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© All Rights Reserved

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Goals Summary Goal 1: Students will communicate and apply mathematical concepts.

Progress Notes: Measurable Objective 1: 75% of All Students will demonstrate a proficiency will be able to communicate and apply mathematical concepts through computation, problem solving, modeling, real life situations and interpretation of data in Mathematics by 06/12/2014 as measured by various assessments. Strategy 1: Daily Spiral Review/Problem of the Day - Students are provided daily approximately 4-10 math problems which relate to not only the current lesson/unit of instruction but also previous lessons/units taught. This strategies supports a spiral curriculum. In a spiral curriculum, learning is spread out over time rather than being concentrated in shorter periods. In a spiral curriculum, material is revisited repeatedly over months and across grades. Different terms are used to describe such an approach, including distributed and spaced. A spiral approach is often contrasted with blocked or massed approaches. In a massed approach, learning is concentrated in continuous blocks. In the design of instructional materials, massing is more common than spacing. Research Cited: The spacing effect the learning boost from distributing rather than massing learning and practice has been repeatedly found by researchers for more than 100 years. Findings about distributed learning are among the most robust in the learning sciences, applying across a wide range of content and for all ages from infants to adults. Space learning over time is the first research-based recommendation in a recent practice guide from the U. S. Department of Educations Institute of Educational Sciences (Pashler et al., 2007). In a recent review of the literature, Lisa Son and Dominic Simon write, On the whole, both in the laboratory and the classroom, both in adults and in children, and in the cognitive and motor learning domains, spacing leads to better performance than massing (2012). Bjork, R.A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions. In D. Gopher & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and performance XVII: Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 435459). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Dempster, F. N. (1988). The spacing effect: A case study in the failure to apply the results of psychological research. American Psychologist, 43, 627634. Pashler, H., Bain, P., Bottge, B., Graesser, A., Koedinger, K., McDaniel, M., & Metcalfe, J. (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning (NCER 2007-2004). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ncer.ed.gov.

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Rohrer, D. (2009). The effects of spacing and mixing practice problems. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 40, 417. Schmidt, R.A., & Bjork, R.A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3, 20717 Son, L. K., & Simon, D. A. Distributed learning: Data, metacognition, and educational implications. Educational Psychology Review (2012): 1-21 Activities: Activity - Use Curricular Resources & Math Curriculum Training Activity Type Begin Date 09/07/2010 End Date 06/12/2014 Resource Assigned $0 Source Of Funding No Funding Required Staff Responsible District ISS Coaches ISSPs Teachers

Through system training for the new math curriculum materials, Everyday Professional Mathematics and envision MATH, teachers received training using daily Learning spiral review/problem of the day. All faculty who are new to DoDDS and teachers who have changed grade levels are given mentoring and professional learning opportunities on an ongoing basis for the utilization of curriculum materials such as Problem of the Day and Daily Spiral Review.

Strategy 2: Differentiated Instruction: Small Group Instruction - Differentiated, small group instruction is provided by the teacher to accommodate a wide range of student backgrounds and abilities, including English language learners. Teachers will utilize lesson materials from the Everyday math and Evision math series to include enrichment, readiness, ELL support and extra practice activities. All small groups are created based on formative assessment data collected by the classroom teacher. These groups are dynamic and change based on new formative data collected. Every lesson summary includes a list of Key Concepts and Skills addressed in the lesson. This list highlights the range of mathematics in each lesson so that teachers can better use the materials to meet students' needs. The Key Concepts and Skills are linked to the Grade-Level Goals and Program Goals and thus clarify how lesson activities connect to and support the long-range learning goals. In the Everyday Math Series: Each lesson provides point-of-use ways to modify activities. These suggestions are called "Adjusting the Activity." If children are having difficulty with a certain activity or need to be challenged a bit more, teachers might find one of these modification suggestions helpful.

Research Cited: Baxter, J. A., Woodward, J., & Olson, D. (2001). Effects of reform-based mathematics instrution on low achievers in five third-grade classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 101(5), 529-547. Edwards, C. A. (Ed.). (1999). Changing the Faces of Mathematics: Perspectives on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Garnett, K. (1998). Math learning disabilities. Retrieved January 19, 2004, from

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www.ldonline.org. Gregory, G. H. (2003). Differentiated instructional strategies in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Hankes, J. E., & Fast, G. R. (Eds.). (2002). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on Indigenous people of North America. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Jacobs, J. E., Rossi Becker, J., & Gilmer, G. (Eds.). (2001). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on Gender. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Johnson, D. T. (2000). Teaching mathematics to gifted students in a mixed-ability clarrossm. Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Lipka, J., & Adams, B. (2004, January 2004). Culturally based math education as a way to improve Alaska native students math performance. Working Paper Series (#20). Retrieved 3/8/08, 2008, from http://www.acclaim- math.org/docs/working_papers/ WP_20_Lipka_Adams.pdf. Lock, R. H. (1996). Adapting mathematics instruction in the general education classroom for students with mathematics disabilities. Retrieved January 19, 2004, from www.ldonline.org. Ortiz-Franco, L., Hernandez, N. G., & De La Cruz, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on Latinos. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Secada, W. G. (Ed.). (2000). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on multiculturalism and gender equity. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Secada, W. G., Fennema, E., & Adajian, L. B. (Eds.). (1995). New directions for equity in math ematics education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Strutchens, M., Johnson, M. L., & Tate, W. F. (Eds.). (2000). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on African Americans. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriulum Development. Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Deciding to teach them all. Educational Leadership, 61(2), 6-11. Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriulum Development. Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction and understanding by design: Connecting content and kids. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriulum Development. Usiskin, Z. (1994). Individual differences in the teaching and laerning of matheamtics. UCSMP Newsletter, 14. Villa, R. A., & Thousand, J. S. (Eds.). (1995). Creating an inclusive school. Alexandria, VA:

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Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Vogeli, B. R., & Karp, A. (Eds.). (2003). Activating mathematical talent (Monograph Series). Golden, CO: NCSM-Houghton Mifflin Company School Division. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Willingham, D. T. (2005). Do visual, auditory, and dinesthetic learners need visual, audiotry, and kinesthetic instruction? AFT-American Educator: Ask the Cognitive Scientist, 2007, from www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm. Activities: Activity - Assessment Folder and Binder Folders containing assessment calendars, prompts, administration protocols, assessment materials, and individual student assessment card were created for each grade level and placed on common drive for easy access. Data teams update content as needed.Hard copies are also provided in an Assessment Binder for each grade level. In March 2014, each classroom teacher was given a data binder for collecting classroom data for individual students in the classroom. These binders provide an organized method for maintaining and analyzing quarter data boards and records. The teacher data binders can be used at various times including CSI Days and CP meetings to further facilitate data discussions. Hard copies are also provided in an Assessment Binder for each grade level. Activity - Common Planning Time Activity Type Begin Date 09/04/2012 End Date 06/11/2015 Resource Assigned $0 Source Of Funding No Funding Required Staff Responsible All Staff ISSP Counselor Special education providers Staff Responsible ISSP Grade level teachers Activity Type Academic Support Program Begin Date 04/01/2011 End Date 06/14/2014 Resource Assigned $0 Source Of Funding District Funding Staff Responsible CSI Leaderhip, ISSP Internal Climate Committee

Weekly CP time are held at all grade levels. Discussions include ways to Academic use data to differentiate instruction; and reflection on the use of specific Support school-wide instructional strategies. Collaborative discussions about the Program use of instructional strategies and the school-wide goals is part of CP times. Large group specialists meet for a common planning time 1x/month. Activity - Use of Assessment data to Drive Instruction Activity Type

During common planning time (CP) ISSPs and teachers used BOY, MOY, Academic and EOY as well as formative assessment data to facilitate the team Support development of grade level assessment plans and instructional plans to Program meet the needs of students. CSI days include time for horizontal and vertical articulation between grade levels to discuss data and areas for continued needs across the school.

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Activity - Investigate and Decide on Assessment to address Math Written Communication Teachers will investigate the best local assessment to use for math written communication and decide on a common local assessment. DSO Math ISS and Math Coach will work with the exemplar rubrics during CSI days and CP time throughout the year to provide information on which to make a decision. Activity - Understanding and Using Differentiated Instruction

Resource Assigned $0

Staff Responsible DSO ISS Math, Math Coach Teachers Staff Responsible DI Trainers Teacher

Activity Type

HQ sponsored training for 2 school trainers to support the Differentiation Academic Module from ASCD for 2 years. Training took place during the summer and Support during 2 school years as 15 teachers implemented the strategies learned in Program the summer. Graduate credit was offered. Following the first 2 years, PLTs met after school. Activity - Activity - PLT: Focus on Differentiation in Math Instruction Teachers who selected the book, Guided Math: A Framework for Mathematics Instruction, met monthly to learn more about how to differentiate instruction in math . Graduate Credit is offered. Activity Type Professional Learning

Resource Assigned $0

Resource Assigned $0

Staff Responsible 4th & 5th grade teachers 3rd Grade teachers Coaches Staff Responsible Classroom Teachers Coaches

Activity Type

Teachers who selected the the book, Making Mathematics Thinking Visible Professional in the Elementary Classroom, meet monthly to learn more about how to Learning differentiate instruction in math. Graduate credit is offered.

Resource Assigned $0

Strategy 3: Math Journals - The students have an opportunity to record their experiences from a specific math exercise or problem solving activity, by journaling. A math journal is one of the best ways to introduce writing into your daily mathematical instruction. It not only helps students stretch their thinking, but helps students make sense of problems that often leave them confused or even frustrated. The goal of journaling method is to help students set up a process of mental steps that will become routine when students are faced with opportunities for problem solving. Many students often get lost in translation with mathematical terminology. Through journal writing, mathematical problem solving skills become more refined, as well as increasing the students overall understanding of mathematical terminology. Research Cited: Recent studies have shown that the use of journal-writing for mathematical problem solving has positive impacts on student achievement. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) emphasizes that mathematical communication organizes and consolidates mathematical thinking. (NCTM, 2004). The current mathematical reform efforts recommend that students become more active in their learning (Ochsner, 2004). This requires more reading, writing, and

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discussing mathematics as a way of building and developing more problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Journal writing is used in a variety of content areas to help meet the needs of the students. This valuable tool can also be used to further develop and enhance students mathematical thinking and communication skills. Journal entries and reflections also provide opportunities for students to self-assess what they have learned. The students have an opportunity to record their experiences from a specific math exercise or problem solving activity, just by journaling. Writing enables the mind to clarify ideas and more fully integrate new knowledge (Scheibelhut, 1994). It allows the students to become thorough thinkers and not just respond to an algorithm. Therefore, math no longer becomes a task where the individual follows rules or steps, but, rather a way to follow up on the specific learning goal. The students have to begin to think about what was done and what was required to solve the specific math problem. Several research studies have been conducted to show the benefits of integrating writing into daily mathematical instruction. The following research studies support that writing in mathematics helps instructors in understanding students thinking. In addition, it also helps students to demonstrate their mathematical thinking processes and understanding through their writing. Mathematics plays such an important role in our daily lives that we often overlook students problems or often become frustrated when they do not understand how to solve a problem accurately. Marilyn Burns stated in 2004 that Writing in math class supports learning because it requires students to organize, clarify, and reflect on their ideas- all useful processes for making sense of mathematics (p. 31). In addition, when students write, their papers provide a window into their thinking, understanding, misconceptions, and feelings. According to a study by Whitin & Whitin (2002), writing challenges children to make their thinking visible and to confront their own understanding of the ideas being discussed. Writing in mathematics differs from writing in other subject areas. Writing in mathematics is not meant to produce a piece of work to grade, but rather to provide a way for students to reflect on what they have learned. For educators, it is necessary to pay attention to what the students have written about and what they have learned, not how they have written it. Writing can help students become active participants in their own learning. Mett (1989) suggests that writing allows students to establish a personal connection to new concepts. Piaget said that children cannot see, hear, or remember that which they cannot understand (Wakefield, 1997). When a student is able to perform a task, he or she has a better understanding of the task as a whole. However, when they are able to reflect on what they have learned and record it, they can improve on the task. A deeper, more meaningful understanding has been formed. The students make a connection that is personal to their learning. Mathematics must be connected to real-life situations in order for it to become meaningful for a child. A study conducted by Steele (2005) explored the use of writing to help students develop better schemata knowledge and the ability to think algebraically. Schemata is defined as identification, planning, and elaboration and execution knowledge needed to successfully solve problems (Steele, 2005). What I wanted to find is how students use schemata to explain their problem-solving reasoning in writing. When students use only procedures and algorithms to solve problems, it is often difficult to assess their schemata knowledge. Therefore, the study asked 8 middle school algebra students to write their thoughts about a problem or why they solved a problem in a specific way. Explaining their methodology helped the students make a personal, meaningful connection. The writing samples demonstrated that students were able to provide clear reasoning for their choice of methodology. The opportunity to explain their thinking in writing helped develop their knowledge of algebraic relationships. In return, teachers had a more productive way to assess the depth of their knowledge and rationale. Having a record of the learning processes works not only as an assessment tool, but also helps the students to develop effective problem solving skills. Pugalee (2001) found that writing in mathematics helped improve students metacognition in the areas of orientation, execution, and verification phases of mathematics. In other words, they became more aware of their own thinking and concepts. Writing can be an important vehicle for enhancing students understanding of important mathematical ideas and for engaging them in mathematical inquiry. In fact, writing in mathematics can help students bring their thoughts together because it requires them to reflect on their work and clarify their thought about ideas. Flores and

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Brittain (2003) discovered through their research that process writing helped students learn mathematics and establish a personal connection to new concepts. Process writing is defined as a writing instruction model that views writing as an ongoing process and in which students follow a given set of procedures for planning, drafting, revising, editing (proofreading and correcting), and publishing (sharing by some means) their writing. Despite the research and literature to support the use of writing in math, there have also been studies that found some deficiencies. It is noted that if the writing process is a way to strengthen student problem solving and develop mathematical thinking, then the teacher must incorporate its use. The literature overwhelmingly supports the use of math journaling. The benefits as well as the disadvantages of integrating writing in mathematics instruction in all grade levels have been described in the literature. There has been much research given to the idea that writing in math does improve ones mathematical problem solving skills. Writing in mathematics is an effective way to assess what students have learned. Teachers can look back through the journals to see what was written, therefore knowing if the students understand the concept that was taught. Writing the steps and reflecting on the process helps a teacher know where to help a student, especially if there are misconceptions. It may also help the teacher know how the students are processing the information. When reading through the journal entries, a decision can be made to determine if further review is required or if mastery has been made. Burns, M. (2004). Writing in Math. Educational Leadership. v. 62, no. 2, 30-33. Flores, A. & Brittain, C. (2003). Writing to reflect in a methods course. Teaching Children Mathematics, 10, 112-118. Manning, M. (1999). Too many journals. Teaching Pre K-8, 30. Mett, C. L. (1989). Writing in mathematics: Evidence of learning through writing. The Clearing House, 62, 293-96. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2004). Retrieved October 27, 2007 from http://standards.nctm.org Noles, S., Hill, S., & Blake, D. (2007). Pitner Elementary School Improvement Plan. Ochsner, R., Fowler, J. (2004). Playing Devils Advocate: Evaluating the Literature of the WAC/WID Movement. Review of Educational Research. 74(2), 117. Pugalee, D. (1997). Connecting writing to the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 90, 308-310. Pugalee, D. (2001). Writing, mathematics, and metacognition: Looking for connections through students work in mathematical problem solving. School Science and Mathematics, 101. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002408702 Reeves, D.B. (2004). 101 More Questions and Answers About Standards, Assessment and Accountability. Englewood, California: Advanced Learning Press. Scheibelhut, C. (1994). I do and understand, I reflect and I improve. Teaching Children Mathematics, 1. Retrieved July 2, 2007 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002220353 Steele, D. (2005). Using writing to access students schemata knowledge for algebraic thinking.

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School Science and Mathematics, 105. Retrieved October 27, 2007, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009370362 Stonewater, J. (2002). The mathematics writers checklist: The development of a preliminary assessment tool for writing in mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 102. Retrieved October 27, 2007, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002503854 Spikell, M. (1993). Teaching mathematics with manipulatives: A resource of activities for the K12 teacher. New York: Allyn and Bacon. Wakefield, A. P. (1997). Support math thinking. Phi Delta Kappan, 78. Retrieved August 12, 2007, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000522044 Whitin, D. J. & Whitin, P. (2002). Promoting communication in the mathematics classroom. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9, 205. Activities: Activity - Study about Math Journaling Teachers studied about math journaling in a variety of ways: on CSI day, met after school to discuss how to apply what they had been doing with journaling in reading to learn more about engaging students in journaling about their thinking in math. Activity - Use Curricular Resources and Math Curriculum Training Activity Type Professional Learning Begin Date 09/07/2010 End Date 06/15/2012 Resource Assigned $0 Source Of Funding No Funding Required Staff Responsible Teachers Coaches

Activity Type

Through system training for the new math curriculum materials, Everyday Professional Mathematics and enVision MATH, teachers received training in math Learning journaling. Orientation to math curriculum is offered to all teachers who have changed grade levels or teachers who are new to the DoDDS system regularly by the Math ISSPs. Activity - Modeling Mathematical Thinking Student math journaling is modeled by coaches in the students math lab using the co-teaching model. The Math Lab provides a co-teaching instructional environment to support math journalling as well as math journalling in the classroom. Activity - Student Reflection on Math Journals Students will reflect on math communication and math skills using the Student Exemplar rubric to assess own learning and make personal learning goals.

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Staff Responsible Math Coaches and Classroom teachers Staff Responsible Classroom teachers and Math ISSPs

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Activity - PLT: Visible Thinking in Mathematics A regular professional learning group is meeting throughout the year for a book study using the text, Visible Thinking in Mathematics. The focus of the study is to utilize math communication and visible thinking strategies that encourage mathematical reasoning and communication. This book study is being offered as a 2 credit graduate course. Activity - Implementation of Math Lab The Math Lab has been fully implemented with grades 2-5. The goals of math lab are differentiated for grade levels and a major focus of the math lab is communication and development of mathematical vocabulary. Interviews are conducted with each student at the completion of a standards-based activity by the student. A math communication Exemplar rubric is utilized with each student to discuss ability to explain thinking in writing and verbally. All classroom teachers participating in the Math Lab have received multiple opportunities for professional learning and orientation to the Math Lab. Activity - Training in Exemplar Program Professional learning was provided to the entire school in October, 2013 for the use of the Exemplar math program. The Exemplar program utilizes problem-solving with established rubrics for communication. The program is now available to all faculty to use.

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Strategy 4: Math Word Walls - Students are exposed to the vocabulary they need to master. The purpose of the Mathematics Word Wall is to identify words and phrases that students need to understand and use so as to make good progress in mathematics. Mathematical language is crucial to children's development of thinking. If students do not have the vocabulary to talk about math concepts and skills, they cannot make progress in understanding these areas of mathematical knowledge. They need to be familiar with mathematical vocabulary and mathematical terms to understand written and spoken instructions. A structured approach to the teaching and learning of mathematical vocabulary is essential if students are to begin using the correct mathematical terminology. Introduce new words in a suitable context, for example with relevant real objects, pictures and/or diagrams. Explain their meanings carefully and revisit them several times. Students cannot learn the meaning of words in isolation and the use of questions is critical in helping them to understand mathematical ideas and to use mathematical terms correctly. It is important to ask questions in different ways so that students who do not understand the first time may pick up the meaning subsequently. Mathematics Word Walls are to be active and built upon. Words are to be posted as they are introduced in the days lesson. Mathematics spirals and students need to explore multiple exposures to important concepts and skills. Research Cited: Word walls in math can provide visual cues and graphic representations of content. Consider using a math word wall that has three parts: key

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vocabulary, "in your own words" definitions, and a variety of ways to portray a function. For example, multiplication is portrayed by the following symbols: x, *, and ( ). Number sense, concepts, and operations word wall The purpose of the mathematics word wall is to identify words and phrases that students need to understand and use so as to make good progress in mathematics. Mathematical language is crucial to children's development of thinking. If students do not have the vocabulary to talk about math concepts and skills, they cannot make progress in understanding these areas of mathematical knowledge. They need to be familiar with mathematical vocabulary and mathematical terms to understand written and spoken instructions. Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2000). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall. Morris, D. (1981). Concept of word: A developmental phenomenon in the beginning reading and writing process. Language Arts, 58, 659-668.

Activities: Activity - Using Word Walls to Support Math Journaling Activity Type Begin Date 09/07/2010 End Date 06/26/2015 Resource Assigned $0 Source Of Funding No Funding Required Staff Responsible Teachers and Coaches

Building on their work using word walls and vocabulary development for Academic literacy instruction, teachers added the use of content math vocabulary to Support develop common language and support students in using the vocabulary in Program math journaling. Activity - Support for Math Cafe and use of Word Walls Activity Type

Math ISSPs have provide mentoring, professional learning opportunities, Academic and coaching in the use of Math Cafe to help students determine strategies Support and needs for math problem solving and have been involved in the Program development of math word walls and the Daily 5 for Math.

Resource Assigned $0

Strategy 5: Kid Friendly Standards - "Kid Friendly" standards help both the teacher and student identify the standards they are required to learn at each grade level. The DoDEA math standards are shared with students before, during and after lessons using "kid friendly" language, "I Can" statements, Common Core (crosswalked to DoDEA) I can statements or teacher paraphrased statements for a clear understanding of the learning objective. Activities: Activity - Develop Kid Friendly CSI Goals, Mission, and Vision

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Rewrote the school-wide CSI goals, mission, and vision in kid friendly language, designed posters for use in classrooms and school. These are reviewed in morning announcement and classrooms on a regular basis Activity - Posting Standards with Authentic Work Samples When posting student work, both DoDEA standards and kid friendly learning goals are used. Daily objectives are being written in I can language. During CSI and CP meetings discussions are held to clarify standards and share various ways of posting and communicating the standards.

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Strategy 6: Math Games/Centers - HES uses games as an engaging way for students to get the frequent practice required to build strong mental arithmetic skills and fact power. Games are used as a way to augment, not replace, activities that focus on rote practice of specific skills and facts, such the Mental Math and Reflexes exercises that begin every lesson. Research Cited: Games vs. Drills Drills aim primarily at building fact recall and procedural skills. Practice through games shares these objectives, but also reinforces other skills and understandings, including: calculator skills money exchange and shopping skills logic and reasoning geometric intuition intuition about probability and chance Drills and games should not be viewed as competitors for class time, nor should games be thought of as time-fillers or rewards. In fact, games satisfy many standard drill objectives and with many built-in options. Drill tends to become tedious and, therefore, gradually loses its effectiveness. Games relieve the tedium because children enjoy them. Indeed, children often want to play Mathematics games during their free time, including during lunch and recess. Mathematics games offer an almost unlimited source of problem material. And because the numbers in most games are generated randomly, the games can be played over and over without repeating the same problems. Many of the mathematics games come with variations that allow players to progress from easy to more challenging versions.

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Through system training for the new math curriculum materials, Every Day Professional Math and enVision Math, teachers received training in how to use math Learning games and centers from Everyday Mathematics and enVision. MATH. Training was a combination of half-days, and follow-up after school and during team meetings. Teachers who are new to DoDDS and teachers who have changed grade levels receive yearly training from the ISSPs and further mentoring and coaching to development professional learning in math centers and games. ISSPs provide regular coaching in the classrooms to support math centers.

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