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# Algebra Core Curriculum Map Core Standard and Objective 1.1a 1.

1b Define a rational number as a point on the number line that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers, and points that cannot be so expressed as irrational. Classify numbers as rational or irrational, knowing that rational numbers can be expressed as terminating or repeating decimals and irrational numbers can be expressed as non-terminating, non-repeating decimals. Classify pi and square roots of non-perfect square numbers as irrational. Place rational and irrational numbers on a number line between two integers Simplify, add, subtract, multiply, and divide expressions with square roots. Evaluate and simplify numerical expressions containing rational numbers and square roots using the order of operations Vocabulary approximately rational, repeating and terminating decimals perfect square, square root radical form irrational, power, base, exponent squared and cubed algebraic expression associative, commutative, and distributive properties simplify like and unlike terms substitution product of factors in terms of pi Essential Questions How is the area of a square related to the length of its side? The 5 is between what two consecutive integers? How can you determine if a number is rational or irrational? How can we use properties and operations to simplify rational and irrational expressions? How are properties of the real number system used? How can number lines, variables and algebraic expressions help model problems? What does it mean to distributive? Why are algebraic expressions used to model patterns? How does the algebraic expression help find other values? When and what properties of Algebra will help you solve a problem? How do you find values using substitution? When evaluating a numeric expression how do you determine what to do first? How do you simplify expressions using both numbers and variables? Why is the order of operations important? How do you know when an expression is simplified? How can we use properties and operations to simplify rational and irrational expressions? Simplify 2 6 4 6 + Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: use appropriate methods for computing, make a model, draw a diagram or picture, eliminate possibilities, estimate solutions to determine reasonableness, find a pattern Reasoning/Proof: examine various patterns, make conjectures, draw reasonable conclusions Communication: use precise language and notation, organize and consolidate mathematical thinking, clearly express ideas verbally and in writing, group discussion Connections: establish connection between physical models, diagrams and symbols, formulate real-world applications Representation: represent verbally, numerically, algebraically, use technological representations Strategies and Materials: Use a scientific calculator to investigate order of operations. Use Algebra Gear or AlgeBlocks to classify like and unlike terms, simplify expressions and model the distributive properties. Use graphic organizers or foldables as a review tool.
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## Algebra Core Curriculum Map

Core Standard and Objective 3.2a 3.2b 3.2c 3.2d Solve single-variable linear equations and inequalities algebraically and graphically. Solve real-world problems involving constant rates of change. Solve equations for a specified variable. Solve proportions that include algebraic first-degree expressions.

Vocabulary table of values operations, inverse operations coefficient, constants is greater than, is less than, is greater than or equal to, is less than or equal to sets of number i.e. real, integer, etc. corresponding parts of similar figures congruent/angles ratio of similitude

Essential Questions How would creating a table help you see the pattern of a set of data? How do equations help us in finding missing information? In the equation 3x + 4 =28, find all the operations. What are the inverse operations? How do addition and multiplication properties help us solve for unknowns? Why is the idea of balance so important in solving equations? How do you write inequalities and what do they mean? How do you represent solutions for inequalities on a number line? How do we identify and describe patterns? How do we use patterns to make predictions and solve problems? How do you solve problems using proportions?

October

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: using manipulatives, guess and check, solve a simpler problem, choose appropriate operation, work backwards, use proportional reasoning, choose appropriate operations, make a model or simulation Reasoning/Proof: explain and justify problem solving procedures, link problem solving to the sequence of steps, draw reasonable conclusions Communication: employ precise language to justify reasoning, express ideas clearly Connections: formulate real-world situations, make a connection between models and mathematical expressions and procedures Representation: use physical models and appropriate symbolic notations, represent verbally, numerically and algebraically Strategies and Materials: Use the NCTM Navigating Through Algebra activity Exploring House and Building Toothpicks to explore tables. Use a foldable where students write down a multi-step equation with its operations, and identify the inverse operations needs to solve the equation. Use graphing calculators and CBRs to investigate constant rate of change. Create a scenario that, using CBRs or stopwatches, examines motion and rate of change. Use a Frayer Model to help students recognize and understand number sets, range and domain.

Algebra Core Curriculum Map Core Standard and Objective 2.1a 2.1b 2.1c 2.1d Identify the slope of a line when given points, a graph, or an equation. Identify horizontal and vertical lines given the equations or slopes. Determine the effect of changes in slope or yintercept in y = mx + b . Determine and explain the meaning of slopes and intercepts using real-world examples. Vocabulary rate of change linear model slope as a rate of change direct variation x and y axes origin quadrants coordinates points ordered pairs slope formula slope from a table vertical change, horizontal run slope, y-intercept vertical/horizontal line slope-intercept form x and y intercepts slope of a line Essential Questions What is a rate and what does it represent? What are different examples of rates of change? How can a graph tell a story about a rate or slope? (Ex. If your job pays you an hourly rate what is it that determines how much you are paid? How do you determine how far a will car traveling if you know its speed and the number hours it traveled? How can slope represent the relationship between the circumference and diameter? How can the relationship between inches and centimeters be represented as a rate of change or slope?) When looking at a set of graphs, how do you determine which rate or slope is changing the fastest? What information do you need in order to use the slope formula? How can you find this information from a table, a graph, or a linear function? Describe what is meant by horizontal run/ vertical change. Can you explain the differences between horizontal and vertical lines? How do the ordered pairs on a vertical line compare with the ordered pairs of a horizontal line? How do their equations differ? Looking at the x and y intercepts from ordered pairs or a graph, what does each zero represent?

November

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: use manipulatives, use proportional reasoning, make a model or simulation, estimate to determine reasonableness, solve a simpler problem, ask questions like, Where have we seen this before?, Why do you think so? eliminate possibilities Reasoning/Proof: examine patterns, draw reasonable conclusions, make and investigate conjectures, note regularities and irregularities Connections: use extended real world investigations connect mathematical expressions and technological and physical models to other curricular areas and outside classroom. Communication: clearly express mathematically ideas verbally and in writing, group discussion Representations: use technological representations, represent numerical, graphically and algebraically Strategies and Materials: Use the CBRs to explore how the steepness of a line represents different rates of change. Have students explore cell phone plans and discuss which plan they would choose and why. Use stopwatches and graphing calculators to investigate walking rates and slope. Discuss hourly rates and other real world forms of direct variation. Use a foldable to define vertical run vs. horizontal run. Use the slope formula to find the slope and constant rates of change. Use the TI-84/83 plus inequality application to introduce equations for vertical and horizontal lines.

## Algebra Core Curriculum Map

Core Standard and Objective 2.1c 2.1d 2.2a 2.2b Determine the effect of changes in slope or yintercept in y = mx + b . Determine and explain the meaning of slopes and intercepts using real-world examples. Write algebraic expressions or equations to generalize visual patterns, numerical patterns, relations, or data sets. Represent linear equations in slope-intercept form, y = mx + b, and standard form, Ax + By = C . Distinguish between linear and non-linear functions by examining a table, equation, or graph. Interpret the slope of a linear function as a rate of change in real-world situations. Vocabulary x-y axis intercepts y-intercept/starting point linear relationship linear equations family of lines x and y intercepts standard form Essential Questions What is the y-coordinate value at the x-intercept? What is the x-coordinate value at the y-intercept? Explain how the coordinates of the x and y intercepts are similar and how they are different. How do you find the x and y intercepts when all you have is the equation for the line? Given an equation, how can we generate a table of values? What is meant by a linear relationship? Explain how vertical change and horizontal run can be used to create a table of values given a point on a line. Given an equation y=mx+b, what two things are needed in order to graph the line? In an equation y=mx+b, where b is constant, how does the change in the slope m affect the line? In an equation y=mx+b, where the slope is constant, how do the changes in b affect the line, and what types of lines have the same slope but different y-intercepts?

## 2.2c 2.2d December

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: reflect and evaluate mathematical thinking processes, make a model or simulation, tables, graphs, develop clarification How are these related? Determine reasonableness of answer. Reasoning/Proof: look at patterns and make conjectures, link problem solving to the steps Connections: explore historical and multicultural contributions establish connection among mathematical expressions, models, pictorial, and real world situations. Communication: class and group discussions, use precise language and notation Representations: represent verbally, numerically, graphically, and algebraically use a variety of visual representations, graph paper and technology. Strategies and Materials: Using graphs of real data discuss what is represented by points on the line and the intercepts. Use the Skittle Linear Activity (Slinkys, Dixie cups, meter sticks) to generate a table of values to investigate constant rates of change and find what is represented by the x and y intercepts. Use the constant feature on the TI-73, or the home screen on other TI calculators, to investigate initial value and constant rates of change. Use the CBRs to explore slopes and yintercepts. Have the students create a foldable that describes how to graph a line in slope intercept form. In a linear family either m or b are constant. Use graphing calculators to investigate a family of lines showing how m and b affect linear functions.

## Algebra Core Curriculum Map

Core Standard and Objective 2.3a 2.3b 2.3c 2.3d 2.2a 4.1a 4.1b January 4.1c Write the equation of a line when given two points or the slope and a point on the line. Approximate the equation of a line given the graph of a line. Identify the x- and y-intercepts from an equation or graph of a line or a table of values. Graph linear relations and inequalities by plotting points, by finding x- and y-intercepts, or by using the slope and any point on the line. Write algebraic expressions or equations to generalize visual patterns, numerical patterns, relations, data sets, or scatter plots. Collect, record, organize, and display a set of data with at least two variables. Determine whether the relationship between two variables is approximately linear or non-linear by examination of a scatter plot. Characterize the relationship between two linear related variables as having positive, negative, or approximately no correlation. Vocabulary linear equation y-intercept point-slope form standard form coefficient scatter plot positive/negative/ no correlation line of best fit linear model Essential Questions Given the linear equation y = mx + b, how does knowing the value for m and b help you graph the line? Looking at a graph, how would you find the slope and y-intercept? How does changing the y-intercept effect the line? How does changing the slope effect the line? In the Point-slope formula, what does the title of the formula suggest is needed in order to use it? Given the slope of a line and a point on the line, what else do we need find to write a linear equation? How is an equation written in standard form different from one written in slope-intercept form? How can the slope of a line be found from an equation written in standard form? How do you use a scatter plot to find correlation between variables? How do you use an equation to make predictions about the data? How can representing data in a scatter plot help you solve problems?

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: solve a related problem, look for a pattern, develop vocabulary, make a list table graph or equation, reflect and evaluate mathematical thinking processes. Reasoning/Proof: note regularities and irregularities of patterns, explain and justify Connections: use real-world situations and connect to other curricular areas Communication: organize and consolidate mathematical thinking Representations: represent problem situations verbally, numerically, graphically or algebraically using technology and appropriate symbolic notation Strategies and Materials: Use a word wall with various types of occupations and real-world data. Have the student find the appropriate domain and range for each set. Have students look at a variety of linear graphs to study slope and y-intercepts to generate equations in y=mx + b form checking their work on a graphing calculator. Using an assortment of real-world data to create scatter plots that have a positive or negative correlation use the data to project values outside a known range. Use the manual fit function on the TI-73 or 84 to estimate the line of best fit, and use equation to project beyond the given set of data.

Algebra Core Curriculum Map Core Standard and Objective 3.3a 3.3b 3.3c Solve systems of two linear equations graphically and algebraically with and without technology. Determine the number of possible solutions for a system of two linear equations. Graph a system of linear inequalities and identify the solution. Vocabulary linear system point of intersection one solution no solution infinitely many solutions substitution method boundary line inequality linear inequalities solution area quadrants solution of a linear inequality less than greater than equal to Essential Questions When solving a linear system what is a solution and how can it be represented? What do you know about a linear system which has no-solution What do you know about a linear system with infinitely many solutions When does a linear system have exactly one solution? What is a boundary line? How is the graph of the line y = x + 3 similar to the graph of the inequality y x +3 and how do the graphs differ? How do the inequality symbols >, <, , and decide which half of the plane will be shaded? How do you solve inequalities and graph their solutions on a coordinate plane, for example 2 x + 3 y = 6 How can you tell from looking at the graph or the inequality whether the boundary line should be included or excluded? How would you determine if a point on a coordinate plane is a solution to linear inequality or not?

February

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: How are these related? Look for a pattern; make a list, table, graph, or equation. Reasoning/Proof: examine patterns; make and investigate mathematical conjectures examining slope; justify eliminating possibilities Connections: find applications in other sources e.g. streets, cities, layouts; formulate real world situations Communication: class discussion; use precise language and rotation in verbal and written explanations Representations: represent problem situations verbally and in writing, express numerically, graphically and algebraically using technology Strategies and Materials: Use a foldable where students write down a formula with its operations, and identify the inverse operations needed to isolate a specific variable. Create a Magic Book foldable describing linear inequalities, their graphs, and boundary lines. Use graphing calculator or inequality APP on TI-84 to demonstrate. Use RandInt to generate an ordered pair to test as a solution for an inequality. Use Graphing Inequalities In Two Variables from Discovering Algebra. Use a variety of activities to gather both linear and nonlinear data, i.e. Bungee Barbie, Candy Caper, Bouncing Ball, Paper Bridges, Double Your Pleasure (using Mn Ms).etc. Use the CBR to gather and analyze linear and nonlinear data. Have students draw a variety of right triangles on graph paper with the legs on a grid line and its vertices at a grid intersection.

## Algebra Core Curriculum Map

Core Objective 3.1a 3.1e 1.2d 3.5a Simplify and evaluate monomial expressions and formulas. Simplify the quotient of monomials using positive exponents. Calculate the measures of the sides of a right triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Solve quadratic equations that can be simplified to the form x = a where a 0 by taking square roots. Add and subtract polynomials. Multiply monomials by a polynomial. Multiply binomials.
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Vocabulary

Essential Questions In the formula C=2r, how would you solve for r? In the formula C=2r, what do we need to know before we can find the circumference of a circle? What are the common factors in the numerator and denominator: 6 x2 y3 ? 2 x7 y How would you rewrite this expression 4 x 2 y 5 z 1 with only positive exponents? How do you distinguish the difference between the legs and the hypotenuse of a right triangle? What is the relationship between the legs of a right triangle and its hypotenuse? How do you find the length of a missing side of a right triangle? How do you find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle? What changes will incur when you multiply 3x2 to the trinomial (2x3 + 5x 2)? In an area model how does x2 differ form x? How are they similar?

literal equation
factors lowest terms Pythagorean Theorem right triangles legs and hypotenuse monomial binomial trinomial polynomial area model FOIL

## 3.1b 3.1c 3.1d

March

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: check reasonableness of answer, reflect and evaluate mathematical thinking processes. Consider thinking strategies of others, use a model or simulation, and make a list, tables, graphs, and evaluations. Solve a simpler or multi-step problem. How is this related to ideas before? Reasoning/Proof: justify sequence of steps, realize that extrapolating isnt proof Connections: use real-world situations newspapers, magazines, science data, explore historical contributions. Communications: group discussions, oral presentations, written reports. Representations: represent verbally, numerically, graphically, geometrically, and algebraically using technology, formulate conjectures, use physical models, visualizations, and appropriate symbolic notations. Strategies and Materials: Have students share their data comparing the sum of the square of the legs to the square of the hypotenuse. Use real-world situations and applications. Use a foldable to show students show how to apply the Pythagorean Theorem. Use a map from Map Quest to find your school, snap a grid on the map then find various locations in the neighborhood i.e. home, stores, theaters, etc. Use the distance formula to estimate their distance the school or their home. Ask and discuss with the students why the distance to a location might be different then the distance they might actually need travel to get there. Use a calculator to determine whether a number is perfect square or not. Use a foldable to show that the lines with the same slope are parallel and that line whose slopes with opposite reciprocals are perpendicular. Using the trace feature on your graphing calculator estimate the solution of a linear system.

Algebra Core Curriculum Map Core Objective 3.4a 3.4b 3.4c 3.5b 3.5c Find the greatest common monomial factor of a polynomial. Factor trinomials with integer coefficients of the form x + bx + c . Factor the difference of two squares and perfect square trinomials.
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Vocabulary factor greatest common factor binomial factors difference of two squares perfect square trinomial quadratic equations

Essential Questions In the polynomial 5 x 2 y 3 + 10 xy 2 15 xy , what factors are common to each monomial part? Given the trinomial x2 + 7x +10, how do we use factors of 10 to find our binomial factors? How is the answer to (x + 5)(x 5) and (x + 5)(x + 5) similar and how are they different? How would you use your quadratic solutions to find your binomial factors? How would you use your binomial solutions to write a quadratic equation?

Solve quadratic equations using factoring. Write a quadratic equation when given the solutions.

April

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials Problem Solving: use proportional reasoning, look for patterns, make a model or simulations, make a list, table graph or equation, consider thinking strategies of others, multi-step problems, estimate determine reasonableness, use counter examples Reasoning/Proof: make conjectures , identify conclusion as valid or invalid, justify sequence of steps Connections: use physical models, pictorial representations and real world situations, connect models to mathematical expressions Communication: use precise language and notation, written and group discussion Representation: represent verbally, numerically, graphically, geometrically, and algebraically, use a variety of visual representations Strategies and Materials: Use Algebra Gear or AlgeBlocks to have student discover the relation of the area and the product of its factors. Have the students describe the area in terms of its area and in terms of its length and width. Use FOIL to demonstrate how to find the area of two binomials algebraically.

Algebra Core Curriculum Map Core Objective Review for the CRT Vocabulary Essential Questions

Suggested Processes, Strategies, and Materials May Problem Solving: reflect and evaluate mathematical thinking processes, draw a picture or diagram, use a model or simulation, choose an appropriate operation, estimate solutions, consider the thinking of others Reasoning/Proof: explain patterns, explain regularities and irregularities, determine whether conclusions are valid or invalid make and investigate conjectures Connections: use real-world investigations, recognize and apply mathematical ideas and relationships in other curricular areas Communications: organize and consolidate mathematical thinking, group discussion, oral written reports using appropriate notation Representations: represent problem situations verbally, numerically, geometrically, or algebraically using technology, use visual representations , use correct notation Strategies and Materials: Review CRT: Use district created resources to review for the CRT, Benchmark test, UBSCT review material, Jeopardy PowerPoint, etc.