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(Prof. Endang Fauziati) 1.1.

Foreign language teachers have long been engaged in scientific approaches to foreign

language teaching methodology based on experimentation and research on linguistic psychological and pedagogical foundations. !hey must have good understanding on the underlying principle or theoretical bac"ground #hich underpins the emergence of the teaching methodology. !his provides them #ith a comprehensive grasp of theoretical foundations of foreign language teaching and can serve as an integrated frame#or" #ithin #hich a foreign language teacher can operate to formulate an understanding of ho# people learn foreign languages. $uch an understanding #ill ma"e them enlightened language teachers having ade%uate understanding of #hy they choose a particular method or techni%ue of teaching for particular learners #ith particular learning ob&ectives. !his is also supposed to encourage teachers to develop an integrated understanding of the underlying principles of second or foreign language teaching methodology. !his section #ill shed light on some principles or theories #hich are relevant for language teaching. Four ma&or theories are deliberately chosen for the discussion here namely' theory of learning theory of language learner learning style learner language and learner language analysis.


!heory of )earning
!here are four ma&or theories of language ac%uisition and language learning #hich many

psycholinguists and applied linguistics are familiar #ith namely' *ehaviorism +ognitivism ,umanism and +onstructivism. !hese theories #ill be discussed in their relation to foreign language teaching methodology.

1.(.1. *ehaviorism
*ehaviorist theory is originated from Pavlov-s experiment #hich indicates that stimulus and response #or" together. In his classical experiments he trained a dog to associate the sound of a tuning for" #ith salivation until the dog ac%uired a conditioned response that is salivation at the sound of the tuning for". . previously neutral stimulus (the sound of the tuning for") had ac%uired the po#er to elicit a response (salivation) that #as originally elicited by another stimulus (the smell of food). /atson (1011) deriving from Pavlov2s finding has named this theory *ehaviorism and adopted classical conditioning theory to explain all types of learning. ,e re&ects the mentalist notion of innateness and instinct. Instead he believes that by the process of conditioning #e can build a set of stimulus3response connections and more complex behaviors are learned by building up series of responses. *.F. $"inner (1014) follo#ed /atson2s tradition and added a uni%ue dimension to *ehaviorism5 he created a ne# concept called 6perant conditioning. .ccording to s"inner Pavlov2s classical conditioning (7espondent +onditioning) #as a typical form of learning utilized mainly by animals and slightly applicable to account for human learning. $"inner2s 6perant +onditioning tries to account for most of human learning and behavior. 6perant behavior is behavior in #hich one operates on the environment. /ithin this model the importance of stimuli is de3emphasized. 8ore emphasis ho#ever is on the conse%uence of stimuli. $o reinforcement is the "ey element. !herefore the teaching methodology based on s"inner2s vie# rely the classroom procedures on the controlled practice of verbal operants under carefully designed schedules of reinforcement. 6perant conditioning then is a mechanistic approach to learning. External forces select stimuli and reinforce responses until desired behavior is conditioned to occur. In sum #e can say that learning is basically vie#ed as a process of conditioning behavior. From this tenet comes the definition of learning as 9a change in behavior:. In accordance #ith $"inner2s theory *roo" (10;<' <;) has defined learning as 9a change in performance that occurs under the conditions of practice:. $"inner2s theory of behaviorism has profoundly influenced the direction of the foreign language teaching. !he simplicity and directness of this theory=learning is a mechanical habit formation and proceeds by means of the fre%uent reinforcement of a stimulus and response se%uence=has enormous impact on language teaching. It provides the learning theory #hich underpins the #idely used .udiolingual 8ethod (.)8) of the 10>?s and 10;?s. !his method #hich #ill be familiar to many language teachers has laid do#n a set of guiding methodological (

principles based on t#o concepts' (1) the behaviorist stimulus3response concept and (() an assumption that foreign language learning should reflect and imitate the perceived processes of mother tongue learning. +lassroom environment in .udiolingualism therefore is arranged in #hich there is a maximum amount of mimicry memorization and pattern drills on the part of the learners. .usubel (10;4) calls this type of learning as rote learning. 6n the other part the teacher is supposed to give re#ards to the utterances coming closest to the model recorder and to extinguish the utterances #hich do not. $"inner2s theory of behaviorism has profoundly influenced the direction of the second or foreign language teaching. !he simplicity and directness of this theory=learning is a mechanical habit formation and proceeds by means of the fre%uent reinforcement of a stimulus and response se%uence=has enormous impact on language teaching +lassroom environment in .udiolingualism therefore is arranged in #hich there is a maximum amount of mimicry memorization and pattern drills on the part of the learners. 6n the other part the teacher is supposed to give re#ards to the utterances coming closest to the model recorder and to extinguish the utterances #hich do not.

1.(.(. +ognitivism
$"inner2s theory of verbal behavior has got a number of critics especially from cognitive psychologists5 among them #as @oam +homs"y (10>0) #ho argued that $"inner2s model #as not ade%uate to account for language ac%uisition. In +homs"y2s vie# much of language use is not imitated behavior but is created a ne# from underlying "no#ledge of abstract rules. $entences are not learned by imitation and repetition but Agenerated2 from the learner2s underlying A+ompetence2 (+homs"y 10;;). +ognitivism believes that people are rational beings that re%uire active participation in order to learn and #hose actions are a conse%uence of thin"ing. +hanges in behavior are observed but only as an indication of #hat is occurring in the learner2s head. +ognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities (the processes of "no#ing) such as thin"ing memory "no#ing and problem3solving. Bno#ledge can be seen as schema and learning is a change in a learner2s schemata. !he mind &ust li"e a computer' information comes in is being processed and leads to certain outcomes. $o learning is considered as an active constructive cumulative and self3directed process that is dependent on the mental

activities of the learner ($ternberg 100;). +ognitive theories therefore have replaced behaviorism in 10;?s as the dominant paradigm. +ognitive psychology together #ith +homs"y2s transformational grammar gave rise to its o#n method of language learning called +ognitive .pproach or +ognitive +ode )earning. !he role of the teachers is to recognize the importance of the students2 mental assets and mental activity in learning. !heir tas" is also to organize the material being presented in such a manner that #hat is to be learned #ill be meaningful to the learners. !he classroom procedures emphasize understanding rather than habit formation (cf. .udiolingual 8ethod). .ll learning is to be meaningful. In so doing the teacher can (1) build on #hat the students already "no#5 (() help the students relate ne# material to themselves their life experiences and their previous "no#ledge5 (1) avoids rote learning (except perhaps in the case of vocabulary)5 (<) use graphic and schematic procedures to clarify relationships5 (>) utilize both #ritten and spo"en language in order to appeal to as many senses as possible5 (;) attempt to select the most appropriate teaching3 )earning situation for the students2 involvement.5 and use inductive deductive or discovery learning procedures as the situation #arrants.

1.(.1. ,umanism
,umanistic psychology emerged in the 10>?s as a departure from the scientific analysis of $"inner2s *ehaviorism and even from .usubel2s cognitive theory. In humanistic vie# human being is a #hole person #ho not only has physic and cognition but more importantly has feeling and emotion. )earning therefore has more affective focus than behaviorist and cognitive ones5 it focuses more on the development of individual2s self3concept and his personal sense of reality. From 10C?s humanism in education has attracted more and more people2s attention. .ccording to its theories the receiver in education is first a human being then a learner. If a person cannot satisfy his basic needs physically and psychologically he #ill surely fail to concentrate on his learning #hole3heartedly. .ffect is not only the basic needs of human body but also the condition and premise of the other physical and psychological activities. $o learning and the affective factors are closely connected. /ang ((??>' 1) notes that there are three prominent figures in this field namely' Eri"son 8aslo# and 7ogers. Eri" Eri"son #ho developed his theory from $igmund Freud claims that 9human psychological development depends not only on the #ay in #hich individuals pass <

through predetermined maturational stages but on the challenges that are set by society at particular times in their lives: (10;1' 11). !he second figure is .braham 8aslo# (10;4) #ho proposes a famous hierarchy of needs333deficiency (or maintenance) needs and being (or gro#th) needs. Deficiency needs are directly related to a person2s psychological or biological balance such as the re%uirements of food #ater or sleep. *eing needs are related to the fulfillment of individual potential development. !he third one is +arl 7ogers (10;0) #ho advocates that human beings have a natural potential for learning but this #ill ta"e place only #hen the sub&ect matter is perceived to be of personal relevance to the learners and #hen it involves active participation of the learners. .lthough these three humanists have different ideas their theories are all connected #ith humanism and their theories contribute greatly to the emergence of humanistic approach. (/ang (??>' () .mong these three 7ogers has been the most influential figure in the field of foreign language teaching methodology. .ccording to 7ogers (in *ro#n 104?' C;) the inherent principle of human behavior is his ability to adapt and to gro# in the direction that can enhance his existence. ,uman being needs a non threatening environment to gro# and to learn to become a fully3functioning person. ,e states that fully3functioning person has %ualities such as' (1) openness to experience (being able to accept reality including one-s feelings5 if one cannot be open to one2s feelings he cannot be open to actualization5 (() existential living (living in the here3and3no#)5 (1) organismic trusting (#e should trust ourselves=do #hat feels right and #hat comes natural)5 (<) experiential freedom (the fully3functioning person ac"no#ledges that feeling of freedom and ta"es responsibility for his choices) and (>) creativity (if #e feel free and responsible #e #ill act accordingly and participate in the #orld5 a fully3functioning person #ill feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others even life itself). ,umanistic principles have important implications for education. .ccording to this approach the focus of education is learning and not teaching. !he goal of education is the facilitation of learning. )earning ho# to learn is more important than being taught by the superior (teacher) #ho unilaterally decides #hat #ill be taught. /hat needed then is real facilitator of learning. . teacher as a facilitator should have the follo#ing characteristics' (1) ,e must be genuine and real putting a#ay the impression of superiority5 (() ,e must have trust or acceptance from his students as valuable individuals5 and (1) ,e needs to communicate openly and emphatically #ith his students and vice versa. (*ro#n 104?' CC) >

,umanistic approach has given rise to the existence of foreign language teaching methodology such as +ommunity )anguage )earning by +urran $ilent /ay by Eattegno and $uggestopedia by )azanov and +ommunicative )anguage !eaching. !here are several concepts that are closely allied to +ommunicative )anguage !eaching such as !as"3*ased )anguage !eaching +ooperative )anguage )earning +ollaborative )anguage )earning .ctive learning and .ctive Interactive +ommunicative Effective and Foyful )earning or popularly "no#n in Indonesia as P.IBE8 (Pendekatan yang aktif, interaktif, komunikatif, efektif, dan menyenangkan). !hese terms are simply expression for the latest fashions in foreign language teaching. !hey could be used to label the current concerns #ithin a +ommunicative .pproach frame #or" (*ro#n (??<' <?). !hese foreign language teaching methods focus on a conducive context for learning a non3threatening environment #here learners can freely learn #hat they need to. !here are aspects of language learning #hich may call upon conditioning process other aspects need a meaningful cognitive process and yet others depend upon the non3threatening environment in #hich learners can learn freely and #illingly. Each aspect ho#ever is re%uired and appropriate for certain type of purpose of language learning.

1.(.<. +onstructivism
!he latest catch#ord in educational field is constructivism #hich is often applied both to learning theory (ho# people learn) and to epistemology (the nature of "no#ledge). In pedagogy constructivism is often contrasted #ith the behaviorist approach. +onstructivism ta"es a more cognitive approach as Elaserfled (in 8urphy 100C' >) argued 9From the constructivist-s perspective learning is not a stimulus3response phenomenon. It re%uires self3regulation and building of conceptual structures through reflection and abstraction.: +onstructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that by reflecting on our experiences #e construct our o#n understanding of the #orld #e live in. In other #ords it refers to the idea that learners construct "no#ledge for themselves. !his is in consonant #ith ,olzer (100<' () #ho states that Gthe basic idea of constructivism is that "no#ledge must be constructed by the learner. It cannot be supplied by the teacher.G Each learner individually andHor socially constructs meaning as he or she learns. !he construction of meaning is learning5 there is no other "ind. !he dramatic conse%uences of this vie# are t#ofold namely' (1) #e have to focus on the learner in thin"ing about learning (not on the sub&ectHlesson to be taught)5 and (() !here is ;

no "no#ledge independent of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner or community of learners. *ased on Piaget-s definitions of "no#ledge *ringuier (in ,olzer 100<' () provides clue of ho# learning can be nurtured or developed. ,e states that 9)earning is an interaction bet#een sub&ect and ob&ect. It is a perpetual construction made by exchanges bet#een thought and its ob&ect:. !hus the construction of "no#ledge is a dynamic process that re%uires the active engagement of the learners #ho #ill be responsible for ones- learning #hile the teacher only creates an effective learning environment. +urrent conception of constructivism tends to be more holistic than traditional information3processing theories (+unningham 1001). It has extended the traditional focus on individual learning to address collaborative and social dimensions of learning. ,ence this often referred to as social constructivism. .nother sister term is +ommunal +onstructivism that #as introduced by *ryn ,olmes in (??1. $ocial constructivist scholars vie# learning as an active process #here learners should learn to discover principles concepts and facts for themselves5 hence it is also important to encourage guess#or" and intuitive thin"ing in learners. !he social constructivist model thus emphasizes the importance of the relationship bet#een the student and the instructor in the learning process5 individuals ma"e meanings through the interactions #ith each other and #ith the environment they live in. Bno#ledge is thus a product of humans and is socially and culturally constructed (Pra#at and Floden 100<). In sum learning is a social process5 it is not a process that only ta"es place inside our minds (+ognitivism) nor is it a passive development of our behaviors that is shaped by external forces (*ehaviorism). 8eaningful learning occurs #hen individuals are engaged in social activities (8c8ahon 100C). !his current conception of social constructivism according to /ood (1004' 10) can possibly be vie#ed as the bringing together of aspects of the #or" of Piaget #ith that of )ev Iygots"y. Vygotskys Concept: 6ne of Iygots"y2s (10C4) concepts #hich is very influential in pedagogical field is the Jone of Proximal Development (JPD). !his #as originally developed by Iygots"y to argue against the use of standardized tests as a means to determine studentsintelligence. ,e stated that rather than examining #hat a student "no#s to determine intelligence it is better to examine their ability to solve problems independently and their ability to solve problems #ith the assistance of an adult.

/hat is JPDK 6ne conception states that JPD is the zones bet#een #hat Iygots"y calls Aactual2 development (#hat the learner can do independently) and Apotential2 development (#hat the learner can do in the future #ith the help of others no#). Every act of learning occurs #ithin a JPD5 building on #hat the learner already "no#s and can do. Each learner has t#o levels of development' a level of independent performance and a level of potential performance. !o sum up JPD is the gap bet#een these t#o levels. (Feeze and Foyce (??(' (>3(;) )earning according to Iygots"y is first inter3psychological (social) before it is intra3 psychological (psychological) in nature5 in other #ords it begins by being ob&ect3regulated and then is others3regulated before it is self3regulated. 6b&ect3regulation refers to the role played by concrete manifestations of culture in the environment (i.e. ob&ects and artifacts rituals routines and daily practices documents and valued texts and so on) that function as sign systems that mediate learning. !he learners2 starting point is thus social in the first place because they begin by ta"ing cues from the environment. +hildren2s playground activities for example are also of value not so much because they provide the children opportunities to manipulate explore and discover the environment but more because the role3playing #hich often dominates such activities is a form of ob&ect3regulation of the children2s understandings of their environment. 6ne2s potential development ho#ever cannot be manifested if learning stops at ob&ect3 regulation. !he "ey to such a manifestation is the role played by significant others in mediating learning (the stage of others3regulation). $uch significant others may include parents elders teachers and more expert peers #ho through tal" and other means provide explicit or conscious as #ell as implicit or unconscious guidance to the learner. 7eturning to the examples of playground activities this guidance may ta"e the form of explanations of the meanings of the activities or of an expert peers telling another their o#n vie#. It is at the stage of others3 regulation that language becomes important not only to facilitate the transactions bet#een Aexpert2 and learner but also enable "ey concepts to be understood and retained. For the potential development manifested by #hat the learner is able to do #ith the help of others to be transformed eventually into actual development5 self3regulation is vital. !his is the stage in #hich the learners process and manipulate by themselves the "no#ledge and understanding gained5 they begin to be capable of #or"ing independently. Iygosts"y confirms that the presence of more capable others in a child2s learning environments enables himHher to be involved in cultural events at social level that eventually develop the herHhis individual cultural 4

identity. /hile individual potential is ac"no#ledged this potential can only develop to its maximum capacity #hen heHshe child undergoes learning processes involving more "no#ledgeable others that create social interaction negotiation and shared learning. In classroom context +orden ((???' 4) suggests that 9classroom learning can best be seen as an interaction bet#een teacher2s meanings and those of the pupils so #hat they ta"e a#ay is partly shared and partly uni%ue to each of them:. +onstructivism (especially Iygots"y2s ideas) has been adopted by Dere#ian"a (100?) and *utt et al. ((??1) to design a foreign language teaching method called Eenre3*ased .pproach. !his model is firstly popularized as +urriculum +ycle #hich is very influential in school settings in @e# $outh /ales .ustralia as #ell as in $ingapore. !his is a simple model for developing complete lesson units (cycles) around text typesHgenres to be taught and has as its ultimate aims of helping learners to gain literacy independently through mastery of text types and genres. Each lesson unit (cycle) has as its central focus on a chosen text type or genre and consists of a fixed se%uence of stages. !he descriptions of the cycle in Dere#ian"a (100?) and *utt et al. ((??1) vary in minor #ays but four phases essential for developing control of a genre may be identified namely' +ontext Exploration !ext Exploration based on 8odel !exts Foint +onstruction of a !ext and Individual .pplication. Every cycle begins #ith context exploration Acontext2 referring to the possible contexts of situation in #hich the chosen text3type or genre may be used. !his phase resembles the pre3 listeningHreadingHspea"ingH#riting phase that has come to be typical in +ommunicative )anguage !eaching (+)!) and the activities that may be carried out may resemble to typical pre3activities in s"ills3based teaching. ,o#ever #here traditional pre3activities have aims as #arming up and activation of mental schema the main goal of the genre3based +urriculum +ycle is to help students to become a#are of and understand some aspects such as' the social purpose of the chosen genre the contextual factors influencing the production of the texts and the texts themselves. *ased on Iygots"ian principles another important aim of the context exploration phase from the teacher2s point of vie# is to establish the learners2 Aactual development2 or starting point. (Dere#ian"a 100?5 *utt et al. (??1) !he next stage text exploration based on 8odel !exts is the first of t#o perhaps distinctive "ey phases in the +urriculum +ycle that demonstrates ho# E*. different from other forms of +)!. !he aims of this phase are to familiarize the learners #ith the target text3 0

typeHgenre and to dra# attention to organizational and linguistic features commonly found in texts belonging to it. 8odel texts play a crucial role in this phase providing in Iygots"y2s terms the necessary ob&ect3regulation. Lsing such model texts the pedagogical activities to ma"e explicit the features of the text3type are carried out. !hese may include a range of established Acommunicative activities2 such as the re assembling of A&igsa#2 texts or information gap exercises but the tas"s are deliberately constructed in such a #ay as to highlight the salient lexical and grammatical features. !hus the tas"s aim to be implicitly analytical and not &ust to facilitate interaction as an end in itself. 6f course more explicitly analytical #or" is also possible' for example students may be as"ed to Ahunt2 for and highlight all instances of a specific grammatical form. Direct teaching by the instructor is also an option in order to ma"e the features obvious to the learners. ,o# the formal features #or" to help the text3type achieves its purposes are also discussed or explored. !he teacher plays a "ey role in others regulation throughout this phase. (Dere#ian"a 100?5 *utt et al. (??1) 6thers3regulation continues and ta"es centre3stage in the next stage the &oint construction. ,ere referring to the model texts and ma"ing use of the "no#ledge and a#areness gained from the exploration of the text the students #or" #ith the teacher to construct their o#n texts (spo"en or #ritten) in the text3typeHgenre. !his can ta"e some forms of activity such as teacher3fronted #hole3class co3construction of a single text on the board small3group or pair construction #ith the teacher helping each group or pair by turn or teacher conferencing #ith individual students. In the case of #riting as #ith process approaches the texts may go through a fe# rounds of drafting editing and re3drafting. !he model texts continue to provide ob&ect3regulation #hile others3regulation comes from not only the teacher but also from other students as more expert peers guide others. /hat is to be noted in both the text exploration and &oint construction phases is that #hile there is much oral interaction ta"ing place its nature and intention is different from that of most forms of +)!. /here the interactive activities in +)! are often designed to simulate real life interaction directed a providing opportunities for tal"ing in the language the tal" in E*. is about using language and is focused on a collaborative effort to learn to accomplish a purpose in the language.


!he last stage in the +ycle individual application as the name suggests re%uires learners to #or" individuallyHindependently for example in the case of #riting to produce individual essays. Ideally this is carried out only after the students have successfully produced a &ointly constructed text or understanding of a text. !his phase then provides the opportunity for self3 regulation the crucial final stage in Iygots"y2s model of learning. /hat each learner produces can be further recycled through further others3regulation (e.g. peer editing teacher feedbac") until the learner attains a desired level of attainment. (Dere#ian"a 100?5 *utt et al. (??1) Figure 1' )earning !heory and Foreign )anguage !eaching 8ethods *ehaviorism +ognitivism ,umanism +onstructivism

.udiolingual 8ethod

3 +ognitive +ode )earning 3 PPP

3 +ommunicative )ang !eaching 3 $uggestopedia 3 $ilent #ay 3 +ommunity )ang )earning

3 Eenre3based Instruction 3 In%uiry3*ased Instruction


!heory of )anguage
!his section discusses some language theories #hich are relevant #ith the current issues

in foreign language teaching and learning especially in Indonesia context. !he chosen topics for the discussion here are genre and text speech act and communicative competence.

1.1.1. Eenre and !ext

+urrent teaching method of English is #idely "no#n Eenre3based approach (E*.). .ccording to ,yland ((??1) E*. has varied theoretical bases in linguistics such as 7hetorical $tructure !heory in @orth .merica (8ann M !hompson 1044) and Eeneric $tructure Potential theory in .ustralia (,alliday M ,asan 1040) in fields such as genre analysis. Eenre analysis is the study of ho# language is used #ithin a particular setting ($#ales 100?) and is concerned 11

#ith the form of language use in relation to meaning (*hatia 1001). !his is a tool to examine the structural organization of texts by identifying the moves and strategies and to understand ho# these moves are organized in order to achieve the communicative purpose of the text. Eenre analysis also examines the lexico3grammatical features of genres to identify the linguistic features chosen by users to realize the communicative purpose and to explain these choices in terms of social and psychological contexts (,enry M 7oseberry 1004). 6ther considerations in genre analysis include the communicative purpose the roles of the #riter and the audience and the context in #hich the genre is used. !he results from analyzing a genre serve as the instructional materials in genre3based instruction. /hat is a genreK $#ales (100?' >4) identified a genre as 9a class of communicative events the members of #hich share some set of communicative purposes:. ,is definition offers the basic idea that there are certain conventions or rules #hich are generally associated #ith a #riter2s purpose. For example personal letters tell us about (their #riters2) private stories and film revie#s analyze movies for potential vie#ers. 8ost genres use conventions related to communicative purposes5 a personal letter starts #ith a cordial %uestion in a friendly mood because its purpose is to maintain good relationships and an argument essay emphasizes its thesis since it aims at ma"ing an argument. !hey are the examples of #ritten genres. 8ean#hile according to *yram ((??<' (1>) genre refers to 9a staged goal3oriented purposeful activity in #hich spea"ers engage as members of their culture:. $ome circumstances as examples of spo"en genres are buying fruits telling a story #riting a diary applying for a &ob intervie# #riting an invitation letter and so on (Bay M Dudley3Evans 1004' 1?0). Each spo"en genre has a specific goal that people should achieve through several steps. !hus the specific social goals become main focuses #hen genre is discussed. !he implication is that #hen #riting the context of a situation should be considered and analyzed in order to anticipate #hat linguistic features are re%uired. .ll genres control a set of communicative purposes #ithin certain social situations and each genre has its o#n structural %uality according to those communicative purposes. (Bay and Dudley3Evans 1004' 1?0) Eenres also refer to more specific classes of texts such as ne#spaper reports or recipes. !exts of each genre may be purely of one text3type (for example a bus schedule is purely an Information 7eport #hile most recipes are purely of the text type AInstructions2) or they may be a blend (for example sermons often include stretches of narratives or recounts as #ell as 1(

explanations #hile usually expository in intent). !he classification and labeling of genres may vary depending among other things on the theoretical influences behind each approach. For example in some instances #ritten genres are defined in terms of familiar broad categories such as Narratives, Description, Persuasion, Argumentation, etc. .nother approach ma"es a distinction around six text prototypes called text types and more specific genres that employ each or combinations of these text types. /hatever the differences categorization is based on #hat the discourse see"s to achieve or to do socially for example to tell a story (@arratives) or to argue an opinion (.rgument Exposition). !he specification of genres to be taught in language teaching is based on the classification used by many systemic functional linguists especially in applications to classroom teaching of English (e.g. Dere#ian"a 100?5 *utt et. al. (??1). !he classification involves a distinction bet#een text types and genres. !ext types refer to text prototypes defined according to their primary social purposes and six main text types are identified as follo#s' (1) @arratives tell a story usually to entertain (() 7ecounts (Personal Factual) tell #hat happened (1) Information 7eports provide factual information (<) Instructions tell the listener or reader #hat to do (>) Explanations explain ho# or #hy something happens and (;) Expository !exts present or argue vie#points. !he structural features of genres include both standards of organization structure and linguistic features. $tandards of organizational structure refer to ho# a text is se%uenced. /hat is a textK . text is a semantic unit a unit of language that ma"es sense. . conversation tal" or a piece of #riting can be called a text only #hen it ma"es sense. /hen it does not ma"e sense it is not a text5 it is not communication. +ommunication happens only #hen #e ma"e sensible texts. (.gustien (??;' >) 8ean#hile *utt et al. ((??1' 1) state that a text refers to 9a piece of language in use: #hich is a 9harmonious collection of meanings appropriate to its context: and hence has 9unity of purpose:. In other #ords texts are stretches of language that may be considered complete in themselves as acts of social exchange. )ength and mode of communication are immaterial' a text may be long or short #ritten or spo"en. . brief exchange of greetings as t#o ac%uaintances pass each other is as much a text as is a ;??3page novel. +ommon sets of linguistic features can constitute a text type. *iber in Paltridge (100;' (1C) states that a text type is 9a class of texts having similarities in linguistic forms regardless of the genre:. ,ammond in Paltridge (100;' (1C3(10) exemplifies the characteristics of several 11

genres and categorized them according to similarities in text types' recipes have procedure type of text5 personal letters are often used tell private anecdotes5 advertisements deal #ith description5 ne#s articles have recount type5 scientific papers prefer passive voice over active voice in presenting reports5 and academic papers commonly have embedded clauses (Paltridge 100;' (1C3(10). !his means that different text types involve distinctive "no#ledge and different sets of s"ills.

1.1.(. $peech .ct

$peech act is an act of communication. In attempting to express themselves people do not only produce utterances containing grammatical structures and #ords they perform action via those utterances. .ctions #hich are performed via utterances are generally called speech act. In English speech acts are 9commonly given more specific labels such as apology complaint compliment invitation promise or re%uest: (Fule (???' <C). $peech act theory focuses on communicative acts #hich are performed through speech. It is coined by .ustin (10;(). ,e observed that sentences are not al#ays used to report state affairs5 some sentences in certain circumstances must be treated as the performance of an act. .ustin also has proposed the distinction bet#een constatives and performatives. !he first refers to declaratives #hose truthHfalsity can be &udged and the latter is the opposite lac" of a truth3value since performatives Ado2 and action. !his distinction helps reveal .ustin2s vie# of t#o aspects of the conditions underling speech acts' context and text (circumstance and language). !here are also possibilities that performatives can be realized #ithout verbs and not all types of performatives need verbs specialized to that tas". ,e proposes the term explicit performatives (#ith verb) and primary performatives (#ithout verb). 6ne outcome of this is that primary performatives can be ambiguous the saying 9this house is yours2 may be either an act of be%ueathing (I give it to you) or an ac"no#ledgement that it (already) belongs to you. .ustin has also proposed several tests to identify performative verbs. First the simplest is that hereby can be inserted before the verb. !hus one can say' I hereby promise NN but not I hereby sing. N.nother #ay is to as" #hether the saying of an utterance is the only #ay to perform the act for example one cannot apologize or promise #ithout saying something to someone #hereas one can be sorry be grateful or intent to do something #ithout saying


anything. .nd the easiest speech acts to recognize #ould appear to be those #hich contain explicit performative verbs such as 9promise, bet, warn, bequeath, state, etc. /e have seen that utterances in speech acts have certain %ualities. 6n any occasion the action performed by producing an utterance #ill consist of three related acts' a locutionary act an illocutionary act and a perlocutionary act. !he locutionary act is the act of saying something5 producing a series of sounds #hich mean something. !his is the language aspect #hich has been the concern of linguistics. !he illocutionary act is the issuing of an utterance or the act performed #hen saying something. It includes acts of betting promising ordering #arning etc. !hus to say 9I promise to come: is to promise to come. !he perlocutionary acts is the actual effect achieved Aby saying2 on hearers. !his is also generally "no#n as the perlocutionary effect. .ustin has basically proposed grouping his performative verbs into five ma&or classes' (1) Verdictives. !hey are typified by the giving of a verdict (&udgment) by a &ury arbitror or referee such as the #ords 9acquit, grade, estimate, and diagnose. (() Exercitives. Ierbs #ith the exercising of po#ers rights or influence such as the #ords 9appoint order, advice, and warn. (1) Comissives. Ierbs #hich commit the spea"er to do something but also include declarations or announcements of intention such as the #ords 9promise, guarantee, bet, and oppose. (<) Behabities. . miscellaneous group concerned #ith attitudes and social behavior such as the #ords 9apo ogi!e, critici!e, b ess, cha enge. (>) Expositives. Ierbs #hich clarify ho# utterances fit into on3going discourse and ho# they are being used such as 9argue, postu ate, affirm, and concede. (.ustin 10;(5 +oulthard 104> $chiffrin 1000) ,ere are some other examples of speech acts that #e use or hear every day' Ereeting 7e%uest +omplaint Invitation +ompliment 7efusal ' G,i 8ommy. ,o# are things goingKG ' G+ould you pass me the mashed potatoes pleaseKG ' GI2ve already been #aiting three #ee"s for the computer and I #as told it #ould be delivered #ithin a #ee".G ' G/e2re having some people over $aturday evening and #anted to "no# if you2d li"e to &oin us.G ' G,ey I really li"e your tieOG : G6h I2d love to see that movie #ith you but this Friday &ust isn2t going to #or".G


1.1.1. +ommunicative +ompetence

6ne of the theoretical bases for foreign language teaching is that language as communication. !hus the goal of language teaching is to develop #hat ,ymes (10C() referred to as Gcommunicative competence.G ,ymes coined this term to contrast a communicative vie# of language and +homs"y-s theory of competence and performance. For +homs"y (10;>' 1) competence is 9the spea"er3hearer2s "no#ledge of his language.: $pea"er and hearer are defined as those ideal individuals in a completely homogeneous speech community. For ,ymes (10C?) the ideal spea"er3hearer simply does not exist because a completely homogeneous speech community is simply non3existent. !he language used for communication in society is so full of varieties that competence must be coupled #ith performance. For +homs"y the focus of linguistic theory #as to characterize the abstract abilities spea"ers possess that enable them to produce grammatically correct sentences in a language (+homs"y 10;>' 1). ,ymes held that such a vie# of linguistic theory #as incomplete that linguistic theory needed to be seen as part of a more general theory incorporating communication and culture. ,ymes-s theory of communicative competence #as a definition of #hat a spea"er needs to "no# in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community. In his vie# a person #ho ac%uires communicative competence ac%uires both "no#ledge and ability for language use #ith respect to' (1) #hether or not something is formally possible (grammaticality)5 (() #hether or not something is feasible (natural and immediately comprehensible)5 for example "he cat that the dog chased died is feasible in the intended sense #hereas "his is the man that hit the dog that chased the cat that died is totally not feasible (+homs"y (10;>' 1?)5 (1) #hether or not something is appropriate in relation to a context in #hich it is used5 (<) #hether or not something is in fact done and actually performed. (,ymes 10C(' (415 *rumfit and Fohnson 1040' 1<) ,ymes seems to have parameters #ith a #ider coverage of communicative competence #hich encompasses not only the formally grammatical but also #hat is easily understood appropriate to context and actually done. *ased on ,ymes2s concepts 8ichael +anale (1041' <1) proposed communicative competence #hich includes four domains of "no#ledge and s"ills as follo#s' (1) #rammatica competence or linguistic competence #hich refers to the ability to use the language correctly ho# #ell a person has learned features and rules of the language. !his includes vocabulary 1;

pronunciation and sentence formation. ,o# #ell does the learner understand the grammar of EnglishK !eachers call this accuracy in language use. (() $ocio inguistic competence #hich refers to the learner2s ability to use language correctly in specific social situations P for example using proper language forms at a &ob intervie#. $ocio3linguistic competence is based upon such factors as the status of those spea"ing to each other the purpose of the interaction and the expectations of the players. ,o# socially acceptable is the person2s use of English in different settingsK !his competency is about suitability of using language. (1) Discourse competence #hich refers to the learner2s ability to use the ne# language in spo"en and #ritten discourse ho# #ell a person can combine grammatical forms and meanings to find different #ays to spea" or #rite. ,o# #ell does the student combine the language2s elements to spea" or #rite in EnglishK !eachers often call this ability the student2s f uency. (<) $trategic competence #hich refers to strategies for effective communication #hen the learner2s vocabulary proves inade%uate for the &ob and his or her command of useful learning strategies. $trategic competence is ho# #ell the person uses both verbal forms and non3verbal communication to compensate for lac" of "no#ledge in the other three competencies. +an the learner find #ays to compensate for areas of #ea"nessK If so the learner has communicative efficacy. Figure (' +anale2s +ommunicative +ompetence
Discourse +ompetency

$trategic +ompetency $ocio3)inguistic +ompetency

Erammatical +ompetency

+urrent theory of communicative competence comes from +elce38urcia et al. (100>' 1?). !hey describe +ommunicative +ompetence as unified competence #hich comprises of (1) )inguistic competence (() sociocultural competence (1) .ctional competence (<) Discourse competence and (>) $trategic competence. Discourse competence concerns the selection se%uencing and arrangement of #ords structures and utterances to achieve a unified spo"en or #ritten text (i.e. cohesion deixis coherence generic structure and conversational structure). 1C

)inguistic competence refers to the ability to use the language correctly ho# #ell a person has learned features and rules of the language. !his includes vocabulary pronunciation and sentence formation. ,o# #ell does the learner understand the grammar of EnglishK !eachers call this accuracy in language use. .ctional competence (cf. pragmatic competence and rhetorical competence) is defined as competence in conveying and understanding communicative intent matching actional intent #ith linguistic form based on "no#ledge of an inventory of verbal schemata that carry illocutionary force (speech acts). $ocio3cultural refers to the spea"er2s "no#ledge of ho# to express messages appropriately #ithin the overall social and cultural context of communication such as participant variables appropriateness factors situational variables stylistic etc. $trategic competence refers to strategies for effective

communication #hen the learner2s vocabulary proves inade%uate for the &ob and his or her command of useful learning strategies. ,o# #ell the person uses both verbal forms and non3 verbal communication to compensate for lac" of "no#ledge in the other competenciesK +an the learner find #ays to compensate for areas of #ea"nessK If so the learner has communicative efficacy. (+elce38urcia 100>' >3(0)

Figure 1' +elce38urcia et al.2s +ommunicative +ompetence

Socio-cultural competence

Discourse Competence

Linguistic Competence

Actional Competence

Strategic Competence



)earning $tyle
People learn in different #ays. Fust as #e prefer different hair styles clothing styles

managerial styles and music styles #e also feel much more natural and comfortable ac%uiring information in #ays that fit our preferred styles of learning. )earning style is defined as 9any individual2s preferred #ays of going about learning: (@unan (??(' 1;4). 7esearchers in educational psychology as #ell as in $). field have observed that learners tend to approach learning in a significantly different #ays and these #ays are often referred to as 9learning $tyle:. )earners learn differently and one learning style #hich may suit to one learner may be not ade%uate for another learner. )earning $tyles are relatively stable5 teachers may not have a direct influence on this variable. ,o#ever they can modify teaching tas"s in the classroom to cater the various learning style of the learners. It is also very li"ely to encourage the learners to stretch their learning style so as to incorporate different approaches to learning they #ere resisting in the past. (+ohen and Dornyei (??<' 1C;) Beefe (10C0' <) identifies Gcognitive affective and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators:5 mean#hile 7eid (1000' ;) summarises these ideas by proposing three ma&or learning styles' cognitive sensory personality.

1.<.1. +ognitive )earning $tyles

+ognitive style deals #ith the mental processes of information. 7eid (1000' ;) classifies cognitive styles into three' field3independentHdependent learning styles (FIHFD) analyticHglobal learning styles and reflectiveHimpulsive learning styles. Field independent learners easily separate "ey details from a complex or confusing bac"ground. !hey tend to prefer situations that allo# them freedom in #or"ing to#ard their goals and solving problems. !hese learners li"e to #or" individually. 8ean#hile Field dependent style is 9the tendency to be Adependent2 on the total field so that the parts embedded #ithin the field are not easily perceived although that total field is perceived more clearly as a unified #hole: (*ro#n (??<' 11>). )earners #ho are field dependent may prefer group pro&ects and need more assistance from the instructor. 6ne #ay to help these students is to ma"e sure that any diagrams and illustrations used as visual aids contain verbal information explaining them.


Analytic vs. global learning styles seems to be closely allied #ith field independence vs. dependence and indeed may be a more fundamental and more explanatory dimension of learning style. !his strands the learners #ho focus on the main idea or big picture #ith those #ho concentrate on details. Elobal learners tend to li"e socially interactive communicative events in #hich they can emphasize the main idea and avoid analysis on details. .nalytic learners tend to concentrate on details and tend to avoid more communicative activities. (6xford (??(' 1;1) Reflective learning style is a typical style that produces a slo#er more calculated ans#er. 7eflective learners tend to 9#eigh all the considerations in a problem #or" out all the loopholes and then after extensive reflection venture a solution:. !hey tend to thin" systematically and be more calculated in ma"ing decision. Impulsive learning style is the one that produces a %uic" gambling ans#er. Impulsive learners tend to 9ma"e a %uic" or gambling (impulsive) guess at an ans#er to a problem. Intuitive learners tend to ma"e a number of different gambles before on the basis of intuitions #ith possibly several successive gambles before a solution is achieved. (*ro#n (??<' 1(1) $). research on the field sho#s as follo#s' learners #ho are reflective tend to ma"e fe#er errors5 reflective learners may be better an inductive learning5 reflective learners may be slo#er but more accurate in reading5 and impulsive learners are usually faster readers5 impulsive learners go through stages of Interlanguage faster #hile reflective learner-s seem to lag behind.

1.<.(. $ensory )earning $tyles

$ensory learning styles refer to the physical perceptual learning channels #ith #hich a learner is most comfortable #ith (6xford (??(' 1;?). !hese can be classified into three ma&or types' auditory visual and "inesthetic learners. 8ost people have a combination of learning styles but one is usually stronger. An auditory learner learns best #hen information is presented through hearing things. !his means that the more the learner is able to hear the information the easier it may be for that learner to learn the information. For the auditory learner oral presentations are crucial for understanding a sub&ect as this "ind of learner has the ability to remember speeches and lectures in detail but has a hard time #ith #ritten text. It #ill be helpful for auditory learners to do the follo#ing things namely' to record lectures to use #ord associations to listen to audiotapes to (?

read notes aloud to sit in the front of the class #here the teacher can easily be seen and heard and to study and discuss sub&ects #ith other students (6xford (??(' 1;?5 8ortensen (??4' <3>). +lassroom practices #hich are suitable for them are discussion groups lectures tape recorder cooperative learning directions discussed by the teacher before an activity is attempted listening to boo"s read to the group boo"s on tape information put to songs silly sayings that help himHher remember information (i.e. mnemonic devices) and recited poems of information. .n auditory learner may prefer to study using the materials &ust listed. (8ortensen (??4' 1) Visual learners are those #ho learn through seeing things. !hey learn best #hen information is presented visually. !his means that the more the learner is able to see the information the easier it may be for that learner to learn the information. !he visual learner #ill often lose focus during long oral lectures especially if these are not accompanied by dra#ings and illustrations. !he visual learner ta"es mental pictures of information given so in order for this "ind of learner to retain information oral or #ritten presentations of ne# information must contain diagrams and dra#ings preferably in color. !he visual learner can ta"e a lot of benefit from things such as color3coded notes using dra#ings to illustrate outlining information and using mind maps and flash cards. (6xford (??(' 1;?) $ome of the things a visual learner might need to use are textboo"s #or"sheets #ritten notes maps flash cards diagrams #ritten directions notes on index cards notes on the blac"board information on posters bulletin boards #ritten outlines graphic organizers (a "ind of #ritten diagram used for outlining or seeing relationships bet#een concepts) dra#ings and pictures. . visual learner may prefer to study using the materials &ust listed. )earning activities suitable for visual learners are as follo#s' dra#ing a map of events in history or dra# scientific process5 ma"ing outlines of everything5 copying #hat2s on the board5 as"ing the teacher to diagram5 ta"ing notes ma"ing lists5 #atching videos5 outlining reading5 using flashcards and highlighters circling #ords and underlining. (8ortensen (??4' 1) Tactile !inesthetic learners are those #ho learn through experiencingHdoing things. !hey are often described as learners #ho have problems sitting still and #ho often bounce their legs #hile tapping their fingers on the des"s. !hey are often referred to as hyperactive students #ith concentration issues. Binesthetic learner can best benefit from doing things such as classes #ith hands3on labs study #ith (loud) music in the bac"ground use memory and flash cards and study in small groups studying in short bloc"s ta"ing lab classes role playing ta"ing field trips (1

visiting museums studying #ith others using memory games and using flash cards to memorize. (6xford (??(' 1;?) "ulti#sensory learners learn best #hen visual auditory and tactileH"inesthetic presentation methods are all employed to learn a particular concept. !his means that the more the learner is able to see hear touch manipulate the materials used to present the information and use hisHher body movements the easier it may be for that learner to learn the information. !o determine the types of materials a multi3sensory learner might use loo" at the suggestions for visual learners auditory learners and tactileH"inesthetic learners above. *asically you are combining these three presentation methods #hen you employ a multi3sensory method. /ith regards to studying a multi3sensory learner #ill need to combine study methods from the visual auditory and tactileH"inesthetic areas outlined above.

1.<.1. Personality )earning $tyles

Personality type is a construct based on the #or" of +arl Qung. !here are many personality types #hich have been identified5 this section ho#ever &ust focuses on three ma&or personality types significant in foreign language learning. !hey include extroversionHintroversion and tolerance of ambiguity. Extraversion introversion is often thought of as being bipolar but in reality it occurs along a continuum. People #ho fall at the extremes have clear preferences. !hose #ho fall in the middle are called GambivertsG and can function #ell in many different situations. Extroverts gain their greatest energy from the external #orld. !hey are energized by being #ith other people. !hey #ant interaction #ith people and have many friendships. +ommonly extroverts tal" more and tend to ta"e action #ith less reflection5 they #or" better in groups than alone5 they are good at interpreting body language M facial expressions5 they excel during classes #ith high levels of activity5 they respond #ell to praise and competition5 they ta"e a lot of benefits from video3 conferencing face3to3face interaction class discussion multimedia chat rooms and group #or". (Ehrman 10005 6xford (??() $ntroverts derive their energy from the internal #orld see"ing privacy and tending to have &ust a fe# friendships #hich are often very deep. !hey are energized by their o#n minds and find their energy levels rapidly reduced #hen interacting #ith others. +ommonly introverts ((

tal" less and reflect more before acting5 li"e to be %uiet5 better at reflective problem solving and tas"s involving long3term memory5 li"e to #or" independently or #ith one or t#o other people5 prefer slo#er more accurate approach5 may have trouble establishing rapport #ith others5 oriented to#ard inner #orld of ideas and feelings5 prefer lo# sensory input and lo# levels of activity5 excel at focusing attention for long periods of time in situations if there are no distractions5 and have a lot going on in their inner #orld. !hey ta"e benefits from activities such as individual #or" and reading and #riting assignments. (Ehrman 10005 6xford (??() Tolerance for ambiguity is another style dimension of language learning. It concerns the degree of #hich learners are cognitively #illing to tolerate ideas #hich are incongruent #ith their belief system or structure of "no#ledge. )earners #ho are tolerant of ambiguity are free to entertain a number of innovative and creative possibilities and not be disturbed by ambiguity or uncertainty. !olerant learners are more li"ely to be ris" ta"ers and persistent processors and can be expected to perform #ell #hen faced #ith a learning situation containing novelty complexity contradiction andHor lac" of structure. In foreign language learning tolerant for ambiguity has advantages such as learners can accept much contradictory information in the !) and they #ill entertain innovation. !he disadvantages are that learners may become too accepting may not consider the correct information and may not integrate rules into a #hole system of )(. (*ro#n (??<' 1(?31(1) $ntolerant learners are those #ho typically lac" the flexibility and the #illingness to perceive ambiguous situations as desirable. In foreign language learning intolerance of ambiguity has advantages such as learners can guard against the -#ishy3#ashy- attitude and can deal #ith reality of foreign language and system. 6n the contrary it has some disadvantages such as learners may close mind early in the learning process may become rigid in learning too narro# to be creative. (*ro#n (??<' 1(?31(1)


)earner )anguage
In applied linguistics learner language is #ell "no#n as an Interlanguage (the language

of the second language learners). !his term #as first coined by $elin"er (10CC5 100C) to dra# attention to the fact that the learner2s language system in neither that of the mother3tongue nor (1

native language (@)) nor that of the target language (!)). !he learner2s language system contains elements of both @) and !). If #e can imagine a continuum bet#een the first language system (#hich constitutes the learner2s initial "no#ledge) and the second language system (#hich constitutes the target language) #e can say that at any given period of )( development the learner spea"s an interlanguage. !hus the significant feature of an interlanguage is the existence of error often referred to as learner error or interlanguage error. !here are several other terms related to interlanguage #hich have become current such as (1) !ransitional +ompetence (() Idiosyncratic Dialect and (1) .pproximative $ystem. !ransitional +ompetence is proposed by +order (10CC) to indicate the fact that learners are developing "no#ledge of $econd )anguage. Idiosyncratic Dialect (+order 10CC) is to specify the vie# that the learner is spea"ing an Idiosyncratic Dialect. .t any given time the learner operates a self3contained language variety (dialect) many aspects of his language is uni%ue (idiosyncratic) to the individual learner. .pproximative $ystem proposed by @emser (10C1) gives emphasis that the learner2s language has its o#n system #hich is apprtoximative in nature more or less close to the full second (target) language system. !he most popular term is the one proposed by $elin"er (10CC5 100C) that is an Interlanguage. !his term has been used most fre%uently of all. In his 97ediscovering of Interlanguage: $elin"er (100C) confirms that interlanguage is a universal phenomenon. In general it deals #ith the creation of a ne# Ainter3systems2 #hen someone tries to learn other system or it happens #hen learners learn a ne# language other than his mother tongue ()( )1 etc.) .s a language system interlanguage has specific features different from other natural languages. .d&emian (10C;) $elin"er (10CC5 100C) Qip (100>) and $aville3!roi"e ((??;) discuss four important characteristics of interlanguage' (1) systematic (() permeable (1) dynamic and (<) fossilization. %ystematicity: .d&emian (10C;' 1?1) suggests that systematicity should be restricted to its linguistic meaning. !hen systematicity should mean that 9there exists an internal consistency in the rule and feature system #hich ma"es up the interlanguage:. )i"e all human languages interlanguage must contain an organized set of rules and basic elements (lexical items phonological units grammatical categories etc.) $aville3!roi"e confirms that 9at any particular point or stage of development the I) is governed by rules #hich constitute the learner2s internal (<

grammar. !hese rules are discoverable by analyzing the language that is used by the learner at that time: ((??;' <1). &ermeability' .ccording to Qip (100>' 1() I) refers to Gthe susceptibility of interlanguage to infiltration by first language and target language rules or forms.G !he structures of the interlanguage can be invaded by the learner2s native language especially #hen the learner is placed in a situation that cannot be avoided (i.e. lac" of "no#ledge of the !)). $imilarly in other situations the learner may violate or over generalize rules from the !) in his effort to produce the intended meaning. *oth of these processes (native language transfer and overgeneralization) reflect the basic permeability of interlanguage. Dynamicity: Interlanguage is dynamic in the sense that 9the system of rules #hich learners have in their minds changes fre%uently resulting in a succession of interim grammar: ($aville3!roi"e (??;' <1). !he system of interlanguage is thought to be incomplete and in a state of flux. For this reason +order (104() gave the term 9transitional competence:. !his expresses the idea that the !) "no#ledge system being developed by the learner is a dynamic one. It is in a state of flux or constantly changing as ne# "no#ledge of the )( is added an ad&ustment in the competence already ac%uired ta"es place. Figure <' Interlanguage Development
a b c

Jero "no#ledge

@ative spea"er competence

Fossilization' !he term fossilization #as first introduced by $elin"er (1044' 0() to refer to Gthe persistence of plateaus of non3target li"e competence in the interlanguageG. /hen its dynamicity and permeability is lost the features of an interlanguage become sub&ect to fossilization. @ormally #e expect a learner to progress further along the learning continuum so that his competence moves closer to the !) system and contains fe#er errors. $ome errors ho#ever #ill probably never disappear entirely. $uch errors are often described as already fossilized meaning that they have become permanent features of the learner2s speech. ,an ((??<) defines it as 9the permanent lac" of mastery of a !) despite continuous exposure to ade%uate input ade%uate motivation to improve and sufficient opportunity to practice: (,an


(??<' <). .ccording to Ellis ((??<) fossilization is part of the interlanguage process #hich happens at a certain point in the I) development.


)earner )anguage .nalysis

)earner language analysis in applied3linguistics is #idely "no#n as Error analysis (E.

hereafter). !his is 9the first approach to the study of $). #hich includes an internal focus on learners2 creative ability to construct language: ($aville3!roi"e (??;' 14). !he primary focus of E. is on learner errors and the evidence of ho# learner errors could provide an understanding of the underlying processes of second language learning or second language ac%uisition. )earner errors are 9#indo#s into the language learner2s mind: ($aville3!roi"e (??;' 10) since they provide evidence for the system of language #hich a learner is using at any particular point in the course of )( development and the strategies or procedures the learner is using in his 9discovery of the language:. Errors 9tell the teacher #hat needs to be taught tell the researcher ho# learning proceeds and are a means #hereby learners test their hypotheses about the second language: (Fames 1004' 1(). !he learners2 learning processes #hich $elin"er (100C) prefers to refer as learning strategies can be inferred from an examination of learner language protocols studies of learner introspections case studies experimental studies ()ong 100?). diary studies classroom observations and

1.;.1. !he procedure

!he procedure for conducting E. #as first proposed by +order (10C4' 1(;) consisting of three ma&or stages' recognition description and explanation of errors. !hese stages #ere subse%uently elaborated by $ridhar (104?' 1?1) into the follo#ing steps' (1) +ollection of data (i.e. from free compositions or from examination ans#ers)5 (() Identification of errors (those #hich are not acceptable nor accurate) (1) +lassification into error types (e.g. errors of agreement articles verb forms etc.)5 (<) $tatement of relative fre%uency of error types5 (>) Identification of the areas of difficulty in the target language5 and (;) .nalysis of the source of error (e.g. )1 transfer overgeneralization simplification etc.)5 (C) Determination of the degree of disturbance caused by the error (the seriousness of the error in terms of communication norm etc.). (;

(4) !herapy or remedial lessons.

1.;.(. Error Identification

!he first step in error analysis is to determine the elements in the learner language #hich deviate from the !). For this purpose distinction should be made bet#een error and mista"e. .n error arises 9only #hen there #as no intention to commit one: (Fames 1004' CC). Errors are systematic consistent deviance #hich is characteristic of the learner2s linguistic system at a given stage of learning. Errors are typically produced by learners #ho do not yet fully command some institutionalized language system5 they arise due to the imperfect competence in the target language. 8ean#hile mista"es are deviations due to performance factors such as memory limitation fatigue and emotional strain. !hey are typically irregular and can be readily corrected by the learners themselves #hen their attention is dra#n to them. Fames (1004' C4) states that 9if the learner is able to correct a fault in his or her output it is assumed that the form he or she selected #as not the one intended and #e shall say that the fault is a mista"e.: !hese mista"es seem to increase in fre%uency under the conditions of stress indecision and fatigue. It is to be presumed therefore that second language learners also demonstrate similar mista"es in performance #here all these conditions are li"ely to occur. Fames (1004) said that sentences can be &udged as free from errors #hen they fulfill t#o criteria' grammaticality and acceptability. 9Erammaticality is synonymous #ith #ell3 formedness. It is the grammar #hich decides #hether something #hich is said by a learner is grammatical (Fames 1004' ;>):. . piece of language is grammatical if it does not brea" any of the rules of the standard language. !hus the sentence "he cat died is grammatical as is "he cat that the dog chased died and so is "he cat that the dog that the man hit chased died. 8ost native spea"ers ho#ever #ould not accept the third sentence. !his sentence is certainly grammatical but it is unacceptable in form rather than in content. .n ungrammatical utterance is one #hich deviates from the standard norms. !he sentence "he cat did not died is ungrammatical. .cceptability refers to 9practical notion being determined by the use or usability of the form in %uestion5 it deals #ith actualization procedure: (Fames 10040' ;;). .cceptability is &udged not by linguistic factors but by the user. It is the user #ho decides #hether an utterance is acceptable. .n acceptable utterance is one 9that has been or might be produced by a native (C

spea"er in some appropriate context and is or #ould be accepted by other native spea"ers as belonging to the language in %uestion: (Fames 1004' ;C). !hus to decide the acceptability of an utterance #e do not refer to the rules but to the contexts. For example if a learner says I have a hat on my head, but he is actually #earing a cap then #e &udge his utterance as being grammatical but unacceptable. ,is utterance is #ell3formed according to the rules of sentence formation in English but contextually inappropriate (unacceptable). In conclusion #e have to consider the sentences produced by learners based on t#o things' grammaticality and acceptability. 6bserve the table belo# for error identification.

Figure >' Error Identification Erammatical Erammatical Lngrammatical Lngrammatical .cceptable Lnacceptable .cceptable Lnacceptable Free from Error Erroneous Erroneous Erroneous

1.;.1. Error Description or +lassification

!here are a number of classificatory systems that have been used in E. studies. 7ichards (10CC) Dulay *urt and Brashen (104() and Fames (1004) present the most useful and commonly used bases for the descriptive classification of errors. Errors can be described using different "inds of taxonomy namely linguistic category surface strategy comparative taxonomy and communicative effect. !he linguistic classification 9carries out errors in terms of #here the error is located in the overall system of the !) based on the linguistic item #hich is affected by the error: (Fames 1004' 1?>). It indicates in #hich component of language the error is located. For example errors can be classified into error in phonological morphological or syntactic level etc.). /ithin syntax errors are classifiable into auxiliary system passive sentences negative construction etc. or more specific linguistic elements (i.e. articles propositions verbs and nouns). !he surface strategy taxonomy (or Fames refers to it as target modification ta%onomy) is a classification system 9based on the #ays in #hich the learner2s erroneous version is different (4

from the presumed target version: (Fames 1004' 1?;). It highlights the #ays the surface structures deviate. For example learners may omit necessary items or add unnecessary ones5 they may misform items or misorder them. *y using surface strategy taxonomy the error classification can give a clear description about cognitive processes that underlie the learner2s reconstruction of the ne# language or language being learned. It also ma"es us a#are that learners2 errors result from their active #ay in using the interim principles to produce the target language. Lnder this category errors can be classified into four types' omission addition misformation and misordering (Fames 1004' 0<311().

1.;.<. Explanation of Error

!o explain #hy errors exist #e can use $elin"er2s concept of interlanguage. In his conception he coined the term interlanguage (10CC5 100C) to refer to the language of second language learner. !he fact is that the learner2s language is an inter system bet#een the system of the mother3tongue and that of the target language. ,is description of the interlanguage system has a cognitive emphasis and a focus on the strategies that learners employ #hen learning a second language. It is assumed that interlanguage is the result of the learners2 attempts to produce the target language norms. !hat is to say learner errors are the product of the cognitive process in second language learning. ,e suggests that there are five processes central to second language learning namely' (1) 6vergeneralization. $ome of the rules of the interlanguage system may be the result of the overgeneralization of specific rules and features of the target language. (() !ransfer of !raining. $ome of the components of the interlanguage system may result from transfer of specific elements via #hich the learner is taught the second language. (1) $trategies of $econd )anguage )earning. $ome of the rules in the learner-s interlanguage may result from the application of language learning strategies 9as a tendency on the part of the learners to reduce the target language to a simpler system: ($elin"er 10CC' (10). (<) $trategies of $econd )anguage +ommunication. Interlanguage system rules may also be the result of strategies employed by the learners in their attempt to communicate #ith native spea"ers of the target language. (>) )anguage !ransfer. $ome of the rules in the interlanguage system may be the result of transfer from the learner2s first language. (0

1.C. $ummary
Foreign language teachers have long been engaged in scientific approaches to foreign language teaching methodology based on experimentation and research on linguistic psychological and pedagogical foundations. !hey must have good understanding on the underlying principle or theoretical bac"ground #hich underpins the emergence of the foreign language teaching methodology. !here are four ma&or learning theories #hich many psycholinguists and applied linguistics are familiar #ith namely' behaviorism cognitivism humanism and constructivism. *ehaviorism has significant influence on foreign language teaching. It provides the learning theory #hich underpins the existence of .udiolingual 8ethod of the 10>?s and 10;?s. !his method has laid do#n a set of guiding teaching principles such as learning a language is habit formation. +ognitive psychology underpins the rise of a foreign language teaching methodology called +ognitive .pproach or +ognitive +ode )earning. It emphasizes on studying a foreign language as a system of rules and "no#ledge rather than learning it as a set of s"ills. !he role of the teacher is to recognize the importance of the students2 mental assets and mental activity in learning. ,umanism focuses on a conducive context for learning a non3threatening environment #here learners can freely learn #hat they need to. In non3threatening environment learners can learn freely and #illingly. +onstructivism vie#s learning centers on the active learner. !his emphasis on the individual during instruction has dra#n attention to the prior beliefs "no#ledge and s"ills that individuals bring #ith them. +onstructivist2s greatest contribution to education may be through the shift in emphasis from "no#ledge as a product to "no#ing as a process. (enre' English language teaching in Indonesia has much influenced by 7hetorical $tructure theory and Eeneric $tructure Potential theory in the field of genre analysis. Eenre analysis is the study of ho# language is used #ithin a particular setting and is concerned #ith the form of language use in relation to meaning. Eenre is a class of communicative events the members of #hich share some set of communicative purposes5 this is also called text type. !ext !ypes may be fictional (made up) or factual (information reports). !he main text types include


long functional short functional transactional and interpersonal. Each of these text types are used for different purposes (social function) and follo# a different style or generic structure. %peech act theory is basically concerned #ith #hat people Ado2 #ith language (#ith the function of language). !ypically the functions focused upon are those relate to communicative intention (illocutionary force of an utterance). .ctions #hich are performed via utterances are generally called speech act. In English speech acts are 9commonly given more specific labels such as apology complaint compliment invitation promise re%uest greeting refusal #arning etc. 6n any occasion the action performed by producing an utterance #ill consist of three related acts' a locutionary act an illocutionary act and a perlocutionary act. Communicative Competence refers a language user-s grammatical "no#ledge of phonology morphology syntax and semantics as #ell as social "no#ledge about ho# and #hen to use utterances appropriately. !he term #as coined by ,ymes as a reaction against the perceived inade%uacy of +homs"y2s distinction bet#een competence and performance. ,ymes undertoo" ethnographic exploration of communicative competence. +urrent conception (+elce3 8urcia) divides communicative competence into discourse grammatical sociolinguistic strategic and actional competence. . learning style is an individual-s preferred #ay of learning. /hen an instructor-s style matches a student-s learning style that student typically experiences greater satisfaction and a more positive attitude to#ard the course. $cholars have generally classified learning styles into three ma&or types' cognitive personality and sensory. )earning styles are relatively stable5 teachers may not have a direct influence on this variable. ,o#ever they can modify teaching tas"s in the classroom to cater the learners2 various learning styles. !here should be opportunity for learners to #or" #ith the learning material in #ays that most suit their individual learning style since they approach activities in a variety of #ays depending on their personality their previous learning experience and their vie# of the nature of the learning tas". )earner language is often referred to as an interlanguage the language of second language learner. )anguage learning is a creative construction process learner error is then considered as an inevitable and positive part of that process. Errors are seen as reflections of learners2 stage of interlanguage development. /hen learners produce correct free utterances they may tell us little about #hat is going on in their mind. Errors then hold vital clues about the 11

process of language learning. )i"e other natural language interlanguage has its o#n system different from other languages. $elin"er-s description of the interlanguage system has a cognitive emphasis and a focus on the strategies that learners employ #hen learning a second language. Error analysis as an approach to the study of $). in #hich its primary focus of is on learner errors and the evidence of ho# learner errors can provide an understanding of the underlying processes of second language learning or second language ac%uisition. Error analysis #ill continue to en&oy #idespread appeal among teachers. !eachers #ho #ill al#ays confront #ith their learners2 errors find error analysis as a helpful tool to analyze their learners2 errors. !hus error analysis is %uite relevant to their everyday professional concerns. For this reason error analysis #ill al#ays play an important role in foreign language research and pedagogy. )earner language analysis is an approach to the study of $). in #hich its primary focus of is on learner errors and the evidence of ho# learner errors can provide an understanding of the underlying processes of second language learning or second language ac%uisition. !eachers #ho #ill al#ays confront #ith their learners2 errors find error analysis as a helpful tool to analyze their learners2 errors. !hus error analysis is %uite relevant to their everyday professional concerns. For this reason error analysis #ill al#ays play an important role in foreign language research and pedagogy. It can function as an analytical tool for better understanding of the learners2 problems in learning the second language.


e!inition to t"e terminology #elo$. %se ictionary o! linguistics an or applie linguistics.

A. Give

1. +lassical conditioning (. 6perant conditioning 1. 8eaningful learning <. .ffective factors >. Free ris" environment for language learning ;. Jone of proximal development C. Binetic style 4. Extrovert


0. Interlanguage 1?. Permeability of interlanguage

&. C"oose t"e #est ans$er !rom A' &' C' or D

1. .ccording to the behaviorism human behavior (including verbal behavior) is dependent on three crucial elements of learning as follo#s ER+EP!N a. stimulus response and reinforcement b. stimulus motivation and environment c. input exposure and environment d. motivation input and environment

(. +lassroom environment in .udiolingual method is designed in such a #ay that there is a maximum amount ofN a. group #or" b. role play c. comprehensible input d. mimicryHmemorization

1. !he follo#ings are examples of positive reinforcement ER+EP! . . . a. a verbal praise b. a feeling of increased accomplishment c. a good grade d. a moc"

<. @oam +homs"y vie#s that much of language use N a. is imitated behavior (e.g. children from their parents) b. is created a ne# from underlying "no#ledge of abstract rules (universal grammar). c. is learned by imitation and repetition d. is due to comprehensible input 5. Learning according to Cognitivism is characterized by the following features, EXCEPT a. active b. constructive c. cumulative d. rote

;. .ll learning activities in cognitivism should be meaningful. In so doing the teacher can do the follo#ings ER+EP!N a. *uild on #hat the students already "no# b. ,elp the students relate ne# material to their life experiences and their previous "no#ledge 11

c. provide a lot of pattern practices or drills and memorizations d. Lse inductive deductive or discovery learning procedures C. ,umanistic principles have important implications for education. .ccording to this approach the focus of education is . . . a. teaching b. learning c. training d. instruction

4. .ccording to @unan humanistic approach to language teaching has a belief in the primacy of . . . #ithin the learning process. a. rote learning b. affective M emotional factors c. meaningful learning d. drills

0. +onstructivism has the premise that by reflecting on our experiences #e construct our o#n understanding of the #orld #e live in. !hus "no#ledge must be N a. constructed by the learner c. supplied by the teacher d. generated from the learner2s mind b. handed do#n from generation to generation

1?. 6ne2s potential development cannot be manifested if learning stops at ob&ect3regulation. It should be manifested by significant others in mediating learning such as the follo#ing ER+EP!N a. parents b. elders c. environment d. teachers

11. /hat follo#s are examples of ordinary $peech .ct ER+EP! . . . a. 9I bet you ten dollar if it is raining this afternoon: b. 9I #arn you not to disturb my sister: c. 9I #atched a *olly#ood movie last night: d. 9I command you to finish your paper:.

1(. $peech act usually contains verbs (bet #arn promise name etc.) #hich are called . . . verbs a. performative b. constative c. imperative 1< d. regular

11. !he students2 ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication is calledN competence. a. grammatical b. strategic c. sociolinguistic d. discourse

1<. !he students2 ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of linguistic varieties and to use language #ith the appropriate social meaning for the communication situation is calledN competence a. grammatical b. strategic c. sociolinguistic d. discourse

1>. +lassroom activities such as discussion groups lectures tape recorder cooperative learning etc. are li"ely most suitable for . . . learners. a. impulsive b. auditory c. visual d. "inesthetic

1;. Extrovert learners commonly have the follo#ing traits as follo#s ER+EP! . . . . a. #armth b. gregariousness c. assertiveness d. apprehensiveness

1C. $elin"er (10CC) tal"ed about cognitive strategies in second language learning ER+EP! a. language transfer b. strategies of second language learning c. transfer of training d. error fossilization

14. !he follo#ing features characterize an interlanguage (the language of second language learner) ER+EP! . . . a. systematicity b. permeability c. fossilization d. variability


10. $elin"er argues that interlanguage is resulted from the learner2s attempts to produce the target language construction. ,e mentions some learning processHstrategies ER+EP! . . . a. language transfer b. overgeneralization c. transfer of training d. fossilization

(?. 8any people die . . . because they are Soffers of the violence. ($#edish offer & victim) .t the time he #or"s in a Sfabric. ($#edish fabrick & factory'. I #ent every morning to Sspring. ($#edish spring & run'. !hese data are examples of . . . a. simplification errors b. transfer errors (1. Data' c. overgeneralization errors d. induced errors

/hat did he Sintended to sayK $he did not Swanted to learn English. I Sgoed shopping yesterday. !hese data are examples of . . .

a. simplification errors b. transfer errors

c. overgeneralization errors d. induced errors

((. In Error .nalysis )inguistic +ategory classifies error according to either or both the language component and the particular linguistic constituent that is affected by an error. )anguage components may include ER+EP! . . . a. omission b. syntax c. phonology d. morphology

(1. 7esearch procedure in error analysis basically consists of three ma&or stages' . . . a. elicitation description and explanation. b. description recognition and explanation c. identification description and explanation d. elicitation identification and description

(<. $urface strategy taxonomy highlights the #ays surface structure is altered5 in this taxonomy errors can be classified into the follo#ing terms ER+EP! . . . a. omission b. addition c. morphology d. misformation. 1;

(>. !he term transfer errors refer to errors #hich are . . . a. the direct result of misunderstanding caused by faulty teaching or materials. b. the result of the learners2 first language "no#ledge. c the result of the learners2 incomplete "no#ledge of the target language d. the result of the overgeneralization of the target language rules. BEQ
1. . (. D 1. D <. * >. D ;. + C. * 4. * 0. . 1?. + 11. . 1(. . 11.. 1<. + 1>. * 1;. D 1C. D 14. D 10. D (?. * (1. + ((. . (1. + (<. + (>. *

+hec" your ans#er #ith and score your right ans#er. Lse the formula belo# to find out your achievement level of this chapter in this module. )evel of achievement U !otal score 8eaning of level of achievement' 0? P 1??T U excellent 4? P 40T C? P C0T U good U fair $core of the right ans#er x 1??T

V C?T U bad


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Pedagogically 8otivated 8odel #ith +ontent $pecifications. In Issues in App ied (inguistics, ;H(' >31>. +homs"y @ .(10;>). Aspects of the "heory of $ynta%. +ambridge' 8I! Press.


+oelho Elizabeth. (100C). 9/igsaw* Integrating (anguage and +ontent:. In Bessler +arolyn (Ed) 10CC. +ooperative (anguage (earning. +orden 7. ((???). (iteracy and (earning through "a k* $trategies for the Primary + assroom. *uc"ingham' 6xford Lniversity Press. +order $. Pit. (104(). )rror Ana ysis and Inter anguage. )ondon' 6xford Lniversity Press. Depdi"nas. ((??>). Peraturan Pemerintah 7epubli" Indonesia @omor 10 !ahun (??> tentang $tandar @asional Pendidi"an. Fa"arta' Depdi"nas 7epubli" Indonesia. Ehrman 8. (1000). $econd (anguage (earning Difficu ties* (ooking beneath the $urface . !housand 6a"s. +.' $age. Ellis 7od. ((??<). -nderstanding $econd (anguage Acquisition. +ambridge' + L P. Fees $usan and ,elen Foyce. ((??(). !ext3based $yllabus Design. $ydney' 8ac%uarie LniversityH.8E$. ,olzer $iegfried. (100<). 0rom +onstructivism to Active (earning "he Innovator @o.( ,yland B. ((??(). Eenre in primary classrooms' !he @e# $outh /ales (@$/) B3; syllabus. In +. @. +andlin M D. 7. ,all (Eds.) !eaching and researching (pp. 0;31?1). ,arlo# Essex LB' )ongman. ,ymes D. (10C(). 96n +ommunicative +ompetence:. In F.*. Pride and F. ,olmes (Eds.) $ocio inguistics pp.(;0301. ,armonds#orth' Penguin. Fames +arl. (1004). )rrors in (anguage (earning and -se* )%p oring )rror Ana ysis. )ondon' )ongman. Bay ,. M Dudley3Evans !. (1004). 9Eenre' /hat !eachers !hin" WElectronic IersionX. )(" /ourna >(H<' 1?4311<.. )ong 8. ,. (100?). 9!he 7ole of the )inguistic Environment in $econd )anguage .c%uisition. In /.+. !itchie and !.B *athia (Eds) 1andbook of $econd (anguage Acquisition. @e# Qor"' .cademic Press. @unan David. (1001). (anguage "eaching 2ethodo ogy. @e# Qor"' Prentice ,all.



7. (100<). (anguage (earning $trategies* an -pdate. )ric + earinghouse on (anguages and (inguistics. /ashington D.+. (ED1C;C?C).

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