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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA (University of the City of Manila) Intramuros, Manila

FOLDING HOUSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY SHELTER FOR SUBSTANDARD BUNKHOUSES BUILT FOR THE TYPHOON YOLANDA VICTIMS

A research submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for English Proficiency Instruction 102 at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

Guevarra, Allana A. Samalea, Ma. Bianca O.

Mr. John Paulo Q. Herrera

21 March 2014

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study.....................3 1.2 Review of Related Literature ..4 1.3 Synthesis..8 1.4 Statement of the Problem ..10 1.5 Significance of the Study.......11

II.

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Procedure.......12 2.2 Scope of the Study 14 2.3 Analysis .15

III.

REFERENCES

List of References 17

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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

1.1 Background of the Study

The first time we heard about folding houses is when we were watching the news. Because the previous construction of bunk houses for the Yolanda victims in Tacloban was somehow a failure, creative architects had designed a fast, practical, flexible, reliable and convenient possible alternative shelters for the victims. We, as architect student, think this idea is brilliant. Folding houses would be helpful not only for Yolanda survivors, but also for future calamity victims. It is fast. Because the structure can be folded, a bigger quantity can be transported from one place to another. This will greatly save time and money. It is practical because the structure is easy to construct. It only requires minimal tools and a few laborers. It is flexible. Because the structure can be folded and mobile, it can be used in a lot of situations to shelter man. What made us conduct this research is the current condition of the evacuees in Tacloban after the super typhoon Yolanda. We are concern of what the government has given them, especially the emergency shelter. It can be seen clearly that the bunkhouses built for them has many faults. Its not an ideal shelter for the victims especially of their current condition provided that some of them are experiencing traumas. We suggest that instead of bunkhouses, it is much more appropriate, convenient and safe for the victims to live in the folding houses.

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1.2 Review of Related Literature

According to Martin and Anonas (2014), its called the F-House a fast-build, firm, and fold-away shelter that can be highly useful in times of emergency. He said that it can be assembled as quickly as a tent to house people during disasters, and can also serve as a depot for emergency supplies or distribution center for food, medicine and other supplies. Its very versatile, and it is locally available because it is made by Filipino experts. It is developed at the Department of Science and Technology - Forest Products Research and Development Institute (DOST-FPRDI), the F-House comes very handy in times of emergency. Like tents, the F-house can be folded, packed, stored and used repeatedly and unlike tents, however, the F-house has a floor that can be mounted on specially designed prefabricated footings. The height of the footings of the F-House can be adjusted when the terrain is not flat. With regard to security, the F-House can be well-secured just like the regular house. It also offers the same indoor comfort and amenity of a permanent house because its structural design allows it to be resistant to weathering, extreme temperatures, winds, and other harmful natural forces. The F-House is also stable during storms as tension cables tied to ground anchors secure the roof. The shelter can also be easily transported. It can be put in a rigid case and placed at the back of a trailer or in a low-bed truck, in case of multiple deliveries. When dismounted from the trailer or truck, the F-House can be wheeled to destined location through prefabricated footings previously positioned and leveled. The rigid case can be unfolded and erected into a house in just one hour or less. This can be easily done by four medium-built unskilled workers, using only simple carpenter's tools and gadgets. It is built to comfortably house a family of five. The prototype shelter can be very handy when not in use. It can be stored in a space approximately

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five times smaller than its actual service size. Because it is highly compact when not in use, several units can be stored in a small warehouse. The walls, floor, and roof are sheathed with cement board bonded (CBB) panels that are fixed and fastened using specially designed lightweight metal sections. According to CBB (2008, para. 1) FPRDI developed a panel product called cement-bonded board (CBB) from agro forest wastes and residues. CBB panel is made of either shredded wood, flakes/splinters/particles of wood or agricultural wastes and residues like sugarcane bagasse, coconut coir fiber, tobacco and corn stalks. It is bonded with ordinary Portland cement and some mineral additives and cold-pressed under low pressure and ambient temperature. CBB has been found to possess the essential physical properties adapted to the country's climate. The prototype F-House is already integrated with provisions for power supply. The cost of fabricating one prototype with double walls was PHP 75,000 or roughly PHP 6,500 per square meter. The cost can still be lowered when mass-produced or when the walls are singly sheathed. In contrast to site-built low-cost houses that typically takes three to four months to build from planning to construction, the F-House can be acquired and erected instantly. (Martin and Anonas, 2014) According to BBC (2013) Typhoon Haiyan, known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, was a powerful tropical cyclone that devastated portions of Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, on November 8, 2013. It is the deadliest Philippine typhoon on record, killing at least 6,201 people in that country alone. Haiyan is also the strongest storm recorded at landfall, and the strongest typhoon ever recorded in terms of wind speed. And as a result of this, many Filipinos were left with nothing shelters, livelihood, food, friends and families. Many of them stay in tents while thousands are staying in the Astrodome sports arena in Tacloban. However, even more than 2,000 families have built temporary shelters

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in the danger zones where they have lived before the typhoon hit (Presse, 2014). It is said that the need for durable shelter for millions of people whose homes were damaged or destroyed is critical. It destroyed or severely damaged 1.1 million houses, leaving more than four million people homeless (Dinglasa, 2014). United Nations, aided quickly, saying the Philippines needs 14 billion for the action plan. 2 billion will be provided for emergency shelters (Del Callar, 2013). Aid from foreign countries and international organizations continues to arrive, 13 days after typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) devastated the central Philippines. According to Lacuata and Diola (2014), the latest tally of the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Philippines have received a total of P19.9 billion in foreign aid; cash donations have reached P. 10 billion, while non-cash donations have reached P.9.9 billion. The government has planned to build bunkhouses for the victims, they have put up 122 houses before Christmas break and promised that all of 228 bunkhouses 50 in Tacloban, 50 in Palo, 46 in Ormoc, 31 in Samar, 55 in Eastern Samar - will be finished by the end of January. And as Dinglasa (2014) stated, many non-government officials supports the plans of the authorities to help the survivors build back better and safer so that the next massive storm doesnt bring back the devastation we, especially the Yolanda victims, experienced. However the bunkhouses built for Yolanda victims were substandard and undersized (Lozada, 2014). He said that the contractors looked at the price of the materials before its quality. They have used materials which are much worse than the materials used in the previous shelters of the victims, which of course was destroyed by the typhoon. According to Calonzo (2014) the bunkhouses in Tacloban City pose potential health risks. He said that if you look at the condition of the bunkhouses, they are surrounded by

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stagnant water. The condition is unsanitary. He added that the bunkhouses "look rather small" and can be considered as fire hazards. He said that the bunkhouse can be a fire hazard not only because of exposed wiring, but also because of the close proximity to each other. However Bacani (2014) stated that, the authorities defended the government against accusations that it did not follow international standards and is following their own standards in building the bunkhouses. Their concern is for the survivors safety and that they will not be placed in a cramped space. Contradicting to what Bacani said, Lozada (2014) stated, nowhere near those standards with each unit having only two small bedrooms, poor ventilation, and the materials used such as plywood are fire hazards and the units are indeed crowded. And La Via (2014) stated that every family has only a size of 8.64 square meters or roughly 1.72 square meters of space per person for a family with five members, clearly below the International standard for emergency shelters. Defending bunkhouses, Bacani (2014) said that these bunkhouses are just temporary shelters and assured that the bunkhouses were designed to be humane, saying larger families will not be made to live in a small unit. But Gagalac (2014) said that in that given size a family of five would hardly fit.

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1.3 Synthesis

The study focuses on introducing the folding houses and its features. It will give you a brief background on what has happened in Tacloban and the needs of the victims after the typhoon hit, the aid of foreign countries and the money gathered for the victims of the typhoon, the governments action plan which is the bunkhouses, the faults of the given emergency shelters. A new and innovative invention was presented by the Department of Science and Technology - Forest Products Research and Development Institute. It is the folding house which will be useful for calamity-hit areas. The folding house is called Collapsible Shelter or FHouse because it is a fast-build, firm and foldaway emergency shelter. It can be easily constructed and transferred from one place to another, and built with minimal tools and a few laborers. This structure offers the comfort and amenities of a permanent shelter because it was structurally designed to be resistant to weathering, extreme temperatures, wind and other harmful natural forces. Typhoon Yolanda hit the Philippines on November 8, 2013; it is the strongest and deadliest typhoon on the record rendering people of Leyte homeless. Foreign countries acted quickly to assist the Philippines giving pledges, in-kind donations and humanitarian assistance. The Philippines have collected 19.9 on 2013 given only by foreign countries and the United Nation said that the Philippines need at least 14 billion for the action plan and 2 billion is to be provided for the emergency shelters. Though the Congress passed a P14.6-billion supplemental budget towards relief and rehabilitation and international pledges have reached over P24.9 billion thus far, the government

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have done little to improve the situation in the provinces ravaged by Yolanda. And this slow pace of government rebuilding efforts has stirred anger among Yolanda survivors. The government gave the victims shelters, which are the bunkhouses but those were substandard and undersized. The Philippines gather not just enough, but much more money for the victims, but they are still receiving such poor efforts. Thinking that the houses given them used materials which are much worse than the materials used in the previous shelters of the victims, which of course was destroyed by the typhoon, we can conclude that those bunkhouses arent safe enough for the victims. Thinking of all the people who will live there that they know that what has happened to Yolanda can happen again to them by the poor quality of the bunkhouses. That is why we are suggesting an alternative emergency shelter, which is the folding houses, because we wanted the victims to live in a shelter that they know can last, a shelter that can withstand future calamities, we wanted them to be able to sleep at night peacefully not being scared that they might die in the house they are living in. We think that what has happened in Yolanda left them scared and unsure, we wanted to give them a appropriate and dependable shelter and we believe that folding houses are the best fit.

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1.4 Statement of the Problem

This research aims to answer the following questions about Folding Houses as a Replacement for Substandard Bunkhouses Built for the Typhoon Yolanda Victims: 1. 2. What can folding houses do to help the victims of typhoon Yolanda? Why should bunkhouses be replaced by folding houses?

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1.5 Significance of the Study

This research is made for the benefit of every victim of typhoon Yolanda, who is still suffering until now. One of the things that the super typhoon Yolanda took away from them is their house and sadly, until now the victims still suffer from their inadequate shelter. But with this research, they will know that folding houses exist and with this, they can live a better and much more convenient life. We know that calamities are inevitable, then we will always have victims whether we wish it or not. This research is also for the benefit of future victims that might also suffer from the same situation as the victims of typhoon Yolanda. Having this study, they will be prepared and much more aware of the unexpected situations cause by inevitable calamities. We made this research because the bunkhouse provided by the government for the victims lack many things to give a comfortable and proper shelter in case of emergency. It is very conspicuous that these bunkhouses are substandard and undersized. Victims will have a difficult time enduring in that kind of shelter. Aside from this, we also want to inform every citizen of this country about the current situation of our fellow men who are still suffering until now and we want to contribute in lessening the sufferings of the victims.

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY

2.1 Procedure

To answer the questions of our research, which are, what can folding houses do to help the victims of typhoon Yolanda and, why bunkhouses should be replaced by folding houses, we are going to use the evaluation research. Evaluation research is designed so that the findings will provide information useful in for decisions about public policy or private issues. We are very much concerned with the condition of the victims of the typhoon Yolanda, and also, for the future possible victims. Every time, we see in the news that they are not comfortable and are obviously suffering in the evacuation areas the government or the authority have provided them. This research is, by some means, can also be considered as a suggested solution to the government or other non-government organizations that are willing to help the victims. To do this method of research, first we determine whether or not this whole thing would be necessary. So we ask ourselves, are bunkhouses necessary? Evaluating the need for this study would include collecting data. In this case, a survey shall be sent to the victims who are still staying on evacuation centers until now or people who had experienced staying in one to know about their current and past experiences and situation. The questions on the survey sheet shall answer, or predict their vision of folding houses and what

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would be their situation if ever there will be some provided for all of them. Then we compare it to our previous findings, their situation without the folding houses. An important part of evaluation research is also assessing its economic efficiency. This involves a cost-benefit analysis. Financial costs of the project, such as materials, labor, etc. against benefits. Unfortunately, if a costly folding houses, building project would affect the victims minimally, then the project cannot justify a million peso budget. When considering economic efficiency, one can also consider the costs that are saved. Keep in mind that a project, such as folding houses building project could help the victims hugely.

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2.2 Scope of the Study

The chapter one of our research project will tell you how we came up with the idea to conduct a study about folding house. In summary, the reason why we came up with the idea is because we pity the typhoon victims. We thought of a way on how to extend our help. Also, in chapter one, the questions that we aim to answer through this research which are, what can folding houses do to help the victims of typhoon Yolanda and, why bunkhouses should be replaced by folding houses. The significance of the study was also included. As for the evaluative research, a survey shall be conducted. The answers, statistics, and the results shall also be indicated. These results will answer our main questions, which are aimed to suggest a possible solution for the betterment of the condition of typhoon victims. We shall conduct an evaluative research to answer these, and also to guarantee the help and effectiveness of folding houses to the victims. Since our research project aims to answer only two questions which are, provide information useful in for decisions about public policy or private issues, the results will only be based on those. Other issues like, how it is done or the costs of the certain project are not covered in our research project. However, we believe that this is a good topic to open since inadequate alternative shelters are being provided to the victims of typhoons, and folding houses will be more appropriate for them. That is also why, this topic deserves further and wider study.

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2.3 Analysis

As we have stated in the procedure part of the chapter, 2.1, we shall use the evaluative mode of research where we provide information useful in for decisions about public policy or private issues. In this method, we shall conduct a survey of the people who had experienced living in an evacuation area provided by the authority and the people who are experiencing it today. Why shall we choose them as the respondents for this topic? Because, they, of all people know the hardships and discomfort of living in an evacuation area where there is no proper or comfortable space. Some are even unsanitary. We could talk to pregnant women or disabled people on how it is for them being in the evacuation center, or parents on how is their familys situation. We could also talk to children. Ask them how do they feel? Can they sleep well at night? Well ask people how they eat. Do they like their situation? Because to provide a proper conclusion for this research project, we must also try to understand our respondents. We would like to introduce them a better shelter alternative that the government could provide, either by a focus group discussion or a talk, which is more comfortable and appropriate folding houses for each family. In here, they would have more privacy than in a basketball court, classrooms and the other usual places where the evacuation areas are located. In the survey sheet, there shall be questions, that the answers would describe the victims current or past situation and experiences during the times they stayed in an evacuation area that were provided by the government, and what they think their situation would be if there will be folding houses in evacuation areas.

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Then the situation they are in, in the current evacuation center, and their vision of their possible situation theyd be in if there are folding house, will be compared. And through this comparison, we shall see the changes they envision.

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References Bacani, L. (2014) Palace on bunkhouse mess: We don't need to follow Int'l standards. In PhilStar Headlines. Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/01/08/1276499/palace-bunkhousemess-we-dont-need-follow-intl-standards BBC (2013). Typhoon Haiyan. BBC News Asia. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-25051606 Calonzo, A. (2014) Wrong materials used in Yolanda bunkhouses, DPWH chief admits. In GMA News Online. Retrieved from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/347272/news/nation/wrongmaterials-used-in-yolanda-bunkhouses-dpwh-chief-admits CBB (2008). In Department of Science and Technology Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://fprdi.dost.gov.ph/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=141 Del Callar, M. (2013) UN: $301M needed for Yolanda action plan; int'l aid total now at P2.585B. In GMA News Online. Retrieved from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/335069/news/nation/un-301mneeded-for-yolanda-action-plan-int-l-aid-total-now-at-p2-585b Dinglasa, R. (2014) Millions of survivors in need of homes 100 days after Yolanda UN. In Interaksyon News Online. Retrived from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/348664/news/regions/millions-of-survivors-inneed-of-homes-100-days-after-yolanda-un

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Diola, C. (2013) Number of nations sending aid for Yolanda victims growing. In Headlines Philippine Star. Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2013/11/11/125527/number-nations-sending-aidyolanda-victims-growing Gagalac, R. (2014) What's wrong with 'Yolanda' bunkhouses. In ABS-CBN News. Retrieved from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/focus/01/07/14/whats-wrong-yolanda-bunkhouses Lacuata, R. (2013) Foreign aid for Yolanda victims reaches P14B. In ABS CBN News. Retrieve from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/11/21/13/foreign-aid-yolanda-victims Lavia, D. (2014) International standards for bunkhouses. In Manila Standard Today. Retrieved from http://manilastandardtoday.com/2014/01/14/internationalstandards-for-bunkhouses/ Lozada, B. (2014) Architect Palafox: Bunkhouses built by govt violate building code. In Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/559497/architect-palafoxbunkhouses-built-by-govt-violate-building-code Martin A. and Anonas F. (2011) DOSTs F-House eyed as emergency shelter. Department of Science and Technology Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.dost.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1417:dosts-fhouse-eyed-as-emergency-shelter&catid=1:latest&Itemid=150 Presse, A. (2014) Needs for Yolanda survivors remain enormous. In Interaksyon News Online. Retrieved from http://www.interaksyon.com/article/80805/100-days-after--needs-ofyolanda-survivors-remain-enormous----un