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YEAR 12 PRACTICAL 1 To determine the molarity of a solution of sodium hydroxide by titration against hydrochloric acid using methyl orange

indicator Procedure 1. 2. Rinse a burette with 1.0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. Using a funnel, fill the burette with the acid until it is just below the zero mar . !hec there are no air bubbles in the ti" of the burette. #f there are, o"en the ta" until the air bubbles disa""ear and re-fill the burette. $hen remo%e the funnel. Use a "i"ette to "lace 2&.0 cm3 of the sodium hydro'ide solution into a clean conical flas . (hen em"tying the "i"ette into the conical flas , allow it to em"ty under gra%ity, and then touch the surface of the li)uid with the "i"ette for a""ro'imately one second. +dd two dro"s of methyl orange indicator into the conical flas . Record the initial %olume in the following table, $itration 1 -rough. /inal %olume -cm3. #nitial %olume -cm3. $itre %olume -cm3. !oncordant0 1. $itration 2 $itration 3 $itration * $itration &

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$itrate the acid into the al ali, 1 cm3 at a time until the mi'ture changes from yellow to "in . Record the final %olume in the table and wor out the %olume deli%ered -the titre %olume.. Re"eat ste"s 3 3 1, but now add the acid ra"idly until the %olume added is close to the "re%ious titration, and then dro"wise until the mi'ture changes colour. Record the final %olume in the table. Re"eat this "rocess until two concordant titre %olumes -ie within 0.1 cm3 of each other. ha%e been achie%ed. #f you do not ha%e three concordant %alues after fi%e attem"ts, sto" anyway.

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Calculation 1. 2. (or out the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used in the titration. 5ence deduce the number of moles of sodium hydro'ide which must ha%e been "resent in the conical flas , gi%en that the e)uation for the reaction is, 5!l-a). 6 7a85-a). 7a!l-a). 6 528-l. 5ence deduce the concentration of the sodium hydro'ide solution.

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