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2/4/2014 MargaretM.

Jarvis RocketReport HonorsPhysicsA2

Abstract Rocketswerelaunchedandtheirheightsrecordedinordertoproveanumericalmodelfordrag forceandthedragcoefficient.Thiswasdonethroughaseriesofexperimentsaboutrocketenginesand airresistance.ThereweresixtestedrocketsRedandSilver,BigWhite,SmallWhite,RedandOrange, andRedandBlackwiththreepossibleenginechoicesA8,B8,andC8.Eachrocketwastestedfor onlyoneengine.Thefinalnumberswereasfollows.

AverageAngle BigWhiteC8 RedandSilverC8 LittleWhiteA8 RedandOrangeC8 RedandBlackC8 50degrees 61degrees 41degrees 58degrees 73degrees

ActualHeight 64m 90m 44m 93m 392m

Introduction Thisprojectisdevotedtodiscoveringrocketscience.Itwasusedtoteachtheclasshowtouse kinematics,dynamics,impulse,momentum,andairresistanceintandem. Kinematicsisthephysicsoflinearmotion.Dynamicsisthestudyofmotionandforce.Impulseis thechangeoflinearmomentuminamovingbody.Momentumisthemassmultipliedbythevelocityof anobject.Airresistanceiswhatthislabisabout.Thepurposeofthelabistodiscoverthedragforce anddragcoefficientforairresistance. Inordertodiscoverthedragforceanddragcoefficient,firstthederivisionofthe Impulsemomentumtheoremmustoccur. Startwiththeequationforacceleration. a=
v t

multiplybothsidesbyt

at = v andmultiplybytheobjectsmass mat = mvf mvi Since f = ma wecanreplace ma with f sothat f nett = mvf mvi Andsincethemassmultipliedbyvelocityismomentumandthenetforcemultipiedbytimeisthe
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impulsetheequationcanthenbewrittenas I mpulse = p

EngineThrustAnalysis Inordertodeterminethethrustofeachengine,theenginewasattachedtoacalculatingsystem onacalculator.Inordertosettheenginealight,anignitionchargehadtobehookedtotheengine,as showninthepicturebelow.

Thealligatorclampshookedtotheengineignitionareconnectedtoanelectricalcharge.When thechargeissettheignitionignitestheenginecausingittothrustforward.Whentheenginestarts,the calculatorbeginstorecordthethrustoftheengine. Data:

Time

1/2A3

A8

B6

C6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1
0.2

6.0
3.0

5.0
9.0

6.0
10.0

6.0
14.0

0.3
3

0.0

3.0

6.0

5.0

0.4

0.0

2.5

4.8

4.7

0.5
0.6

0.0
0.0

2.2
2.2

4.5
4.5

4.5
4.5

0.7
0.8

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
3.0

4.5
4.5

0.9
1.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
4.5

1.1
1.2

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
4.5

1.3
1.4

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
4.5

1.5
1.6

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
4.5

1.7
1.8

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

4.5
4.5

1.9
2.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2
0.0

Thisiscallednumericaliteration.Assumingthethrustfromthislabwasthebestwaytoget accuratefigures.Itispossibleforonetousethemotionequations,butthemathissodifficult,itmakes
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nosense.Therefore,inordertosolvethisproblem,wetestouttheengineusingnumericaliteration.

AirResistance Todeterminewhatthedragforcecoefficientoftherocketsspeedwouldbe,itwasmeasured whatthecomponentwouldbeinacontrolledwindtunnel. Inordertomaintainacontrolledenvironmenttomeasuretherocketsairresistance,thefanis placedonthelongerendofthetunnel.Thewindiscreatedbythefansuckingairintothetunnelas opposedtothefanpushingairintothetunnel.Thisisdemonstratedinthepicturebelow.

Ifthefanweretopushairintothetunnel,ratherthanpullairintothetunnel,theairwouldbetoo turbulenttogetagoodreading.Thepictureabovedemonstratesthisconceptbyshowingthatthefan chopstheairwhichcausestheairtogooffinalldirections. Anotherproblemthatisdealtwithisthefactthattheaircomingintothetunnelispulledfromall directionsandisthereforenotuniformorstable.Thisisaddressedbythehoneycombliketubesthatare ateitherendofthetunnel.

Belowisapicture.

Thesehoneycombtunnelscausetheairtoflowthroughthemandbecomemoreuniformcreating Laminarflow. Thedragforcewasmeasuredbyusingtheprotractorattachedtothewallbehindtherocketin thetunnel.Whenthetunnelisoff,theangleontheprotractorreads90degrees,whichwassetto0 degreesbecauseitisourstartingpoint.

Thestartingpointisshowninthepicturebelow.

Therocketwiththewindtunnelonispicturedbelow:

TheformulaforFdinrelationtovelocityis:Fd=kV^2.Theunknownnumbersarethe coefficientkandtheDragForceorFd.Vstandsforvelocity. Thevelocityinsidethewindtunnelisapproximately15m/sandthemassoftherocketinsidethe windtunnelis61grams. Afterturningonthewindtunnel,theangleoftheRocketwasread.Sincetheturbulencewithin thewindtunnelwasnotcompletelysmoothedouttheanglewasdifficulttoread.So,theangleis anywhereinbetween25and35degrees.Therefore,itwillbeassumedthattheangleis30degrees. 61g*1kg/1000g=0.061kg Fd=mg*tan30 Fd=(0.061kg)(tan30) Fd=0.34514

Fd=kV^2 0.34514=k*15^2 k=0.34514/225 k=0.0018856whichisapporximately0.002Ns^2/m^2 However,consideringtheinnaccuracyoftheoriginalreadingoftheangle,thecoefficientcould beeither0.002or0.001 NumericalModel

Heightwassimulatedforrocketlaunchusingexcel.Dragcoefficientwasestimatedfrom previouslabonDragForcedependingonthecircumferenceoftherocket.Consideringthatthe estimateofthedragcoefficientbeforewasnotveryaccurate. Eachsheetsimulatestheredandsilver,theredandblack,thesmallwhite,theredand orange,orthelargewhiterocketwithanA8,B8,orC8engineanditspredictedheight.Thefirst columnisthetime,thesecondisthethrustwhichwascalculatedinapreviouslab,thethirdis theaveragethrustofthethrustpriorandthethrustafter,thefourthisthedragforceorthemass multipliedbythepreviousvelocity.Thefifthcolumnistheaveragenetforcewhichisthe averagethrustminusthemassminusthedragforce.Thesixthcolumnistheaveragenetforce multipliedbytimewhichequalstheaveragenetimpulse.Thefinalvelocityiscalculatedbythe previousrowsvelocityaddedtothenetforcedividedbythemassoftheobject.Theheightis thencalculatedbyaveragingthevelocityfromthepreviousrowandthecurrentvelocityand thenmultiplyingthatbythecurrenttime.Onealsomustaddtheheightfromthepreviousrowin ordertogettheheightrelativetotheground. Theresultsareasfollows.

1/2A8 RedandSilver RedandBlack RedandOrange BigWhite SmallWhite N/A N/A N/A N/A 23m

A8 36m 17m 24m 18m N/A

B8 74m 34m 39m 35m N/A

C8 74m 73m 78m 73m N/A

Itwasalsosimulatedwhatwouldhappeniftherewasnoairresistance.Therocketwent significantlyfurther.Itwassimulatedbyequatingthedragcoefficienttozero.

FlightResults Therocketswerelaunchedandtheheightoftherocketstrajectorywasmeasured.Sincethe rocketsdonotflyinastraightline,threestudentswererequiredtotaketheangleoftherocketatits highestinrelationtothehorizon.Thiswasdonesothatarighttrianglewasformedwiththehorizon,the rockettrajectory,andthelineofsightwiththestudent.

Theformulaforfindingtheheightisasfollows:dtan +Hp=Hwheredisthedistancetheperson isfromthelaunchsight, istheanglemeasured,andHpistheeyeheightofthepersonmeasuring.The eyeheightisaddedforwithoutittheheightisnotmeasuredinfull. Anexampleisprovidedonthenextpage.

tan15=X/50 50tan15=X X=13 13+1.5=15m

ActualData:

AverageAngle BigWhiteC8 RedandSilverC8 LittleWhiteA8 RedandOrangeC8 RedandBlackC8 50degrees 61degrees 41degrees 58degrees 73degrees

ActualHeight 64m 90m 44m 93m 392m

TheBigWhite,RedandSilver,andSmallWhiterocketsalllaunghedfairlystraight,therefore
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theirdataisveryclosetoaccurate.RedandYellowrocketlaunchedataseeableangle,butwasnottoo farofffromstraightup.TheRedandBlackrocketwassofarofffrombeingstraightthedatacannotbe consideredanywherenearaccuarate.

Conclusion DataComparison:

PredictedHeight BigWhiteC8 RedandSilverC8 LittleWhiteA8 RedandOrangeC8 RedandBlackC8 73m 74m 23m 78m 73m

ActualHeight 64m 90m 44m 93m 392m

Aswasalreadysaid,theRedandBlackrocketsflightpathwassocurvedthatitsactualheight cannotbeaccuratelydetermined.TheRedandOrangerocketwasalsonotstraightandthereforethe actualheightreadingisnotaccurate.Theotherrockets,however,hadafairlystraightflightpathwhich meansthattheiractualheightisprettymuchrighton. Thereadings,however,stilldonotmatchperfectlythepredictedheights.Thisisprobablydue tothefactthatnoneoftherocketshadaperfectlystraighttrajectory.Also,ifthereweremoretests, therewouldprobablybeanaveragethatwasmuchclosertotheactualheight.

Reflection Thisprojectwasadifficultonetoaccomplish.Notonlybecauseofitslength,butalsobecauseI wassickononeofthedayswedidalab.SinceIwasunabletofullyunderstandhowthrustwas measuredwritingupthatlabwasofparticulardifficulty.However,throughthisprocessIwasableto understandhowlabreportsareputtogetheraswellashowthescientificprocessworksinaphysics context.Ihaveneverreallydoneascienceprojectthatdealswithphysics,butthroughthisIwasableto seehowthenumericalmodelrelatestothelabsthemselves.

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