prevent bow-string

on the matrix.
is

In

Pakhet, namely the ravine of Speos Artemidos,


called

fig.

68, the drill

faceted,

and there

in

the
II.,

N.K. inscriptions of that


i.,

temple.
variant

In B.

PL

xxiv.,

there

is

"J^
is

^>,

written with a peculiar


is

also a groove for the bow-string to work in, when that was used. B. II., iii., fig. 64, shows In >w the sticks were used and re-used as matrices.
1,

animal.

The reading
knife

by no means
dS,

certain.

In Medum, PL xxviii.,

the top of the drill has

The
(in
(L.,

word-sign for <=p


;

"a
in

knife,"

been charred by previous use of that end, and a


drill-hole has also

" blade," " sharp point "

with some rad. ext.


1.

been burnt in
p.
2!),

it.

The; drills
p.

Pap. EL).
I)., ii.,

Cf.

Pyr. M.,

352
is

Methen

from Kahun (Kahun,


cf.

Illahun,

11

13), the sign for di

j,

apparently

Ten Years' Diggings,

fig.

91) are composite,


B.
II.,
iii.,

a harpoon-head Avith single barb.

Word-sign

having separate stock, faceted like

WEAPONS.
fig. 68,

51

and capped with another piece of wood.


hieroglyph
fig.

Word-sign
r-> p ^>
.

for

^> /-

svm (sun), " physician,"

In

the

|,

the
it

drill

is

generally

q "price," &c.
is

The name swn,

for

an

simple, but in

129

has more the ap-

arrow,
texts,

only found in very late mythological


its

pearance of the drill-head from a composite


drill.

and
sirn

authenticity as the origin of the

value
is "^

may

be doubted.

The value of | \ z* {%<). The blackened drill-holes seem unmistakable evidence as to the origin of this sign, and Borchardt (A. Z., 1897, But the Egyptian p. 105) accepts the solution. name of the fire-drill is as yet unidentified, and it seems at present impossible to show the
connexion of the value
Fig, 174.
"^

<=$L

Fig. 85.

Mace, with nearly globular,

or ovate white head, the handle crossed


loop of cloth or cord.

by a
p. 31,

Compare Medum,

and B. E.,

L, PI. xxvii.

with fire-making.

The mace with head of this form was I"-) hz (hez), "the white," or fern. |,
hz't (Mentuhotej), p. 18, no. 8).

called
I

The support of a balance, consisting of a post, from the upper part of which projects a curved peg the lower end of
;

Word -sign

for

{ ^~\

hz;

with phon.

trans.

The loop across it probably marks and defines the meaning " white," linen and clothing being
usually of that colour
distinguish
J
;

the post

is

fixed in a firm base.


"

it

may

be added to

"Tl wts (uihes), This object is named ^\ " support," the word also meaning to " weigh "

from | "green," and h "string." The addition of the loop is found occasionally
from the
earliest times.
is

(in a balance).

After O.K.
ts

it

has two other


(in

values, (1)

^^1
and
-

(thes),

"raise"

O.K.
other

The mace <=. %>

written with the phonetic com-

with a different

det.), transferred also to

plement thus,
i
a- J,

^"1
,

\\, to distinguish it

from

meanings

(2)

"TJ

rs,

"

wake up,"

" string," and s^L hsf.

" be wakeful," probably from connexion of ideas

with " rising " " being;


,

raised,'

and confusion
[B. H.,
iii.,

with

fig.
;

77.]
its

Curved or angulated
130
j

club or throw- stick

forms include the fowler's


ii.,

throw-stick
PI. xxxii.,

(e.g.

L., D.,

B. H.,

i.,

where the hieroglyph

immediately

M.
^=^
yoke
Fig.

War, Hunting,

&c.

above the hand holding the stick reads qm^).

190.

Conventionalized bow, or

for carrying.

In the " prehistoric


ii.,

"

sculp-

ture (De

Morgan, Recherches,

p. 265, better

in Rev. Arch., 1890, PI. iv.) the

bows

The throwing club was the weapon of the desert tribes east and west of Egypt (cf. B. H., i., Pis. xvi., bottom right, xxxi., xlv.), but not of the negroes, to judge by its use in O.K. writing.

are nearly

of this type

later they are very different.


for

With

the complement 1\

thus,

v\

it

indi-

Word-sign

a^*

pz't,

"bow,"

cates the
lit.

"the

stretched," " stretcher," which might very well

Bedawin,

&^*^ "m'w (Aamu), &c; while with O ?2 q


-

or eastern
,

it

denotes

be also the name of the yoke.


transf.

the Libyans on the west, the

Used with phon.


(Tehen'u)
;

and in Una,
\

1.

16,

rsj^.^. thn'w === s=> f\ r-^A


]

stands for <*\ ?=>%>


i.e.

^ V
I

tmlyir (Ta Themlyu),

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

32.]

Arrow.
" arrow "
;

Libya.

In the M.K. even the


vft,

name
<- I p

of the
*

Name,

p <=>

ir

(sheser),

with

negroes was written

for

nhsi

phon. trans.
sir (sesher),

Used

also,

even in O.K.,

for

H
&c

(Nehesi), though earlier the


to
this

was not attached

p-<= shr (seeker),

"to milk,"

name

in

any form.

Grouped
e 2

0^3,

52

DISCUSSION OP THE SIGNS.


gradually if sj],
i i i

it

became

det.

for all
.,

names
-,

the cry or song with which time was paddling.

marked

in

of foreign countries, cities, and tribes, and

was

used even for the frontier city of tf^j JB--& T'rw, " Zaru " in O.K. its use as det. was very
;

^ibronze
grey)
is

Fig. 112.
(?),

harpoon, the head (of

limited.

coloured green,
fitted

perhaps originally

The

variants of the group


|

|, in the lists of
(e.g.

barbed and
shaft
;

by a tang
is

into the

offerings,

are

confused,
xli.)

but early texts


'

wooden
in

a loop of cord

tightly lashed
;

Ptahhetep, PI.
case of
).

point to

being in

this

on or near the head, O.K. the barb


is

for the fixing of the line

n
In

qm^ (qema), a very

common

value

always single.

late times it

many words = ^fe> t\ As word-sign also which is properly a ^ m =s>^ tit (then). As word-sign it has the value for qm* it may express creating in binds,
and phon.
for

was used

as word-sign
,

Word-sign

for

v\^>_,
its

w
of

(ud),

"one,"

in

perhaps in reference to
as

being single-headed,
fishing

'J

opposed to the
ii.,

bident

scenes

(L., D.,

130

Xllth
r.
11
.

Dyn.), or because of
are perIf. I.,
i.,

the single bail),

But war-darts
c

in

relation

to races of

men, since
of their

takes a

haps called <^PI.

-^^ w
sign,

(ud), Dum.,
is

leading

place in the spelling


it

names.
idea

xx.

the

first

however,

imperfect.
other, is

As

til

may
info

similarly
hinds.

convey
Also

the

of distinction

hd^^

The usual name of a harpoon, bident or

Tenu
nib"

was the name


is

of an

important tribe on the

a^R^
(iidlia),

(Pyr. r.,
is

1.

424),

k-J\
of the
n.

N.E. of Egypt, in Palestine;


perhaps an interpreter
(?),
(?)

^. ==>/-* Methen
or foreign resi-

which
so
is

the

name

also

numeral

30,

and

accompanied by
is

The

dent

an emigrant or immigrant.
both the values
generally

After
is
|

etymology of the name

unknown.
Harpoonthe " prein

O.K., in
hieratic
1

qm and

tn,

in

accompanied
it

by

bird,

Fig.

56;

//.

//.,

iii.,

fig.
;

71.
cf.

<^,

to

show that
;
||

is

the throw-stick and

not the finger,

and

after the

XlXth Dynasty
by the throw-

head of white bone or ivory historic" harpoon -heads of bone


Naqada, PL
with
(3
,

Petrie,

this bird appears regularly in the hieroglyphs

Ixi.

In M.K.

it is,

sometimes joined
it

in

the attitude of one struck


I

the string which bound


ii.,

to the shaft

stick,

*c\

&c., as

shown

in the fowling scenes.

(L., D.,

121).

In N.K.

its

origin seems to

is

a barbarous form.
[B.
II.,

have been forgotten,


is

and an impossible form


56
or

substituted

(fig.

|)

preserving

^M
1.

hi.,

fig.

23.]

Fisherman's boat
(Siut,

reminiscence of this string.

containing a net,
248).

or

fish

Tomb

i.,

In Pyr. P.,

1.

425, the two points of a bident

weapon
for

are called

|ul

qS'wi (qes'ui),

"the two
If., iii.,

Word-sign

\l-*

irh
;

(uha), "catch fish

bones."
p. 24, the

Thus, as was conjectured in B.

and birds," " fisherman "


spelt phonetically in 0.
I.e.
;

the

word

is
;

often
Siut,

and M.K. (Pyr.


Phon. trans, to

bone."

name of the harpoon-head is qs, " the But the sign | is not only used as the
for "

El

B.,

ii.,

PI. xvi.).

many

word-symbol
qs
;

bone," and as phon. for

other words.
47.]
;

by a most exceptional procedure


article

this picture
is

of a manufactured
[II. II., iii., fig.
J

of

bone

id.

of

Paddle.

(A) many kinds


objects,

of

bone-like

materials

and

Name,
Word-sign

hp't

with rad. ext. as det.

and (B) apparently of matters connected


in

for

hrw

(kheru), "voice" (occasion"),

with the disposal of the bones of the skeleton


the grave.

ally also kry,

"enemy

possibly in reference to

FISHING AND FOWLING.


(A) ]
of the
is

53

det. of "ivory,"
*f

J
of

|>

\J
~a 1

'b

(ah);

it

may have

given

its

name

to a

more developed
in the

names

of

all

reeds

no
;

doubt on account
c
-

technique.

Or

again, the sacred stone-mason

of their

polished surface

(ha),

was

called ~L

^* " necropolis-man," and

"rib of the palm-leaf," "palm-stick";

and of
(mcm't),

J^lk^^H' " "


stalk of corn,"

kfcfc'-,

mV<

same way the sculptor of ^a-statues, ushabtis, and other burial equipment may have been
called " skeleton- " or "

bone man," or " burialfor the

shaft of spear," &c.

man," since his work was chiefly

tomb.

Note that Heb. I"tii3 kdneh (which appears in N.K. Egyptian asj" qnn, Lat. canna), means
" reed," " hollow corn-stalk," " spear-shaft," and

From very
tionaries,
it

late variants

quoted in the dicthis ancient

would seem that

word
read

"humerus bone," thus


above significations of
1.

almost

(]],
|*> -p* '->

Ptahhetep,
.

PL

xxxii.)

must

be

covering

the

Q*

msn'ti,

not

gn'ti,

which

would

Q
the
the

<^L name
det.

] "^I>

twr

('"'"')>

" the clean," as

appear a probable reading as denoting " preserver of the gn't, i.e. the memory
otherwise
of the dead."
3 occurs in the

of a reed
J

(?), is

perhaps the origin of

in

<=>
\,

twr,

" purify."
2.

compound

signs (1) 1 1

--

But

see the
J

compound
from
qrs,

below, no.

4,
1
,

" toe" (Lange, A. Z., 1896, p. 77), in which

the bone,

is

sometimes in very early cases

(B)
1

is,

earliest times, det. of the

word

replaced by
s ig n

]j,

the finger; but the origin of the

==s\

"funerary equipment,"

"coffin,"

probably because of the connexion both in sound

is not yet perfectly clear. 1 (2) I, J <= " bd, natron," in which the species of 15 in-

and idea with

Z)

H |

"bone."

Erman (Gram.)
Litteratur-

dicating toilet powders seems to be defined as


that used for funerary purposes,
particular,
I

and
to

Max

Midler (Orientalistische

J,

or in
the

zeitung, 1898, 17)

both consider the two words


Also,

perhaps
It
1

for

the washing

of

be radically connected.

from Pyr.

bones,

can hardly be doubted that the


acquired a det. meaning in conrites
is
;

onwards, det.
"

ofn^.o

gn't, "

posthumous fame,"

bone-sign

memory
]
.

of the dead."

is
,

the sculptor of statues with mallet and


also
;

nexion with funeral bones are purified "

3 3
J

-^z^ " thy

common

expression in

chise

who

finishes

them with paint-pot


ii.,

the funeral ritual, and mummification was not


a very early invention in Egypt, being
practised even at the end of the O.K.
little

and brush
xlvi., 9,

see B. H.,
;

PI. iv.,

right,

and

PI. xiii., left

in the similar scene, Ros.,


is

M. C,

(On

this

which

probably copied from the tomb


Dyn., the word
is

subject see Petuie, Dexhasheh, p. 15

et seqq.).

of Aba,

XXVIth
;

written 3
j

In Ros., M. C,
ushabtis
xlvii.,
1

xlv., 5 (also
i)/.,

Aba), the

makes

[/>. i/.,

iii.,

fig.

42,

wrongly

in

the
:

in

Ch.,

clxxx.

Ros.,
lion.

M. C,
In the
v.,

plate.]

Straight bar ending in a double hook

(Aba), he sculptures a

possibly a fish-hook of bronze, coloured red.

tomb

of Min, temp.
.

366), the

Thothmes

III.

(Miss.,

Word-sign

for

<=-!

rth,

"bind," "tame,"

is

working on a sacred boat

and

/->-=

hn[f] (hhen[erj), "prison,"


)
it

&c, with
second
in

with mallet and


the

chisel.

phon. trans, in each value.

hut and ^>


in the

It is difficult to decide

how

meaning of " sculptor."

came to have The carving of

appear to be confused with

value hn, hnr, owing to their identical forms


hieratic (see

bone and ivory into harpoon heads, pins and


ornaments, was evidently an important art in
prehistoric

Kah. Pap.,

i.,

1.

8).

and early Egypt, and though

this

Bi

Fig. 52.

Bird-trap consisting of two


filling these

work would seldom require mallet and

chisel,

curved frames (the nets

frames are

54

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.

sometimes also shown).


cf.

For the hieroglyph,


II.,
ii.,

ordinarily the value of

alone.

But

Yi'ijr

Medum,

x.,

xviii.

and B.

Pis. vi.,

rather than S'yr would be the closer rendering

xiv., for various forms of bird-traps.

The name The sign is


(sefchet),

of the net-trap
also

is

t\

=*>
II

ybt (dbt).

As the group had the appearance of " meaning throne of the Eye," 4 p.^ <=> .~ ys't
of Ws'yr.
1

1]

word-symbol
with a
net

for

,-CJ

Sht
also

yr't (ds't

art), the throne

was generally placed


meaning "destroy,"
is

" catch

or

trap,"

below the eye.


Word-sign
for
8

"weave," "plait," "construct of reeds," &c.

Q !x

\tm,,

" complete," &c.

The

origin of this value

unknown.
N.

Furniture, Food, Personal Accoutrements, Writing, Music, Games.

F=\ Fig. 136


and arched cover
a coffin.

J). II., iii., fig.

66.

Box

or

casket of variable form, with or without feet


(

Fig. 65.

Portable chair, somewhat as


xxi.
;

Y=^\ especially

representing

figured in
&c.

Medum, PL
is

El

B.,

i.,

PI. xiii.,

Named
found among
jj

ra <~v

hn,

Det. of

its

own name, which


size,

This sign

dets. of

j|

^
11.

{y)rt

is

applied to boxes of any shape or

casket

(art), "throne," in Pyr.;

J^,

W.,

391,

or coffin.
burial.

In the form

fcfzj,

det. of coffins

and

393.

It is also det. of other


e.g.
^>

words of similar
o
/->=?=

meaning,
(Jchend),

:=>- wts

(uthes),

hud
Fig.

z=>\<~^-~
the

t'irt (ihan't).

126; B.
:

II.,

iii.,

fig.

21.

Stand

In N.K.
ys-yr

name

of

Osiris,

usually
*

for food
(1)

and drink
fig.

naturally very variable.

(ds-dr),

was regularly written

sf, the

In

126

it

has the form of a rack for

being replaced by +=^, probably because of

jars of liquid

water, beer, or wine containing


and one short covered
;

the more ceremonial significance of the latter

two water

coolers (hes't),
in the

vessel (nems't)
is
r

lower part of the rack

a shelf upon which the bases of the two tall

[B.

II.,

iii.,

fig. is is

86.]

Conventionalized

vessels rest.

See Maspero, Trois annees,

PL

ii.,

throne.
seat,

The form
it

very unpractical for a


intended for the throne
:

for a similar stand (2)

with names to the vases.


is

but perhaps

Another form

ipJMj, for

combined food

of a statue.
it is is

The

colour varies

in L.,

I)., ii.,

21,

and drink.
(3)

yellow, for

white, for

Medum, PI. xiii., it limestone; here we have blue, for


;

wood

in

Or

again,

it

may be IB,

the bread-stand,

so constantly figured in the scene of the " table

dark stone.

of offerings."

This represents a table covered,

The
is

reading of the

name
It

rj

as

p <= S't

alone

not with a garnishing of leaves, as has been


suggested (A.
Z.,

probably wrong.
I)P-q yfrt {ds't),

should in

all
I)

likelihood

1893, p. 1) and agreed to by


at

be
in

with weak
phon.,
after
rj

initial

(omitted

many, but with halves, quarters, or


slices

any rate
laid
in

Avriting).
l)P,

As
and

seems normally to

of

tall

pointed

loaves
xiii.,

of

bread,

represent

O.K.

soon reduced to
in early writing.
jj,

\ was
In Pyr.

%
^

p,

but the

fj

parallel;

see

Medum, PL

where both

sometimes neglected
I

form and colour the


of the ) in the
also

slices are

precisely halves
;

is

a variant for
.

accompanying inscription
in the

so

and the

latter is

sometimes alph. for


rj

on the panels of Hesy.

Later figures are


slices are often

As

to the

group
is

for the

name
he

of Osiris,

less definite,

and

M.K. the

El-man {(tram.)

inclined to render the

name
to
j|

represented so conventionally as to have become

Wryr

(TJrdr),

and

gives

almost meaningless to the eye.

FOOD WRITING.
(1) is

55

word-sign for
(3)
is

^> <=

wdh

(udh), "drink-

be the usual value.

fU,

fipi

% "scribe,"

is

stand."

word-sign for

s^^-^
PI.

h*wi
wordit
is

probably to be read ssw (seshu).


(2)

(khau't), "food-stand."

(2) will serve as


II.,
i.,

s=>

sign

for

either;

in

B.

xvii.,
<==>

J^

|{jl|

tmi
or

(thems)

=
(?)

"

wooden

panel,"

"sculptured

painted

designs."

picture det. of wdh, of h^wt, and of


lifji

jy|

wsh't, "offering in the court."

Used

also

by phon.

trans.

Q,
or

q.

Cf. Fig.

94

B.

II., iii., fig.

21.

Cake

later,

~<=>\ y\-<=>y
for writing
is

of bread, the lower part represented as shaped

w, wtrw,
In this

" colours

and painting."
det.

marked by the

vessel in

which

it

was baked

word the sign


(4)
a

more
(

than word-sign.

or moulded.

In O.K. generally coloured black


perhaps because of the
-a

(Medum,

in offerings),
;

j^ n
I

crust being burnt

later, often yellow.

stone or
IF.,

wood

" to
like

?iaa ),

"to be polished" of

be smooth," perhaps as a
or,

Name, ~
so also

t,

cf.

~
,

=
q

surface for painting;

more

likely,

"to be

jj,

Pyr.

161,

ground fine"
in
;

a pigment for writing-ink,

"vx

N., 426,
;

&c, commonly
(]

or for painting.
jfti

In medical papyri

we have
(S
-

tables

of offerings
its

or

perhaps
(1

yt

(at)

standing also for the causative s'n"


p. 8).

nad),

compare

homophony with
v.
<=>.

in
tw,

n1
ytw with

"grind fine" (Eah. Pap.,

(N.K.) and
(tu, dtu)

The group

The supposed value


wroner
:

-*

n (an)

is

entirely
title

it

is

due to a misreading of the

must not be confounded

in value

ssic(?)

stn,

" scribe of the account of \^i=z )

the king."

Figs. 17,

62, 179.

Short stick with

^
(1)

Figs. 44,

153;

B. IL,

iii.,

fig.

61.

knob

at the end, having the appearance of a

Papyrus rolled up, tied and sealed


tion there
is

by excep148a, &c.)

club, but perhaps only an abbreviated

form of

no

seal in fig. 44.

the walking-stick, the top of which


like the lower

is

formed
In
is

The group
r-vr-\

end of

in its typical form.


(fig.

^^
g

(L., D.,

iii.,

appears to be identical with the word written


in I yr,
-0 <=r

the tomb of Tehutihetep


less

179) the sign

and

^-

r-

(sha't),

with

symmetrical than usual.


for f^v

Word-sign
"stick,"
ix.,

"wand"

^> " walking-stick," (Max Mullek, Bee. de Trav.,

<==

various other forms of det. indicating a bundle


of papyri.
sort,

[1

It

means a book or writing


c

of
,

any

21; A.Z., 1893, 126).

Used wick phon.

and probably
;

refers to the slicing,


.

of the

papyrus-pith
(2)
c=if=,

cf.

trans.
is

also in

O.K. to be read _j

(a),

Fig. 171
outfit,

B. IL,

iii.,

fig.

18.

Scribe's

as the

name

of a papyrus or writing, especially


cf.

consisting

of palette,
iii.,

and water-pot
to

(see B. IL,

pen or pen-case, According p. 12).

of an
L., D.,

account or register;
ii.,

^^

(Methen,
title

3,

Borchakdt the sculpture on the panels of Hesy (Mar., Alb., PL xii.) rather indicates a
the water-pot
;

(Mai:.,
ii.,

Mast.,

~ 406) = <^>
(panel
of
after

top),

and the ancient


"

(Methen,

L.,

,''.,

lb)

<=>

Hesy,

Mai;..

.1//'..

leather pouch containing dry colour in place of

PI. xii.).

Except

in titles this

word does not


e.g.
T.,

but

this is not clear.

seem to occur
1.

Word-sign
(1)

for the following


ss

242,

O.K.
is

In Pyr.,

"hand"

actually

written

^_^

^^

jih

(sesh),

"write," believed to

by an extraordinary transference-

56

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.

[B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

37.]

Flute

(?).

At

O.

Insignia, Sceptres, Symbols,

Medum, and

in

other
as

very early instances,


a narrow rectangle
it

Standards.

generally represented

but in Piahhetep, end to end;


sharp
bevel

PI.

xxxiii.,

tapers

from

later, it

has straight sides with a

The crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt placed side by side, or one within the other, in a /^-basket, -^zzr. Royal emblems
Fig. 22.

at

one end, as in the

example

were perhaps carried

in such baskets to prevent

figured.

Word-sign
"just," " true

for
"
;

K &,& m

their contact with profane things.

(mad), "straight,"

Word- sign
(selchem'ti),
lit.

for

&

v.,

an idea that

may

be connected
the
flute.

^-;k -Q
the

shm'ti

the

name

of

double crown,

either with the cubit rod or with

"the two powerful (things)."

Maspero, Loret,
it

Erman (Gram.)
Loret
Flutes

all

agree that
the

Det. of

represents
in

a flute.
his

^Ifc^i--*

w'z'ti (ua-z'ti),
<=,
?

discussed

flourishing (things)," and of ^=,


wrr't (urer'i), also

" the two ^> =>=> ^

question

Egyptiennes

Antiques,

names

for the double crown.

pp. 11-13 (Journal Asiatiqne, 1890).

<=,

(j

Wrr't

is

perhaps a form of wrt, " the great,"


final radical.

or

its

variants,

%,"*m%
and of
--

kV
J
sb,

seems to be det. of a word Q m ''t (inert), "oblique flute,"

strengthened by reduplication of the

a " flute," or " to play the flute."


.
.

Cf.
(J

Fig. 22.

White crown
tall

Borchardt believes that in early times

was

Egypt, consisting of a
silver (or of

cap,

Upper perhaps made of


of

a double flute, quoting in confirmation of his

white cloth).
<k

theory a scene in the Cairo Museum, and that


later

perhaps

it

was a

single one.

In several
obliquely,
is

Name,

^ Q

mys'wt

(mds'ut)

also

O.K. sculptures the

flute,

held

IV

hz't,

"the white."
22.

nan
a cane
(L.,

Ll,- Q
and
ii
,

m'-t (ma-t), a "stick,"


is

the straight flute,

Cf. Fig.

Red crown

of

Lower Egypt,
is

consisting of a cap or circlet, perhaps always

D.,

52),

which
L.,

may
IK,

possibly be read
ii.,

x
-t
1

open at the top, as when the upper crown


fitted into
it.

(madt), though

74c, indicates

At the middle
projects

of the back rises

in-

as the reading.

a bar sloping slightly backwards, and from the


inside a coil
(.

upwards and forwards.

(===:

Fig.

144.
in

Draught-board,
plan, divided

set

with

Perhaps the red crown was made of copper.

men.

The board

into three

Name,
(desher't),
rise

N't,

also

<=

<=.

dsr't

rows of ten squares each;


appearing on the edge,
in

the

draughtsmen
are
of

"the red."
in

The former name gave


n,

elevation,

to

the alph. value

traceable

in

M.K.
is

two

sorts

their

number
is

varies

in

different

and common
equivalent to
" king of

N.K.

Often also the sign

examples.

\^^>
1890,
p.

a s word-symbol for byti,


for
;

The draught-board

game
very

J -

called

JL.

sn't,

the
this

Lower Egypt,"
Z.,

which value see


113.

(hebd),
is

but the value of

Sbthe, A.

125

1892, p

common

phon.

?,, /-.

mn.

The root
is

mn
and

means

especially

"firm,"

"established,"

perhaps for
false

this reason the sign

found above

^
that

[//.

//.,

iii.,

fig.

52.]

Coil; the form

is

of the
is

nil

in

and the colouring


used
in

i.,

doors in tombs.

The draught-board "set"

black

that
J,

often

representing

with

men and

firmly placed seems thus to have

symbols

(cf.

^).
Q
sn't (shen't) (B. II.,
(.

symbolized the idea of firmness, and probably

was described

as

e=

Word-sign
PI.

for =.,-,.

S\

/--.

mn, "set."

xxx., corresponding to the true rope

in

INSIGNIA.
Tehutilietep,

57

El
for

/'.,

i.,

PI. xxvii.,

1.

1),

occurring
2i)
;

fly-flap, jewelled.

Held by king, by

Osiris as

in

title,

which

see

Kali.

Pap., p.

king, and

by the god Min.


<-^

Moret,
binding.

lice,

de Tr., xvii., 44, and which

may

Name,
driving

o o
p.

nhh (nekhehh), with variants


19,

possibly refer to examination by torture, or to

(Mentuhotep,

no.

19).

Symbolic
n,

of

The cod on the


h'b
(chab),

crown
Its

is

named
in
it

away

evil;

cf. its

use in a

^ hw

^J
title

"coil."

use

this

(khu), " protect."

indicates that on the royal crown

symFig.
J
cf. fig.

bolizes authority to bind, &c.

In this connexion
in

104,
fig.

cf.

Fig,

165

B.

II., iii., fig.


;

44,

we may
the

also note the


H

symbolism of the rope


officer), of

43.

Mallet-symbol, coloured black


165, however,
it

later,

y kingly to that of lowest


det. in

word

\"*

't

(da't), "official

rank" (from
which
H

blue.
fine

In

seems to be of

it

is

Meduin,

PI.

xx.

(k^,

initial

being
J
't,

omitted).

Compare the word-sign


e.g. L., D.,
ii.,

y, for y

with variant forms,

976.

Fig.

39.

Crook

sceptre, coloured yellow(?),

The form is nearly that of the light mallets of red wood used by sculptors and flax beaters, and by boat-makers (see Ros., M. C, passim). But more especially as pointed out by Piehl is it the form of the mallet t\ IV, used by kings and deities for driving
grained wood.

and in

all

detailed pictures with joints like a

in pegs at the foundation of a temple, e.g. Ab.,


L, L, col.

cane, but probably of

In the early

wood with metal plating. examples (Med urn, Pis. x., xxviii., 6;
is

13.

It

is

not found as an actual

sceptre.

and Methen), the curve

slight,

not turning

Word-sign
"

for

hn,

"servant"

(fern, hn't,

downwards,
the

r.

Cf.

the

remarkable

banded
Later

"maid-servant"); connected with the root hn,

sceptre, very slightly

curved, in the hand of


i.,

command."

It is used,

Aam
i.,

Sheikh, B. E.,

PL

xxviii.

it

and opposite
majesty," and

sense,
hn't's,

however, in a special hn'f, meaning " his


(obelisk of
in reference to king,
(Cf. Y7
<=>

assumed the form of our present example


B. H.,

(cf.

"her majesty"
goddess.

PL
ii.,

xxviii.),

probably from confusion


crook,

Queen Hatshepsut, &c),


queen,
god,

with
L.,

the
D.,

true
5,

shepherd's
right
side),

(Methen,
it is

and

hn't,

from which

"mistress.")
reign of

"

'

is

" during the

derived.

Such ceremonial expressions


very
intelligibly

The sceptre f, like the shepherd's crook, was named \ ^ rwt (dirt) (Pyr. and M.K. coffins, &c). This is also the name for flocks and herds,

may

not
y

be
is

constructed

possibly

in these cases really the sceptre of

" authority."

especially of goats, for

which the crook and

its

variant
is

forms are word-sign.


A,
j

The sceptre

The reading best shown by


5

of the word-sign as
ft

/->

h n seems
8.

> ha

in L., D.,

ii.,

word-sign for

{a

hq,

\*\ hf
Once

(heqa),
(A. T.,

"king," "ruler," with rad. ext.


37) this
itself.

Figs. 84, 110.

SeJchem sceptre (banded

name seems to be applied to the sceptre The reading of a is shown approxij

with green and white).


this sceptre
is

In tomb sculptures

constantly seen in the hands of


of doors but not occupied.

mately by

its

use for
1.

^l^.'^fj]

m
IP.,

the

late

nobles

when out

text, Pianlchy,

9,

&c.
3

There seems

also to be
11.

Original examples in

bronze and wood have

a rare value

\\.& y g (yaq), Pyr.

211,

the broad end of flattened oval section.

283, &c.

The sceptre
J,

Q |^

04- T.,

PL 38)
P

is

frequently mentioned.

It is

word-sign for
jj

Cf. Fig.

148.

Emblematic scourge, or

shm

(seJchem),

"powerful," often written

^ j^
o

58

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


{)
j.

N.K.

the

fern,

is

usually
iii.,

written

cylinders for seals in the earliest times

is

now
ii.,

shm't.

In Mentuhotep, PI.

we have a

well ascertained (see

De Morgan,

Eecherches,

sceptre of the sekhem form called ~* j


(aha),

235, &c).

which
de

is

also

word-sign for

h\

This

Word-sign
treasurer,"
&c.

for a title, " chancellor " or "

high

probably means " adornment," see


Bee.
Tr.,
ix.

(ftjterp),

Max Mvller, The word o <= n hrp "to be commander of," "direct," is
169.

and

for a
is

word meaning "


still

treasures,"

The reading

uncertain, see Crum,

A. Z., 1894, p. 65-66.


It

usually

written

in

would be of great importance

to ascertain
this

det.,

arm holding
ft

from facsimiles the precise relation of


J^\) to the

the sekhem.

But

titles

of functionaries
ftrjo,

seems

generally to
(Cf.

be read
}

earliest times.

%=

from
}

the

hrp

Q htm (hhetem) or " seal," and to the Q which was hung round the neck of the goat in fcry, sh (sah). It is probable that

3
t

(hjierp hat), "director of

works").
type of this

the

first

and

last are necklaces

denoting rank,
In L., D.,
ii.,

On

the analogy of the

last, the

and imitating the true


96,

seal htm.

sceptre

may

be developed from a large heavy-

Q,

in

the

group

"seal" (Ealb-

headed

mallet

by

flattening

the

head
cap. 99,

for
is

pfeiler B.), differs in shape

and colouring from

lightness.

J^ J\_
of the

hrp in

Todt.,

^\) (both in Ostseite).

the

name

heavy mallet which drives


is

the mooring-post, and this mallet

of the same
It

^T
piece.

Cf.

Figs. 168,

175
back

B. H.,

iii.,

frontis-

form as that used by quarrymen, &c.


at least be quite appropriate as

would

Hawk -perch,
plumes
at the

with
;

two
at the

ornamental

an emblem of
In Pyr.

straight

end of the
it,

"power over" a thing (P|^ shm).


P.,
1.

horizontal bar a peg passed through

holding

409,

&c, there

is

another instrument

the food trough.


priate to a
birds,

perch
to

is

far

more approis

P$s, which

may

be the origin of the sceptre.

hawk than
ibis,

most of the sacred

Both sehhem and aba sceptres are named in Pyr., but apparently there is no mention of a
sceptre

as

e.g.

goose,

&c, and JK
and
J).

common

det. of divinity (v. V^.

The

named

Jcherp.

perch would be distinctive of the sacred hawks

kept in the temple as opposed to wild hawks

t> Fig. 138


seal (?),

B. H.,

iii., fig.

36.
;

Cylinder

hence

it

was used by transference


(birds,

at a very

with string for suspension


a cylinder

or badge of

early period as the distinctive support of sacred

office in imitation of
,

seal,

Besides

emblems, whether animate


parts of animals
is

quadrupeds,
It

^\) we have Q and a form between


all

these two,
i.,

e.g.

J=JL), or inanimate.

three forms being found in El B.,


string
is

PI.

xx.

perhaps most commonly seen with the symbols

The

usually of beads, perhaps invariably

of the nomes.
Its

so in O.K. detailed hieroglyphs


fig. 12).

(Medum,

front.,

name

as

"perch of the gods"

is

<!%<=>

lishes

Borchardt, A. Z., 1897, p. 106, puba fine example of the Q form from a Vth
door from Saqqareh, and shows the

yH

(a, ft).

Dyn.

false

Fig. 187.

Symbolic

staff

with

canine

possibility of the projection at the lower

end

head; coloured bine, probably


It is

for earlier black.

being a handle to a metal


cylinder seal
revolves.

(?)

frame in which a

remarkable that

does not appear

among

Professor Petrie

had

the numerous symbolic staves figured in M.K.


coffins.

already conjectured that the sign represented a cylinder seal (Medum, pp. 32-33). The use of

Word-sign

for

<=

- wsr't (uier't)

in Pyr.

SYMBOLS.
with rad. ext.
denoted by this
fact

59

The nature word may be


distinct

of

the

quality

the

name

of one of the offerings, probably with


is

learnt from the

the same meaning, and the

sometimes placed on

that

it

is

from " authority,"


;

^r like

the symbol of the Theban nomes.


for this is
(1

" power," as exercised


it

upon a person or thing


Note
also

The only important variant

seems rather to denote canine powers of

free,

swift

movement,

intelligence.

the

J^, J^ if-l nr (or wf), "vulture's perch (?)," Pyr. T., but the worship of Mut at Thebes) 1. 76 (cf.
;

common formula

Vk^l?l1H
before Osiris."

this is

probably not the reading of the sign.


13.
Scorpion,

3jp
" dkh in heaven before Ra, user on earth before Geb, maa-kheru (triumphantly appealing for
blessedness) in the underworld

Fig.

much convenits

tionalized,

holding in each of

pincers

small abbreviated

^
;

band
D.
xlv.).

to

the ring,
i.,

and joined by a Q, "million," q.v. (From


"life,"
cf.

Thus the canine user seems to represent earthly resource, power and wealth, just as the winged
dlch stands for

el B.,

PL

xi.

also

I.e., ii.,

Pis. xxxiii.,

heavenly power.
1.

The

scorpion,

_*

[In Sign Pap., p. xviii.,

3,

"j

is

explained

by the

word

< >

presents the goddess p " the piercer of the Srq't hi, " the piercer," or

~ wV't, here no doubt re<= j ~ Srq-t, or P <=> & - 1 ~


wsr't,

confirming

throat "i.e. to admit


fact
(cf.

air.

This goddess

is

in

Lauth's conjecture that wsr must be the Coptic ba^juup (fern.), which according to the evidence
of Hesychius ap.

sometimes represented by
Birch, A.
Z.,

in late texts

1870, p. 19).

She was one

Peyron was a Libyan name

for

of the vivifying

the fox.]

and protecting goddesses, and the present composite symbol which is placed

amongst others denoting divine blessings near


1

[Cf.

B. H.,

iii., fig.

67.]

A
is

kind of sceptre

with canine head, the ears long and laid back.

the figure of the king in certain religious scenes may indicate renewing the power of respiration

The name
or
fern,

of this sceptre
;

w; s

(uas),

for millions of times.

w^s't

with phon. trans.


is

similar

The

sign

is

not used in ordinary inscriptions.

sceptre with twisted handle

zm

(zam).

Such

sceptres

in the

hands of the gods.


j

named """i-o^, are commonly seen The name of the

Wf
symbol

Fig. 14.

(7/-pillar,

jj,

with uplifted
32).

human arms
is

supporting

<^

(q.v., p.

This

Oxyrhynchite nome,
variants

^p-

= j J T~ F V r
i.

used in the same connexion as the


el B., ii.,

last (cf.

D.

PL

xxxiii.).

fi

^
[B.

another value, w'b, for

of M.,

1.

182), seems to

be W^bwt,

(L "

Bt
j,

iiij

14<J '

(/)j

which gives

probably due to local

The ^ was emblematic of stability. The arms may represent the |J lea, and are often added The <~S> also seems to mean to emblems.
" firm."

mythology.

The
f
II., iii., fig.

symbol

therefore

apparently signifies

67.]

The uas-sceptre with


very curious,

"firm," "stable."

feather.

The forms

in Pyr. are

showing an ostrich feather on a staff, which is apparently twisted with a very strong spiral
twist,

Cf.

Fig. 14.

Symbolic

pillar,
xiii.).

properly In Todt.,

with tenon at top (Medum, PL


cap. 155,
it
is

and forked below.


of Thebes,

As a name
to read

^ ^,

this is

supposed

Osiris.

symbolical of the backbone of Petrie, Medum, p. 31, has suggested


represents

\ $J -~

W's't (JJatt).

It appears in

that

it

a row of four

pillars,

the

60

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


appearing as though one above,
another.
i.e.

capitals

The

sign has the value

-j> r-.

nh (anhk), with
is

beyond,
is

More probably the symbol


from a sacred
tree

many
which

meanings, chief of which


-r
is

"life,"

of

conventionalized

with

the well-known symbol.

branches lopped and forming the pillar of a

house

cf.

the

story

in

Plutarch, De

Is.,

T
Its

[B. H.,

iii,

fig.

39.]

Ceremonial forked
<

cap. 15.

Name, ^ = zd, " the Amulet for stability.

object,

used in the ritual of the dead.

firm," with rad. ext.

name has two

forms,

<=

nf

l-f

pss

3
The

and pss Iff, which may mean re"divider spectively of the united," and " uniter
(kef jn-sesh) of

Fig' 24.

An

object not unlike four

the

divided";
12
;

but

cf.

Maspero,
Sphinx,
ii.,

Table
p.

bowls of different colours, nested together and

d'Offrandes, p.

Pieiil,

34.

having a small rounded projection at the top.


colours
are

Borchardt would

derive

the

symbol from a
cf.

probably conventional.

It

well-known form of ornament,


PI. iv.,

Mentuhotep,

closely resembles the top of the u

Word-sign for
of the

_
c

and

p.

24 (no. 57)

but the reference to

(sha),

"cut," with

Bu., Wtb., p. 1269, seems to afford no support


for this theory, as
list
it

phon. trans., perhaps referring to the lopping

gives only part of the usual

branches for the

jf.

Later the word nir

became
V/),

= -j

<=

d (shad)

(cf.

= m rd,
r

of offerings.
[

It

may

possibly be connected

s.v.

with

the bicornate uterus of animals, which


is

and

this is

found in a

late text as the


fj

name
134//).

perhaps
of the
rain's

symbolized in the two feathers


of Eileithyia, and
in
is

of the upper part of the

Ji

(Br.,

117/'.,

nome
horns

associated with

But perhaps owing


tied

to its

connexion with the

representing the backbone of Osiris,

the

head dresses
i.,

of
78,

gods

of

is

generation.

Cf. also Ah.,


1

p.
,

for Osiris

connected also with the vertebrae or joints,


called
i==3

Anzti wearing

instead of )li

if this is

not a

of the backbone,

and

so

may

be

det.

of " back."

We may

mistake of the sculptor.

therefore prefer to asso-

ciate its value

with the division

as it

were the

"

slicing "

of the backbone into vertebrae


it

and

jf

\B. H.,

iii.,

fig.

25.]

Standard of the West.

Ostrich

feather

to consider

as representing four

on an object resembling the


through which
is

articulated

hieroglyph ^,
vertebrae.
thread,
-r
I.

is

a string or

In O.K. the type

with the

hawk
is

Fig. 135.
life is

In the earliest examples the

added, <^.
earliest
in

As Maspero has pointed

out, the

symbol of

coloured black (Medum,

PI. xiv.

form of the symbol of the West

seen

and p. 33), often with arms and upright


as

drawn

a schist plaque in the Louvre (Rev. Arch.,

though each were divided

longitudinally.
it

Professors Sayce and Petrie saw in

the fisher-

man's girdle (Medum,


kind, perhaps amuletic.
is

I.e.).

In any case the

PL iv.), where a man carries a staff surmounted by a hawk and ostrich feather, arranged much as in w, and Avith two straight plumes
1890,

sign probably represented a knot or tie of

some
-r-

hanging obliquely behind, somewhat


attached to the

like those

On M.K.
and
is

coffins the

^p in
1

//.

//., iii.,

frontispiece.

painted blue or green (Stkixdorff, Meydup.

Word-sign

for

",

->

~ Ymn't (Ament), "the

hotep,

20,

PI.

i\\),

placed

at

the

West," with rad. ext. to other forms of the


root, e.g.
(1

foot-end with the sandals; this again suggests

//inn,

"right-hand" =]iy>ymn,
"right-hand," which
a form of the
last

that

it

is

a girdle.

It

may be
life

that

it

was

"right-hand."
to

This value changed very early

attached as symbolical of

to

a victim or

4>

irimi

(unem)

for

reprieved prisoner.

word was probably only

SYMBOLS UNCLASSIFIED
produced by metathesis
ij
;

SIGNS.
4,
ii.,

61

it

even varies with


1893, 82).

PL
of

ii., fig.

&c).

In the

'.'sportive."

hieroglyphs
ii.,

inn,

in Vijr. (cf.

Erman, A.

Z.,

For

II.

//.,

PI. xiv. (left)

L., D.,

143, a,
to
lie

"West"
It

the original value was retained, and


.

the standard of the East

would snem
pellets.

after O.K. irnm

was generally written & f\ ^-^ may here be remarked that in the sign

spear

without the crossbar or

the

fern,

^ is perhaps phonetic, indicating the ending of the name " West." The idea of
West
" is

symbolized by the ostrich feather, ostriches being then abundant throughout the

" the

P.

Unclassified.

Libyan

desert.

The symbolism
but
the

of the haAvk
H,

is

J""

Fig. 158.

A sign

apparently represent-

not very clear,

cord

sometimes
be concf.

ing a slender wooden upright, bearing a crosspiece


;

appearing like a piece of cloth,

may

perhaps occurring only here (El

]>.,

i.,

nected with the arts of spinning and weaving,


I,

PL

xv., lower left).


for
111

II

which were held

in

high estimation by

The group ~T* probably stands


Slk'^
character
hm't,

the Libyans.

hm'wt (hem'ut), "craftsmen.

f 4-

^
,
II

is,

in fact, very nearly identical with the hieratic


fig. 26.] Standard of the East. | [//. //., The form at Beni Hasan, I.e., "f, with two plumes between two pellets, is confirmed by
iii.,

for

y,

j\

vh\ "to bore," and


it.

"artificer,"

and may be taken from

But
of
of

it

may

be actually the picture of some kind

El

B.,

i.,

PL
is

xv.,

bottom row,

to right.

The

boring instrument,
a

with cross-bar instead

usual form

in the archaic schist plaque of

the Louvre the pole ends in a tongue-like object

weighted handle as in y. For y, see Borchardt, A. Z., 1897, p. 107 Max Mui.ler,
;

between two small

Y7 (?)

the cross-bar below

Bee. de True,
is

ix.,

161-2.

broad and rounded, and the two straight plumes

hang

at the

back

but the work

is

too rough to

Fig. 67.

bar of wood crossed above


;

fix the details.

the middle
for
\

by a shorter bar
the junction.

a cord binding, or

Word-sign
East,"
transf.

y'lrt

(dalrt),
;

"the
phon.

wound round,
ings
(cf.

In the early paintthe object


is

H\

" left-hand,"

&c.

with

Medinn,

Lis. xi., xxvii.),

is

coloured red throughout, and there


balls

no bind-

The two

may

be explained as of incense
schist

ing.

from the South-East, Punt, &c. (on the


plaque replaced by censers).

of

The present form is perhaps a corruption the earlier T. The sign may represent a
for

The
;

feathers

may
be a

winder

thread

(?).

Unfortunately Professor

be due to a misunderstanding

the earlier and

Petrie has not offered


his

any explanation of

it

in

more

typical object like a spear-head

may

most suggestive chapter on the hieroglyphs

flame, or

more probably a blade-shaped ingot of


Such a sign
in
o, indicates the

of

Medum.

bronze, such as might have been imported from


the North-East.
useful

Common
In the

word-sign with the value

/-*

word (l"^^,

^^
'

nz.
"J"
is

snz, "fear,"

metals

O.K.,

see

L.,

D.,

ii.,

49b
top,

may

be phon., but more probably the word


" (cf. p. 6).

(melting metal), and Medv/m,

PL

xiii., left

pseudo-causative form of

where ingots coloured blue and pink show the


material
of the objects beneath.

In Medvm,

PL

xv.,

an
ft

jo

of blue

in

hsmn corresponds to an PL xiii., and hsmn is coloured


of
(cf.

Fig. 81. Two-barbed spear-head (?), coloured I red (in XVIIIth Dyn.), and therefore presumably of

wood or bronze.

In O.K.

it

has the same

blue in the later paintings

Lep., Die Metalle,

form (Methen, &c, &c).

The ordinary printed

62

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


V
,

form,

is

barbarous
it

like certain other types

it

is

found written
of the

i~vrn

n,

as

if

spelt

si

used in printing,

belongs to a base period,

(shes).

and has nothing to do with the real nature of


the object represented.

Det.

^fe^i,
K, fl213;

Pyr.,

M.,

1.

608;

^fe^,
the root Sn

Word-sign

for

<-*

sn,

meaning
1.

y^-T^
the

P;
a

425,

"he who watches


its

hand"

as

the quality of things that go in pairs, that are

retriever,

probably the tame cat that accom-

equal: "two," "duplicate," "pair," "brother,"


"sister,"
11

panied

master on marsh expeditions, to

re-

&c.

and

also

"breathe,"

"smell."

trieve birds for


1.

him

(cf.

Nav.,

Todt., ch. xxxix.,

sn

is

the

name

of the posts or flag-staffs set


5).

is

often figured in the sacred barks of

up before temples,
they had
the

&c.
)1,

perhaps in early times


with wedge-like base-

the sun and of Sokaris, no doubt representing


their attendants.

form

When
door,

one considers that the


suggests that the I

Arab sheikh
is

sticks

Presumably the sign pictures the apparatus


carried

a spear upright in the ground before his tent


it

by an attendant

for his
id.

master, and

a blunt

wooden
(B.
is

thus becomes a symbol and

of attendance.

spear or spear-head for ceremonial purposes.


sn't
i.,

II.,

Fig. 51.
PI. xxxiv., better in L., D.,
ii.,

staff,

angulated near the top

130)

con-

and tied round at the angle, resembling the


article of dress called

nected with a spear or spear-head.


sn

The value
aha), which
is
is

may

be due to the " two " barbs, as opposed

d<=-jj

j
(cf.

yd

c
/t

(ped

to the

harpoon

c
,

always represented in pairs, but


is

which

in

O.K.

always

represented with " one " barb only.

the use of which


PI.
iii.).

undetermined

Mentuhutep,

In M. and N.K. word-sign for


|

Fig. 115.

Piece of wood, rounded below,


at

rs, " to be awake," " to have the

tapering to

a point

the

top where

it

is

the

substantive

<=>

\^

<= P ^ ^ <s>, mind alert," rs'ict meaning a

<= >

curved over.
Value,

" dream."
I)

The

object reminds one of the staff

ty

(fa).

In N.K. the sign was

adopted as homophone of <=>, where a tall sign was required in grouping hieroglyphs, s=j being
used
as

and loop held by the figure of the watchman, guard, herdsman .&$, which is very variable in
form.
],
I

In Pyr., the word rs


1.

is

written with

the

corresponding long sign.

The
alike

(W.,
I'
I '

166), the groups being sometimes


fnl"

meaning
doubtful.

and

name

of

the

sign

are

<==>

Probably in these cases


values, represents a

|,

sign of
staff,

many
is

watchman's
seated
to

and

sometimes used in pairs because


entrance

Fig.

102,

curious sign consisting of a


stick, a

there

would often be two watchmen


one another at the

white package attached to a curved

red

opposite
building.

object projecting above and below the package

is

perhaps the ends of a


pointed like a knife.

tie,

but the upper one

Confused with

r,

q.r.

Word-sign for
Pierret, A.
Z.,

=>

1879, 136

38;

All.,

ii.,

43

(.shpms) cf. t\ Erman, A. Z., 1891, Rouge, Inscr. hierogl., 2


p
;

sms
;

j]

Fig.

77.

Bokchardt, A.
it

Z.,

1897,

106, figures this hieroglyph as

appears on the

beautiful

wooden

tablets of

Hesy (Illrd Dyn.)


PI. xii.)i

(Vlth Dyn.), and


(from Bui.
8tel.,

onJ^[1^,

Levi,

Voc.

(photographed,

Mar., Alb. de Boul.,


it is

29247);

" attendant," " follower."

meaning "servant," More often, however,

As he

points out,

nearly identical with the

formidable whip

of twisted

thongs

in

O.K.

UNCLASSIFIED.
scenes
of
it

63

driving rams
up, " plough
it,"

over the ground to


as
it is

sides of the triangle are truncated

and support
140 and

break

said in the

a red bowl-shaped object which rests on a red


cylinder.

inscription.

Compare the whips, L., D., ii., 1066, with the examples of <=^ in Ptahhetep, PI. xxxi. The forms of the sign are curious in
their
varieties,

(In our reproductions,

figs.

123,

the

greenish-blue base

is

unfortunately

rendered green in one case and blue in the


other.)

and

it

requires

further

in-

In Medum,

PL

xiii.,

the sides and base


/J\

vestigation.

are white.
for

In the N.K. form (see

in

fig.

60)

Word-sign
It

mh,

"fill,"
I

"north," &c.

it

appears to be a stand containing a broad tube,


is

may

be derived from

h,

" strike," with or


mh't,

which

contracted in the middle and opens

prefixed

m, or

from

mh,

" flax,"

out above and below.

The
iii.,

sign often resembles,

" diadem."

at least in outline, the lower part of A), repre-

Phon. for mh.

sented as in B. H.,

fig.

48, D. el B.,
is

ii.,

PL

xxviii.

in

this

the vase

placed in a

Q
that

Fig.

55.

packet

(?),
"0

gland

(?).

Its

wooden
in the

stand, a small support sometimes rising

occasional
it is

variation with

rather indicates

middle of the stand for the base of the

a packet.
is

vase to rest on.

A
1.

similar object,
id.

combined

This sign

very
first

common

in the medical

with a knife,
block
(?),

is

seen in the
622,

of the butcher's

papyri, in the

place as the word-sign for

Pyr. y.,
is

^^(?),

P, L

87,

\^
fat,

wt

(ut), in

the verbal sense of "poultice"


as det. of

&c, &c, which


nm't.

perhaps to be read /~*^*^


it

(elsewhere "

embalm "), and secondly


It

Miss Paget's copy of this sign, as


it

soft secretions, pustules, &c.

may

also

occurs in the Pyramid of Pepy, shows


identical in

to be

stand

alone

as

ab.

for

"*^ lbs,

q
for

zd* (zeda).

" fatted," of animals

amTbirds,

%
fi


IQ
hs,

the sign

form with the present example of The bowl looks as if it might be


or
liquid,

intended to receive refuse

which

whd'w (ukhedu), "pustules," and


" dung,"
also

for

would be earned down the central support or


drain-pipe
(?).

and perhaps
det.

for

some other words


Anciently the

as
I

of strong

odour.

Word-sign
Its

for
is

<=

hr (kher)
as

with rad. ext.


5

word
|
I

J hsb " account," " count,"

was written

meaning

"lower"

opposed to

-= hr,

Jx,

the det. x indicating "separate classi-

" upper," a sense which might be symbolized

fication,"

"enumeration in separate categories";


it is

after O.K.

regularly written
trans.

by the lower part of a also by a " sink " (?).

vessel in its stand, as

PI
may
be
hs leading
det.

and by phon.

becomes the word-sign


Possibly this
$ P

2\ seems to occur once as phon. in ^ a M., 1. 641 -Tnit this Pyr. P., 1.

r_

of several words

339=.J^ft
60.

hsb.

may
~L

be a mistake.
Fig.

accounted for by the above value


to the substitution of

for

x as
its

of hsb,
as

Graphic compound, consisting


a kind of det.

and on

this

followed quickly

use

the

of

ffl

and

"1,

in the present instance connected

word-sign for hsb.


2\ Fig. 140, cf. Fig. 60. An open stand (?), possibly a kind of funnel, drain or sink. Some-

with
is

/, a desert slope, as

The a

often omitted, and in O.K.


invariably.

jk

replaces the

Word-sign

for o

<=>

<=. -

/-> =s> <=>

lift

nfr [hher't
i.e.

what variable. and sides are

The colouring and form


fig.

of base

nether), "that which belongs to a god,"

the

in the present instance identical

necropolis, place of the dead

cf.

the
(cf.

German
a, the

with those of A in

123, except that the

" Gottesacker."

The sandy

slope

64

DISCUSSION OF THE SIGNS.


refers to the situation of ancient

fertile slope)

burial-places above the reach of the inundation

The sign rather suggests a race-course (Roman cirrus), the green baud
(g3

Fig. 36.

on the sandy edges of the Nile valley or on the

representing the course

itself,

the position

of

sandy gezirehs of the Delta.


to be fern, s
=

<=.

The name seems


derivative beinr

the spectators in the middle (spina) and

the

not q-=,
'

its

outer

horse-shoe

stand

being coloured blue.

" man ^ " meaning especially a mason."

m\

sSr

kr 'ti n ^r

^ie

necropolis,"

But we have no proof that anything of that


kind ever existed in Egypt.
Thrice repeated, the sign
is

placed behind
is

A
green

Figs.

18,123; B.

H.,

iii., fig.

104.

Hollow
coloured

the

figure

of the

king when he
?)

running

triangular figure, with small point arising from


the centre of the base.

towards a god (or dancing


usually he
is

with offerings
the rudder, or

In

fig.

18

offering the
to

it is

A, and
or

throughout.
ii.,

In the
is

tomb
is

of

Merab

two vases of water


PI. ix.
33;/, h,
;

Min

Amen
;

(Kopto?,
iii.,

(L., IK,

19) the sign


fig.

altogether black; in

I), el B.,

i.,

Pis. xix., xxii.

L., IK,

B.
rest

It.,

iii.,

104, the base


fig.
1

blue and the


is

119c,
is

143,/).
;

In L., B.,

iii.,
1.,

167, the
2,

black

here, in

23, the base

greenish

group
is

omitted

in Eos.,

M. C,
as
it

a bark
gift

blue, the point green,

and the sides black.


is

At

substituted

for

the

rudder
57/>,

to

Beni Hasan grey-blue


representing

a frequent colour for


for

Xekhebt.
the king
ibis
is

In

L., D.,

iii.,

occurs where

ground,

and black
in the

showing
is

running to Hathor with a crested


staves.

building in brick.

In early times black


;

and symbolical

also

the colour for ground


green.

XVIIIth Dynasty,
figure

scene does not appear to exist.


in

At Abydos The sign,

the
still

Hence the colours of our

may
;

a group of three, occurs also in the


(P.
II.,
i

title

indicate a triangular erection on the

ground

Tf n
Siflfrjfi
denotes

PL XXXV.), If* =>


1.

but

this does

not give us the explanation of the


is

sign,

which
to

not without
/J\,

many
A
D

points

of
is

(Ab.,

ii.,

23,

7),

which possibly
to

similarity

fig.

140.

"give,"

the

" erpa

who

attends

the

(Q

probably only a graphic


sign

compound
light

of word-

ceremonials in the courtyard."

and

det.,
.

and throws no
of

on

the

The reading

is

unknown.

nature of A

The reading
earliest times

is

not quite clear.


o,

From
,]_//

(Pyr. M.,

1.

516
a,

= h = P.,
Z.,

I,

or

==

()

(da)
find

Figs. 9, 178. In some scenes this figure suggests a " rocker " (for a rocking-chair,
Cf.

^X?

1.

235),

and we often

<=> A

=
,

&c), Ros., M.
xxxi.b.
deposits

8., xl.
el

Mar., Ah.,

i.,

xxii., xxiii.,

&

with the meaning "give," "put."


1891, 60) argues that A
is
o

At Deir
of

Bahri, in the foundation


a

Steindorff (A.

the

temple,

number

of

small

1)

though there
it

much
It

evidence

for

reading
'/'/(?),

as

= o

alone.

seems as

if rd, dy,

were

all

forms of one word, "to give,"


((j),

and that
a

(<=)

with fugitive
root.

initial r,

and

weak

final y,
is

was the

The

question,

however,

a delicate one.

The variant <=>

^\'

(Pyr'.,

N-, 1.33),
*

" humour," " emanation," for M.,


1.

<=

>

v\

wooden frames were found, perhaps models of rockers, each consisting of two curved boards, ^Z7 joined together by cross-bars (one, precisely similar, is figured in Ros., M. 6'., lxvi., They may be connected with the festivals 11). and with the sign ^7. Det. of names of festivals. After O.K. used
,

"

(Pyr.

as word-sign for

Jib,

" festival."

195),

is

apparently a rare case of transr'-

ference of this word-sign.

Fig. 63.

Perhaps a

case,

with open top,

XCLASSIFIKD.
nl'i-f
is

65

and cord

to sling
]>. II.,

it.
ii.,

Cf. also the

panel being

painted in

PI.

xiii.
i.,

but

the

reis

like

The markings are certainly those on the 'O. They may represent the
known.

semblance

is

slight.

In Ab.,

PI.

xl.c,

structure of the heart seen in section, and have

presented to the goddess Sekhemt by the king


in the

been transferred to the belly of the lute in the


sign
T,

form of a sphinx,

r may be the
!

case

where they are constant.


in

Lutes of
(?)

for containing the tools of trade, utensils,

&c,
side

similar form, but without the markings


figured

are

and intended to be hung over the shoulder.


Cf. the rectangular case often seen

the
iii..

houses
106a).

of

Tell

el

Amarna
nfr,

by the

(e.g. L., D.,

or on the back of scribes and attendants in 0.

This sign has the phonetic value /->=

and N.K.

(L., D.,

ii.,

23, &c).
ft,
LI

and hn (hen); very

generally

means
(yavXcz,

" good,"

" beautiful."
for a lute,

Word- sign
rare in O.K.

for S
/\

^1 www

{^

Br., Wtb., 758, presupposes a

name

"nfr"
(iii. left),

=
;

bll
67.,

nablium), and

Erman
been

In the present instance from Paheri


ft

(Z.

D. M.

xlvi.,

112) accepts his theory as

seems to mean " tasks," or " occupaMoreover,


jj

probable

but this name has not yet


nfr might

tions."

^X

0%,

!(

<-

^ hnw,

found in Egyptian,

mean

"adjusted,"

" tuned," in reference to the lute, since T

constantly has a general meaning of " utensils,"

"goods."

J^N^
is

vfrt, the "tiller" or "tiller-rope,"

probably so called as the " adjuster " of the

rudder, and so of the ship.


Figs. 49, 164.
lute

An
or

object resembling a
in

with

one

peg,

generally in late

as times with

Medum and
The
and the

The absurd inventions which go under the name of the Hieroglyphics of Horapollo, seem
to contain a reminiscence of the sign T
.

two pegs.
fingers,

II.

stem seems graduated for the


of the

runs thus

'Avdpo'mov /capSia (^apuyyos


aTop-a.
cr-qpaivei,

rjp7r)jj.eur),

markings on the belly possibly show the form


openings in skin stretched over half a
gourd.
T
is

ayaOov dvdpconov
heart
of a

" a

man's

hung from the windpipe means


good man."
It

the

mouth

In Medum, PL
in

xxviii., the colouring of


Pis.

seems that Horapollo's

as

our examples, but in

xxiv.,

symbolism treated virtuous speech as a result


of direct connexion between the heart and the

xxvii., the

whole object seems to have been


Mr. Spurrell and Prof. Petrie
noting the resemblance of the
its

coloured red.

organs of speech

and

it

may

be that the

{Medum,

p. 30),

Egyptians

imagined

that

the windpipe

was

belly of the instrument with


heart, suggest that I

markings to the
nfr or

connected with the heart, and that on this connexion, as figured in


I,

may

represent the heart

dejiended the goodness,

and tracheae.

But no anatomical term

or the health and happiness, of the person.

67

ADDENDA.
Page
cited
in
ix.

(Abbreviations).

tbis

volume

Tbe opinions under tbe names of

stones
L, 50.

see a figure in Hastings, Diet, of Bible,

hw
ii.,

sp't

occurs also at
j[

Zawyet

el

Maiyitin

Borchardt, Loret, Maspero, and Piehl, without specific reference, are those expressed in
their respective

(L., D.,

107, top),
Jj-.

P. 37, col. 2.

The
is

spelling of the verb

reviews of Beni Hasan,

iii.,

" to eat

"

in linear hieroglyphs
at

on the
-I-

coffins of
1

mentioned

in the Preface.

Mentuhotep

Berlin

simply

or

==

Appended are a few necessaiy corrections. (the two signs being indistinguishable); A. T., Some of these have been suggested by a study PL viii., 11. 67, 71, 73. On the coffin of of the valuable squeezes of the tomb of PtabSebekaa 4> is distinct from =$=> and the verb hetep, lent to the Survey by the authorities of L 47 is written Hh (&, & T; Vl xlii AAAAAA C-l the Berlin Museum, others by the admirable 4-%., Z.c.,1.65; 4-^i|), I.*., PLzlL,
->
'>

plates of Mr. Newberry's forthcoming edition of

AA/W\A

P v\

/WW\A _CT\i

CJi

the

tomb

of

Rekhmara, proof copies of several


disposal

11.

39-40.

The

latter coffin, therefore, preserves

having
author.

been placed at the

of

the

fully the ancient value, while the former agrees

with the usual M.K. spelling

<=j=-

QA

P. 4, col. 2.

An

interesting

example of the
is

It is

doubtful whether the word for "ulcer" (?)

abandonment of flexional consonants is furnished CK_. m'hsf, "spindle," by the word 1\


5
l

connected with that for " eating," and the


for

word
value

"flame" reads

ymijt,

not wmyf.

The

Todt., cap.

cliii.

(N.K.), giving to

the word-sign

value o

* hsf (khesef).
1.

ymi was thus evidently transferred to other roots than that from which it originated.
It is therefore

P. 16, col.

&.

The verb

often occurs

very remarkable that

<> is

never

in O.K., in scenes in
offers

which a person shows or

used for the simply prepositional or adverbial


\\

an object to another to accept.

Whether
it

t\

and in forms of

this root
its

is

confined to

the sign originally signified tbe offering or the


acceptance (the implied
is

the adjectival ymi and


" between two," &c.
P. 39,
col.
1.

derivatives ymitirni,

command

to accept),

difficult to decide.

The instance

in Paheri

Some may

prefer

to

needs confirmation from earlier sources.


P. 19, col. 1.
c

connect the
ii.,
1.

name

of this

with the root s\

<*=*,.

*=*^

In Rekhmara, PL

" guard," rather than with " pass."


1,

occurs apparently with the

meaning

P. 44, col. 2.

-Q-.

In El B.,

ii.,

PL

v.,

the

" a hide,"

and

this

probably gives the origin of

the value of this sign.

The Berlin squeezes Ptahhetep satisfactorily show that the det.


P. 20,
col. 2.

^.

of
of
is

across drawn by oxen having -Qis the harness Thus their horns as a yoke. (-* Rekhmara) in with for ox-draught, a bar

plough

is

cord to fix to pole.


P.
50,
col.

mmct
more

in Ptahhetep, PI.
like the pigeons
bill

xli., is

not

^fe,

but

2.

^.
4, is

The

reading of

the

in

I.e.,

PL

xxxi., &c,

mythological place-name
Six Temples, L,

^r^ ^p w, Petrie,

with long

and

tail

not forked.

We

must

not therefore connect 1^=* Avith a pigeon.


P. 27, col. 2.
floors

probably nvr diwi. The sign stands as ab. for wgs, " split," in connexion

Q.

In Syria the threshing-

with
1.

fish, &c.

(add. note to

Eah. Pap., xxxix.,

are

circular,

and edged by

large rough

36).

F 2

6x

EEEATA
(To

HIEBOGLYPHS

and

BENI HASAN,

III.).

EIEBOGLYPES.
PI. viii., figs. 123,

which splash and preen themselves

in the water.

140

the bases should be

But

fig.

2 remains a puzzle.

each of the same colour

greenish blue.
III.

P. 8, fi. 11.

A
it

distin o-uisbed zoologist has


is

pointed out that


the

inaccurate to sjieak of

crop

of a duck, the

duck

tribe beinc;

BEX HASAN,
I

characterized by the absence of the crop.


P. 8,
fig.

PL

iv.,

zontally,

fig.
I.

42.

should be placed hori-

12.

This

is

to be read htm, not

\
a
should be bluish green.
refers to

r.

above, p. 22. Professor Maspero notes that


<h's

PI. vi., fig. 89.

P. 10, note.

P. 4.

Maspero

Rouge, Rev. Arch.,


Loret considers

M. Joret's paper read before the Academie


Inscriptions
logie
is

1872, tome xxiii., pp. 70-71, for a reading of


the

published in Melanges de Philoa

Oryx nome-sign
white
(?)

as mh't.

romane dedies
fig.

Carl

Wahlund,^. 273-80.
that in a
cut," but

the animal to be the Oryx beisa, on account of


its

P. 22,

36.

According to Brugsch the

colour
wi "),
J

(cf.

the

name

nv'hz,

" the

verb

^0

^>- occurs only once, and


It

white

leucoryx being fawn and rust-

very late text.

may mean "to


to

coloured.
P. 5,
fig. 1.

not "to carve," or "to sculpture."

For "sixth column from left"

P. 23, note.

The reference
ii.,

Prisse, Art
to

read "sixth
points out.
P.
6,

column
2.

from

right,"

as

Loret

Sgyptien,

is

PI.

62,

according

the

arrangement indicated in the Table of Contents.

fig.
is

Miiller

rhti birds,
(L.,
]>., ii.,

The sign read vb by Max The apparently nothirig but ^s*. " fullers," are in the best example
126

P. 29,

fig.

90.

Borchardt considers

g-n-F

to

be the armlet often figured on M.K.

coffins,

with

the ties in this case


fig.

D. R.,

I.,

xxix.) clearly ducks


varieties,

P. 32,

103.

changed to beads. For " to complete " read

(or geese

?),

birds,

presumably of white

"to be completed."

69

ORDER OF THE

SIGNS.

A.

Humanity.
',

F, *, ,
B.

^>

PP- H-13.

Anthropomorphic Deities; Human Ranks and Classes.

3,

$,

% t A
f,

4,

f!>

pp-

^-u.
C.

Human

Action.

1 M, O.
_,
JtL,,

^ Y, V^(W),
D.

UJ,

A-*,

A i
(P
>

pp. 14-16.

Mammals and Parts

of Mammals.

%,

^?, %,

*o
5 ?

>

J,

T,

PP- 10-19.

E.

Birds and their Parts.


- C ^
v

"k, "k,
>

^, ^,
_cr
' ,

IE

J^

'

'

-II

'

^*

'

J-l

'

J1

*, ^^T
'

V
JJ
'

S,

T.

"?>,
F,

^, ^
&;

P,

PP- 19-23.

Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, &c.


PP- 23-26.

a*""}

G.

Trees, Herbs, Grasses, &c.

I,

I,

F,

ill,

1,

,
H.

S,
=-,

f.

?,

1.

h,

PP- 30-30.

Sky, Earth,

and Water.
ebbe,

G, a,

*, t^D,

m,
I.

a[$],

^37

[~],

Enna,

c, o,

pp. 30-34.

Buildings and their Parts.

0.

H(ffl).

Q.

>

1111'

II

II

II'

"If,

L>,

pp. 34-39.

70

ORDER OF THE
J.

SKIXt?.

Vases and Pottery, Fire.


ffl
,

6.

ffl,

,
K.

r, l
5,

<*,

U
,

ft,

pp. 39-43.

Fibre, Textile, Basket-, Mat-, and Leather-Work.

<Z,

1 -e-,

S\ ft

=* -h
L.

[\

^,

1,

A,

o,

=S=

Q A,

i.

()

KL

pp. 43-48.

Implements and Tools.

=s i

v,

f(?),

p,

^^
M.
",

S,

1,

i, .],

pp. 48-51.

War, Hunting, &c.


pp. 51-54.

I *-, Et>

N.

Furniture, Food, Personal Accoutrements, Writing, Music, Games.


11
III

^
,

fl

R M(
O.

:t

(e),

[|],

',

=
,

pp. 54-56.

Insignia, Sceptres, Symbols, Standards.

4,

V,

<C

T,

a,

!,

!,

^,
P.

-r,

1,

1,

f,

t,

f
J,

I,

; f, T. i

ti

pp. 56-61.

Unclassified.

T, t I I

I ~\

Q,

ffi,

1,

A,

3,

&,

PP. 61-66.

71

INDEX TO FACSIMILES.
(Including those quoted from

BEXI HASAN,

III.,

and

BENI HASAN,

I.)

Plate
Fig.
1

I.

72

INDEX TO FACSIMILES.
72

Fig.

INDEX TO FACSIMILES

7::

Fig.

168 169 170 171 172 173


1

sacred ibis on perch

21, 21,

58

upright cross
tree

trunk trimmed

writing outfit

hand,

cl

serpent, z

...
...

74

stand of balance

175 176
1

hare on perch, nome-sign


water-line...

77 178
179 180

arms with shield and club


hcb with canopy
...

knobbed

staff

cord-stick,

ud

74

INDEX TO FACSIMILES.
PAGE

Fig.

55 foreleg of animal ... 56 plan of chamber or courtyard 57 human mouth 58 flower-stem (?) crushed down, 59 arm 60 mouth in profile ...
6
1

uden

papyrus

roll

Plate V.
Fig.

62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71

double courtyard with palace

nem knife
fire-drill

...

nem knife
chest

...

uas sceptre with feather


fire-drill

...

cerastes

knife

bone harpoon
ostrich feather

72

PLATES.

Hieroglyphs.

Scale Nn.

I.

full size.

Deir EL Bahri.

'l.F

Nos. 2-6

Hieroglyphs.

XVIIIth Dynasty.

Pl.

II.

>V

tAAAAA.
'/

'/ /
12

'/\

KM

Scale

|.

Deir el Bahri.

R.F.E.P.

Hieroglyphs.

XVIIIth Dynasty.

Pl.

III.

Scale

Hieroglyphs.

XVIIIth Dynasty.

PL. IV.

43
41

42

IPiT/fr
44

46

47

49

m
50
Scale

Deir el Bahri.

f/.F.E.i

Hieroglyphs.

XVIIIth Dynasty.

Pl.

52

51

,>

M
L_~
'

"2r
55

54

9
/
56
57

M
I

T
*j
62
63

If.

11
60

It

58

64

\>

61

59

Sea/e

El Kab, Tomb of Paheri.

A.P.

Hieroglyphs.

XVIIIth Dynasty.

Pl. VI.

70
68 69

)
71

V
1
72

*\

74

73

75

78

76

.J?
79

-*

81

82

80
83
Scale
i

El Kab, Tomb of Paheri.

a.p.

Hieroglyphs.

XIIth Dynasty.

Pl. VII.

84-

T
85 :'

86

87

53
88
89

90
I

.'./

91

92

93

99

IL_

B Hi
94

100
95
96

98

V\
101

102 103

104

1C6
84-89, M. W.B.
90-106, H.C.

Scale

El Bersheh, Tomb of Tehutihetep.

Hieroglyphs.

XIIth Dynasty.

Pl. VII

T\f>111

%
I'J

108 107

109

110
112

^m^-

113

114

115

St
116 117 118

121

119

120

122

/r^r"
129
123

124

125

126

127

128

136

134

1
130

L?\ *
131

135

133

VJ
138

c~ >Cjr>-=ui
139
"I
I
,

137

UJlOt
144

I
140
146
.^ole
j

141

142

143

t
145

^
150
147

148

149

151

El Bersheh, Tomb of Tehutihotep.

B.C.

Hieroglyphs.

XIIth Dynasty.

Pl. IX.

tt
155

153

\f

157

156
152

154

158

161

162

163

164

165

166

LK
168

170

169

A*****\
176
171

CD
178

175
172

177

174

If
181

179

180

182

184

m
185

183

I
186
Scale f

190

187

188

1
189
191

n
193
B.C.

192

El Bersheh, Tomb of Tehutihotep.

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