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JMU Elementary Education Program A. TITLE- Pumpkin Seed Math/ A Counting and Comparing Lesson B.

CONTEXT OF LESSON Through numerous observations and interactions, I have become very familiar with the interests and learning preferences of each of the students in my second grade practicum classroom. Through these observations and interactions, I have learned that the students in Mrs. Dupuis class prefer to be actively engaged and learn best when they are put to a task that involves hands-on activities. This lesson will allow students to further their math skills and knowledge in predicting, counting, adding, and comparing whole numbers, using the manipulative of pumpkin seeds! This type of activity is appropriate for these students at this time because it is being used as further practice in counting by twos, fives, and tens, adding up to two-digit numbers, and comparing up to three-digit numbers. These skills are all goals that should be attained by students in the second grade. I will also be integrating a visual communication and product into this lesson plan, in which students will have the opportunity to use their creativity and knowledge by producing a visual that compares two groups of pumpkin seeds. The only restriction students have for the product is that it includes a clear comparison of two sets of pumpkin seeds. Through this aspect of the lesson, students will use environmental themes as inspiration for works of art, create work of art from observation, depict objects in proportion, and use primary and secondary colors and shapes. Based on child development, this lesson is suitable for students in the second grade because at this age, children are generally in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. At this stage, children begin to use logic to make predictions and solve problems. Furthermore, children at this stage gain a better understanding of classification, in this case identifying numbers that are more, less and equal. In result, this lesson will facilitate not only the cognitive development of the students but will also meet the needs of kinesthetic, visual and auditory learners. As a pre-assessment for this lesson, I will present the students with the pumpkin and ask the students to, Raise your hand if you have ever carved a pumpkin and scooped out everything that is inside the pumpkin? I will make a mental note of how many students raise their hand. Next I will ask students to describe to me what is inside a pumpkin. I will expect students to come up with a variety of descriptive words but will mainly focus on students to respond with the answer, pumpkin seeds. I will then ask students if there are usually a lot of pumpkin seeds in a pumpkin or only a few? Hopefully students will respond with answers such as, it depends on the pumpkin, sometimes a lot, sometimes a little, More than 100. These responses will give me a good idea of the types of estimations that students will be making for the number of seeds in the pumpkin. If needed, I will discuss that there are usually at least 100 seeds in a pumpkin, but a pumpkin can also have up to 700 seeds. I will then tell students that today we will be using the pumpkin seeds of that pumpkin to build our knowledge and skills in mathematics. C. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand Know

Do

U1: The student will understand that when comparing two numbers, you begin at the left of the number and compare the digits in each place value to determine which number is greater or which is less. U2: The student will understand that skip counting by twos, fives, and tens is more efficient than counting by ones.

K1: The student will know how to determine the place value and digits of numerals up to threedigits.

D1: The student will make an educational guess as to how many seeds are in the pumpkin and compare their guess with the actual amount.

K2: The student will know that we use to compare two numbers D2: The student will count between 0 and 999 represented pumpkin seeds by twos, fives and pictorially or with concrete tens. objects. D3: The student will cooperatively K3: The student will know that we add the divided groups of use the symbols > to represent pumpkin seeds to find the actual, greater than, < to represent less total amount. than, and = to represent two

number that are equal. K4: The student will know that using a collection of objects can be grouped and skip counting be used to count collection.

D4: The student will solve addition problems (and in some cases multiplication problems), in terms of the pumpkin seeds. D5: The student will create a work of art, with an environmental theme that includes successfully comparing two groups of pumpkin seeds. D6: The student will use primary and secondary colors and shapes in their creativity piece.

D. ASSESSING LEARNING Learning Objectives

U1: The student will understand that when comparing two numbers, you begin at the left of the number and compare the digits in each place value to determine which number U2: The student will understand that skip counting by twos, fives, and tens is more efficient than counting by ones. K1: The student will know how to determine the place value and digits of numerals up to three-digits. K2: The student will know that we can compare two numbers between 0 and 999 by representing the numbers pictorially or with concrete objects. K3: The student will know that we use the symbols > to represent greater than, < to represent less than, and = to represent two number that are equal.

Assessment Plan The student will successfully record their estimate and the actual number in a place value chart (provided in the worksheet). The student will compare each individual place value using the appropriate symbols. I will make note of how each individual group counted their portion of the pumpkin seeds. I will also ask each group how they decided to count their seeds before they reveal their total. The students will record their estimations and the actual total in a place value chart. The student will successfully create a visual that depicts the comparison of two numbers using concrete objects and the appropriate symbol.

The student will record the appropriate symbol on their worksheet when comparing the places values and two numbers. The student will successfully create a visual that depicts the comparison of two numbers using concrete objects and the appropriate symbol. I will make note of how students are grouping their pumpkin seeds and also ask students how they decided to count their portion of the pumpkin seeds. The student will record their estimate on the provided worksheet and provide the appropriate symbol when comparing their estimate with the actual amount. I will make note of how students are grouping their pumpkin seeds and also ask students how they decided to count their portion of the pumpkin seeds. Each group will be responsible for answering how many groups of tens can be made in their total number of seeds.

K4: The student will know that using a collection of objects can be grouped and skip counting be used to count collection. D1: The student will make an educational guess as to how many seeds are in the pumpkin and compare their guess with the actual amount. D2: The student will count pumpkin seeds by twos, fives, and tens. D3: The student will cooperatively add the divided groups of pumpkin seeds to find the actual, total

Learning Objectives

amount. D4: The student will solve addition problems (and in some cases multiplication problems), in terms of the pumpkin seeds. D5: The student will create a work of art, with an environmental theme that includes successfully comparing two groups of pumpkin seeds. D6: The student will use primary and secondary colors and shapes in their creativity piece.

Assessment Plan As a class we will add all groups of tens and any ones to find the total amount of pumpkin seeds. Students will record all numbers and addition steps on their worksheets. The student will solve provided mathematic problems on their worksheets, in terms of the number of pumpkin seeds. The student will produce a work of art that has a pumpkin theme and includes the comparison of two groups of seeds. The student will produce a work of art that has a variety of colors and shapes.

E. RELATED VIRGINIA STANDARDS OF LEARNING Mathematics 2.1 The student will a. Read, write and identify the place value of each digit in a three digit numeral, using numeration models. c. Compare two whole numbers between 0 and 999, using symbols (>,<,=) and words greater than, less than and equal to. 2.4 The student will a. Count forward by twos, fives, and tens to 100. Visual Communication and Product 2.5 The student will use environmental themes and historical events as inspiration for works of art. 2.6 The student will create work of art from observation. 2.7 The student will use 1. Secondary colors- orange, violet and green. 2. Shapes-geometric and organic. F. MATERIALS NEEDED *1 Pumpkin *Pumpkin seeds *Bags with pumpkin seeds *Worksheets (Differentiated) *Paper Crayons Markers Pencils Glue sticks *Materials that I will provide. G. PROCEDURE Preparation of the Learning Environment: In preparation for the learning environment, I plan to complete a few tasks. First off, once I purchase the pumpkin, I will then go ahead and scoop out the insides of the pumpkin. I will separate the seeds from the inside of the pumpkin and clean them in preparation for the lesson. This will not only save time but also will avoid any potential mess in the classroom. Once I have washed the pumpkin seeds, I will then count and make note of the total amount of pumpkin seeds. I will then put a handful of pumpkin seeds into six plastic, Ziploc

bags. I will also create two, differentiated worksheets that align with the activity. The worksheets will be differentiated in that the extension questions will vary to meet the needs of all math levels. Therefore, students will be able to answer questions that are appropriate for them at this time in the school year. Engagement/Introduction of the Lesson In order to engage students for this lesson, I will first present them with the pumpkin and ask the students to raise their hand if they have ever carved a pumpkin. I will then continue by asking, what is inside the pumpkin? I will call on students to describe what is inside a pumpkin until a student mentions pumpkin seeds. I will then ask students if they have ever taken the time to count how many pumpkin seeds were in a pumpkin. I expect students to reply with yes or no and in some cases share the number or general amount that they have counted or observed. If students do not understand that there usually are a large number of pumpkin seeds in a pumpkin, I will then inform the students that pumpkins usually have at least 100 seeds and at most 700 seeds. I will then prepare students for the lesson by telling them that today they are going to have the opportunity to make an educated guess as to how many seeds are in the pumpkin and then count the actual amount. Implementation of the Lesson Following the engagement and introduction portion of the lesson, I will then instruct students to first make an educated guess as to how many pumpkin seeds they think are in the pumpkin. Once students have recorded their estimations on the provided worksheets, I will then ask some students to share their estimations with the class. As students are volunteering their estimations, I will record the estimations on the board. Once estimations are revealed, I will then share my estimation with the students. I will then tell students that we are now going to be counting the actual number of pumpkin seeds in the pumpkin. I will inform the students that I have already scooped and cleaned the pumpkin seeds to save time and potential messes. I will then tell the students that I have divided all the seeds into six plastic bags. In groups of three and four (at their desks), students will be in charge of counting how many pumpkin seeds are in the plastic bag provided to them. Before I hand out the bags of seeds to the six groups, I will first ask students what are some different ways that they can work together to count their portion of the pumpkin seeds. Hopefully students will respond with answers such as: We can count by twos, We can count by fives, or We can count by tens. If not, I will ask students if it would be easier for me to count each pumpkin seed one by one. Students should realize that this would take much longer than counting by twos, fives, and tens. I will also suggest to students that a great way to count their pumpkin seeds is to first choose a number to count by (twos, fives, or tens) and then sort the pumpkin seeds into smaller groups based on the grouping number they chose. Students in each group are to then record the total number on the designated area on their worksheet. Once these directions are stated, I will ask students if they have any questions. I will respond and clarify any directions as needed. I will also be sure to emphasize to students that they are working as a group to count the pumpkin seeds, therefore they must find a way so that everyone in the group can participate in counting. Once students are given enough time to count their portion of the pumpkin seeds I will then have each group share the number of pumpkin seeds that they counted. As groups are sharing their numbers, students will be instructed to record other groups seed numbers on their worksheet, in the designated area. I will also be recording these numbers on the front board (there should be a total of six numbers). I will then instruct students that as a class we will be adding the six numbers together to find the total amount of pumpkin seeds that are in the pumpkin. Starting with the first number recorded on the board, I will turn to the specific group whose number it is and ask them how many tens they can pull from that number. Upon their answer I will record the designated number of tens to the right of the number and ask the same group how many ones are left. I will repeat this questioning sequence for all six groups until all numbers are broken down into either tens and ones. Then as a class we will count together by tens and then ones to find the total amount of pumpkin seeds in the pumpkin. Once we have solved for the total number of seeds, I will then instruct students to look back at the estimation they made at the beginning of the lesson. I will then ask the students how we can compare their estimation of seeds and the actual amount. I will call on students until a response includes determining which number is greater and/or which is less. I will then ask students how do we represent the terms greater than and less than. I expect responses to include: with arrows, with alligator mouths, etc. I will then ask students what the rule is for determining the correct symbol. Hopefully students will answer with something along the lines of, the alligator mouth always wants to eat the number that is more. If students do not

respond with this type of answer, I will then introduce the students with that strategy. I will then inform students that on their worksheets, they will now compare their estimations with the actual amount, using the appropriate symbols. I will model this part of the activity by comparing my own estimation with the actual number of pumpkin seeds. Once students are given enough time to record their answers on the worksheet, I will then ask some students share their comparison of the two numbers. After hearing a number of responses, I will then tell students to finish the worksheet. The remaining problems (either 2 or 3 more problems) will include extension problems and challenges in terms of their estimation and the actual number of pumpkin seeds. At this point I will be walking around assisting students as needed. After the majority, if not all, the students have completed the worksheet; I will then give them instructions for the closing activity. Closure The closing activity will integrate student creativity as well as math content from this lesson. I will tell students that for this activity their job is to show the comparison of two numbers, represented by pumpkin seeds. I will continue by saying that their product must include a Halloween theme, glued pumpkin seeds and the appropriate comparison symbol based on the two numbers represented in the visual; whichever two numbers the student chooses to work with, must be represented by the pumpkin seeds. I will provide two potential models for this activity so students know what is expected of them. However, I will emphasize that it is their choice as to how they want to display the two groups of pumpkin seeds in their work of art. Before students are free to begin this activity, I will ask if there are any questions and inform them that they may not finish this activity today, which is okay. Cleanup Five minutes before time is up, I will have students begin cleaning up their desk areas and instruct them to put away all crayons, markers and other materials. If students have not finished the final activity, I will instruct them to stack all unfinished work in a pile. DIFFERENTIATION

Through this lesson, I have planned to meet the needs of all students in the classroom; in respect to learning styles and abilities, English language proficiency and physical ability. In terms of meeting the needs of all learning styles and abilities, I have prepared two differentiated worksheets. These worksheets will consist of different extension questions (two or three) and will meet the ability of each and every student. I have used data collected and observations during math time to form these differentiated questions. To meet the needs of English proficiency learners, I have planned to cooperatively fill out the first half of the worksheet with the students. I have also planned for students to work together in small groups to count the pumpkin seeds therefore I think that help from peers will also meet the needs of English proficiency learners. I will also create a few samples or models of the final product students are to create. I will also be sure to consistently ask if students have any questions or need me to repeat instructions. I will walk around the classroom, assisting students where needed.
H. WHAT COULD GO WRONG WITH THIS LESSON AND WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?

A student may not understand the activity at all therefore, I will provide further clarification and repeat the procedure directions until the student is comfortable in the activity objectives. A student may not have any interest in this activity therefore I will encourage and promote the activity with enthusiasm. If a student becomes sick during the activity, I will briefly pause the activity so that I can bring the student to his or her teacher for further care.

An emergency drill may interrupt the activity so I will follow standard procedures until the drill is over. I will continue the activity if time permits. If a students behavior is unacceptable I will give him or her a warning or tell the student to switch color cards. It may appear that students may have too much or too little time for each procedure, therefore I will gauge the time based on my observations during the lesson. If I finish early, I will ask students to count the pumpkin seeds using a different strategy or continue with the worksheet.

Lesson Implementation Reflection


I. How did your actual teaching of the lesson differ from your plans? Describe the changes and explain why you made them. Overall, my actual teaching of the lesson did not differ much from my actual plans. One thing that I did change from my plans was the time allotment given for each task. Prior to my lesson, I estimated how much time it would take the students to complete the task at hand, however, during the actual lesson I had to manage the time allotted based off of how students were responding to the task. In addition, during the counting of the pumpkin seeds in groups, I noticed that some of the students were dominating in counting the seeds, while other students were just sitting back and watching. After observing this, I had to think on my feet to have all the students involved. Therefore, for groups that I noticed this was happening, I instructed the uninvolved students to double-check their partners counting by counting the seeds also. This change in implementation seemed to get all students involved and counting! II. Based on the assessment you created, what can you conclude about your impact on student learning? Did they learn? Who learned? What did they learn? What evidence can you offer that your conclusions are valid? For this lesson there were two forms of assessment. The first assessment, students completed three mathematical questions, in terms of the pumpkin seeds. I made two different forms of this assessment to support differentiation in the classroom. Overall, after going through these assessments, it was apparent that student learning was present. All students were able to transfer knowledge of how many pumpkin seeds there were to solve problems that involved adding, comparing two numbers and writing numbers in the place value chart. For some students this proved to be a review, however for others it was a challenge. For the higherlevel math students I also included a challenge problem on their worksheet that involved dividing the pumpkin seeds into equal groups. Although none of the higher- level students were able to successfully solve this challenge problem, their attempts were admirable. For the most part, this lesson should have been a somewhat of a review for second graders; therefore I was not surprised by the results of this assessment. The other form of assessment solely focused on comparing two numbers. However, instead of providing the two numbers for the students to compare, I developed a task for students to create their own comparison problems using the pumpkin seeds. This assessment also served as an integration of creative arts, where students were given the task to develop a comparison problem, using a Halloween theme. After reviewing student work, it was evident that students are able to develop their own comparing problems accurately, using other forms of representation. III. Describe at least one way you could incorporate developmentally appropriate practice in a better or more thorough way if you were to teach this lesson again. One way that I would incorporate developmentally appropriate practice in a better way, would take place during the adding component of this lesson. In my lesson, I had planned for students to add the large numbers by breaking them down into groups of tens. Students were instructed to write the number of tens next to the designated number. However, due to the fact that there were six numbers we were focusing on and a whole lot of tens, this task ended up being very tedious for students. Therefore, to make this component of the lesson more developmentally appropriate, I would have students use place value blocks to make up the numbers. From there, students would be able to use visual manipulatives to find the total sum, without having to write so many groups of tens. These place value blocks would also be great for students to use, if needed, for the worksheet assessment. IV. Based on the assessment data you collected, what would you do/teach next if you were the classroom teacher?

Based on the assessment data that I collected, I would continue by teaching students more about additionadding double and triple digit numbers, with regrouping. In doing so, I would be sure to use place value blocks to help facilitate student learning with addition. This lesson is great in that it breaks down addition for the students. This component models for students that adding two numbers is more than just stacking them and using regrouping to solve. V. As a result of planning and teaching this lesson, what have you learned or had reinforced about young children as learners? After planning and teaching this lesson, I have learned that young learners are very eager to learn when subjects are approached in a unique way. Just because a pumpkin was involved with this lesson, students seemed to be more motivated to answer questions and participate. In addition, students were actively engaged with the content of this lesson at all times. I also learned that students need explicit directions for all tasks, otherwise there will be a million hands in the air asking for help. VI. As a result of planning and teaching this lesson, what have you learned or had reinforced about teaching? As a future educator, I am aware that flexibility in all lesson plans is a must. You never know what kind of day you or your students are going to have when planning for a lesson. Therefore, it is so important to also be able to think on your feet. In addition, this lesson also reinforced that time is always going to be limited! No matter how much planning one does, time always seems to be an issue. With this lesson it was critical that I was organized at all times, due to the fact that there were so many tasks and materials at hand, with such limited time. VII. As a result of planning and teaching this lesson, what have you learned or had reinforced about yourself? I have learned a lot about myself through this experience in planning and conducting this integrated arts lesson. First off, this experience reaffirmed to me that I am definitely in the right career path! Although, this lesson plan was a lot of work and preparation, it was completely worth it seeing how much the children enjoyed and appreciated the lesson I planned for them. I also learned that I have the potential to come up with fun and creative ways for children to learn topics that at times may seem dull. Although this activity took a lot of brainstorming, I wanted to make sure that the students were not only learning, but they were also having fun! Overall, I learned that I could be the best teacher that I want to be as long as I put my mind to it and work hard!