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Philippine Government in Transition

(Political Science)

I. Pre Spanish Government

1) Unit of Government - The barangay is officially the most basic political unit defined in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. - It was on September 21, 1974 that martial law dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos issued Presidential Decree 557 officially establishing the barangay as the smallest unit of government.

2) Datu - Each barangay was ruled by a chief called Datu in some places and Rajah, Sultan, or Hadji in others. - He functions as the chief executive, lawgiver, chief judge, and military head. - He was assisted usually by a council of elders (maginoos), which serve as his advisers. - In form, the barangay was the monarchy with the datu as the monarch.

3) Social Classes in the Barangay - The people of the barangay were divided into four classes: a) Nobility (Maharlika) b) Freemen (Timawa) c) Serfs (Aliping Namamahay) d) Slaves (Aliping Sagigilid)

4) Early Laws - The early Filipinos had both written and unwritten laws. - The written laws were promulgated by the datus. -The unwritten laws consisted of customs and traditions which had been passed down from generation to generation.

II. Government during the Spanish Period

1) Spanish Colonial Government From 1565 1898, the Philippines was ruled directly or indirectly by Spain.
- The council in Spain responsible for the administration of the Philippines was the Council of the Indies. When it was demolished, the legislation was transferred to the Council of Ministers. From 1863, the Ministry of Ultramar exercised powers of supervision over Philippine affairs.

2) Government of the Philippines unitary - The government which Spain established in the Philippines was centralized in structure and national in scope.
Country Provinces Cities Towns Barangays Barangays Towns Barangays Cities Provinces Cities Towns Barangays Towns Barangays

3. The Judiciary - The Royal Audiencia which was established in 1583 was the supreme court of the Philippines. - Below the Royal Audiencia were two Territorial Audiencias

Governments During the Revolutionary Era

1) The Katipunan Government -The central government of the Katipunan was vested in a Supreme Council (Kataastaasang Sanggunian). -In each province there was a Provincial Council (Sangguniang Balangay) and in each town, a popular council (Sangguniang Bayan). -The judicial power was exercised by the Judicial Council (Sangguniang Hukuman). - The Katipunan was the first clear break from Spanish rule with the ultimate goal to establish a free and sovereign Philippines.

- It was replaced by another government with Emilio Aguinaldo as President during the Tejeros Convention held on March 22-23, 1897. - This government was the first Filipino government whose officials were freely elected by representatives of the people. 2) The Biak-na-Bato Republic - A republic established by Gen. Aguinaldo last November 1, 1897. - Had a constitution in only two years of effect that declared the aims of the revolution as to separate the Philippines from Spanish monarchy and form into an independent state.

3) The Dictatorial Government - was established by Gen. Aguinaldo on May 23, 1898. - During which, the Proclamation of Philippine Independence at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 happened. 4) The Revolutionary Government - June 29, 1898, with Gen. Aguinaldo as President, the Revolutionary Government was established

5) The First Philippine Republic - was inaugurated on January 23, 1899 with Gen. Aguinaldo as president. - established by the Malolos Constitution, the first democratic constitution ever promulgated in the whole of Asia.

Governments During the American Regime

1) The Military Government - The American military rule in the Philippines began on August 14, 1898. 2) The Civil Government - was inaugurated in Manila on July 4, 1901 - From 1902-1916, the Philippine Bill of 1902 was the basic law for the Philippine Government. In 1916, it was changed to the Jones Law.

3) The Commonwealth Government of the Phil. - A form of government in transition toward independence - was established in pursuant to an act of the United States Congress on March 24, 1934, called the Tydings-McDuffie Law - It was republican in form under the presidential type and was very autonomous.

Governments during the Japanese Occupation

1) The Japanese Military Administration - established in Manila on January 3, 1942 2) The Philippine Executive Commission - A civil government that exercised both the executive and legislative powers. 3) The Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines - Inauguarated on October 14, 1943 with Jose P. Laurel as President. - The ultimate source of its authority was the Japanese military authority and government.

The Previous Philippine Republics

- The Republic of the Philippines was fornmally inaugurated on July 4, 1946 with Manuel A. Roxas as the first president and Elpidio Quirino as the first Vice President. - The 1935 Constitution served as the fundamental law until the ratification of the 1973 Philippine Constitution establishing a parliamentary form of government.

- The First Republic was established on January 23, 1899 under the Malolos Constitution - The Second Republic was established on October 14, 1943 under the Japanese-Sponsored Constitution - The Third Republic was established on July 4, 1946 under the 1935 Constitution. - The Fourth Republic was established on June 30, 1981 under the 1973 Constitution. - The present republic came into being upon the ratification of the 1987 Constitution on February 2, 1987.

The Provisional Government of 1986

- It is a result of the People Power revolt on the 7th of February 1986.

Nature of the Provisional Government

1) Revolutionary it wasnt in accordance with the Constitution during that time, rather it was directly from the people; hence, people power 2) De jure / de facto de jure means constituted or legal while de facto means supported by the people but not necessarily the law The government was de facto but soon it acquired a de jure status.

3) Constitutional and transitory 4) Democratic the government was installed by direct action of the people 5) Powers 6) The Provisional Constitution