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WEAVING

Preparatory Section

a. b. i. 1. 2. Machine # 1

Warping

Brand schlafhorst (Germany) Creel Type- Sliding Arrangement- V-shape Stop motion- Electrical Total no.of packages that can be accommodated = 94 X 2 X 6 = 1128 (6 Packages/stand) Creel capacity = 45 X 2 X 6 = 540 Reserve capacity = 588 3. Head Stock Drum diameter = 0.6032 m ; Drum Length = 1.89 m Adjustable V-reed dent = 575 Type of winding motor- Servo Motor Maximum winding rate = 1200 m/min Maximum beam R.P.M. = = 955 (Empty beam diameter = 0.4 m) Drum pressure = 550 daN (for below 16S); 500 daN (for 16S) Space Occupied= 10.45m X 20.85 m

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Machine # 2

1. Brand BENNINGER (Switzerland) Model- CH-9240 UZIL (2004) 2. Creel Type- Sliding Arrangement- V-shape Stop motion- Electrical Total # of packages that can be accommodated = 108 X 2 X 5 = 1128 (5 Packages/stand) o Creel capacity = 52 X 2 X 5 = 520 o Reserve capacity = 550 3. Head stock Drum diameter = 0.5032 m ; Drum Length = 1.79 m Adjustable V-reed dent = 550 Type of winding motor- Servo Motor Maximum winding rate = 1200 m/min Maximum beam R.P.M. = = 955 (Empty beam diameter = 0.4 m) Drum pressure = 550 daN (for below 16S); 500 daN (for 16S) i. o o Features of warping machine

Better quality warp stop motion helps to wind yarn onto beam with minimum fault level. The servo motor in the head stock automatically adjust the beam R.P.M. with increasing the diameter to keep the winding rate constant according to the value set in the control panel. ii. Empty beam diameter = 42 cm Beam Flange diameter = 128 cm Beam barrel length = 180 cm Metal beam barrel is covered with fabric to reduce friction with yarn Maximum length of warp that was wound onto a warp beam = 32000m (for16s or 12s) & 21500m (for7S) Warp Beam

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Raw materials Brand beximco (Bangladesh) Yarn Count Weight/pack 50 Kg 50 Kg 50 Kg 49.5 Kg 49.5 Kg 50 Kg # of package/pack 18 Cheese 18 Cheese 24 Cheese 9 Cone 9 Cone 18 Cone

7S OE 9S OE 12S OE/ 16S OE Sinha(Bangladesh) 7 S delta (Bangladesh) 7 OE 9 S OE Jamuna 9 S OE (Bangladesh)

Brand Sinha Jamuna Square Techno a. DYEING & SIZING

Yarn Count 7S OE OE [7 S, 9 S, 10 S] 16S Slub 7S OE

Origin Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Pakistan

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Machine-1:

1. Brand- master(italy) 2. Specification No. of Dye bath-4 Intermediate creel- 1 . Space occupied- 12m X 15.4 m (Creel) 3. Warp wise stripe in the fabric can be produced by using the intermediate creel. According to the design, cone with different color of yarn is placed to the intermediate creel and passed through the sizing bath with the warp sheet that has dyed in the dye bath of the machine. Thus the warp wise stripe in the fabric can be produced.

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For producing stripe there is a creel available in between sizing bath and after dyeing dryer cylinder. The available creel capacity = 22 X 2X 8

PROCESS FLOW CHARTii. Shades that are produced by Bengal Denim 1. Regular (Indigo Blue) 2. 3. Blue-Black (Topping Process) Black Dyeing Flow chart for Regular shade (Blue) Dyeing Flow chart for 4 gm/liter shade (Dark Indigo)- [Bottoming Dying flow chart for Blue-Black shade [Topping Process]Dyeing Flow chart for Black shade-

Pre-wetting Process Washing & preparing the yarn for Dye Absorption is pre-wetting process 1. Recipe-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Alkali [Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)] = 5 gm/L Tencide = 4 gm/L Water = 1800 Ltr ( Temperature = 70c Bath pH = 11-12 Rinsing Ratio = 1.6 Ltr/Kg Water Wash Process Only water is used in the bath Bath capacity- 700 Temperature = Room Temperature [for Blue-Black 50c]

1. 2. a.

Dyeing with vat (indigo) dye Shade For Regular & 4 gm/L always 2% shade of vat dye is used For Blue-Black always 1.5% shade of vat dye is used RecipeDyeN0.of dye Yarn count Shade (%) Amount of Indigo (gm/L) bath (Ne) 6 4 6 4 7s,12s 7s, 9s, 16s 16s 2 2 2 2 2.7 4.1 1.9 2.8

b. c. d. e. f. g.

Water (per bath) = 450 Ltr Reducing agent [Na2S2O4 (Hydrose)] = 1.5 gm/L Temperature = Room Temperature Bath pH = 11.8-12 Caustic soda= Amount to maintain pH 11.8-12 Squeezing Pressure in dye baths is 6 bar

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pre-dyeing process RecipeAlkali [Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)] = 5 gm/L Tencide = 4 gm/L Dye (Sulphur Black) = 1.5 gm/L Reducing agent (Glucose) = 10 gm/L Water = 1650 ltr Temperature = 80c pH = 11-12

Dyeing with Sulphur (Black) dye Shade q For Blue-Black always 1.7% shade of sulphur dye is used q For Black always 3.2% shade of sulphur dye is used Recipe-

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Dye For 1.7% shade 20 gm/L dye For 3.2% shade 40 gm/L Water = 515 Ltr Temperature = 80c pH = 12.5 Mercerization Process Alkali [Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)] = 120 gm/L [400 Ltr of NaOH solution] Tencide = 4 gm/L Water = 1250 Ltr (capacity 1850 Ltr : machine#1) Temperature = Room Temperature pH = 12+

1. Important section of Denim Line Headstock Unit at which the weavers bean is mounted is called headstock. Headstock contains servo motor which reduces the beam R.P.M. to keep the winding rate constant according the value set in the control panel. Beam creel section 1. Type- Sliding creel 2. Arrangement- Two creels are placed parallel to each others. 3. Creel capacity- 12 warp beams can be placed in each creel. 4. Electronic motor is available to slide the creel as well as mount the beams. 5. During doffing new set of warp beam, linking with previous set of warp is done by using a thermoplastic paper in between 2 warp sheets at a pressure of 6 bar & 220c temp. o Dye Range There are 2 chambers in every dye bath. Nitrogen supply is available in one of these two chambers to remove oxygen that may react with hydrose and produce NaHSO3. o Thus alkalinity of the bath will also increase. As a result the reducing power of the hydrose will be reduced, which results in the precipitation of leuco compound in the bath.

Squeezing pressure in all dye baths is kept 5.5 bar and for the last dye bath it is 6. While passing the linked warp sheets through the bath the pressure is reduced to around 2 bar. Sizing unit: 1. Sizing unit contains two sets of squeeze roller which controls the stretch % of the yarn by varying speed of feed and delivery squeeze roller. The top squeeze roller is rubber coated and the bottom roller is made of stainless steel. The pressure of the squeeze roller is set depending on the pickup % required.

Accumulators o Each set of accumulators can accumulate certain amount of Warp yarn to reduce wastage of warp yarn as it is the continuous process. o There are three set of accumulators in the machine o Accumulator #1- After the creel o Accumulator #2- After the dyeing unit o Accumulator #3- Before the leasing unit Drying unit q Before the size bath (8 cylinders) q After the size bath (12 cylinders) Tanks available with dyeing machine Preparation Tank (K-905): Liquid color (Both sulphur black & vat (indigo) is prepared in this tank. After using it for one dye the tank is cleaned properly. Preparation recipes are as followsMaterial Amount for Vat Amount for Sulphur (Indigo) Black Dye 90 Kg (90gm/L) 120 gm/L Water Caustic Soda 600Ltr 96 Ltr 834 Ltr 40 gm/L

Reducing Agent primasol(antifoaming)

Similar amount of Indigo(Hydrose) 4 gm/L

20 gm/L (Glucose) 1 gm/L

Storage tank [K-915(for Indigo); K-920 (for Black): After preparation the dye liquor is pumped to the storage tank from the preparation tank. Indigo dye liquor is moved into the ultrasonic reactor. In this reactor the macromolecules of Indigo are broken & these broken molecules are stored into ultrasonic tube (storage tube). Then by indigo dosing pump it is pumped to mixing tank. o Mixing tank [D-450(for Indigo); D-455(Black)]: All tanks are connected to mixing tank. Gericke (funnel like vessel) delivers reducing agent (Hydrose) at a constant rate into the mixing tank. Reducing agent & more caustic soda is mixed in this tank to control pH. All dye baths are connected to mixing tanks. Continuously liquor is circulated between dye baths and mixing tanks.

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i. Lab Instruments UseDetermination of sodium Hydro sulphite Determination of Indigo Determination of alkali (NaOH) in dye bath Determination of alkali (NaOH) in pre-wetting (mercerizing) bath The 3 electrodes areReference electrode- measure pH Platinum Electrode Glass electrode Titrant for NaOH: c(HCL) 0.1 mol/L Titrant for hydrosulphite and leuco indigo: K3Fe(CN)6 c= 0.1 mol/L Nitrogen from pressuring flask.

ii. Sizing Ingredients used in the size cooking tank areStarch (appale) Emsize (Below 80% solidity) CMS -60 (Above 90% solidity) [Highly modified starch] E20 (Below 90% solidity)

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Binder-Texsize (25%-30% solidity) [Acrylic binder] Softening agent -Wax 1. Capacity of cooking tank- 500 Ltr 2. Size paste waste- 140 Ltr 3. Cooking Temperature- 90-96c 4. Cooking time- 25-60 min 5. Pick-up- 6-12% (Higher pickup% for finer count so that lower squeezing pressure) 6. Cylinder temperature- 100-120c 7. Squeezing pressure- (by top roller) 8. Delivery squeeze pressure- 20-25 KN Lowest 12-17 KN Highest- 15-20 KN At 20 m/min speed squeezing pressure- 17 KN 9. Feed squeeze pressure- 8-15 KN 10. Stretch- 1.5-2.5% 11. Refracto reading- 6% - 14% 12. Viscosity- 12-30sec 13. Sizing Temperature- 85-94c 14. 20% moisture in the yarn is required after sizing 15. Pressure of pressure roller on weavers beam For 7S , 2700 N For 12S, 2400-2500 N

Example of size chemicals consumptionWarp count Water (Ltr) 510 510 510 510 510 Emsize E5 (Kg) 50/25 50 37.5 50 50 Texsize (Kg) 12/8 14 14 10 15 Wax (Kg) 3/3 3 3 3 3 CMS-60 Cooking (Kg) time (min) 2/12.5 45 2 45 25 45 2 2 45 45

9 M Slub 7 OE 9 Rsl+9 OE (4:8) 7+12 (4:8) 7+9+12 (4:2:6)

Weaving section:

Machine type- Projectile (sulzer textile model p7300pH) o Section details No. of weaving machines = 25 Machine Brand: Sulzer Ruti Model: P-7200 Machine width: B-360 Country of origin: Switzerland Machine R.P.M. 450 (maximum); 350-400 (generally used) Number of Projectile in a cycle- 18 Reed width = 68X2 Selvedge type-Tuck-in Heald frame capacity- 10 Available reed- 33S, 44S, 47S Stockport Motions: Primary motionsi. Shedding mechanism- Cam shedding ii. Picking mechanism- Projectile picking iii. Beat up mechanism- Cam beat-up Secondary motionsTake-up mechanism- Mechanical (7 wheel) Let off mechanism- electrical Tertiary motionsTemple motion

Production Calculation for Projectile loom For exampleAccording to the control panel displayP.P.I. = 42

No. of picks inserted in B shift- 2: 028826 No. of picks inserted in A shift- 1: 028716 In the display 1 unit of pick Then the production of B shift (8 hr.)= 183 m

Benefits of using Projectile loom Better fabric quality Low machine parts consumption Weft breakage in minimum compared to the air-jet loom

Machine type- Rapier o Section details No. of weaving machines: 40 Machine Brand: kingtex Model: P401s Country of origin: italy Machine R.P.M. 350 Guide available for rapier passage Heald frame capacity- 12

o Motions Primary motionsShedding mechanism - Electronic Dobby Picking mechanism Rapier Picking Beat up mechanism Cam beat-up Secondary motionsTake-up motion- Electronic) Let off motion- Electronic Tertiary motionsTemple motion Main motor drivesShedding

Rapier Sley

Different types of Denim fabrics produced by bengal Denims Style # Specification Color Total GSM GREY (Grey) ends WIDTH 6500-01 16X16 4GPL 220.5 64.7 71X44 8000BB100 16X(12SL+12OE) BB 271.4 65 71X51 8000BB130 9,12,16X(16L40) BB 4596 271.4 61.4 TI 71X41 1000-01 10X10 REG 4812 339.3 71X38 Commercial class of Denim fabric Commercial class Ring denim Regular/plain denim Slub denim Cross slub/ Cross hatch denim Chambray denim Stretch denim Description Ring yarn warp Both warp & weft yarn are either ring/OE but no slub Warp yarn slub, weft yarn ring/OE Both warp & weft yarn slub 1 up 1 down plain weave Spandex on weft 7, 9SL, 12S X 16L40 71X 41 Example 16X16 71X44 7,9,12X7 66X39 9SLX9 66X48 9SLX9SL 66X36

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Weft yarn a. Generally used counts(6S,7S, 8S, 9S, 10S, 12S, 14S, 16S, 20S, 30S ) OE 12 OE & Textured polyester 16L40 (40 Den Lycra Coated with 16S Cotton)

6.1.
6.1.1.

Process Flowchart
Machine
Machine details

Brand- Rimer (Italy) Model- FLEXA-D Singeing unit Brand- Senge (Germany) Model-U97/1 Padder pressure (Air Pressure)7000 Kg (for stretch denim) 2000 Kg (except stretch denim) Sanforizing unit manufacturer- yanchang (china) General output speed- 50 m/min. Used chemical- Softener Mixing tank contains 1200 Ltr of softener solution which requires 20 kg softener for 1200 Ltr.

6.2. Finishing stages6.2.1. Singeing is required for regular cotton & stretch denim finishing. Polyester in weft fabric is not singed. 6.2.2. Application of softener in chemical box 6.2.3. After wash of the garments left hand twill skews in left hand side and for the right hand twill it is in right hand direction. So this amount of skews is given during finishing so that the twill line can not distort at garments stage. In general for left hand twill skew setting in the machine is negative. For the right hand twill it is positive & in case of low weight it is kept negative. For 2/1 twill 6-8 cm skew is required where for 3/1 twill it is 12-14 cm. For broken twill, herringbone, cord, chambray, canvas fabrics skew is 0.

6.2.4. First set of dryers dry the fabric and the second set controls the moisture in the fabric. It is a practice that the fabric is fed into the sanforizing unit with the moisture% same to its oz/yd2. e.g., for 12.5 oz/yd2 , the moisture% is 12.5%. From the rubber belt approximately 3% moisture is gained by the fabric. So after drying from second dryer stack the moisture requirement percentage is 9.5%. The required amount is set in the control panel and necessary amount of steam supply controls it. Dryer cylinder temperature range is 110c-160c. 6.2.5. From the rubber belt unit sanforizing unit starts. Fabric input speed is higher than the delivery speed in this unit. Fabric shrinkage is controlled in this unit thus it controls the finished P.P.I. requirement. Steam temperature inside the drum is 140c. For normal fabric (03%) shrinkage is normal whereas for stretch denim it is within 15%. So for stretch denim finish to reduce the shrinkage % the fabric is finished twice. 6.2.6. Palmer is a large dia cylinder whose function is something like heat setting. To fix the fabric width and skew this unit is used. 6.2.7. Cooling roller cools the fabric by using cold water inside it. 6.2.8. After finish fabric requirement for heavy fabric Width- 62-63 inch Shrinkage 13-14% Skew- 13-14 cm 6.2.9. After finish fabric requirement for stretch fabric & other qualities Width- 59-61 inch Shrinkage 13-14% Skew 6-9 cm G.S.M. Record Style Loom Grey Pick Finished Finished Pick Width (") 1100-88 M5 39 45 61.8 1050BB80 N1 44 51 61.7 1200-80 D7 48 55 62 1200-80 C3 48 55 62 8000-01 B1 40 47 62 1375-01 F2 39 46 62.5 1375-01 F5 40 46 63

G.S.M. 371 349 405 400 273 479 475

Section summary o o o Inspection method- 4 point system Inspection machine brand: chee yank Ltd.Co (Taiwan) No. of machine- 5 INSPECTION DEFECTS & THEIR CODES DEFECT SLUB COARSER WEFT FLUFF YARN COARSER WARP Bad piecing Slubby Weft OILY WARP OILY WEFT Shade variation Stains Stop Mark Selvedge to selvedge shade variation Slack end ]LOOSE WARP TIGHT END Size spot CODE # 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 201 202 203 204 221 224 225 227 SIZING FAULT FAULT

YARN FAULT

DYEING DEFECT

BROKEN PICK THICK PLACE DOUBLE PICK TEMPLE MARK FLOATING END DOUBLE END REED MARK SMASH WRONG DRAWN MISSING PICK STARTING MARK SNARLS KNOT CREASES HOLE MACHINE STOP

301 302 305 307 309 311 314 315 317 322 323 325 326 403 405 408

WEAVING FAULT

FINISHING FAULT

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Section & process summary Machine brand- katla (India) Model- E5x Liquor capacity of the machine- 600 Ltr To check after wash shrinkage of the garments only desizing of the fabric is carried out. Blue-Black & Black samples require stone enzyme wash as if it is bleached the color becomes white. A Hydro-extractor & a dryer are available to use after the process. Wash recipe Style # 1050-BB-80 Fabric quantity- 3 yards Wash Chemical Amount Time Temperature (c) 2. Anti-stain 2. 90 gm Desizing3. Water 10 min 60 3. 55 Ltr Enzyme Enzyme (bi-polish) Wash 3. Acetic acid 4. Water 2. 2. 3. 4. 140 gm 35 min 45 gm 40 Ltr 45

Research & Development New sample development or buyers sample reproduction

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Costing Elements of costing of fabric Total yarn cost/yard (warp cost/yard + weft cost/yard) Chemical cost/yard Overhead cost (cost of Gas, water, employee wages) Utility cost & electricity cost of REB Profit UTILITY Electrical Load total Connecting Load of bengal Denims Ltd. (Approximate) Unit/Machine Load (KW) No. of Total load machine (KW) Warping-1 & 2 35 2 60 Dyeing-1 190 1 180 Dyeing-2 120 1 120 Weaving machine (Air5.7 84 462 jet) Weaving machine 8 20 140 (Projectile) Weaving machine 6 36 180 (Rapier) Finishing-1 70 1 80 Finishing-2 130 1 120 Inspection machine 3 11 33 Mercerizing machine 90 1 100 Stenter machine 70 1 80 Humidification plant-1 80 1 80 Humidification plant-2 80 1 80 Humidification plant-3 200 1 200 Chillar-1 35 1 35 Chillar-2 35 1 35

Chillar-3 Utility Lighting Compressor Air dryer TOTAL GENERATOR o o o

70 100 200 160 20

70 100 200 800 20 3145 Kw

No. of generator- 5 Brand name- GUASCOR (Spain) Gas Generator specification15psi Gas input Generator cooling system- water cooled Carburetor (Air & Gas mixture) Combustion chamber (spark ignition) Fly wheel (liner motion is converted to rotary motion) Alternator (AC to DC) Capacity 520 kW (each)

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BOILER No. of boiler- 2 Type- Fire tube (Locomotive) Brand- Omnical (Germany) Model- DDHI 10.0-10 Maximum heat capacity- 6.6 MW Water content up to NW (net weight) 15.45 m3 Maximum steam output- 10 Ton/hr Maximum working pressure gauge- 10 bar Maximum temperature- 188C Softening of water is required which is done by using cationic resin. COMPRESSOR No. of compressor- 6 (for weaving section) Brand- Naina (Germany) Model- ESD 301 No. of dryer- 2 only

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o Maximum working pressure- 7 bar o Compressor type- Screw type o Another compressor is available for dyeing machine. o Brand- Atlascopco (Belgium) o Model: GA 22 o Maximum working pressure- 13 bar o Free air delivery-48 Ltr/sec o Air compression process 1. Ambient air 2. Air filter 3. Inlet valve 4. Screw 5. Oil separator 6. Output 7. Cooler 8. Capsule 9. Dryer (to remove moisture) WORKSHOP Available machines & tools Lathe machine (2 Nos.) Grinding machine Drill machine Arc welding Bid Milling machine Shaper Gas welding

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Waste Disposal System [Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) 11.1. Treatment flowchart

At the treated water tank BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) value is 300 mg/L where the theoretical required value is 100. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) value is 500 mg/L where the theoretical required value is 400. TDS (Total Dissolved Solute) value is 2100 mg/L where the theoretical required value is 400. TSS (Total Suspended Solids) value is 200-400 mg/L where the theoretical required value is 200. The sludge is removed to another tank. Finally the dry sludge is removed from the industry by using truck. As it is very harmful it should be buried under soil. COMMERCIAL Order handling After finalizing an order from marketing Commercial department send the PI (Performa invoice) to the party. PI includes ID & address of seller & buyer Name of commodity & specification Unit price ($/yd), quantity, total amount & FOB/C & F Packing (e.g., standard export packing) Loading port Time of shipment Mode of payment Advising bank Validity of PI (e.g., 14 days from the date of issue) Partial shipment (allowed/not allowed) Remarks (e.g., Tolerance 5% more or less in weight for each color) Payment (e.g., payment will be made by US$)

Signature of buyers & sellers o The PI is then sent to buyers bank & request for a LC o After opening the LC, buyers bank sends the LC to the advising bank (rupali bank for Bengal Denim) o Then sellers bank sends a bank forwarding letter to SHASHA Denim. o After receiving the bank forwarding commercial department of bengal denim send shipping document to the buyer. Shipping document includes Commercial invoice Packing list Undertaking & request for issuing export permit to BEPZA Bill of exchange o After signing the shipping document by buyer, they send it to their bank & bank endorses these documents. o In some case, if this process is not done by the buyer then after production Bengal Denim may claim to their bank with the LC. Then bank claims to buyers bank & buyers bank creates a forced loan against the buyer & pays the amount to Bengal denim. o After completion of delivery shipping documents along with some bank documents is sent to the bank. The bank sends these documents to buyers bank and they pay the amount.
costing Costing is a very complex procedure, with set patterns and guidelines followed by the industry, and it is difficult to find out costs for every process as there are some inbuilt costs while costing.

11.1.1 Amount of raw material or GSM of the fabric:


Amount of raw material is reflected by the weight or GSM (grams/sq m) of the fabric. GSM is directly dependent on the EPI and PPI or construction of the fabric and is inversely proportional to the count of the yarn. Relation between GSM and cost is a little complex. For the same variety of the fabric, as the GSM increases the cost increases. But when the yarn becomes very fine and there is a variation in picks per inch in the fabric, then the cost of spinning and weaving plays a more important role than the GSM and even when the GSM is similar, the cost of voile fabric with finer yarns and more picks per inch is more. Weight of the fabric is the weight of warp and weft which can be calculated by the formula below: Weight of warp in grams/sq m of fabric = (EPI x 0.6) / Count of Warp = A Weight of weft in grams/sq m of fabric = (PPI x 0.6) / Count of Weft = B GSM = A+B

11.1.2 Sizing and Chemicals Cost:

The sizing cost depends upon the count of the yarns. The count becomes finer the size and chemical cost increases as a rich solution, better quality of size and chemicals is required for better strength. One needs to add Rs 35/kg as additional cost which includes steam, power or wages. For two plied yarn no sizing is required.

11.1.3 Production cost or cost of weaving process:


It includes machine running cost, maintenance, labour cost, power & fuel, etc. The weaving cost is affected by the beam size -- if the beam is small in length, the cost will be more as beam gaiting and knotting will add to the cost.

Mill-made or power-loom made:


The quality of mill-made fabrics is better than power loom made fabrics in terms of yarn quality; therefore the cost of fabric is higher. At times it can be as high as 25%. eg, the cost of 40s Poplin 92 x 88 can vary between Rs 22/m and Rs 34/m. It depends on the type of loom whether power-loom, rapier, air-jet, dobby or jacquard and the weave and construction. The weaving cost is expressed as paisa /pick/inch/sq m. The cost of weaving is different for different weaves. The cost of weaving for rapier loom for plain weave 40" width fabrics = 8 paisa/pick/inch/sq nm which means that for a 120 inch width fabric the cost will be 24 paisa/pick/m. For twill weave, the cost = 12 paisa/pick/inch/sq m. For satin weave, the cost = 12 paisa/pick/inch/sq m. In case of P/V suiting, the cost ranges from 14 paisa/pick to 20 paisa/pick. For 1,000 m beam with dobby, the weaving cost is 17 paisa/pick and for 1,000 m beam with jacquard is 20 paisa/pick. For dobby, the cost = 12 paisa/pick/inch/sq m. For 2400 hook jacquard the cost = 40 paisa/pick/inch/sq m. For double beam fabrics like seer sucker, the cost is = 20 paisa/pick/inch/sq m.

Costing of the product:


Costing system mainly describe how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company / top managements. As it is a garments manufacturing factory, so according to the buyer / customer requirements of final garments, merchandiser give the consumption of fabric with specifications. Then it is calculated how much dyestuffs & chemicals are required for processing. After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for their approval.

11.2 Costing of a product includes:


Yarn cost Warping cost chemicals cost Sizing cost Cost of Weaving Cost equipments & accessories etc Transportation cost Labor cost (direct & indirect) Factory cost Office & administrative cost Sales and caring cost Others cost

Profit, etc. Remarks: The costing of the product is most secret matter of the Industry. They are not interested to flash the cost related data. So we could not collect the Costing process of the products

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