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Protection & Coordination

Session 12: Motor protection

Protection & Coordination


Standards: NEMA & NEC

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination


Conductors for a single motor must have an ampacity of not less than 12 ! of the motor full"load current rating# Conductors that supply several motors must have an ampacity of not less than: $1% 12 ! of the highest rated motor &'C ( plus $2% )he sum of the &'Cs of the other motors $on the same line%# # )he highest rated motor is the motor *ith the highest &'C from the standard# +etermine the ,other motors in the group- value .y .alancing the motor &'Cs on the feeder .eing si/ed( then select the line that has the highest rated motor on it )he motor .ranch"circuit short"circuit and ground"fault protective device must .e capa.le of carrying the motor0s starting current# A .ranch"circuit short"circuit and ground"fault protective device protects the motor( the motor control apparatus( and the conductors against short circuits or ground faults Si/e overload protection devices .ased on the motor nameplate rating $this protects loc1ed"rotor current damage to motor *indings% # 2ranch"circuit conductors are protected against overloads .y the overload device#

Protection & Coordination


Motor nameplates: )o define the .asic performance and mounting parameters of a motor( the National Electrical Manufacturers Association $NEMA% defines some .asic design and dimensional parameters in NEMA Standard M3 1# )hese parameters are then coded onto the motor nameplate to give you a .asic definition of *hat you have received# Manufacturers often include additional information to further define some 1ey motor features# Section M3 1"14#54( 6Nameplate Mar1ing for Medium Single"Phase and Polyphase 7nduction Motors(6 of the NEMA standard re8uires that 6)he follo*ing minimum amount of information shall .e given on all nameplates of single"phase and polyphase induction motors# &or a..reviations( see M3 1"1#94#6 : Manufacturer;s type and frame designation : <orsepo*er output#

Protection & Coordination


: )ime rating# $intermitent( for ho* long or continuous#% : Ma=imum am.ient temperature for *hich motor is designed# : 7nsulation system designation# : >PM at rated load# : &re8uency# : Num.er of phases# : >ated load current# : ?oltage# : Code letter for loc1ed rotor 1?A# : +esign letter for medium motors# : NEMA nominal efficiency *hen re8uired .y M3 1" 12# : Service factor if other than 1#4# : &or motors e8uipped *ith thermal protectors( the *ords 6thermally protected6 if the motor provides all the protection descri.ed in M3 1"12# 2# : &or motors rated a.ove 1 hp e8uipped *ith over"temperature devices or systems( the *ords @?E> )EMP# P>@)#"#6 A type num.er as descri.ed in M3 1" 12# A inserted in the .lan1 *ould identify the protection type# )he information on a motor nameplate can .e arranged in categories# )hey are electrical inour( mechanical output( performance( safety and relia.ility

Protection & Coordination


Motor control centers: )hey come in various configurations# )heir main purposes are to control $turn @n & @ff% the motors and provide protection to motors & connecting ca.les#

)he .asic construction consists of an enclosure B46 high *ith *idths & depths varying to accommodate the different components & devices pac1ed into the enclosure# Such enclosures have: the A"phase hori/ontal main .us( the risers( the .arriers( the main incoming compartment $that *ould accommodate the lugs( the main s*itch or the main .rea1er%( the different compartments complete *ith the .ac1"plates & front compartment doors# )he num.er of compartments per cu.icle varies *ith the si/e of starters installed( the ma=imum is C or D $function of the design% & the minimum is 1# Motor control centers $MCCs% can .e .uilt .ac1 to

Protection & Coordination


.ac1# )he starters included in the MCCs may .e *ired according to any of the follo*ing standard designations: 1%EEMAC class 7 type A $no terminal .loc1s%# 2%Class 7 type 2 $control *iring are .rought to terminals in the starter unit%# A%Class 7 type C $no starter inter"*iring *ith the control & load *iring .rought out to terminals at top or .ottom of each section " cu.icle" or to a master control section%# 5%Class 77 type 2 $the control *ires from each starter are .rought to terminals in each unit *ith interloc1ing & inter"*iring .et*een line"up units connected%# %Class 77 type C $all *iring is .rought to a master terminals section as class 7 type C .ut *ith interloc1ing & starters inter"*iring connected%# )he motor type( application and location affect the selection of the starters complete *ith their associated overload and short circuit protective devices# )he full load current of a motor is the current re8uired to produce the full load tor8ue at rated speed# )he loc1ed"rotor current $inrush or starting% is the current dra*n $from the po*er source% *hen the motor is first connected to the line $energi/ed%# 7t lasts over the acceleration period & it magnitude varies from 5 to 14 times the full load current#

Protection & Coordination


)he speed of the SC7M depends on the num.er of poles of the motor & the fre8uency of the po*er supply# )he output tor8ue of the motor $*hich is the turning force% in l."ft is e8ual $motor horsepo*erEmotor revolution per minute% times 2 2# )he currents passing through the stator as *ell as the rotor *indings of the motor cause an increase in the motor temperature $temperature rise over & a.ove the am.ient temperature%# 7n general( the temperature rise produced at full load is not harmful( provided that the motor am.ient temperature does not e=ceed 54oC# &or each increase of 14oC a.ove the rated $allo*a.le% temperature of the motor $function of the insulation used for the *indings & the iron laminations%( the motor0s life is halved# Most motors have a continuous duty rating# 7ntermittent duty ratings are .ased on a fi=ed operating duration $ ( 1 ( A4 or C4 minutes%( after *hich the motor has to .e stopped & left $allo*ed% to cool# 7f the motor is given a service factor( the motor is allo*ed to develop more than its rated <P# )his increase in the output horsepo*er is e8ual the service factor $eg# 1#2 ( 1#1 % minus 1 times the rated <P# Fnder such condition( no damage or deterioration of the insulation *ill occur# Gogging descri.es the repeated starting & stopping of the motor at fre8uent intervals $for short periods of time%# Plugging of a motor means *hen a motor running in one direction is momentarily disconnected & reconnected to the source $in such a manner as to reverse its direction of rotation%# )his action *ill cause the motor to come to rest faster $than if one tries to .ra1e it *hile running in the for*ard direction%# )he A common types of enclosures that a motor might have are the open drip proof $@#+#P#%( the totally enclosed fan cooled $)#E#&#C#% and the e=plosion proof ones#

Protection & Coordination


A contactor is a 2"state device for repeatedly esta.lishing & interrupting an electric po*er circuit# A magnetic contactor is a contactor activated .y electromagnetic means $applied in ac circuits%# )he .asic components of a contactor are: contact system( arc e=tinction devices( mechanical lin1ages .et*een the contacts & the drive unit( the drive unit( the conductor connections & the frame# )he electromagnet $for electromagnetic contactors% consists of( .asically( a coil of *ire placed on an iron core# )he armature is mechanically connected to the contacts# Hhen a contactor;s armature is sealed"in( it means that it is held closely against the magnet yo1e# Hhen the coil is de"energi/ed( than1s to the small air gap in the iron circuit( the armature drops out $opening the contacts%# )he contacts pressure corresponds to the rated current of the contactors#

Protection & Coordination


7n order to reduce the heating produced .y the changing of the magnetic flu=( the magnets are .uilt up of thin iron laminations# )he hum is reduced through the use of shading ring $lag coil% in the poleI it is made of copper# )he contacts ma1e( .rea1 & carry the rated currents corresponding to the rating of the contactor# As mentioned previously( the most *idely used industrial drives are the ac poly"phase induction motors having an average starting currents of C times their full load currents# 7n general( the starting motors currents have hardly any effect on the life of the contactor# )he interrupting medium of lo* voltage contactor is air# )he 8uality of contacts depends on the contact pressure as *ell as the properties of the contact material# An e=ample for contact material is silver *ith additives li1e cadmium o=ide# )he rating structure of lo* voltage contactors $used in motor starters% is per EEMAC( the common si/es are 44 to C at D ?( A"phase supply( 2 <P to 544 <P motors# An e=ample for a contactor continuous current rating for si/e 44 is 14 amperes $open% & B amperes $enclosed%# Another e=ample *ould .e for si/e C( *here the continuous current rating *ould .e C44 A $open% & 54 A $enclosed%# )he most common types of conrol diagrams used *ith motor control & protection circuits are the *iring $or connection% diagrams and the schematic $or the elementary% diagrams# 7n a A"phase( A" *ire system( the motor circuit consists of A po*er lines $'1( '2 & 'A%# )he motor terminals are identified as )1( )2 & )A# A manual starter consists primarily of a set of manually operated contacts & a motor overload"ensing device $melting alloy( .i"metallic or electronic type%# Electro"magnetically operated ones are .asically manual ones plus a solenoid for closing the po*er contacts# )he magnet frame & armature assem.ly of the lo* voltage contactors are 1 of the follo*ing: clapper( plunger $vertical action% or .ell cran1#

Protection & Coordination

)he com.ination motor controller consists of an e=ternally opera.le circuit disconnecting means $a s*itch in series *ith &orm 77 fuse for only short circuit protection or a circuit .rea1er *ith magnetic element protection only% in series *ith a magnetic motor controller $contactor plus overload or a relay that matches the motor heating curve%( refer to s1etch on page 4# )he methods of starting a s8uirrel cage induction motor are: across the line $full voltage starting that provides the highest starting tor8ue as *ell as the highest starting current & accelerates the load to full speed in the shortest possi.le time%( auto" transformer( primary resistor( *ye"delta starting & part *inding#

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination


)he second to the fifth methods( inclusive are termed reduced voltage motor starting methods# )he selection of the reduced voltage method involves a co"ordination .et*een the re8uired starting tor8ue & allo*a.le starting current $this current overloads the circuit & may reduce the voltage " causing a sag " to other loads in the po*er distri.ution system%# Certain starting methods necessitate that the motors *ould .e .uilt in certain *ays# )he starting tor8ue varies *ith the s8uare of the starting current $*hen reduced voltage methods " applying less than full line voltage to the motor during starting " are used( the starting current & tor8ue *ill .e lo*er%# Contactors have to undergo certain tests to .e 8ualified or approved .y the .odies having Jurisdiction li1e F'( CSA( 7EC# )he principle tests are: spacing .et*een live parts & ground( temperature rise of coils( contacts & terminals( operating voltage range( overload capa.ility( mechanicalEelectrical endurance & dielectric strength tests# )he po*er $source connected% to the control circuit can .e classified into: common control( separate control or control circuit transformer# 7t can come directly from the po*er feeding the $po*er% terminals of the motor( from an e=ternal source $d#c#" .attery or a#c# station service transformer% or from a step"do*n control potential transformer connected to the supply line of the motor#

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination


Control panels can .e .uilt in different constructions depending on the environment and may include any or all of the follo*ing devices: contactors( .rea1ers( s*itches( relays( push".uttons( selector s*itches( meters( pilot lights $filament or 'E+%# )hese panels incorporate the logic $decision ma1ing%( input & output devices# Motors are too sensitive to negative se8uence currents generated *hen the voltage supplied to the motor is un.alanced or *hen a single"phase condition occurs# A se8uence relay is used and is installed in the control panel# )his relay can .e of the negative se8uence voltage sensing or the current sensing type# )he type of the relay sensing techni8ue dictates the location of the relay i#e# upstream or do*nstream the fault $to .e sensed% for current sensing relays and do*nstream the fault for voltage sensing ones# )he fused s*itch( the moulded case current limiting circuit .rea1er or the mcc. plus the current limiter is used *henever the availa.le short circuit current in the system is .eyond the circuit .rea1er interrupting capacity# Hhen it is re8uired to limit the short circuit current $do*nstream% to a lo*er level than the availa.le in the system( a s*itchEfuse com.ination is used *ith class G fuses $high rupture capacity current limiting fuses( 244 KA interrupting rating%# @ther fuse classes found in MCC line"ups are C & ># Programma.le logic controllers $P'C% are used often to control motors and ma1e decisions regarding starting( running & stopping the motors# )hey are usually in stalled in the MCC line"up#

Protection & Coordination


Protection of medium voltage motors:

Protection & Coordination


Medium voltage controllers: )hey consist of one or more contactors( each *ith A current limiting fuses( the dra*"out mechanism( instrument transformers( meters( protective lo* voltage devices $relays%( .us .ars( .arriers( shutters( operating coils( control transformers( au=iliary s*itches( activating levers & springs( the frame and the steel enclosure housing all these components# )he enclosures may .e front access $to .e .uilt .ac1 to .ac1 or to .e installed against the *all% only or front & .ac1 access# )ypical applications *ould include controlling & protecting the follo*ing e8uipment: s8uirrel cage induction motors $SC7M%( including non"reversing( reversing & multi"speed( reduced voltage starters including autotransformer & reactor starting types( synchronous motors including .rush"less & .rush types( *ound rotor motors( transformer & capacitor .an1s# &or decades( medium"voltage motors *ere s*itched e=clusively .y air".rea1 contactors# )he design of air".rea1 contactors has to allo* for the large contact gap re8uired $appro=imately 1# 6% & for the arc chutes $as the arc has to .e dra*n & forced into the chutes to get elongated( cooled( having its resistance increased & e=tinguished%# )he arc is( generally( maintained for several 1E2 cycles( it restri1es after a current /ero .ecause the dielectric strength of the .rea1 $gap% recovers relatively slo*ly# As the arc is driven into the chute( its voltage rises sharply & the current amplitude decreases# At the instant of arc e=tinction( the phase angle .et*een the current & voltage .ecomes /ero and the voltage stressing the .rea1 .ecomes less severe# )he second type of interrupting medium( used in motor controllers contactors( is vacuum# Hith vacuum contactors( the arc is confined to the

Protection & Coordination


contact gap $*hich is only a fe* millimeters as vacuum has a dielectric strength of A4 K?Emm%# Arcs in vacuum can .e classified into diffused $for currents less than 14 KA % & constricted $for higher currents%# Hhen the short circuit current e=ceeds 14 KA( a transition occurs from the diffused to the constricted form of arc in vacuum# @verheating $*hich is one of the side effects of constricted arcs% can lead to restri1es#

)he t*o most commonly used contact shapes( of vacuum interrupters( are the disc & the hollo* cylindrical ones# )he latter *ould have inclined slits $to divert the current flo*ing a*ay from the a=ial direction%# )he arc is driven along the circular end $contact end faces%# )he contact rings are .eveled to push the arc out*ards $to*ard the rim or edge of the

Protection & Coordination


circular contact%# After contact separation( the metal vapour plasma fills the entire contact gap# Short recom.ination time of the charge carriers $in the contact gap /one% is one important property of the plasma# As the current decreases $on the short circuit current cycle heading to*ard /ero%( the carriers0 num.er decreases# After arc e=tinction( the remaining charge carriers recom.ine on the metal surface $contacts% and the gap $contacts .rea1% de"ioni/es pretty fast# After current /ero( restri1ing is eliminated# )he current carrying contacts e=perience minimum erosion# <igh num.er of operations $2 million% *ith up to A44 amperes motor load is possi.le# )he arc energy is lo* as *ell as the arcing time $1E2 cycle%# )he heat dissipation is reasona.le as the arc duration is short & the amount of heat generated is small i#e# no possi.ility of contact *elding# Contact surface o=idi/ation and contamination is not possi.le as the interior of the vacuum .ottle is isolated from its surroundings $environment%# &iller material $for the contact% is used in order to achieve lo current chopping levels $in the range of 4#A ampere%# )o calculate the superimposed pea1 overvoltage due to current $arc chopping%( use the follo*ing formula overvoltage L surge impedance times chopped current magnitude $*here surge impedance L $7nductance E Capacitance%# ohms%# )he use of motor starters to control medium voltage motors( placed an emphasis on the a.ility of the series fuse to *ithstand current pulses $due to motor starting( inrush( currents%# A fuse used in protection of electrical motors must fulfill the follo*ing re8uirements: 1%7t should have a good a good *ithstand a.ility( in the 14 to C4 seconds /one( and it should act fast in the#1 to #41 seconds /one# 2%7t should possess minimum values for the cut"off currents as *ell as for the current let through $72t%#

Protection & Coordination


1%7t should have the a.ility to interrupt all fault currents .eyond the capa.ility of the associated devices $the contactor% up to the ma=imum fault level of the system# 2%7t should have the highest possi.le current rating $for a given fuse si/e% to allo* for ma=imum utili/ation of space *ithin associated e8uipment# )he use of contactorEfuse com.ination may lead to smaller si/e ca.les $than *ith circuit .rea1ers due to the fact of the limiting capa.ility for the let through energy of the fuses%# )he fuse elements $used in motor protection fuses% have a straight through element *ith stress relief points $rather than a spirally *ound filament on a core%# 7n general( surge arresters are not re8uired *ith vacuum contactors due to the fact that the ca.le distance .et*een the contactor & the terminal .o= of the motor is 8uite short and shot ca.le lengths are used# )hough( if multiple"reignition is e=pected( then surge arresters must .e used and located close to the motors# ?acuum contactors are not suita.le for use on direct current systems# +e"rating of the motor controller units may .e deemed necessary under a.normal operating conditions li1e altitude( fre8uency of po*er supply( temperature( e=posure to fumes( dirt( humidity( etc# )he ta.le defining a medium voltage controller $contactor and fuse% *ill have the follo*ing data as a minimum: the contactor ma=imum continuous current( the interrupting capacity $at the specified K?%( the designation( the voltage rating and range( the interrupting capacity of the fuse $in KA and M?A M the rated voltage%( the ma=imum <P motor rating $for the motor design( po*er factor( voltage( controller current rating%( the dielectric *ithstand voltage $including 27'%( the controller"type $full

Protection & Coordination


voltage( reversing vs# non"reversing or reduced voltage( auto transformer vs# reactor type%# )he medium voltage fuses for controllers can .e defined *hen the follo*ing values are given: the motor loc1ed rotor current( motor full load current & service factor( the ma=imum continuous current rating of the fuse inside the compartment( the fuse si/e( the pea1 current let through characteristics#

)he standard ratings for the medium voltage open $i#e# not installed in an enclosure% contactors are 544 & 944 amperes# )he contactor rating is derated *hen installed in its compartment in the cu.icle# &or e=ample( *ith one"high controller cu.icle( the current ratings for the 944 & 544 amperes *ould .e D24 & AC4 amperes#

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination

Protection & Coordination


Motor protection relays: A relay offering comprehensive protection may have .ut not limited to the follo*ing set of features: a# thermal protection $5B% .# e=tended start protection Emonitoring $accelerating time% $59% c# stalling protection $mechanical Jam% d# num.er of starts limitation $CC% e# short circuit protection $ 4P% f# ground $earth% fault protection $ 4E 13% g# *inding >)+ measurementEtrip $A9% h# negative se8uence current detection $5C% i# undervoltage protection $2D% J# loss"of"load protection or under current $AD% 1# out"of"step protection $for synchronous motors only% $54% l# loss of supply protection $for synchronous motors only% $ C% m# au=iliary supply supervision $ BK% Motor thermal protection (protection against overload conditions/overheating): )he maJority of *inding failures are either indirectly or directly caused .y overloading $either prolonged or intermittentEcyclic%( operation on un.alanced supply voltage $causing negative se8uence current through the motor negative resistance%( or single phasing $has the same effect as un.alance source%( *hich all lead through e=cessive heating to the deterioration of the *inding insulation until an electrical fault occurs#

Protection & Coordination


)he generally accepted rule is that insulation life is halved for each 14N C rise in temperature a.ove the rated value( modified .y the length of time spent at the higher temperature# As an electrical machine has a relatively large heat storage capacity( it follo*s that infre8uent overloads of short duration may not adversely affect the machine# <o*ever( sustained overloads of only a fe* percent may result in premature ageing and insulation failure# &urthermore( the thermal *ithstand capa.ility of the motor is affected .y heating in the *inding $*hich function of the motor loading% prior to a fault# 7t is therefore important that the relay characteristic ta1es into account the e=tremes of /ero and full"load pre"fault current 1no*n respectively as the ;Cold; and ;<ot; conditions# )he relays( in general( offer the follo*ing choices to the user: O )hermal limit curves per NEMA standard( voltage dependent and customi/ed O 7EC C42 "9 )hermal overload curves O Current un.alance .iasing $including the effect of negative se8uence current in heating the motor% O 7ndependent running and stopped e=ponential cooling curves O @ptional >)+ .iasing of the )hermal Model to adapt to real"time temperature measurements O Compensation for <ot $*hen the motor is restarting and its temperature is higher than under cold starting condition%Ecold motor conditions# 7n general( the relay thermal model integrates .oth stator and rotor heating and cooling into a single model# Extended start time protection:

Protection & Coordination


)he relay function protects the motor from overheating in cases of a.normal loading during motor starts# )he motor can .e tripped if the motor does not reach a running condition *ithin the programma.le Motor Acceleration time# Stalling protection (mechanical jam): )his function senses increased loading associated *ith process or load related faults causing the motor to Jam or stall# A programma.le delay setting can .e used to allo* the process to attempt clear itself .efore issuing a trip# Num.er of starts limitation $start inhi.it%: )his function prevents starting of a motor *hen the motor is too hot and does not have a sufficient amount thermal capacity availa.le to allo* a start *ithout .eing re"tripped# Short Circuit Protection: Motor short"circuit protection is often provided to cater for maJor stator *inding faults and terminal flashovers# Short Circuit @vercurrent protection protects damage to the motor during a loc1ed rotor condition# )he relay provide for instantaneous overcurrent protection( the elements can .e configured for protection( alarming( and control during loc1ed rotor conditions# &or motors fed .y circuit .rea1ers( a single definite time overcurrent relay element is all that is re8uired for this purpose( set to a.out 12 ! of motor starting current# )he time delay is re8uired to prevent spurious operation due to C) spill currents( and is typically set at 144ms# Ground ault protection: @ne of the most common faults to occur on a motor is a stator *inding fault# Hhatever the initial form of the fault $phase"phase( etc#% or the cause $cyclic overheating( etc#%(

Protection & Coordination


the presence of the surrounding metallic frame and casing *ill ensure that it rapidly develops into a fault involving earth# )herefore( provision of earth fault protection is very important# )he type and sensitivity of protection provided depends largely on the system earthing# 7t is common( ho*ever( to provide .oth instantaneous and time" delayed relay elements to cater for maJor and slo*ly developing faults# !vertemperature protection: )he crelay ould support >)+ inputs that allo* for configuring the Alarming and )ripping )emperature of each >)+( detecting >)+ shorting conditions( and selecting >)+ voting that re8uires more than one >)+ to detect an over"temperature condition .efore it *ill issue a )rip command# )he programma.le >)+ inputs can .e used in monitoring the Stator( 2earing and the am.ient temperatures# Each >)+ input has 2 operational levels: alarm and trip# )he relay could support >)+ trip voting and provide open >)+ failure alarming "egative se#uence current detection: Fn.alanced currents give rise to a negative se8uence component in the stator current# )he negative se8uence current produces an additional flu= *hich rotates at synchronous speed in the opposite direction of the rotor# )he eddy currents *hich are induced in the rotor parts *ill have the dou.le net*or1 fre8uency# +uring such sustained conditions( the temperature of the rotor may reaches high levels *hich accelerate the ageing of the insulation and cause mechanical stress on the rotating components# )he relay calculates negative se8uence current

Protection & Coordination


and compared it *ith the set operate value for the alarm and the trip function# $ndervoltage protection: Motors may overheat or even stall *hen su.Jected to prolonged undervoltage conditions# )ransient undervoltages *ill generally allo* a motor to recover *hen the voltage is restored( unless the supply is *ea1# Motors fed .y contactors have inherent undervoltage protection( unless a latched contactor is used# Hhere a specific undervoltage trip is re8uired( a definite time undervoltage element is used# 7f t*o elements are provided( alarm and trip settings can .e used# An interloc1 *ith the motor starter is re8uired to .loc1 relay operation *hen the starting device is open( other*ise a start *ill never .e permitted# )he voltage and time delay settings *ill .e system and motor dependent# )hey must allo* for all voltage dips li1ely to occur on the system during transient faults( starting of motors( etc# to avoid spurious trips# As motor starting can result in a voltage depression to 94! of nominal( the voltage setting is li1ely to .e .elo* this value# >e" acceleration is normally possi.le for voltage dips lasting .et*een 4# "2 seconds( depending on system( motor and drive characteristics( and therefore the time delay *ill .e set .earing these factors in mind# %oss&o &load protection or under current: )he Fndercurrent Protection element provides the a.ility of tripping the motor due to e=ternal conditions that can cause the load .eing pulled .y the motor to drop .elo* a pre"set level# )his element is useful *hen the loss of the load results in a loss of cooling *hich *ill cause the asset to overheat# 'oss"of"load protection has a num.er of possi.le functions# 7t can .e used to protect a pump against .ecoming unprimed( or to stop a motor in case of a failure in a mechanical transmission $e#g# conveyor .elt%E

Protection & Coordination


!ut&o &step protection ( or s'nchronous motors onl'): A synchronous motor may decelerate and lose synchronism $fall out"of"step% if a mechanical overload e=ceeding the pea1 motor tor8ue occurs# @ther conditions that may cause this condition are a fall in the applied voltage to stator or field *indings# Such a fall may not need to .e prolonged( a voltage dip of a fe* seconds may .e all that is re8uired# An out"of"step condition causes the motor to dra* e=cessive current and generate a pulsating tor8ue# Even if the cause is removed promptly( the motor *ill pro.a.ly not recover synchronism( .ut eventually stall# <ence( it must .e disconnected from the supply# )he current dra*n during an out"of"step condition is at a very lo* po*er factor# <ence a relay element that responds to lo* po*er factor can .e used to provide protection# )he element must .e inhi.ited during starting( *hen a similar lo* po*er factor condition occurs# )his can conveniently .e achieved .y use of a definite time delay( set to a value slightly in e=cess of the motor start time# )he po*er factor setting *ill vary depending on the rated po*er factor of the motor# 7t *ould typically .e 4#1 less than the motor rated po*er factor i#e# for a motor rated at 4#9 po*er factor( the setting *ould .e 4#D # %oss o suppl' protection ( or s'nchronous motors onl'): 7f the supply to a synchronous motor is interrupted( it is essential that the motor .rea1er .e tripped as 8uic1ly as possi.le if there is any possi.ility of the supply .eing restored automatically or *ithout the machine operator0s 1no*ledge# )his is necessary in order to prevent the supply .eing restored out of phase *ith the motor generated voltage#

Protection & Coordination


)*o methods are generally used to detect this condition( in order to cover different operating modes of the motor# Au=iliary supply supervision $ BK%: )his supervision may include any or all of the follo*ing: O 7ntegrity of coils $monitoring continuously their resistance%# 7n case coils are in a good condition( the output C@7' @K *ill .e activated# O Control voltage $supervision of lo* voltage%# 7f voltage is correct( the output 2>EAKE> ?@')A3E @K *ill .e activated# O Chec1s the .rea1er control circuit# 7f .oth control voltage AN+ coils integrity are correct( then the output 2>EAKE> C7>CF7) @K *ill .e activated# @ther protection functions that may .e found in motor protection circuits: Stator (i erential )his relay provides Stator +ifferential Protection for fast clearing of stator phase faults# Advanced C) saturation detection algorithms as *ell as dual slope characteristic are incorporated for increased security during heavy faults# $nder re#uenc' unction: )he underfre8uency relay element *ill operate in the case of the supply failing *hen the motor is on load( *hich causes the motor to decelerate 8uic1ly# )ypically( t*o elements are provided( for alarm and trip indications# )he underfre8uency setting value needs to consider the po*er system characteristics# 7n some po*er systems( lengthy periods of operation at fre8uencies su.stantially .elo* normal occur( and should not result in a motor trip# )he minimum safe operating fre8uency of the motor under load conditions must therefore .e determined( along *ith minimum system fre8uency#