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StructuralAnalysis
DevdasMenon
Professor
(dmenon@iitm.ac.in)
NationalProgrammeonTechnology
EnhancedLearning(NPTEL)
www.nptel.ac.in
Lecture18 Module3:
BasicMatrixConcepts
Modules
1. Reviewofbasicstructuralanalysis 1(6lectures)
2. Reviewofbasicstructuralanalysis 2(10lectures)
3. Basicmatrixconcepts
4. Matrixanalysisofstructureswithaxialelements
5. Matrixanalysisofbeamsandgrids
6. Matrixanalysisofplaneandspaceframes
7. Analysisofelasticinstabilityandsecondordereffects

Module3:BasicMatrixConcepts
Reviewofmatrixalgebra
Introductiontomatrixstructuralanalysis(forceand
displacementtransformations;stiffnessand
flexibilitymatrices;basicformulations;equivalent

Reviewof
Basic
Conceptsin
Structural
Analysis
Matrix
Concepts
and
Methods
Structures
withAxial
Elements
Beams
andGrids
Planeand
Space
Frames
Elastic
Instability
andSecond
order
Analysis A
d
v
a
n
c
e
d

S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

EIGENVALUES&EIGENVECTORS
avectorX(whosecomponentsareunknown)toanotherknownvectorC
throughalineartransformation,AX=C.
IfA isasquarematrix,thenthereexistcertainspecialtypesofvectorsX,called
eigenvectors, suchthatthetransformationresultsinvectorsthatareparallel
toX.ThismeansthattheproductAX isascalarmultipleofX:AX=X,
where ,thescalarmultiplier,isauniquepropertyofthematrixA,called
eigenvalue.
Foranontrivialsolution(i.e.,X O),Amustbenonsingular.
Inproblemsofstructuralstabilityanddynamics,thesquarematrixAis
usuallysymmetric,andthisimpliesthatalltheeigenvalues willbereal(not
complex),andthecorrespondingn eigenvectors,associatedwithdistinct
eigenvalues,
willbenotonlylinearlyindependentbutalsomutuallyorthogonal.
Thesumofthen eigenvaluesofasquarenonsingularmatrixAoforder
n n isequaltothetrace(sumofthediagonalelements)ofAandthe
productofthen eigenvaluesisequaltothedeterminantofA.

1
+
2
+...+
n
=a
11
+a
22
+...+a
nn

2
...
n
=det A

1
+
2
=3+3=6 and
1

2
=det A=8

A=
3 1
1 3

2
6+8= 4
( )
2
( )
=0
1
= 4,
2
=2 or
1
=2,
2
= 4
CharacteristicEquation

AI
( )
X=O
ThematrixA isnowmodifiedasAI,suggestingthatthediagonal
elementsofA areshiftedby,withoffdiagonaltermsremainingunchanged:

a
11

( )
a
12
a
1n
a
21
a
22

( )
a
2n
a
n1
a
n2
a
nn

( )

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
x
1
x
2
X
n

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
0
0
0

(
(
(
(
(
(
. . .
. . .
. . .
.

.

.
.

.

.
.

.

.
.

.

.
.

.

.
Clearly,foranontrivialsolution(X 0)toexist,thematrixA Ihastobe
singular,wherebyitsdeterminantmustbeequaltozero:

AI =O
polynomialequationofordern,intermsof,rootsare
eigenvalues,andcorrespondingX vectorsareeigenvectors.
TheeigenvectorX
j
(correspondingto
j
)correspondstothenullspaceofthematrixA
j
I.
AsA
j
Iisasingularmatrix,itsrankr <n.
ByreducingthematrixA
j
Ito itsroweducedform,
(A
j
I)X
j
=0 becomes

R=
I F
O O

RX
j
=
I F
O O

(
X
j,pivot
X
j,free

(
(
=
O
O

(
Assigningsuitable(arbitrary,usuallyunit)valuestothefreevariablesX
j,free
,
X
j,pivot
=FX
j,free
Thestandardwayofnormalizingtheeigenvectorisbydividing
thecomponentsoftheeigenvectorbythelengthofthevector,therebyreducingitto
aunitvector.

A=
7 2 0
2 6 2
0 2 5

(
(
(

AI =
7
( )
2 0
2 6
( )
2
0 2 5
( )
=0

3
+18
2
99+162=0

1
=3,
2
=6,
3
=9

X
1,pivot
= FX
1, free
=
1 2
( )
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )

(
(
=
1 2
1

(
X
1
=
1 2
1
1

(
(
(
or
c 2
c
c

(
(
(

AI =
4 2 0
2 3 2
0 2 2

(
(
(
Similarly,

X
2
=
1
1 2
1

(
(
(

c
c 2
c

(
(
(
or

X
3
=
1
1
1 2

(
(
(

c
c 2
c

(
(
(
or and
Realnormalizedeigenvectorsofasymmetricmatrixareinvariablymutually
orthogonal,andarereferredtoasorthonormal eigenvectors:

X
1
=
1 3
2 3
2 3

(
(
(

X
2
=
2 3
1 3
2 3

(
(
(

X
3
=
2 3
2 3
1 3

(
(
(

1
=3

R=
1 0 1 2
0 1 1
0 0 0

(
(
(
PropertiesofOrthogonalEigenvectorMatrix

Q
T
=Q
1
Q
T
Q
1
=I

Q=

X
1
{ }

X
2
{ }
...

X
n
{ }

Q=
1 3 2 3 2 3
2 3 1 3 2 3
2 3 2 3 1 3

(
(
(

A=
7 2 0
2 6 2
0 2 5

(
(
(
Theeigenvalues,
1
,
2
,,
n
,can bearranged
sequentiallyasdiagonalelementsofa
diagonalmatrixcalledeigenvalue matrix,

A=QAQ
T
=
1
X
1
X
T
1
+
2
X
2
X
T
2
+...+
n
X
n
X
T
n

QAQ
T
=
1 3 2 3 2 3
2 3 1 3 2 3
2 3 2 3 1 3

(
(
(
3 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 9

(
(
(
1 3 2 3 2 3
2 3 1 3 2 3
2 3 2 3 1 3

(
(
(
=
7 2 0
2 6 2
0 2 5

(
(
(
= A

A=
3 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 9

(
(
(
ThematrixA canbefactorizedordecomposedasQQ
T
(eigendecomposition)
matrix (containinglinearlyindependenteigenvectorsthat
neednotbenormalisedtomakethemmutuallyorthogonal),thenalsofactorizationofthe
matrixAispossible,asfollows:

S= X
1
{ }
X
2
{ }
... X
n
{ }

A=SAS
1
Generalizedformulationofeigenvalueproblem:
(bifurcationbuckling).
whereX correspondstothedisplacementvector,A correspondstotheprimary
(firstorder)stiffnessmatrixofthestructureandBcorrespondstothegeometric
stiffnessmatrixofthestructure.A andBaresymmetricmatricesofordern n,where
n
isgivenbythedegreesoffreedominthestructure.

AX=BX

AB
( )
X=0

B
1
A
( )
X= X
Iterativesolutionmethods:
powermethod,Jacobismethod,StodolaVianello method
1INTRODUCTION
2COORDINATESYSTEMS
3TRANSFORMATIONMATRICES
4STIFFNESSMATRIX
5FLEXIBILITYMATRIX
7STIFFNESS&FLEXIBILITYMETHODS
MatrixAnalysisofStructures
BasicConcepts
ForcesandDisplacements
SimplePlaneTruss:
m=11,r =3,j =7
m+r =2j=14
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
F
6
F
12
F
13
F
7
F
8
F
9
F
10
F
11
F
14
1
2 3
4
5 6
8
9
10
11
7
D
5
D
6
D
9
D
10
D
1
D
2
11
D
3
D
4
3
Forces: external;internal
F
j
(j 1,2,,14);N
i
(i =1,2,,11)
N
11
Displacements:
deflections;deformations
D
j
(j 1,2,,14);e
i
(i =1,2,,11)
D
5
D
6
D
9
D
10
L
11
L
11
+e
11
Mustsatisfyequilibriumconditions
Mustsatisfycompatibilityconditions
Global(Structure)Coordinates
Displacements:ActiveandRestrainedCoordinates
Forces: Actions and Reactions
(
=
(
(

A
R
D
D
D
(
=
(
(

A
R
F
F
F
CoordinateSystems
Elements,Nodes
D
B
A
C
1
2
3
8
7
x
O
y
z
GlobalAxes
4
5
6 1
2
3
Activedegreesoffreedom
9
10
11
12
Restraineddegreesoffreedom
Globalcoordinatenotationsforatypicalplaneframe
(stiffnessmethod)
Displacement
vector:
Global coordinates (8 active; 4 restrained)
Forcevector:
{ }
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 D
10 A
11 A
12 A
50kN
100kN
0 kNm
0 kN
0 kN
75kNm
0 kNm
0 kN
A
R
F
F
F
F
F
F F
F F
F F
F V
F H
F V
F M
= +

=

=

=

=

=

= = =
` `

=
)

=

=

=

=
)

{ }
1 B
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 C
6 C
7 D
8 D
9
10
11
12
0
0
0
0
x
y
z
x
y
A z
z
R x
D
D
D
D
D
D D
D D
D D
D
D
D
D
= A

= A

= u

= A

= A

= u

= = = u
` `

= A
)

=

=

=

=
)

D
B
A
C
1
2
3
8
7
9
x
O
y
z
4
5
6 1
2
3
10
11
12
B
100kN
50kN
C
75kNm
D
1
2
3
A
V
A
H
A
M
A
V
D
F
{ }
= k

D
{ }
Local(Element)Coordinates
(Stiffness
Method)
x
O
y
z
Local coordinates (for three frame elements)
B
A
x*
y*
5*
6*
4*
1
L
1
1*
2*
3*
2
B
L
2
1*
4*
6*
5*
2*
3*
C
D
C
3
L
3
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
6*

x1
x
y*
x*

x2
x
x*

x3
y*
x
LocalAxes,StartNode,EndNode
{ }
1*
2*
3*
*
4*
5*
6*
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

=
`

)
fori =1,2,3
{ }
1*
2*
3*
*
4*
5*
6*
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

=
`

)
and
{ }
1*
2*
3*
*
4*
5*
6*
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

=
`

)
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
1
*
2
* *
3
*
D
D D
D

=
`

)
fori =1,2,3
Displacementvector:
where,
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
1
*
2
* *
3
*
F
F F
F

=
`

)
{ }
1*
2*
3*
*
4*
5*
6*
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

=
`

)
fori =1,2,3
where,
Forcevector:
Combined Element Displacement and Force Vectors
ElementStiffnessMatrix(LocalCoordinates)
{ } { }
* * *
i i i
F k D
(
=

Ref: Kassimali, Matrix analysis of structures, Brooks/Cole, 1999
1
2
3
4
5 6 7
2 3 4 5
6
1
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16

F
A
F
R

(
(
=
k
AA
k
AR
k
RA
k
RR

(
(
D
A
D
R

(
(

D
A
= k
AA

1
F
A
k
AR
D
R

2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3 4 5
6
1

k
AA

1
1
half band width =
n
k
= 6

F
{ }
= k

D
{ }
NumberingScheme
Ref: Kassimali, Matrix analysis of structures, Brooks/Cole, 1999
n
k
= 21
OptimalNumberingScheme?
n
k
= 24
Thenumberofarithmeticoperations
involvedinsolvingasetofequations
increaseslinearlywiththesquareof
thehalfbandwidth.
Tominimizethebandwidthofthe
stiffnessmatrix,thenumbering
sequenceshouldbedonealongthe
shorterdirection ofthestructure.
8 12 16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
13
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
n
k
= 21
Symmetric

k
AA

5
6
4
7
9
10
11
12
8
2
1
3
22
16 13
14
15
21
19
24
17
18
20 24
n
k
= 24
Symmetric

k
AA

## half band width = 8

Ref: Kassimali, Matrix analysis of structures, Brooks/Cole, 1999