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Benzoic acid Benzoic acid /bnzo.

k/, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time the only source for benzoic acid. Its salts are used as food preservatives and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates / History Benzoic acid was discovered in the sixteenth century. The dry distillation of gum benzoin was first described by Nostradamus (1556), and then by Alexius Pedemontanus (1560) and Blaise de Vigenre (1596).[4] Pioneer work in 1830 through a variety of experiences based on amygdalin, obtained from bitter almonds (the fruit of Prunus dulcis) oil by Pierre Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, two French chemists, had produced benzaldehyde [5] but they failed in working out a proper interpretation of the structure of amygdalin that would account for it, and thus missed the identification of the benzoyl radical C7H5O. This last step was achieved some few months later (1832) by Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Whler, who determined the composition of benzoic acid.[6] These latter also investigated how hippuric acid is related to benzoic acid. In 1875 Salkowski discovered the antifungal abilities of benzoic acid, which was used for a long time in the preservation of benzoate-containing cloudberry fruits.[7] It is also one of the chemical compounds found in castoreum. This compound is gathered from the beaver plant food.[8] Production Industrial preparations Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. The process is catalyzed by cobalt or manganese naphthenates. The process uses cheap raw materials, and proceeds in high yield.[citation needed]

U.S. production capacity is estimated to be 126,000 tonnes per year (139,000 tons), much of which is consumed domestically to prepare other industrial chemicals.

Laboratory synthesis Benzoic acid is cheap and readily available, so the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid is mainly practiced for its pedagogical value. It is a common undergraduate preparation. Benzoic acid can be purified by recrystallization from water because of its high solubility in hot water and poor solubility in cold water. The avoidance of organic solvents for the recrystallization makes this experiment particularly safe.[9] The solubility of benzoic acid in over 40 solvents with references to original sources can be found as part of the Open Notebook Science Challenge[10] By hydrolysis Like other nitriles and amides, benzonitrile and benzamide can be hydrolyzed to benzoic acid or its conjugate base in acid or basic conditions. From benzaldehyde[edit] The base-induced disproportionation of benzaldehyde, the Cannizzaro reaction, affords equal amounts of benzoate and benzyl alcohol; the latter can be removed by distillation.

From bromobenzene[edit] Bromobenzene can be converted to benzoic acid by "carbonation" of the intermediate phenylmagnesium bromide.[11] This synthesis offers a convenient exercise for students to carry out a Grignard reaction, an important class of carboncarbon bond forming reaction in organic chemistry.[12][13] C6H5Br + Mg(in dry ether) C6H5MgBr C6H5MgBr + CO2 C6H5CO2MgBr C6H5CO2MgBr + HCl C6H5CO2H + MgBrCl From benzyl alcohol[edit] Benzyl alcohol is refluxed with potassium permanganate or other oxidizing reagents in water. The mixture is hot filtered to remove manganese dioxide and then allowed to cool to afford benzoic acid. From benzyl chloride[edit] Benzoic acid can be prepared by oxidation of benzyl chloride in the presence of alkaline KMnO4: C6H5CH2Cl + 2 KOH + 2 *O+ C6H5COOH + KCl + H2O

Historical preparation The first industrial process involved the reaction of benzotrichloride (trichloromethyl benzene) with calcium hydroxide in water, using iron or iron salts as catalyst. The resulting calcium benzoate is converted to benzoic acid with hydrochloric acid. The product contains significant amounts of chlorinated benzoic acid derivatives. For this reason, benzoic acid for human consumption was obtained by dry distillation of gum benzoin. Food-grade benzoic acid is now produced synthetically. Uses Benzoic acid is mainly consumed in the production of phenol by oxidative decarboxylation at 300400 C:[14] C6H5CO2H + 1/2 O2 C6H5OH + CO2 The temperature required can be lowered to 200 C by the addition of catalytic amounts of copper(II) salts. The phenol can be converted to cyclohexanol, which is a starting material for nylon synthesis. Precursor to plasticizers Benzoate plasticizers, such as the glycol-, diethylenegylcol-, and triethyleneglycol esters, are obtained by transesterification of methyl benzoate with the corresponding diol. Alternatively these species arise by treatment of benzoylchloride with the diol. These plasticizers are used similarly to those derived from terephthalic acid ester. Precursor to sodium benzoate and related preservatives Benzoic acid and its salts are used as a food preservatives, represented by the Enumbers E210, E211, E212, and E213. Benzoic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and some bacteria. It is either added directly or created from reactions with its sodium,potassium, or calcium salt. The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95%. The efficacy of benzoic acid and benzoate is thus dependent on the pH of the food. Acidic food and beverage like fruit juice (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbon dioxide), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), pickles (vinegar) or other acidified food are preserved with benzoic acid and benzoates. Typical levels of use for benzoic acid as a preservative in food are between 0.050.1%. Foods in which benzoic acid may be used and maximum levels for its application are controlled by international food law. Concern has been expressed that benzoic acid and its salts may react with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in some soft drinks, forming small quantities of benzene.[19] Medicinal[edit] Benzoic acid is a constituent of Whitfield's ointment which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as tinea, ringworm, and athlete's foot.[20][21] As the principal component of benzoin resin,

benzoic acid is also a major ingredient in both tincture of benzoin and Friar's balsam. Such products have a long history of use as topical antiseptics and inhalant decongestants. Benzoic acid was used as an expectorant, analgesic, and antiseptic in the early 20th century.[22] Benzoyl chloride Benzoic acid is a precursor to benzoyl chloride, C6H5C(O)Cl by treatment with thionyl chloride, phosgene or one of the chlorides of phosphorus. is an important starting material for several benzoic acid derivates like benzyl benzoate, which is used in artificial flavours and insect repellents. Niche and laboratory uses In teaching laboratories, benzoic acid is a common standard for calibrating a bomb calorimeter.[23] Biology and health effects Benzoic acid is relatively nontoxic. It is excreted as hippuric acid.[24] Benzoic acid occurs naturally as do its esters in many plant and animal species. Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0.05%). Ripe fruits of several Vaccinium species (e.g., cranberry, V. vitis macrocarpon; bilberry, V. myrtillus) contain as much as 0.030.13% free benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is also formed in apples after infection with the fungus Nectria galligena. Among animals, benzoic acid has been identified primarily in omnivorous or phytophageous species, e.g., in viscera and muscles of theRock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) as well as in gland secretions of male muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) or Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus).[25] Gum benzoin contains up to 20% of benzoic acid and 40% benzoic acid esters.[26] Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus is a bacterium species that produces benzoate from phenol via 4hydroxybenzoate Benzoic acid is present as part of hippuric acid (N-benzoylglycine) in urine of mammals, especially herbivores (Gr. hippos = horse; ouron = urine). Humans produce about 0.44 g/L hippuric acid per day in their urine, and if the person is exposed to toluene or benzoic acid, it can rise above that level.[28] For humans, the World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) suggests a provisional tolerable intake would be 5 mg/kg body weight per day.[25] Cats have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its salts than ratsand mice. Lethal dose for cats can be as low as 300 mg/kg body weight.[29] The oral LD50 for rats is 3040 mg/kg, for mice it is 1940 2263 mg/kg.[25] In Taipei, Taiwan, a city health survey in 2010 found that 30% of dried and pickled food products had too much benzoic acid, which is known to affect the liver and kidney,[30] along with more serious issues like excessive cyclamate.

Reactions Reactions of benzoic acid can occur at either the aromatic ring or at the carboxyl group: Aromatic ring[edit]

Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3-position due to the electronwithdrawing carboxylic group; i.e. benzoic acid is meta directing. The second substitution reaction (on the right) is slower because the first nitro group is deactivating.[31] Conversely, if an activating group (electron-donating) was introduced (e.g., alkyl), a second substitution reaction would occur more readily than the first and the disubstituted product might accumulate to a significant extent. Carboxyl group[edit] All the reactions mentioned for carboxylic acids are also possible for benzoic acid.

Benzoic acid esters are the product of the acid catalysed reaction with alcohols. Benzoic acid amides are more easily available by using activated acid derivatives (such as benzoyl chloride) or by coupling reagents used in peptide synthesis like DCC and DMAP. The more active benzoic anhydride is formed by dehydration using acetic anhydride or phosphorus pentoxide. Highly reactive acid derivatives such as acid halides are easily obtained by mixing with halogenation agents like phosphorus chlorides or thionyl chloride. Orthoesters can be obtained by the reaction of alcohols under acidic water free conditions with benzonitrile. Reduction to benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is possible using DIBALH, LiAlH4 or sodium borohydride. The copper catalysed decarboxylation of benzoate to benzene may be effected by heating in quinoline. Also, Hunsdiecker decarboxylation can be achieved by forming the

silver salt and heating. Benzoic acid can also be decarboxylated by heating with an alkali hydroxide or calcium hydroxide.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Record in the GESTIS Substance Database from the IFA Jump up^ Harris, Daniel (2010). Quantitative Chemical Analysis (8 ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. pp. AP12. ISBN 9781429254366. Jump up^ Melting point of benzoic acid Jump up^ Neumller O-A (1988). Rmpps Chemie-Lexikon (6 ed.). Stuttgart: Frankh'sche Verlagshandlung. ISBN 3-440-04516-1. OCLC 50969944. Jump up^ Nouvelles expriences sur les amandes amres et sur l'huile volatile qu'elles fournissent Robiquet, Boutron-Charlard, Annales de chimie et de physique, 44 (1830), 352382, Jump up^ Liebig J, Whler F (1832). "Untersuchungen ber das Radikal der Benzoesure". Annalen der Chemie, 3 (3): 249282.doi:10.1002/jlac.18320030302. Jump up^ Salkowski E (1875). Berl Klin Wochenschr 12: 297298. Jump up^ The Beaver: Its Life and Impact. Dietland Muller-Schwarze, 2003, page 43 (book at google books) Jump up^ D. D. Perrin; W. L. F. Armarego (1988). Purification of Laboratory Chemicals (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-08-034715-0. Jump up^ solubility of benzoic acid in organic solvents Jump up^ Donald L. Pavia (2004). Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques: A Small Scale Approach. Thomson Brooks/Cole. pp. 312314. ISBN 0-534-40833-8. Jump up^ Shirley, D. A. (1954). "The Synthesis of Ketones from Acid Halides and Organometallic Compounds of Magnesium, Zinc, and Cadmium". Org. React. 8: 2858. Jump up^ Huryn, D. M. (1991). "Carbanions of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cations: (ii) Selectivity of Carbonyl Addition Reactions". In Trost, B. M.; Fleming, I.. Comprehensive Organic Synthesis, Volume 1: Additions to CX -Bonds, Part 1. Elsevier Science. pp. 4975. ISBN 978-0-08-052349-1. Jump up^ Maki, Takao; Takeda, Kazuo (2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives".Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_555. ISBN 3527306730.. Jump up^ A D Warth (1 December 1991). "Mechanism of action of benzoic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects on glycolytic metabolite levels, energy production, and intracellular pH". Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 December 57 (12): 34104. PMC 183988. PMID 1785916. Jump up^ Pastrorova I, de Koster CG, Boom JJ (1997). "Analytic Study of Free and Ester Bound Benzoic and Cinnamic Acids of Gum Benzoin Resins by GC-MS HPLC-frit FAB-MS". Phytochem Anal 8 (2): 63 73.doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1565(199703)8:2<63::AID-PCA337>3.0.CO;2-Y. Jump up^ GSFA Online Food Additive Group Details: Benzoates (2006) Jump up^ EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND COUNCIL DIRECTIVE No 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners (Consleg-versions do not contain the latest changes in a law)

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19. Jump up^ BfR article Indications of the possible formation of benzene from benzoic acid in foods, BfR Expert Opinion No. 013/2006, 1 December 2005 20. Jump up^ "Whitfield Ointment". 21. Jump up^ Charles Owens Wilson; Ole Gisvold; John H. Block (2004). Wilson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 234. ISBN 0-7817-3481-9. 22. Jump up^ Lillard, Benjamin (1919). Practical druggist and pharmaceutical review of reviews. 23. Jump up^ Experiment 2: Using Bomb Calorimetry to Determine the Resonance Energy of Benzene 24. Jump up^ Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Bindu Nair (2001). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate". Int J Tox 20 (Suppl. 3): 23 50.doi:10.1080/10915810152630729. PMID 11766131. 25. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 26: BENZOIC ACID AND SODIUM BENZOATE". 26. Jump up^ Tomokuni K, Ogata M (1972). "Direct Colorimetric Determination of Hippuric Acid in Urine". Clin Chem 18 (4): 349351. PMID 5012256. 27. Jump up^ Juteau, Pierre; Valrie Ct, Marie-France Duckett, Rjean Beaudet, Franois Lpine, Richard Villemur and Jean-Guy Bisaillon (January 2005). "Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobe that transforms phenol into benzoate via 4-hydroxybenzoate". IJSEM 55 (1): 245 250. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02914-0. 28. Jump up^ Krebs HA, Wiggins D, Stubbs M (1983). "Studies on the mechanism of the antifungal action of benzoate". Biochem J 214 (3): 657663.PMC 1152300. PMID 6226283. 29. Jump up^ Bedford PG, Clarke EG (1972). "Experimental benzoic acid poisoning in the cat". Vet Rec 90 (3): 53 58. doi:10.1136/vr.90.3.53.PMID 4672555. 30. Jump up^ Chen, Jian; Y.L. Kao (18 January 2010). "Nearly 30% dried, pickled foods fail safety inspections". The China Post. 31. Jump up^ Brewster, R. Q.; Williams, B.; Phillips, R. (1955), "3,5-Dinitrobenzoic Acid", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 3: 337

Benzoic acid Benzoic acid Structure Benzoic acid CAS No. 65-85-0 Chemical Name: Benzoic acid Synonyms: ha1;210;e210;PUROX B;NA-9094;ai3-0310;Nipacide;Retardex;ha1(acid);Tenn-Plas CBNumber: CB8698780 Molecular Formula: C7H6O2 Formula Weight: 122.12 MOL File: 65-85-0.mol Benzoic acid Property mp : 121-125 C(lit.) bp : 249 C(lit.) density : 1.08 vapor density : 4.21 (vs air) vapor pressure : 10 mm Hg ( 132 C) refractive index : 1.504 FEMA : 2131 Fp : 250 F storage temp. : Store at RT. Water Solubility : Slightly soluble. 0.34 g/100 mL Merck : 14,1091 BRN : 636131 Stability:: Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, alkalies. CAS DataBase Reference: 65-85-0(CAS DataBase Reference) NIST Chemistry Reference: Benzoic acid(65-85-0) EPA Substance Registry System: Benzoic acid(65-85-0) Safety Hazard Codes : Xn,T,Xi Risk Statements : 22-36-42/43-36/37/38-40-63-43-23/24/25-45-41-37/38-20/21/22 Safety Statements : 26-45-37/39-24-22-36/37-24/25-23-53-36 RIDADR : UN 3077 9/PG 3 WGK Germany : 1 RTECS : DG0875000 F : 21 Hazard Note :Harmful Hazardous Substances Data: 65-85-0(Hazardous Substances Data)

Benzoic acid Chemical Properties,Usage,Production Chemical Properties white crystals or powder General Description A white crystalline solid. Slightly soluble in water. The primary hazard is the potential for environmental damage if released. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Used to make other chemicals, as a food preservative, and for other uses. Air & Water Reactions Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. The finely powdered dry acid is a significant dust explosion hazard [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 884]. In air very rapid combustion occurs [Wilson, L.Y. et al., J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62(10), p. 902]. Slightly soluble in water. Reactivity Profile At high temperature Benzoic acid can react with oxidizing reagents. Health Hazard Dust may be irritating to nose and eyes. At elevated temperatures, fumes may cause irritation of eyes, respiratory system, and skin. Fire Hazard Behavior in Fire: Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. Concentrated dust may form explosive mixture. Benzoic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials HIPPURIC ACID Cobalt acetate Naphthalene Arsenic Benzyl alcohol Zinc oxide Lead monoxide Toluene Chlorine Formic acid Pathalic acid Benzotrichloride Cobalt naphthenate Phthalic anhydride Preparation Products (S)-(-)-N-Benzyl-1-phenylethylamine Ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate Benzoyl peroxide Sodium benzoate 3-Nitrobenzoic acid 4-tert-Butylphenol 2,5-DIPHENYL-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE 3-Methyl-7-phenyl-6-oxa-3azabicyclo[6.4.0]dodeca-8,10,12-triene 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid Phenolic resin paint Direct Yellow 12 3,5Diaminobenzoic acid 3-Hydroxybenzoic acid Ammonium benzoate Isoamyl benzoate 2METHYLBENZANILIDE Exemestane Direct Black 168 MCBE Amino resin paint 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid Methyl benzoate 3-SULFAMOYL-BENZOIC ACID Chorionic gonadotrophin Methyl acrylate Fluorescamine Benzoyl chloride Benzyl benzoate Potassium benzoate