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Comparing Intensive Properties of Nickel and an Unknown Metal Caitlin Boback and Katy Sobodos Macomb Mathematics Science

Technology Center Chemistry 10B Mrs. Dewey, Mrs. Hilliard, Mr. Supal 20 May 2013

Boback Sobodos 2 Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................... 3 Background ............................................................................................... 4 Review of Literature .................................................................................. 6 Problem Statement ................................................................................... 9 Experimental Design ............................................................................... 10 Data and Observations ........................................................................... 16 Data Analysis and Interpretations ........................................................... 23 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 32 Appendix A: Percent Error Sample Calculation ....................................... 35 Appendix B: t-Test Sample Calculation ................................................... 36 Appendix C: Specific Heat Sample Calculations ..................................... 37 Appendix D: Randomizing Trials ............................................................. 38 Appendix E: Linear Thermal Expansion Sample Calculation.39 Appendix F: Creating a Calorimeter....40 Appendix G: Setting up the LoggerPro41 Bibliography. 42

Boback Sobodos 3 Introduction Many metals look the same, but could very possibly be different. There is a fantastic experiment to discover if two metals are the same! The researchers in this experiment had nickel as their known metal, and also a completely unknown metal. The researchers in this experiment hoped to discover whether two metals were the same. They compared their known metal, nickel, and the unknown metal using two tests: specific heat and linear thermal expansion. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree. The heat is measured using a calorimeter, thermometer, and a temperature probe from a LoggerPro device. The LoggerPro records the temperature of the water inside the calorimeter, every second, which is used to find the equilibrium. Linear thermal expansion is the amount of expansion that takes place when a metal rod is heated or cooled. It is measured using a thermal expansion jig and a spray bottle. The metal rod is heated to one hundred degrees Celsius and then placed in the jig where it cools with the help of room temperature water in the spray bottle. The dial on the jig measures the expansion length. The main intention of this experiment is to compare two metals, one known and one unknown, and figure out if they are the same. The researchers hoped to prove that the metals were the same or different by using specific heat and linear thermal expansion experiments.

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Background Information Nickel was discovered in1751, by the Swedish chemist Axel Fredrick Cronstedt. The name nickel is derived from the German word kupfernickel (false copper).Nickel is obtained from ores, and most of the worlds source is found in Ontario, Canada. Nickel is mined underground as opposed to open cast. There are two different groups of ore nickel is found in: sulphide and laterite (Mills). After the ore is mined, it is smelted. When ore is smelted, it is heated with chemicals until the nickel is separated from the ore.

Ni(CO)4 Ni + 4CO. (impure) (pure)

Figure 1. Chemical Formula for Extracting Nickel The chemical formula shown above illustrates the process of extracting and purifying nickel from ores. It starts off as an ore combined with other elements, then the ore is smelted. This separates the nickel from the other elements Some intensive properties of nickel are density, specific heat, thermal expansion, melting point, and boiling point. The density of nickel is 8.902 g/cm3, the specific heat is 0.44 J/gK, and the thermal expansion alpha coefficient is 13 mm x 10-6. The melting point of nickel is 1453.0 C, and the boiling point of nickel is 2732.0 C. Nickel is also ductile, hard, and malleable. These intensive properties mean that nickel is strong, and resistant to heat. It is often chosen for alloys because of the properties it possesses (Gagnon). Nickel contrasts more to

Boback Sobodos 5 water than it compares. Nickels density is 8.9 times waters density (water has a density of 1 g/cm3), nickels melting point is approximately 1453.0 C more than that of water (water has a melting point of 0C)(Walker). Nickel is used in many important products. It is used in food preparation equipment, mobile phones, medical equipment such as surgical implants, construction, transportation, stainless steel, and its most prominent use is alloying. Nickel is chosen for these particular uses because, unlike other elements, it offers better corrosion resistance, toughness, strength at varying temperatures, and unique magnetic and electronic properties ("Nickel Use in Society").

Figure 2. Orbital Diagram of Nickel Figure 2 above shows nickels orbital diagram. Nickels atomic mass is 58.693 amu. Located in the nucleus there are 28 protons and 31 neutrons. There are 28 electrons that orbit the nucleus in orbitals, the arrangement of which are shown above in Figure 1.

Boback Sobodos 6 Review of Literature Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius. It is measure in Joules per degree Celsius (Hilliard). Specific heat is an intensive property, meaning that it does not change based on the amount of substance included in the measurement (Weisstein). Specific heat can be used to identify a certain metal because each metal has its own specific heat; no two are the same. Specific heat is a good example of the First Law of Thermodynamics. When the metal is heated in the water, the heat does not just appear out of thin air; it comes from the molecules moving faster when being heated. To measure specific heat, a version of a calorimeter is normally used. There is also a formula used to calculate specific heat.

In this formula, q is the heat needed, s is the, m is the mass of the object measured, and T is delta temperature, or the difference between the initial and final temperature (Hilliard). The published value of specific heat for nickel will be of value to the researchers to either confirm or deny the validity of the unknown metal. Two experiments that measured specific heat were found. For a sample calculation see Appendix C.. The first experiment was to measure the specific heat of an unknown metal, and it used the LoggerPro that the researchers will be using in their experiment. A LoggerPro is a device that, when using the thermometer probe attachment, will measure the temperature of a substance every second for the

Boback Sobodos 7 prescribed number of seconds the user inputs. In the reviewed experiment, a Styrofoam cup with 50ml of hot water was placed in a 250 ml beaker. Then, data collection began while the metal was being collected by another group member. When that person came back, the metal was placed into the Styrofoam cup, and the temperature rod that was attached to the LoggerPro was stirred in the cup continuously until the temperature returned to the temperature it was before the metal was added. The same procedure was done using cold water (Dannenberg). The methods shown in this experiment will be very useful to the researchers when they are creating their experimental design for many reasons. First, the experiment used a LoggerPro just like the researchers will when they perform their experiment. Second, the design is very simplistic and easy, but provides results. This is something the researchers want to have. Third and finally, all the materials in this experiment are readily available to the researchers, which creates less hassle for the researchers when the time comes to collect their materials. The second experiment that was reviewed also discussed how to find the specific heat of an unknown metal. This experiment used a homemade calorimeter made of two coffee cups. The calorimeter is then weighed while the water is boiling. Then, when the water is added, the calorimeter is weighed again. The initial temperature is then measured, and every 30 seconds the temperature is recorded again (Moffett, Sandwick). This experiment relates to the one the researchers will be creating for a few reasons. The basic set up of the experiment is a good basis for the researchers experimental design. Also, the

Boback Sobodos 8 researchers will have to create a calorimeter for their experiment, and the reviewed experiment shows a model of one that the researchers can easily make. However, this experiment did not use a LoggerPro, which will be a key part to the researchers experimental design. Linear thermal expansion is an intensive property. When a metal rod is exposed to heat the length of the rod expands. When the metal heats up the molecules inside expand, or spread further apart, and start vibrating faster causing the metal to expand. This is called the kinetic molecular theory. The opposite affect takes place when the metal road has a decrease in temperature. This can be used to identify metals because each metal has a specific linear thermal expansion coefficient. This property is measured in 1/C (Duffy).

(L f L i ) L f (Tf Ti )

The formula shown above is used to calculate the linear thermal expansion alpha coefficient, . This is found by subtracting the initial length, Li from the final length, Lf, then dividing that by the final length multiplied by the initial temperature, Ti, subtracted from the final temperature, Tf (Duffy). For a sample calculation see Appendix E. One method of finding the linear thermal expansion coefficient is with an apparatus. The metal rod is placed in the tool and measured at room temperature. A steam generator is then used to heat up the metal. As the metal heats up, the apparatus should read a change in length. The thermistor on the

Boback Sobodos 9 tool indicates the temperature of the rod. This information can then be used in the above equation to find the linear thermal expansion coefficient (Mosnier). Another method of finding the linear thermal expansion is heating the metal rod to the desired temperature using a thermistor to measure the temperature it is at, then placing it into the apparatus. This may give a more accurate reading because the apparatus will only be measuring the new length, and not going from the original to the new. The information collected would then be put into the equation above to calculate the linear thermal expansion coefficient (Hester). These experiments can be used in a classroom setting with minimum difficulty. They could greatly contribute to the research because each metal has a different linear thermal expansion coefficient. This type of experiment could be involved in the building industry. For example, to build a bridge properly the right metal needs to be used. Metals could be deemed safe to use by finding the linear thermal expansion coefficient. Problem Statement Problem: The measurements of specific heat and linear thermal expansion of an unknown metal can determine if it is the same element using known values.

Boback Sobodos 10 Hypothesis: When percent error of specific heat and linear thermal expansion are taken the unknown metal can be identified as the same element as the known metal by comparing known values. Data: In the linear thermal expansion experiment, the measurements will consist of the length of the metal rod (mm), the initial temperature of the metal (C), and linear expansion coefficient (m/mC). In the specific heat experiment, the measurements include the initial and equilibrium temperature (C), mass of the metal (g), and specific heat of the metal (J/C). Experimental Design Specific Heat: Materials: TI-nspire CX Calculator Unknown Metal Rod (2) Hot Plate 100ml Graduated Cylinder LoggerPro Calorimeter (4) Tongs Nickel Metal Rod (2) Loaf Pan Tap Water LoggerPro Temperature Probes(4)

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Procedure: Randomization: 1. Label calorimeters from 1 to 4. See Appendix F for directions on how to create a calorimeter. 2. Using a TI-nspire CX calculator, randomize the trials using the randomization function. This will be the order of the trials conducted. See Appendix D for how to randomize. Specific Heat: 1. 2. 3. 4. Fill a loaf pan with 150ml of water, using a 100ml graduated cylinder. Plug in hot plate, and set on high. Place beaker on hot plate. Let water boil. While water is boiling, procure 45 ml of room temperature tap water, take the temperature of the water, and record that as initial water temperature. 5. 6. Insert the room temperature water into the calorimeter. Once water is boiled, add metal to the water and wait for two minutes. Record that as the starting temperature for the metal. 7. When the metal is the same temperature as the water, remove it using tongs, and place it inside the calorimeter.

Boback Sobodos 12 8. Place cap on calorimeter, and insert LoggerPro temperature probe in predrilled hole. How to set up the LoggerPro is shown in Appendix G. 9. Set LoggerPro to take the temperature of the water every 1 second for 300 seconds 10. 11. Start collecting data ten seconds before adding the metal. Record the highest temperature collected as the final temperature of water and metal. Diagram:
Calorimeter

Temperature Probe Metal Rods

Logger Pro

Figure 3. Specific Heat Materials Figure 3 shows the materials used in the specific heat experiment.

Boback Sobodos 13 Thermal Expansion: Materials: Thermal Expansion Jig (0.01) Nickel, Ni pure metal rod (2) Hot plate Dry erase marker Loaf pan (2) Spray bottle Tap water Unknown metal rod (2) TI-nspire calculator Caliper (mm) Timer Thermometer (C) Tongs

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Procedure: 1. Randomize the trials using the random integer function on a TI-Nspire calculator. 2. 3. Plug in hot plate and turn on high. Fill a loaf pan with 150 ml of water using a graduated cylinder and place on hot plate. 4. 5. 6. 7. Measure the initial length of the metal rod using the caliper. When water gets to 100C place a metal rod in the water. Keep metal rod in the water for one minute. As soon as the three minutes are up, take the temperature of the water with a thermometer (initial temperature) and take the metal rod out with tongs and immediately place it into the thermal expansion jig. 8. 9. Mark starting point on jig with a dry erase marker. Spray the metal rod with cool water for three minutes and record the net change in length shown on the dial. 10. 11. 12. The final temperature is assumed to be room temperature. Repeat for each metal rod, Nickel and unknown, fifteen times. Using the data gathered, calculate the thermal expansion.

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Diagram:

Loaf pan Spray Bottle

Thermal Expansion Jig

Figure 4. Linear Thermal Expansion Materials Figure 4 shows the materials used in the linear thermal expansion experiment.

Boback Sobodos 16 Data and Observations Table 1 Specific Heat Known Metal Data Initial Temp. Change in (C) Temp. (C) Equilibrium Water Metal Temp. (C) Water Metal 19.70 99.40 24.90 5.20 74.50 18.60 99.40 24.30 5.70 75.10 22.60 98.40 26.30 3.70 72.10 22.40 98.40 26.10 3.70 72.30 22.00 98.10 25.70 3.70 72.40 21.90 98.10 25.50 3.60 72.60 24.70 98.30 25.00 0.30 73.30 22.20 98.30 24.80 2.60 73.50 23.60 98.40 27.80 4.20 70.60 24.70 98.40 28.30 3.60 70.10 31.10 98.40 34.00 2.90 64.40 22.10 98.40 26.70 4.60 71.70 28.00 98.10 31.30 3.30 66.80 38.60 98.10 39.70 1.10 58.40 25.10 98.10 28.80 3.70 69.30 24.49 98.42 27.95 3.46 70.47 Mass (g) Metal Water 36.00 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.00 50.00 36.10 50.00 36.10 50.00 36.00 50.00 36.10 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.20 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.20 45.00 36.10 45.00 36.00 45.00 36.05 46.33 Specific Heat (J/gC) 0.37 0.40 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.02 0.19 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.34 0.26 0.10 0.28 0.26

Trial Rod 1 A 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 A 6 B 7 A 8 B 9 A 10 B 11 B 12 A 13 A 14 B 15 B Average

Table 1 shows the data collected by the researchers during their specific heat trials with the known metal, nickel. The order of the rods used in the trials was randomized using the randomization function on the TI-Nspire calculator. A sample calculation is shown in Appendix D.

Boback Sobodos 17 Table 2 Specific Heat Known Metal Observations Trial Rod Date Observations 1 A 15-Apr Cal 2;, researcher 1 added metal 2 A 15-Apr Cal 3; researcher 1 added metal 3 B 18-Apr Water overflowed in calorimeter 4;, researcher 2 Rod fell when puting into calorimeter ; 3 researcher 4 A 18-Apr 2 5 A 18-Apr cal 1; researcher 2 6 B 18-Apr Water overflow; cal 3; researcher 2 7 A 18-Apr Water overflow; cal 2; researcher 2 Added 100 ml of water to loaf pan; cal 4; researcher 8 B 18-Apr 2 9 A 18-Apr Fell when adding rod to calorimeter 1; researcher 2 10 B 18-Apr cal 3; researcher 2 11 B 18-Apr cal 2; researcher 2 12 A 18-Apr cal 4; researcher 1 13 A 18-Apr cal 1; researcher 1 14 B 18-Apr Add 100 ml to loaf pan; cal 3; researcher 1 15 B 18-Apr cal 2; researcher 1

Table 2 shows the observations taken during the specific heat experiments for the trials done on the known metal, nickel.

Boback Sobodos 18 Table 3 Specific Heat Unknown Metal Data Initial Temp. Change in (C) Temp. (C) Equilibrium Trial Rod Water Metal Temp. (C) Water Metal 1 A 20.60 98.10 25.00 4.40 73.10 2 B 21.80 98.30 26.20 4.40 72.10 3 A 20.50 97.90 24.60 4.10 73.30 4 B 20.40 98.20 24.60 4.20 73.60 5 B 23.30 98.50 27.80 4.50 70.70 6 A 32.40 98.70 34.90 2.50 63.80 7 A 34.90 98.10 36.60 1.70 61.50 8 B 27.40 98.10 30.90 3.50 67.20 9 A 21.10 98.50 25.30 4.20 73.20 10 B 21.30 98.20 25.90 4.60 72.30 11 A 20.60 98.50 25.20 4.60 73.30 12 A 25.50 98.10 29.40 3.90 68.70 13 B 20.70 98.20 25.30 4.60 72.90 14 B 25.40 98.10 29.80 4.40 68.30 15 B 22.20 98.50 26.50 4.30 72.00 Average 23.87 98.27 27.87 3.99 70.40

Mass(g) Metal Water 33.70 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.80 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.80 45.00 33.80 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.80 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.80 45.00 33.70 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.00 45.00 33.36 45.00

Specific Heat (J/gC) 0.34 0.35 0.31 0.33 0.36 0.22 0.15 0.30 0.32 0.36 0.35 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.34 0.32

Table 3 shows the data collected from the specific heat experiment of the unknown metal. The order in which the rods were used was randomized using the randomization function on a TI-Nspire calculator. For a sample calculation, see Appendix D .

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Table 4 Specific Heat Unknown Metal Observations Trial Rod Date Observations 1 A 22-Apr cal 1; researcher 2 added metal 2 B 22-Apr cal 2; fell over while recording data; researcher 2 3 A 22-Apr cal 3; researcher 2 4 B 22-Apr cal 4; researcher 2 5 B 22-Apr cal 2; researcher 2 6 A 22-Apr water didnt completely cover metal; cal 1, researcher 2 7 A 22-Apr added 150 ml of water to loaf pan; cal 3; researcher 2 8 B 22-Apr cal 4; researcher 2 9 A 22-Apr cal 1; researcher 1 10 B 22-Apr cal 2; researcher 1 11 A 22-Apr cal 3; researcher 1 12 A 23-Apr cal 1; researcher 1 13 B 22-Apr cal 4; researcher 1 14 B 23-Apr cal 3; researcher 1 15 B 23-Apr cal 4; researcher 1 Table 4 shows the observations recorded during the specific heat trials for the unknown metal rods.

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Table 5 Linear Thermal Expansion Known Metal Data Change in Length Length Initial Final Alpha Coefficient Trial Rod (mm) (mm) Temp. (C) Temp. (C) (mm x 10-6) 1 B 0.08 129.40 98.30 21.90 8.09 2 A 0.06 129.34 99.10 21.90 6.36 3 B 0.09 129.26 98.90 21.90 9.04 4 A 0.09 129.45 98.40 21.90 8.58 5 A 0.08 129.34 98.30 21.90 7.71 6 A 0.09 129.42 97.30 21.90 9.63 7 B 0.09 129.31 98.80 21.90 9.45 8 A 0.09 129.42 98.50 21.90 9.08 9 B 0.07 129.28 98.10 21.90 7.11 10 A 0.09 129.30 98.60 21.90 9.08 11 A 0.08 129.40 98.60 21.90 7.68 12 B 0.08 129.31 98.50 21.90 8.08 13 B 0.08 129.28 99.10 21.90 7.89 14 A 0.08 129.17 99.20 24.20 8.26 15 B 0.07 129.25 99.30 24.20 7.21 Average 0.08 129.33 98.60 22.21 8.22

Table 5 shows the results for the linear thermal expansion trials done on the known metal, nickel, rods. The order in which each trial was done was randomized using the random integer function on a calculator. For a sample calculation, see Appendix D.

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Table 6 Linear Thermal Expansion Unknown Metal Data Change in Length Length Initial Final Alpha Coefficient Trial Rod (mm) (mm) Temp. (C) Temp. (C) (mm x 10-6) 1 B 0.08 129.23 99.20 25.00 8.34 2 A 0.08 129.52 99.20 25.00 8.32 3 B 0.09 129.24 98.60 25.70 9.55 4 B 0.08 129.23 98.60 23.20 8.21 5 B 0.08 129.50 98.90 25.10 8.37 6 A 0.09 129.16 98.60 25.60 9.55 7 A 0.08 129.18 97.90 25.40 8.54 8 B 0.07 129.48 97.90 25.40 7.46 9 A 0.09 129.25 98.60 25.70 9.55 10 A 0.08 129.26 98.50 24.80 8.40 11 B 0.09 129.53 98.50 24.80 9.43 12 A 0.09 129.30 98.70 24.60 9.39 13 B 0.10 129.54 98.70 24.60 10.42 14 B 0.09 129.54 98.60 22.40 9.12 15 A 0.08 129.16 98.60 22.40 8.13 Average 0.08 129.35 98.61 24.65 8.85 Table 6 shows the data collected for the trials that used the unknown metal. A TI-Nspire calculators randomization function was used to randomize the order in which the rods were used. A sample calculation is shown in Appendix D.

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Table 7 Linear Thermal Expansion Unknown Metal Observations

Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B A B B B A A B A A B A B B A

Rod

Date 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 19-Apr 23-Apr 23-Apr

Observations jig 2; researcher 2 jig 3; researcher 2 add 50 ml to loaf pan; jig 2; researcher 1 jig 2; researcher 1 jig 3; researcher 2 jig 3; researcher 2 jig 2; researcher 1 jig 3 ; researcher 1 add 100 ml, jig 3; researcher 2 jig 2; researcher 2 jig 3; researcher 1 jig 2;added 60 ml to loaf pan; researcher 1 jig 3; researcher 2 jig x; researcher 2 jig 4; researcher 2

Table 7 shows the observations recorded during the trials using the unknown metal.

Boback Sobodos 23 Data Analysis and Interpretation Specific Heat: Table 8 Known Metal Specific Heat Percent Error Percent Trial Rod error 1A 17.03 2A 9.78 3B 32.22 4A 32.6 5A 32.69 6B 34.51 7A 95.15 8B 57.95 9A 29.68 10 B 38.96 11 B 46.47 12 A 23.74 13 A 41.6 14 B 77.67 15 B 36.54 Average 40.44 Table 9 Unknown Metal Specific Heat Percent Error Percent Trial Rod error 1A 23.57 2B 20.87 3A 29.19 4B 26 5B 17.47 6A 50.39 7A 65 8B 32.46 9A 27.36 10 B 17.5 11 A 20.55 12 A 27.92 13 B 18.18 14 B 16.46 15 B 22.56 Average 27.7

Tables 8 and 9 show the percent error for the unknown and known metals taken during the specific heat trials. The percent error helped the researchers pertain a better understanding of how well the experiment was being performed. If the percent error seemed high for the known metal, then the researchers could possibly be doing something wrong and could then fix it. For a sample calculation, see Appendix A. Data in this experiment was collected from two different metals: the known metal, nickel, and the unknown metal. A two-sample t-test is being used to interpret the data. A two-sample t-test is appropriate for this experiment because

Boback Sobodos 24 two populations are being compared as well as the standard deviation not previously known. Because the population samples are under thirty, the normal probability plots are necessary to determine if the t-test can be performed. As shown in the normal probability plots in Figure 10 and Figure 11, the data is fairly normal, although there may be some discrepancy as to the validity of the data. The data is reliable because it meets the assumptions. The data in this experiment was collected from two independent groups; the known metal and the unknown metal. For a sample calculation of the specific heat, see Appendix C. During data collection, the order in which it was collected was randomized using the randomization function on a TI-Nspire CX calculator.

Figure 10. Normal Probability Plot for Unknown Metal Figure 10 shows the normal probability plot for the unknown metal. Based on the graph it can be assumed that there is a normal distribution.

Boback Sobodos 25 Figure 11. Normal Probability Plot for Known Metal Figure 11 shows the normal probability plot for the known metal. Since the dots are fairly close to the line, it can be assumed that it is normally distributed.

Figure 12. Box Plot for Known and Unknown Metal Data A t-test was performed on the data collected from the specific heat experiment. When all of the data was used when performing the test, a P-value of 0.0520 was procure. However, there were several outliers, as shown in the box plot in Figure 12. Due to these outliers, the researchers redid the t-test and removed the outliers from the data set. The second t-test yielded a P-value of 0.0010. These two very different P-values suggest that the outliers skewed the data. The skew was probably caused by human error caused by the researchers. The null hypothesis states that the mean of the known metal, , is equal to the mean of the unknown metal, . Sample one is the known metal, nickel, and sample two is the unknown metal. The alternative hypothesis states that the means of samples one and two are not equal. Ho : = H a:

Boback Sobodos 26 To compute a two-sample t-test, the P-value is needed. The following formula is used to compute the P-value for a two-sample t-test. ( The symbol is used to describe the mean of the first population, or the known metal. is used for the mean of the second population, or the unknown metal. is the standard deviation of population one, squared. is the standard )

deviation of population two, squared. and, finally,

is the sample space of population one

is the sample space of population two. For a sample calculation,

see Appendix B.

Figure 13. Original t-test Results

Figure 14. t-test Results After Outliers Were Removed

Boback Sobodos 27 As shown in Figures 13 and 14, two separate t-tests were performed for specific heat data. This is because there were several outliers in the data. The researchers took out the outliers and redid the t-test. The p-value changed fairly dramatically when the outliers were removed, but the conclusion is still the same with or without them.

Figure 15. P-value Distribution The graph shown in Figure 15 shows the P-value of the two groups. The P-value is shaded, and is 0.0520. The null hypothesis was rejected because a P-value of 0.0520 is less than the alpha level of 0.10. There is evidence that the unknown metal is not the same as the known metal, but further trials may prove differently. There is a 5.2% chance of getting results this extreme by chance alone of the null hypothesis were true. Linear Thermal Expansion: Table 16 Known Metal Linear Thermal Expansion Percent Error Table 17 Unknown Metal Linear Thermal Expansion Percent Error

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Percent error 37.75 51.08 30.44 33.97 40.68 25.9 27.28 30.17 45.34 30.19 40.94 37.87 39.34 36.48 44.53
36.80

Trial

Rod

Trial

Rod

Percent error
35.82 35.97 26.52 36.84 35.61 26.57 34.29 42.64 26.52 35.4 27.48 27.74 19.86 29.86 37.47 31.91

1 B 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 B 8 A 9 B 10 A 11 A 12 B 13 B 14 A 15 B Average

1 B 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 B 8 A 9 B 10 A 11 A 12 B 13 B 14 A 15 B Average

Table 16 above shows the percent error for each the known linear thermal expansion trials. The average percent error was 36.80%. For a sample calculation see Appendix A. Table 17 above shows the percent errors for the unknown metal during the linear thermal expansion trials. The average percent error was 31.91%, which Is better than the known metal percent error. The test being used is a two- sample t-test. This test is used because there are two separate means that are being compared, the known and the unknown, and the standard deviation is not known. It is assumed that both groups are a simple random sample. Since each experiment has under thirty trials, a normal probability plot needs to be made to see if they are normal. Based

Boback Sobodos 29 on a normal probability plot (Figure 18 and 19), it is assumed that both groups are normally distributed.

Figure 18. Known Metal Normal Probability Plot Figure 18 shows the normal probability plot for the known metal. The dots are all fairly close to the line, so it is safe to assume that they are normally distributed.

Figure 19. Unknown Metal Normal Probability Plot Figure 19 above shows the normal probability plot for the unknown metal. The dots are not too far away from the line, so it can be assumed that this group is also normally distributed.

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Figure 20. Box Plot A box plot of the data from both groups, shown in Figure 20, illustrates that there are no outliers not could potentially affect the t-test.

The null hypothesis states that , the known metal, and , the unknown metal are the same. The alternate hypothesis states that these two means are different, therefore not the same metal.
( )

To find the t-value, the formula above is used. The mean of the known metal, , is subtracted from the mean of the unknown metal, , then divided by the standard deviation, , squared, over the sample population, n, of the known , squared over the sample population

metal added to the standard deviation,

for the unknown metal. For a sample calculation see Appendix B.

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Figure 21. t- Test Results Figure 21 above shows the results for the two-sample t-test. There was a p-value of 0.0533 and a t-value of -2.0208.

Figure 22. P-value The graph shown in Figure 22 shows the p-value of the two groups. The p-value is shaded at a value of 0.0533. The null hypothesis was rejected because the p-value was less than the alpha, , value of 0.1. There is evidence that the known and unknown metal do not have the same mean, and are therefore not the same metal. There is a 5.33% chance of getting results this extreme by chance alone if the null hypothesis is true.

Boback Sobodos 32 Conclusion The researchers in this experiment used the measurements of specific heat and linear thermal expansion of an unknown metal rod to determine if it is the same element as nickel using the known linear thermal expansion and specific heat values of nickel. The hypothesis When the percent error of specific heat and linear thermal expansion are found, the unknown metal can be identified as the same element as the known metal. was rejected. This is because the metals were proven to not be the same using a t-test. The p-value of specific heat was 0.0520, which is smaller than the alpha value of 0.10. This rejects the null hypothesis from the t-test of the metals being the same. Also, the linear thermal expansion p-value was 0.533 which is lower than the alpha value of 0.10. That too rejected the null hypothesis of the metals being the same. The researchers reviewed several procedures in their quest to create the perfect experimental procedures. They discovered a few ways that were as close to perfect as possible due to the time and resource constraints. The procedure contributed in a positive way to the researchers experiment because it was well thought-out and created a safe and effective way of testing the metal. However, there was really no part in the experimental design that regulated the amount of water in the loaf pan, which could have affected the data. In addition, human error affected the research negatively due to the fact that humans themselves are imperfect and cannot perform as well as a machine. The data contributed positively to the experiment because it proved that the metals were not, in fact, both nickel. The data contributed negatively because before completing a t-test,

Boback Sobodos 33 the data showed that the metals would be the same. Problems encountered in this experiment were minimal. As explained in the previous paragraph, there was no regulation of the amount of water in the loaf pan, which could have skewed the data. Another problem was caused by human error when transferring the metal rod from the loaf pan to either the calorimeter or the jig. A few times the metal was dropped and transfer times varied. If this experiment is recreated, a few things could make it better. These errors could have affected the initial temperature of the metal which in turn could have affected the specific heat values or the linear thermal expansion lengths. The first thing is better equipment. Tongs that are not slippery or bent are recommended as well as calorimeters that stand alone. These will help the flow of the experiment as well as accuracy. Finally, the researchers think that a larger loaf pan, possibly with water level markings to keep track of the water level, would improve the experiment. This would help the control of water levels as well as allowing the rods more room in the pan. Due to time constraints, the researchers were forced to include in their trials a few that had errors like dropping the metal while it was in transfer and taking a long time to transfer the metal from the loaf pan to either the calorimeter or the jig. In the future, more time would help this experiment because it would improve the validity of the data. Another experiment that could be used to identify the unknown metal is density. Density is easy and efficient. By calculating the density of the metal rod, the calculation could be compared to the known densities of all of the metals.

Boback Sobodos 34 This could identify the metal, and this is also how the researchers originally identified the known metal, nickel, before the research began. This research could be useful to someone who works with metal, like a builder or welder. It is important to known if two metals are the same or not because certain metals can be combined to make stronger, more durable metals, and if they are the same it would not be as strong as intended. Also, certain metals are used for building things like bridges, and if the metals are not the same it could affect the durability and the sustainability of that bridge.

Boback Sobodos 35 Appendix Appendix A: Percent Error Sample Calculation

Figure 23. Sample specific heat percent error calculation Figure 23 shows a sample calculation for specific heat. the true value of specific heat for nickel is 0.44. The first trial completed by the researchers procured a specific heat of 0.365. The result of that was negative 17.03%. However, the researchers were instructed to take the absolute value of the percent error because a negative percent error does not make sense.

Boback Sobodos 36 Appendix B: T-test Sample Calculation ( )

Figure 24. Sample calculation of a t-test for specific heat Figure 24 shows a sample calculation for specific heat. The result of the test was a t-value of -2.0418 and a P-value of 0.0520. The mean of the specific heats determined from the experiments performed using the known metal is 0.2620. The mean of the specific heats determined from the experiments performed using the unknown metal is 0.3181. The standard deviation of the known metal is 0.0941, which was found using a TI-Nspire CX calculator, and the standard deviation of the unknown metal is 0.0569, which was also found using a TI-Nspire CX calculator. Both n values are 15 because each experiment had 15 trials.

Boback Sobodos 37 Appendix C: Specific Heat Sample Claculation ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Figure 25. Sample Calculation of Specific Heat Figure 25 shows the sample calculation of specific heat, with the specific heat value equaling 0.365 J/g*C.

Boback Sobodos 38 Appendix D: Randomization of Trials

Figure 26. Screenshot of a sample randomization Figure 26 shows a screenshot of a TI-Nspire calculator page where a sample randomization occurred. The random integer function was used by going to the menu, probability, random, and integer. Then, a one and two were inserted into the parentheses to signify that the random numbers started with one and ended with two. Therefore, either a one or two would be chosen. One represented rod A and two represented rod B.

Boback Sobodos 39 Appendix E: Linear Thermal Expansion Sample Calcuation ( ( ) ( ( ) )

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Figure 27. Linear Thermal Expansion Sample Calculation

Boback Sobodos 40 Appendix F: Creating a Calorimeter To create a calorimeter, the following materials are needed. (1) 24 inch PVC Pipe (8) PVC Pipe Caps (1) Container of PVC Cement (1) 16 inch Piece of Pipe Insulation Once these supplies have been gathered, do the following: 1. 2. Cut the PVC pipe into four equal pieces. They should be six inches each. Put PVC Cement on four of the caps, and cement one cap to one side of each PVC Pipe. 3. Drill a hole in the four non-cemented caps. These will not be glued, as they will be removed during the experiment. 4. Cut the pipe insulation into four equal pieces. They should be four inches each. 5. Attach the insulation to the PVC pipes, leaving room for the removable caps. 6. Congratulations, you have created four calorimeters!

Boback Sobodos 41 Appendix G: Setting Up the Logger Pro To do this you need the following. (1) Logger Pro Device (2) Temperature Probes Now its time to set it up. 1. 2. Attach the temperature probes to their outlets in the top of the Logger Pro. There should be a box on the main screen that tells you the time interval and data collection rate. Click on it with the stylus from the Logger Pro. 3. Set the time interval to 300 seconds and the rate to 1 data point per second.

Boback Sobodos 42 Works Cited Ann. "Specific Heat Capacity Lab." N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013. html<http://www.anndannenberg.com/ip/IPLabs/Specificheatlab.pdf>. Duffy, Andrew. "Temperature and Thermal Expansion." Boston University Physics. Boston University, 29 Nov. 1999. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. Gagnon, Steve. "The Element Nickel." Jefferson Lab. Jefferson Lab. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele028.html>. Hester, Jerry. "223 Physics Lab: Linear Thermal Expansion." Clemson University. Clemson University, 27 Jan. 2006. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. Moffett, Thomas M., Jr., and Roger Sandwick. "Calorimetry." Plattsburg State University, 2003. Web. 22 Mar. 2013. <http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/tom.moffett/che101/calorimetrylab.pdf>. Mosnier, Jean Paul. "Measuring the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Copper, Steel, and Aluminum." Dublin City University. 22 Oct. 2002. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. Mills, Richard . "Nickel Mining Like its 1864." Ahead of the Herd. N.p.. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://aheadoftheherd.com/Newsletter/2012/Nickel-MiningLike-its-1864.htm>. "Nickel Use in Society." Nickel Institute. Nickel Institute . Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.nickelinstitute.org/en/NickelUseInSociety.aspx

Boback Sobodos 43 Walker, John. "Summary: Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of water at various temperatures C and thermal coefficient of expansion of water."SI.Metric. N.p., 11 Feb 2011. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.simetric.co.uk/si_water.htm>. Weisstein, Eric W. "Specific Heat." Scienceworld.wolfram.com. Wolfram Research, 1997. Web. 22 Mar. 2013. <http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/SpecificHeat.html>.