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ESL 4 Week 1

Chapters 1-4 Paper

April Gallagher

This is a 3-4 page paper, double spaced, 1 poi!t "o!t, Arial or Ti#es $e% &o#a!' Each o" sectio!s a-d is %orth 1( poi!ts each a!d the paper is %orth 1( poi!ts "or %ell-%ritte!, so proo" read a!d check )our o%! gra##ar a!d spelli!g as )ou %rite si!ce )ou %ill !eed to #odel it "or )our ELLs' This totals *( poi!ts "or this paper' +our paper %ill co,er 4 co!ceptsa' .de!ti") a!d su##ari/e ke) co!cepts o" la!guage de,elop#e!t "ro# a ,ariet) o" "ields such as de,elop#e!tal ps)cholog), sociolog), a!thropolog), educatio! a!d li!guistics' b' .de!ti") characteristics o" Ge!erati,e Gra##ar a!d describe ho% sur"ace structures #a) ha,e di""ere!t #ea!i!gs "or ELLs tr)i!g to lear! E!glish through sa#ple se!te!ces the) e0a#i!e a!d the! co!trast the#sel,es' c' .de!ti") e0a#ples o" a child1s speech errors a!d tell %hether the) are e0a#ples o" rule o,er-ge!erali/atio!' d' E0plai! ho% "irst la!guage lear!i!g a!d culture ca! i!ter"ere %ith a child1s seco!d la!guage ac2uisitio!'

a. Key concepts of language development

Developmental psychologists "ocus o! %hether lear!i!g a la!guage is the sa#e "or a child as lear!i!g ph)sical tasks like t)i!g shoe laces or buildi!g %ith blocks' &esearchers i! this "ield ha,e disco,ered so#e i!teresti!g thi!gs regardi!g childre!1s la!guage de,elop#e!t' .! o!e stud) "or e0a#ple, the) tracked the progress o" a !u#ber o" childre!, a!d al#ost u!i,ersall) the) "ollo%ed the sa#e path3 #o,i!g "ro# bab)ish babbli!g to o!e-%ord e0pressio!s, the! progressi!g to t%o-%ord phrases a!d co#plete thoughts' .t is also !ote%orth) that a child1s "irst atte#pts at co##u!icatio! te!d to be thi!gs o" i!here!t i!terest to that child, a!d are t)picall) actio!s or ob4ects' The) begi! %ith the #ost esse!tial parts o" speech, !ou!s a!d ,erbs, a!d graduall) build up to the other parts o" speech' .!itiall) the child is usi!g the co##u!icatio! to get so#ethi!g that is desired, but o,er ti#e co##u!icatio! beco#es a co!!ectio! to the %orld arou!d hi#' The #oti,atio! to co##u!icate cha!ges as the child1s abilities ad,a!ce' Also o" i!terest is the 5a,ala!che6 o" progress that occurs %he! a child is so#e%here bet%ee! the late t%o1s to #id three1s' 7lue!c) blosso#s so 2uickl) that it is al#ost a challe!ge "or researchers to stud) it' Still, the hall#ark o" #a!) de,elop#e!tal

ps)chologists1 ,ie% is that 5ge!eral cog!iti,e processes6 are the dri,i!g "orce o" ho% childre! lear! a la!guage'

Sociologists a!d anthropologists "ocus o! the social !ature o" la!guage de,elop#e!t i! childre!' The) assert that because la!guage is esse!tial "or social i!teractio!, the #oti,atio! to lear! is !ot so#e i!!ate cog!iti,e process, but rather because co##u!icatio! is ,ital "or e0isti!g i! our societ)' These researchers suggest that it is #ore ,aluable to e!courage a!d support a )ou!gster1s co##u!icatio! tha! it is to "ocus o! the accurac) o" %hat the child is sa)i!g' Per#itti!g kids to tr) out di""ere!t %ords or phrases i! a ,ariet) o" social situatio!s, %ithout "ear o" bei!g 4udged, is a! i#porta!t co#po!e!t to this ,ie%'

E0perts i! the "ields o" education a!d lingustics pre"er to a!al)/e %hat childre! ac2uire, i!stead o" looki!g at ho% the) do it' Li!guists like $oa# Cho#sk) ha,e docu#e!ted the sets o" rules that go,er! la!guage, asserti!g that those rules are "i!ite a!d relati,el) s#all, or else %e %ould !e,er be able to lear! a!d re#e#ber the#' 8e also belie,es that b) the ti#e childre! e!ter their "or#al educatio!, the) ha,e alread) #astered the #a4orit) o" these la!guage "eatures' 7ro# that poi!t "or%ard the) are si#pl) "i!e-tu!i!g %hat the)1,e alread) lear!ed, a!d co!ti!ui!g to add ,ocabular)' .!teresti!gl) e!ough, li!guists ha,e !oted that this earl) lear!i!g happe!s b) ha,i!g gra##ar rules co!siste!tl) #odeled duri!g their "irst )ears' 9!like teachi!g a child to tie his shoes, %hich ca! take #eticulous i!structio!, adults do !ot ge!erall) sit a )ou!g child do%! to pro,ide detailed la!guage i!structio!s' The child lear!s b) obser,i!g, #odeli!g, a!d lear!i!g "ro# #istakes #ade' This is the basis "or the li!guistic ,ie% o" la!guage de,elop#e!t a!d ac2uisitio!'

b. Generative Grammar

Generative Grammar is a theor) de,eloped b) Cho#sk)' .! this theor), he tries to sho% the relati,el) s#all set o" rules that ca! be used to ge!erate a!) se!te!ce i! a la!guage' 8e e0te!ded this "urther to i!clude a #ore co#ple0 #odel that co,ers both sur"ace structure a!d deep structure' Surface structure is %hat %e sa) or %hat %e %rite do%!' Deep structure is the ideas that %e ha,e a!d the thi!gs that %e #ea!' 8is #oti,atio! "or creati!g this theor) is the belie" that #uch o" la!guage is i!here!tl) a#biguous' 7or e0a#ple, %he! )ou tell so#eo!e to 5take a hike6 )ou1re !ot reall) suggesti!g that the) put o! hiki!g books a!d take a trek i!to the %oods' +ou 4ust %a!t the# to go a!)%here that )ou are !ot: To a! ELL, se!te!ces a!d phrases like this are co!"usi!g a!d "rustrati!g' This "rustratio! also ste#s "ro# a la!guage1s te!de!c) to ha,e #ultiple #ea!i!gs "or a si!gle %ord' 5Put o! )our glasses6 to a! ELL i! the E!teri!g stage #a) lead hi# to look at the glasses o" %ater sitti!g o! the table i! "ro!t o" hi# %o!deri!g ho% to put the# o!' .t beco#es, the!, a ,aluable skill "or a! ELL to be able to co!trast the #ea!i!gs o" i!di,idual %ords i! E!glish, a!d use co!te0t to deter#i!e appropriate co!!otatio!'

c. Errors and Rule Overgeneralization

La!guage errors i! childre! te!d to be as a result o" a! overgeneralization o" a la!guage1s set o" rules' .! other %ords, childre! %ill appl) a co##o! rule to e,er) si#ilar gra##ar situatio! the) e!cou!ter, %ithout co!sideri!g that la!guages usuall) ha,e e0ceptio!s' 7or e0a#ple, a child #a) ha,e picked up o! the "act that i" the) are talki!g about so#ethi!g that alread) happe!ed, the) add the e!di!g ed to the e!d o" the %ord- I walk today, but I walked yesterday. 8o%e,er, o,erge!erali/i!g this 5rule6 results i! i!teresti!g gra##ar #istakes- I give cookies to my friends every day. I gived cookies to my friends yesterday. The %ord 5ga,e6 does !ot "it i! %ith the logical patter!, thus a child1s brai! %ould !ot auto#aticall) substitute it "or 5gi,ed6 %hich is !ot a %ord but

%hich "ollo%s the ge!eral rule' ;ther co##o! errors i!clude issues %ith breaki!g up spoke! se!te!ces i!to their s#aller %ord parts a!d #istakes %ith co#ple0 use o" au0iliar) ,erbs'

d. Interferences

ith second language learning

Accordi!g to Schu#a!! <1=>?@, ELLs #ust o,erco#e a 5social dista!ce6 duri!g their 2uest to ac2uire a seco!d la!guage' This co!cept re"ers to the dista!ce bet%ee! a 5stude!t a!d #e#bers o" the #ai!strea# societ)6 <p' 4(@' There are #a!) "actors that pla) a role i! this phe!o#e!o!'

7irst, i" the #i!orit) group is close-k!it or large e!ough i! si/e to be sel"-su""icie!t, the i!tegratio! bet%ee! the t%o cultures %ill be li#ited' So#e co##u!ities ha,e their o%! grocer) stores, local ha!g-outs, a!d other busi!esses that cater to their !eeds a!d are re"lecti,e o" their culture' Thus, the !eed "or relia!ce o! the #a4orit) is greatl) reduced' The #oti,atio! to shorte! the 5social dista!ce6 bet%ee! the cultures is si#pl) !ot there' ;,er ti#e, ho%e,er, this gap te!ds to graduall) close' This is likel) as a result o" ge!eratio!s bei!g bor! i! the prese!ce o" the #a4orit), !ot because o" assi#ilatio!' The !e%er ge!eratio!s begi! to ble!d the t%o cultures as ti#e passes' Also, it is a huge positi,e i" a! ELL has a "a#il) or co##u!it) that is supporti,e a!d e!couragi!g o" the ac2uisitio! o" the !e% la!guage'

A seco!d "actor i!,ol,es the attitudes a!d perceptio!s that the #a4orit) group holds about the #i!orit) group' Aespite bei!g 5i!tellige!t a!d capable6, so#e ELLs "ell as though their peers a!d e,e! their teachers ,ie% the# as bei!g slo%' The) are o"te! percei,ed as bei!g %eirdl) 5other6' These "alse opi!io!s ca! seriousl) hi!der a! ELL1s cha!ce "or acade#ic success "or purel) ps)chological reaso!s that ha,e !othi!g to do %ith abilit)'

A!other "actor ca! be the outright culture shock o" bei!g thrust i!to a !e% societ) %ith social !or#s that are u!"a#iliar a!d stra!ge' 7or so#e childre!, the act o" adapti!g beha,ior is so dau!ti!g that the ,er) idea o" also ha,i!g to si#ulta!eousl) #aster the la!guage ca! be "righte!i!g a!d o,er%hel#i!g' The cultural sta!dards to %hich the) are accusto#ed are challe!ged a!d o"te! 4udged' The "ear a!d stress created b) this situatio! ca! i!ter"ere greatl) %ith ELL1s abilit) to be success"ul at lear!i!g the seco!d la!guage'

7i!all), a! ELL #a) !ot ha,e #uch #oti,atio! to bridge that 5social dista!ce6 i" he k!o%s that he %ill !ot bei!g residi!g i! that locatio! "or ,er) lo!g' The le!gth o" ti#e that a! i!di,idual %ill be spe!di!g i! the "oreig! cou!tr) pla)s a large role i! their desire to ac2uire the seco!d la!guage'