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Chapter #30: The War to End War Big Picture Themes 1.

. President Wilson outlined the wars objectives with his Fourteen Points. They set the goals of free seas, self-determination after the war, and establishing a body to prevent future wars. 2. A military draft was instituted, the first since the Civil War. 3. Women went to work more than theyd ever done and black soldiers were drafted into the military into segregated units. 4. The Americans focussed their military effort in protecting Paris from the Germans. 5. At the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson agreed to allow England and France to punish Germany for the war. In return, they agreed to start Wilsons League of Nations. 6. However, the US Senate rejected the Treaty/League. They didnt wish to t urn over Americas decision-making to a foreign body like the League of Nations.

Chapter #30 Identifications

George Creel Head of the Committee of Public Information, they persuaded the public that the war was good. Creel was a person who was a key person to lead the nation into belieiving the war was a right thing to do Bernard Baruch Head of the War Industries Board, a group that was disbanded soon after armistice. Brachs main role was assumed after the armistice of World War I.

Henry Cabot Lodge Senator Lodge, in a way, was a political rival of Wilson, he opposed many of Wilsons ideas.

James M. Cox Democratic candidate for the 1920 presidency, his vice president was FDR.

Self-Determination One of Wilsons 14 points, it gave independence for minority groups that supported the US Gov.

Collective security The idea that a group of nations work together in international affairs, instead of one nation alone.

Normalcy The idea of returning to normal life after the end of the war.

Zimmerman Note Sent by the Germans to Mexico, stated that if Mexico helps the Germans fight against the US, they would regain land lost to the US.

Fourteen Points Wilsons ideas/goals for peace.

League of Nations Wilsons League of Nations, a group of nations that would keep peace and help settle intl. affairs. Later succeeded by the United Nations.

Committee on Public Information Headed by Creel, the Committee tried to persuade the public that the war was good.

Espionage and Sedition Acts Passed to prevent immigrants of enemy countries from damaging the US Government.

Industrial Workers of the World Anti-war socialists that were prosecuted under the Espionage and Sedition Acts. Debs was a member of the IWW.

War Industries Board

Led by Baruch, the WIB was established to coordinate with the purchase of war supplies.

Nineteenth Amendment Passed in 1920, granted womens suffrage.

Food Administration Headed by Herbert Hoover, helped provide food and rations for the US and its Allies.

Irreconcilables Irreconcilables were people who verbally attacked Wilson, including people such as Senators Borah and Johnson.

Treaty of Versailles Peace treaty that ended WWI. It forced Germany to pay reparations for the damages, reduce the amount of troops in the German army, and military occupation in parts of Europe.

Chapter #30 Guided Reading Questions War by Act of Germany Know: "Peace without Victory," Unlimited Submarine Warfare, Arthur Zimmermann 1. What events led Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress to declare war? The Zimmermann note, sent by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann, proposed a secret German-Mexico alliance, and that if Mexico fought the US, they would regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Germany had declared Unlimited Submarine Warfare, where German U boats would fire on any US ships, armed or unarmed. These events led to Wilson asking Congress to declare war. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned Know: Jeannette Rankin 2. Name Wilsons twin war aims. How did these set America apart from the other combatants?

Wilson stated that this was a war to make the world safe for Democracy. Wilson wanted a peace without Victory which at first made America different from its allies, however, the US citizens responded with Hang the kaiser. Many representatives, including Jeannette Rankin, the first congresswoman, voted against the war resolution.

Wilsons Fourteen Potent Points Know: Fourteen Points 3. List several of Wilsons Fourteen Points. Wilsons Fourteen Points included Abolishing secret treaties Freedom of the seas A removal of economic barriers amongst the nations Reducing armaments An adjustment of the colonial claims of a country to interest both natives and colonists.

Creel Manipulates Minds Know: Committee on Public Information, George Creel, Four-minute Men, The Hun, Over There 4. How were Americans motivated to help in the war effort? The Committee on Public Information, headed by George Creel sent out an army of 75,000 Four-minute Men who delivered speeches to persuade the public that the war was good. Propaganda movies or Hang-the-kaiser movies, depicted The Hun, or the kaiser himself. Over There was a song created by George M. Cohan that spurred patriotism in the US.

Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent Know: Liberty Cabbage, Espionage Act, Sedition Act, Eugene V. Debs, William D. Haywood 5. How was loyalty forced during WWI? Many German influences in the US were either removed, or renamed. Orchestras did not play German composed pieces created by famous composers such as Beethoven or Wagner. German books and classes were removed from the education system. Sauerkraut, a German influenced food, was renamed Liberty Cabbage. The Espionage Act and Sedition Act prevented sabotage or opposition to the US Government. Anti-War Socialists such as Eugene V. Debs and William D. Haywood were convicted under these acts. The Nations Factories Go to War Know: Bernard Baruch, War Industries Board 6. Why was it difficult to mobilize industry for the war effort? No one knew how much steel or gunpowder the US was able to produce. However soon after, Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board, which was in charge of mobilizing the industrial production. However, the WIB was disbanded shortly after armistice. Workers in Wartime Know: "Work or Fight," National War Labor Board, Wobblies 7. How did the war affect the labor movement? There was a rule sent out by the War Department, known as Work or Fight. It threatened unemployed males to be immediately drafted. The National War Labor Board, headed by Taft, was in charge of any labour disputes that might affect the war effort. Some organization, such as the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), known as Wobblies, did not support the war effort.

Suffering Until Suffrage Know: NAWSA, 19th Amendment, Womens Bureau 8. How did the war affect women? The National American Woman Suffrage Association supported the war. Many argued that women must be part of the war effort. Mobilization helped women gain their suffrage. Wilson said that woman suffrage is vital for the war measure. In 1920, the 19th Amendment was ratified by the US Government. The Womens Bureau was established to protect womens work place.

Forging a War Economy Know: Food Administration, Herbert Hoover, Meatless Tuesdays, Eighteenth Amendment, Heatless Mondays, Liberty Bonds 9. Did government become too intrusive in peoples lives during the war? Give examples to support your answer.

The government in a way, made life better during the war. The Food Administration was established to help feed its people and its allies during the war. Headed by Herbert Hoover, they established things such as Meatless Tuesday and Wheatless Wednesday to save food for export. During this time, Congress restricted the use of many food sources to be made into alcohol, and also many leading breweries were German, thus soon the 18th amendment was passed, banning alcohol. Making Plowboys into Doughboys 10. Was the governments effort to raise an army fair and effective? The draft this time was much more fair than the drafts of the Civil War. This time, no one could pay to avoid being drafted. However, men working in industries such as ship building, or other war benefiting industries will not be drafted. African Americans and women were also given roles in the Military. Fighting in France--Belatedly 11. How were American troops used in Russia? In Russia, American troops were sent to Archangel, Russia, to prevent munitions of the Bolsheviks from getting into the hands of the Kaisers troops. At the time, the Bolsheviks had given up fighting. US Troops were also sent to Serbia to prevent the Japanese from occupying Serbia and controlling it, rescuing 45,000 Czechoslovak Troops, and grab military supplies from the Bolsheviks.

America Helps Hammer the Hun Know: Marshal Foch, John J. Pershing, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Alvin York 12. Describe the effect of the American troops on the fighting. Originally, US troops were only part of a detachment of the allied troops helping a counter offensive led by Marshal Foch, at the Second Battle of the Marne. Soon after, General John J. Pershing was assigned head troops at the frontlines at the Swiss border. US Troops were part of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. A famous soldier, Alvin York from Tennessee, was originally part of an anti war religious sect, however, he became a war hero when he single-handedly killed 20 Germans, and captured 132 more.

The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany Know: Armistice 13. What role did America play in bringing Germany to surrender? At eleven oclock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month (1100 hours, 11th of November), the Germans surrendered, declaring an armistice. The United States provided foodstuffs, munitions, credits, and oil to help end the war. However, Gen. Pershing depended on the allies more than the allies depended on him. The US was not a strong influence in this war, unlike WWII, which was 20 years later. Wilson Steps Down from Olympus Know: Henry Cabot Lodge 14. What political mistakes hurt Wilson in the months following the armistice? Wilson went to Europe to oversee peace proceedings, which angered the Republicans. Wilson did not include any Republicans in it, thus angering people such as Senator Lodge. The reason why Wilson angered many people was because no president has ever been to Europe, and his trip made him look like a flamboyant grandstanding.

The Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris Know: Vittorio Orlando, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, League of Nations 15. How did Wilsons desire for the League of Nations affect his bargaining at the peace conference? Wilson was with Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, and Premier Georges Clemenceau of France. Wilson wanted a world parliament known as the League of Nations. He tried to prevent the other leaders from having vengeful aggressions

against the enemies. He wanted a compromise between plain imperialism and his idea of imperialism. Hammering Out the Treaty Know: William Borah, Hiram Johnson, Irreconcilables 16. What compromises did Wilson make at the peace conference? In the US, many senators including William Borah, Hiram Johnson, and Henry Cabot Lodge disliked the League. They were known as the Irreconcilables. Wilsons compromises include promising the French that the US and Britain will aid them in case of future German invasions, and that the Japanese would get the Shandong Peninsula, and German colonies in the Pacific, thus angering the Chinese. The Peace Treaty That Bred a New War Know: Treaty of Versailles 17. For what reasons did Wilson compromise his 14 Points? Wilson had to compromise many of his 14 points for the Treaty of Versailles in order to satisfy the early League of Nations. Wilsons compromise in a way started making him unpopular.

The Domestic Parade of Prejudice 18. Why was the treaty criticized back in America? Many of the US did not want any part of the alliance. Many critics disliked the Treaty of Versailles. Many liberals felt that it was betraying many people. However, those who did not like the enemy countries felt that the treaty was good. Irish Americans felt that it gave the British more power.

Wilsons Tour and Collapse (1919) 19. What was the purpose and result of Wilsons trip around the country when he returned to America? Wilsons trip was part of the presidential tour in 1919. Many people did not like Wilson that much, so their reactions were mild. Later on, some people who strongly disliked him chanted Impeach him, impeach him! In the Pacific Coast however, Wilson was welcomed. Wilson was touched, with tears, he pleaded that the League of Nations to be the hope of preventing future wars. Wilson collapsed later that night due to physical and nervous exhaustion. Few days later, Wilson encountered a stroke that paralyzed one side of his body.

Defeat Through Deadlock 20. Why was the treaty finally rejected? The treaty in a way forced the US to aid allies if war was to happen, overriding Congresss powers to declare war, which they wanted to keep for themselves. Loyal Democrats rejected Lodges treaty. The treaty never gained enough votes due to Wilson telling the Democrats to reject it. The treaty in the end was rejected, partially due to the competition between Lodge and Wilson. The "Solemn Referendum" of 1920 Know: Warren Harding, James M. Cox, Normalcy 21. What did the results of the 1920 election indicate? The 1920s election, which composed of Republican Warren Harding against Democrat James M. Cox. The Republicans are back together due to the death of Theodore Roosevelt in 1919. In this election, women were also allowed to vote. The people wanted a second-rate president and they wanted to return to normalcy.

The Betrayal of Great Expectations 22. How much should the U.S. be blamed for the failure of the Treaty of Versailles? The US did not strongly support the Treaty of Versailles or the League of Nations that helped enforce it. US Isolationism was part of the reason why the Treaty of Versailles fell. The US did not support the French, which caused them to build up a strong military force, which also caused the Germans to rearm illegally. The final problem was that the US was the strongest nation, they were suppose to take command, instead the went back into Isolationism.

Varying Viewpoints: Woodrow Wilson: Realist or Idealist? Know: Realism, Idealism, Wilsonianism 23. To what extent was Wilson realistic when he called for a world of cooperation, equality and justice among nations? Wilsonianism ideas were that American isolationism has ended, the US must influence its political and economic powers into the world, and try to sway the world into peace through an international system, such as the League of Nations. Many said that Wilson was far from Realism, nor was he an Idealism, since his ideas do not fit either criteria. A world of cooperation in a way slowly occurred with the start of the United Nations. Equality and justice however, are much more different.