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iu khin qu trnh

Chng 1: M u
2004, HONG MINH SN

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12/08/2006

Ni dung chng 1
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Gii thiu mn hc Cc khi nim c bn Mc ch iu khin Cu trc c bn mt HT KQT Cc chc nng iu khin qu trnh Cc nhim v pht trin h thng M t chc nng h thng

Chng 1: M u

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2005 - HMS

1.0 Gii thiu mn hc


L thuyt KT

IU KHIN QU TRNH

iu khin my (K chuyn ng, Robot, CNC)

TH qu trnh TH qu ngh trnh cng TH qu trnh cng ngh cng ngh


Chng 1: M u

TH qu trnh TH qu ngh trnh cng TH x nghi p cng ngh cng nghip


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Mc ch ca mn hc
Sinh vin nm c cc khi nim v kin thc c s phc v:
Tm hiu, phn tch yu cu iu khin ca cc qu trnh cng ngh t bi ton iu khin cho tng yu cu c th Thit k sch lc iu khin ph hp vi yu cu v vi m hnh qu trnh Chn la gii php thit b o, thit b chp hnh v thit b iu khin

To c s hoc/v ng lc cho cc mn hc:


iu khin logic, PLC Thit b iu chnh t ng cng nghip iu khin phn tn T ng ha qu trnh cng ngh/sn xut
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Chng 1: M u

2005 - HMS

Cc ni dung cp chnh
Tng quan v h thng iu khin qu trnh
Cc thnh phn c bn Cc chc nng v nhim v M t chc nng, lu P&ID

Xy dng m hnh qu trnh


M hnh ha l thuyt M hnh ha thc nghim

Thit k cu trc/sch lc iu khin


Cc cu trc iu khin c bn iu khin tp trung v iu khin phi tp trung/phn tn

Thit k b iu khin (thut ton iu khin)


La chn kiu b iu khin Tnh ton cc tham s ca b iu khin
Chng 1: M u
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2005 - HMS

Cc ni dung cp chnh (tip)


C s gii php h thng iu khin qu trnh
Thit b o Thit b iu khin Thit b chp hnh

Cc bi ton iu khin qu trnh tiu biu


Cc h thng dng chy/bnh cha Cc h thng truyn nhit Cc qu trnh chuyn khi (thp chng ct)

Tin cy v an ton h thng

Chng 1: M u

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2005 - HMS

Phng php nh gi kt qu
Th nghim kt hp bi tp ln: 2 phn
Kho st i tng bnh mc (i tng m phng) v xy dng m hnh thc nghim Thit k sch lc v thut ton iu khin

im nh gi
Kt qu th nghim/bi tp ln: Thi cui k (vn p) 20% 80%

Chng 1: M u

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2005 - HMS

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Hong Minh Sn: C s h thng iu khin qu trnh. NXB Bch khoa H Ni, 2006. [2] Bel G. Liptak (ch bin): Instrument Engineers Handbook: Process Control. 3rd Edition, Chilton Book Co. 1996. [3] Michael L. Luyben, William L. Luyben: Essentials of Process Control. McGraw-Hill, 1997. [4] Luyben, W.L.: Process Modeling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers. McGraw-Hill, 1990. [5] Seborg, D.E; T.F. Edgar; D.A. Mellichamp: Process Dymamics and Control. 2nd Edition. Wiley, 2004. [6] Curtis D. Johnson: Process Control Instrumentation Technology. 5th Edition. Prentice-Hall, 1997. [7] Thomas Marlin: Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems for Dynamic Performance. McGraw-Hill 2000. [8] Bi ging (a dn, *.pdf Format): Lp chun b a ch email, gi ti: hmson-ac@mail.hut.edu.vn
Chng 1: M u
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2005 - HMS

1.1 Cc khi nim c bn


Qu trnh, qu trnh k thut Bin qu trnh:
i lng (bin) c iu khin i lng (bin) iu khin i lng nhiu, nhiu ti v nhiu o

iu khin qu trnh:
Mc ch, nhim v Mt s quan im trong nh ngha

H thng iu khin qu trnh:


Thit b iu khin Thit b o Thit b chp hnh H thng vn hnh & gim st
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Chng 1: M u

2005 - HMS

Qu trnh & qu trnh k thut


Qu trnh l mt trnh t cc din bin vt l, ha hc hoc sinh hc, trong vt cht, nng lng hoc thng tin c bin i, vn chuyn hoc lu tr (ANSI/ISA 88.01, DIN 19222). Qu trnh k thut l mt qu trnh vi cc i lng k thut c o hoc/v c can thip. Qu trnh cng ngh l mt qu trnh k thut nm trong mt dy chuyn cng ngh => quan tm ti cc qu trnh vt cht v nng lng. Trong ni dung mn hc, khi nim qu trnh c hiu l qu trnh cng ngh

Chng 1: M u

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Nhn t quan im h thng


Bin vo Bin iu khin Nhiu

Vt cht Nng lng Thng tin

QU TRNH K THUT

Vt cht Nng lng Thng tin Bin ra Bin khng cn iu khin

Bin trng thi Bin khng cn iu khin

Bin cn iu khin

Chng 1: M u

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Bin qu trnh
Bin cn iu khin (controlled variable): Bin ra, i lng h trng ti s vn hnh an ton, n nh hoc cht lng sn phm, cn c duy tr ti mt gi tr t, hoc bm theo mt tn hiu ch o Bin iu khin (control variable, manipulated variable): Bin vo can thip c theo mun tc ng ti i lng cn iu khin Nhiu: Bin vo khng can thip c:
Nhiu qu trnh (disturbance, process disturbance) nhiu u vo (input disturbance): bin thin cc thng s u vo (lu lng, nhit hoc thnh phn nguyn liu, nhin liu) nhiu ti (load disturbance): thay i ti theo yu cu s dng (lu lng dng chy, p sut hi nc, ...) nhiu ngoi sinh (exogenous disturbance): nhit , p sut bn ngoi, ... Nhiu o, nhiu tp (noise, measurement noise)
Chng 1: M u
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V d: bnh cht lng


Fi

Bin vo

Nhiu Fo

Bin ra

h Fo

Bin iu khin Fi

Qu trnh bnh mc

Bin cn iu khin h

a) S cng ngh

b) S khi

Chng 1: M u

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V d: b gia nhit
TH 1 , wH

TC1 , wC

TC 2
TH 2

TC1 Bin iu khin wH

Nhiu wC TH1 Bin ra c iu khin TC2

Qu trnh gia nhit TH2

Bin ra khng c iu khin 2005 - HMS


14

Chng 1: M u

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Cc dy chuyn cng ngh phc tp


Nh my xi mng:
Cng ngh l nung Cng ngh cp liu, nghin, vn chuyn, ng bao

Nh my in:
Cng ngh l hi Cng ngh turbin

Nh my lc du, ha du:
Cng ngh chng ct, tinh luyn Cng ngh l phn ng lin tc, theo m

Vn :
Hng nghn im o, hng trm i lng cn iu khin Cc qu trnh tng tc qua li i hi an ton, tin cy rt cao
Chng 1: M u
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V d: L hi

Chng 1: M u

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V d: qu trnh sn xut ha cht


Bnh cp thnh phn A Bnh ngng

Bnh cha hi lu Nc lnh Bnh cp thnh phn B THP CHNG CT Bnh phn ng Hi lu Sn phm nh

Gia nhit

Sn phm y
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Gia nhit ha h i T

Nc lnh

Bung lm lnh

H?i n??c

Chng 1: M u

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Nhim v t ra
Can thip mt cch hiu qu cc i lng u vo ca qu trnh k thut cc i lng u ra ca n tha mn cc ch tiu cho trc trong khi c tc ng ca nhiu v thng tin khng chnh xc v i tng Gim thiu nh hng xu ca qu trnh k thut i vi con ngi v mi trng xung quanh Vai tr ca k thut iu khin t ng!

Chng 1: M u

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Khi nim: iu khin qu trnh


iu khin qu trnh l ng dng k thut iu khin t ng trong iu khin, vn hnh v gim st cc qu trnh cng ngh, nhm nng cao hiu qu sn xut v m bo cc yu cu v bo v con ngi, my mc v mi trng. Phm vi ng dng: Cng nghip ch bin, khai thc & nng lng Bi ton c th v quan trng nht: iu chnh i tng iu khin: Qu trnh cng ngh

Chng 1: M u

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c th ca cc qu trnh cng ngh


Qui m sn xut thng thng va v ln Yu cu rt cao v tin cy v tnh sn sng Cc qu trnh lin quan ti bin i nng lng v vt cht
Bi ton iu chnh l tiu biu Cc i lng cn iu khin: lu lng, p sut, nhit , nng , thnh phn,... Din bin tng i chm M hnh kh xc nh Kh nng iu khin hn ch Kh thay i thit k cng ngh

Chng 1: M u

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iu khin qu trnh cng ngh


iu khin qu trnh lin tc (continuous process control):
iu khin mt qu trnh cng ngh hot ng lin tc v d cc qu trnh chng ct, qu trnh sn xut in, qu trnh sn xut xi mng

iu khin qu trnh m (batch process control):


iu khin cc qu trnh cng ngh hot ng theo m v d qu trnh trn b tng, qu trnh phn ng ha cht, qu trnh sn xut bia,...

Chng 1: M u

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1.2 Mc ch iu khin
1. m bo h thng vn hnh n nh, trn tru: m bo cc iu kin vn hnh bnh thng, ko di tui th my mc, vn hnh thun tin 2. m bo nng sut v cht lng sn phm: thay i tc sn xut theo mun, gi cc thng s cht lng sn phm bin ng trong gii hn qui nh 3. m bo vn hnh an ton: nhm mc ch bo v con ngi, my mc, thit b v mi trng 4. Bo v mi trng: Gim nng cc cht c hi trong kh thi, nc thi, gim bi, gim s dng nguyn liu v nhin liu 5. Nng cao hiu qu kinh t, tng li nhun: gim chi ph nhn cng, nguyn liu v nhin liu, thch ng nhanh vi yu cu thay i ca th trng
Chng 1: M u
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V d: iu khin bnh trn


hn hp A v B

c1 F1

c2 F2

cu t A

c1 , c2 , c : Nng A F1, F2, F: Lu lng th tch


h

c F

Yu cu cng ngh: m bo cht lng sn phm Ch vn hnh: Vn hnh lin tc


Chng 1: M u
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n nh h thng
Cc i lng cn n nh trong v d:
Mc trong bnh trn Nng ca A trong sn phm

Cc yu cu v n nh lin quan ti:


Nguyn l cn Nguyn l cn Nguyn l cn Nguyn l cn Cc nguyn l bng bng bng bng ng vt cht (trong v d) nng lng pha phn ng ha hc lc hc

ca h thng trng thi xc lp!

Chng 1: M u

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Cht lng sn phm


n nh cha chc m bo cht lng:
Trong v d: Nng ca A trong sn phm c gi n nh nhng c th xa vi cht lng yu cu!

m bo cht lng sn phm: Gi tr i lng cn iu khin cng gn vi gi tr t cng tt!


Trong v d: nng A trong sn phm khng nhng c duy tr n nh, m phi gn vi mt gi tr mong mun.

Cht lng sn phm c nh gi thng qua mt s ch tiu cht lng


p ng vi thay i gi tr t (p ng qu ) p ng vi tc ng ca nhiu (p ng loi nhiu)

Chng 1: M u

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An ton h thng
Li thit b, ng truyn -> sch lc iu chnh thng thng khng p ng c.
Trong v d, c th cn t cm bin (logic) bo trn hoc cn bnh, qu tc, qu dng ng c khuy -> iu khin ri rc ng c v cc van an ton

Kha lin ng nhm:


Trnh xy ra cc tnh hung nguy him (v d ng c ch c khi ng khi mc trong bnh t mt gi tr no ) Gim thiu tc hi khi s c xy ra (bng cc bin php ngt tng phn hoc dng khn cp)

Chng 1: M u

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Bo v mi trng
Cc dy chuyn cng ngh ngy nay c thit k vi nhiu yu cu gim nhim mi trng:
Gim nhin liu tiu th Gim s dng nc sch

Cc thit k "recycling" to tnh phi tuyn cao v tng tc ln trong h thng => vai tr ca cc phng php iu khin hin i Yu cu cao hn trong cc tiu chun quc gia v quc t v x l nc thi v kh thi

Chng 1: M u

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Hiu qu kinh t
Cc yu cu c th:
Cht lng n nh (nng A trong sn phm) Nng sut thch ng vi yu cu th trng (lin quan ti lu lng sn phm ra) Tiu hao nng lng thp (cho ng c khuy v cho cc van iu khin) Tc ng iu khin m , trn tru (tc ng c cng nh m van t khi phi thay i hoc thay i chm)

Cc yu cu c th c th mu thun => 2 phng n gii quyt:


s dng cc tiu chun ha ng => iu khin ti u p ng va cc yu cu thit yu, sau tp trung vo cc yu cu cn li: v d cho php cht lng dao ng trong mt phm vi chp nhn c trnh thay i lin tc tc ng iu khin

Chng 1: M u

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Hiu qu kinh t ph thuc nhiu vo im lm vic v cht lng iu khin


Gii hn rng buc trn

Gii hn rng buc di im lm vic khng kinh t im lm vic kinh t

Chng 1: M u

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1.3 Cc chc nng KQT


IU KHIN CAO CP

VN HNH & GIM ST IU KHIN C S GIAO DIN QU TRNH QU TRNH


Chng 1: M u
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iu khin c s
iu chnh (regulatory control)
iu chnh t ng iu chnh bng tay

iu khin ri rc (discrete control):


iu khin thit b (device control) Kha lin ng qu trnh (process interlocks)

iu khin trnh t (sequential control, sequence control)


Khi ng v dng h thng iu khin phi hp iu khin theo m

iu khin an ton (safety control):


kha lin ng an ton (safety interlocks)
Chng 1: M u
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Vn hnh & gim st


Thu thp & qun l d liu Giao din ngi-my Cnh bo & bo ng Gim st & chn on Lp bo co t ng

Chng 1: M u

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iu khin cao cp
iu khin qun l m (Batch management) iu khin cht lng (Quality control), iu khin thng k (Statistical Process Control, SPC) Ti u ha qu trnh (Process Optimization), iu khin ti u ha (Optimizing Control)

Chng 1: M u

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1.4 Cu trc c bn mt HTKQT


H THNG VN HNH & GIM ST

Tham s

Trng thi

u vo

THIT B IU KHIN

u ra

THIT B O QU TRNH K THUT Chng 1: M u


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THIT B CHP HNH

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S khi mt vng iu khin


Gi tr t Thit b iu khin Tn hiu iu khin Thit b chp hnh Bin iu khin Qu trnh Bin c iu khin

Tn hiu o

Thit b o

i lng o

Thut ng: Gi tr t Tn hiu iu khin Bin iu khin Bin c iu khin i lng o

Set Point (SP), Set Value (SV) Control Signal, Controller Output (CO) Control Variable, Manipulated Variable (MV) Controlled Variable (CV), Process Value (PV) Measured Variable

Chng 1: M u

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Thit b o qu trnh
Thit b o / B chuyn i i lng cn o (Nhit , p sut, mc, lu lng,..) Chuyn i o Tn hiu chun (4-20mA, 0-10V,...)

Cm bin

Measurement device: Thit b o, vd o nhit , p sut, nng Transducer: B chuyn i theo ngha rng, v d p sut-dch chuyn, dch chuyn-in p Sensor: Cm bin, cng l mt dng chuyn i, vd cp nhit, ng venturi, siu m,.. Sensor element: Cm bin, phn t cm bin Signal conditioning: iu ha tn hiu Transmitter: Chuyn i tn hiu + truyn pht tn hiu chun
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Chng 1: M u

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Thit b iu khin
Thit b iu khin
X l u vo
X l u ra

Tn hiu o

Tnh ton iu khin

Tn hiu iu khin

Gi tr t/ Tn hiu ch o

Control equipment: Thit b iu khin, vd PLC, IPC, Digital Controller, DCS Controller,... Controller: B iu khin, c th hiu l
C thit b iu khin, hoc Ch ring khi tnh ton iu khin, vd PI, PID, FLC, ON/OFF,...
Chng 1: M u
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Thit b chp hnh


Thit b chp hnh Tn hiu iu khin
C cu dn ng Phn t chp hnh

Tn hiu iu khin

Khi iu khin

Actuator: Thit b chp hnh, c cu chp hnh (van iu khin, my bm, qut gi, chn gi, r-le,...) Actuator, actuating element: c cu dn ng, phn t dn ng (ng c in, khi chuyn i dng-kh nn, cun ht t,...) Final control element: Phn t chp hnh (thn van, tip im, si t)
Chng 1: M u
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H thng vn hnh & gim st


Gim st, chn on, quyt nh Hnh nh, con s, th, bng biu,..

Xc nhn, la chn, t gi tr Trng thi Gi tr cc i lng c trng Gi tr t Cc tham s iu khin Ch vn hnh

Vn hnh (Operation) Gim st, theo di (Monitoring) Chn on (Diagnosis) Giao din ngi-my (Human-Machine Interface, HMI)
Chng 1: M u
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1.5 M t chc nng - lu P&ID


Lu P&ID: Pipe and Instrumentation Diagram (VD)
Lu cng ngh + cc biu tng thit b v chc nng t ng ha Mt trong cc ti liu thit k quan trng nht v h thng o lng, iu khin v gim st C s cho la chn v lp t thit b, pht trin phn mm iu khin v gim st qu trnh (bi ton iu khin qu trnh)

Cc biu tng lu c ISA (Instrumentation Society of America) chun ha:


ISA S5.1: Instrumentation Symbols and Identification ISA S5.3: Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control/Shared Display Instrumentation, Logic and Computer Systems

Cc biu tng lu bao gm:


Cc biu tng thit b Cc biu tng tn hiu v ng ni K hiu nhn thit b v cc biu tng chc nng
Chng 1: M u
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V d: iu khin mc

Chng 1: M u

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V d: iu khin b trao i nhit

Chng 1: M u

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Biu tng thit b


Phng iu khin trung tm (Remote) Phn cng Thit b n l Phn cng chia s - Hin th chia s - iu khin chia s Phn mm Chc nng my tnh Logic chia s iu khin logic kh trnh Thit b cho hai bin hoc mt bin vi hai hoc nhiu chc nng Chng 1: M u
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V tr m rng (Auxilary Location)

Hin trng (Local)

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Biu tng tn hiu v ng ni


Tn hiu khng nh ngha ng ni ti qu trnh k thut hoc cp nng lng Tn hiu kh nn Tn hiu in Tn hiu thy lc Tn hiu in t hoc m thanh (c dn nh) * Tn hiu in t hoc m thanh (khng dn nh)* ng ni ni b h thng (lin kt phn mm hoc d liu) ng ni c hc ng mao dn
x x x

* Cc hin tng in t gm c nhit, sng v tuyn, phng x nguyn t v nh sng.

Chng 1: M u

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K hiu cc ng cp nng lng


AS (Air supply): cp khng kh ES (Electric supply): cp in GS (Gas supply): cp gas HS (Hydraulic supply): cp thy lc NS (Nitrogen supply): cp nit SS (Steam supply): cp hi nc WS (Water supply): cp nc
AS ES GS HS NS SS WS

Chng 1: M u

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Nhn thit b v k hiu chc nng


PDIC 103

Ch th (Indication) v iu khin (Control) chnh p (Differential Pressure), vng loop 103. Bo ng (Alarm) vt ngng trn (High) nhit (Temperature), cnh gii qu nhit vng loop 104. M s vng loop, im o

TAH 104

P D I C-103
Ch ci u: Bin o hoc khi to Ch ci ph: B sung cho ch u Cc ch ci sau: Cc chc nng ch th, b ng hoc u ra

T A H-104

Ch ci ph sau: B sung ngha chc nng cho ch ci ng trc n

Chng 1: M u

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ngha cc ch ci
Ch ci u
Bin o hoc khi to B sung, thay i

Cc ch ci ng sau
Chc nng ch th hoc b ng Alarm T chn T chn Control T chn Chc nng u ra B sung, thay i

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

Analysis Burner, Combustion T chn T chn Voltage Flow Rate T chn Hand Current Power Time, Time Schedule Level T chn Momentary Scan Time Rate of Change Ratio (Fraction) Differential

Sensor

Glass, Viewing Device High Indicate

Control Station Light Low Middle

T ch n u N Ch ng 1:M

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T chn

T chn

T chn 2005 - HMS

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ngha cc ch ci (tip)
Ch ci u
Bin o hoc khi to T chn Pressure, Vacuum Quantity Radiation Speed, Frequency Temperature a bin (Universal) Vibration, Mech. Analysis Weight, Force Khng xp loi Event, State, Presence Position, Dimension Trc X Trc Y Trc Z
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Cc ch ci ng sau
Chc nng ch th hoc b ng Orifice, Restriction Point (Test Connection) Record Chc nng u ra B sung, thay i

B sung, thay i

O P Q R S T U V W X Y

Integrate, Total Safety Switch Transmit a chc nng a chc nng Valve, Damper, Louver Well Khng xp loi Khng xp loi Relay, Compute, Convert Driver, Actuator, Phn t 2005 K - HMS 48 Khng xp loi a chc nng

Z Chng 1: M u

Cc k hiu chc nng tnh ton


K hiu
1-0 hoc ON/OFF hoc ADD hoc SUB , +, AVG. %, 1:3 hoc 2:1

Chc nng
iu khin ON/OFF hoc chuyn mch (Switch) Cng hoc tng (cng v tr), vi 2 hoc nhiu u vo Hiu (vi hai hoc nhiu u vo) dch (1 u vo) Trung bnh Khuch i (u vo : u ra) Nhn, chia (2 hoc nhiu u vo) Cn bc hai Ly tha Hm Tng cng Chn gi tr ln nht Chn gi tr nh nht o ngc Bin i (E, H, I, O, P, R) Tch phn (theo thi gian) o hm hoc tc uploaded by http://scribd.com/pvdai Nghch o o hm

, hoc SQ. RT.

xn hoc x1/n f(x) 1:1

> hoc HIGHEST < hoc LOWEST


REV. E/P, P/I, A/D, D/A D hoc d/dt I/D Chng 1: M u

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V d: iu khin vng kn

Chng 1: M u

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1.6 Cc bc pht trin h thng


Cc mc ch iu khin c bn Cc nh lut vt l v ha hc L thuyt m hnh ha & m phng Xy dng m hnh qu trnh D liu vn hnh thc t Phn tch chc nng h thng Yu cu v m t cng ngh

Thit k sch lc iu khin L thuyt iu khin t ng Thit k thut ton iu khin Cng ngh h thng iu khin Cng ngh phn mm cng nghip Kinh nghim t cc d n khc

La chn gii php h thng Thng tin, h tr t nh cung cp

Pht trin phn mm ng dng Chnh nh & a vo vn hnh

Chng 1: M u

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H THNG IU KHIN

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