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THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. II. 1.

TECHNICAL TERMS Absolutist: Utopian: Plebiscite: Suffrage: Conservatism: Ideology: Ethnic: Inviolability: Dissemination: Das Volk: Junkers: Alleorgy: Feminist: Romanticism: Estates General: NCERT INTEXT QUESTIONS Summarise the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important? (ncert page 4) Renan was a French philosopher. According to Renan: (i) Nations are formed on social capital i.e., common glories and deeds of the past and common will in the present. (ii) Nations are formed not by common language, race, religion or territory. (iii) Nation is a large scale solidarity and if anyone has the right to be consulted it is the inhabitants of the nation. (iv) A nation never has real interst in annexing or holding on to a country against its will i.e. is not imperialistic. (v) Nations, according to Renan are important because: (vi) Their existence is a guarantee of liberty. (vii) Liberty would be lost if there was only one law and only one master. 2. Describe the political end that list hopes to achieve through economic measures. (ncert page 10) The Zollverin, a customs union formed between 17 Germans states bound Germany economically into a nation by removing internal impediments to trade and enterprise. List hopes to achieve political integration of Germany into a nation. Fusion of individual economic interests would awaken national sentiments and be forerunner to national integration. 3. What is the caricaturist trying to depict? (ncert page 11) The caricature dates 1820 and represents the liberal nationalists.

It is an onslaught on the autocratic regimes which were set up in 1815 (congress of Vienna). The then regimes were intolerant to criticism, dissent and curbed all activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. The raised hand and muzzles on the mouth depict / signify freedom of thought but not speech as most of the regimes had imposed strict censorship laws to control freedom of the press. 4. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity. (ncert page 15) Or How does language and folklore help in developing nationalist sentiments? Language was a great unifying force. The French revolutionaries tried to create a collective identity among the French people discouraged regional dialects and encouraged French. English language contributed to creation of United Kingdom of Great Britain. In Poland, use of vernacular language helped in the dissemination of modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates. After Russian occupation of Poland, Polish language was forced out and Russian language imposed everywhere. Use of Polish language by clerics in church gatherings and religious instructions came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian domination. The Grimm brothers of Germany published a 33 volume dictionary of German language as part of a wider effort to oppose French domination and create a German national identity. Folklore / Popular Traditions: the idea of a nation can be created through poems, stories, music, folk dances, songs and poetries. They help express and shape national feelings by creating a sense of shared heritage and common cultured past as basis of a nation. 5. Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers uprising. Comment on the view point of the journalist. (ncert page 16) (i) The cause for the Silesian Weavers uprising was the contractors cheating on the weavers. The contractors who supplied the weavers raw materials and gave orders for finished textiles drastically reduced their payments. (ii) The view point of the journalist was biased against the weavers and the understanding of the issue superficial. (Forced their way, smashed elegant furniture, plundered supplies, weavers villages refused to give shelter to the contractors families.) (iii) The journalist viewpoint was unsympathetic, feudal partisan and in favour of the contractors. For the story did not reflect the true nature of the problem of how the contractors were taking advantage of the misery of the weavers to undercut the cost and then after commitment of certain payment, cheating on the weavers. (iv) The journalist failed to reflect on the mounting frustrations and valid reasons behind the action of the weavers. He seemed to have viewed the event as he was made to view. 6. Compare the positions on the question of womens rights voiced by the three writers cited. What do they reveal about literal ideology? (ncert page 18) Carl Wekker, though a liberal politician and member of Frankfurt Parliament held. (i) Held nature ordained women as weaker sex and designated their sphere of activity be limited to home and family. (ii) Equality between men and women would endanger harmony and destroy dignity of the family.

Louise Otto Peters a political activist and founder of a feminist political association held. a. Even men who swore by liberty and equality would make untiring efforts only for liberty of men i.e., half of humanity. b. She opioned liberty is not something that can be distributed among a number and denied to the other. (iii) Free men should not tolerate to be surrounded by the unfree i.e., women. The anonymous writer held. (i) It was highly unjust to discriminate against women because of their gender. (ii) When women had rights to property, could assume responsibilities and contribute to maintenance of the state it was ridiculous and highly unreasonable to deny women political rights. The second and third writers were supportive of women rights to liberty and equality. The contradictory positon of the liberal politicians reveals liberal ideology was elitist, conservative, partisan and gender biased. The women were active participants, for example, in French revolutions of 1789, 1830, 1848 and even in efforts at nation building in Italy and Germany. Liberals felt fearful and like all traditional feudal societies aimed to keep women subservient and passive citizens. There was contradiction and narrow understanding of Liberty and equality by the liberals. They believed in liberty but not equality. III. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. When was the customs union known as Zollverin formed and with what purpose? The Zollverin was formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia and joined by almost all German state. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two. 2. What is meant by Liberalism? The world liberalism, derived from the Latin word libes stands for the end of absolutism, aristocratic and clergical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. It emphasizes unrestrained freedom of thought, religion, speech, press and politics. 3. What were the immediate results of the July1830 revolution? As a result of the Revolution of 1830, the Bourbon kings who had been resorted to power by the Congress of Vienna were overthrown by the revolutionaries and constitutional monarchy established with Louis Phillipe as its head. It sparked on uprising in Brussels which led Belgium to break away from the United kingdom of Netherlands. Artists of the French Revolution personified liberty by symbols. Give two such symbols. Symbols: Torch of Enlightenment Charter of Rights of Man Name one artist whose name is associated with visual representation of nationalism?

Frederic Sorrieu Give two measures adopted by the French revolutionaries to forge a sense of collective identity. Measures: Through ideas of la patrie ( the fatherland ) and le citoyen (the citizen). Replacing the standard royal flag by the new French tricolor flag. Composition of new hymns and commemoration of martyrs. Formulating uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Name the architects of the Italian nation. Names: Count Camillo de Cavour Guiseppe Garibaldi and Guiseppe Mazzini What were the allegories fo the German nation and republic of France known as? German nation: Germania. French nation / France : Marianne Who were the main architects of the unification of Germany? The main architects were: The Prussian Chancellor Atto von Bismarck. The Prussian king William I. What is meant by the Ottoman empire? The empire established by Turkey is known as the Ottoman empire. List name of any three Balkan states which earlier constituted a part of the Ottoman empire. States were: Bulgaria Greece and

Romania Nationalism aligned with which factor led Europe to disaster in 1914? Imperialism What factors gave rise to spirit of nationalism? Various factors susch as common race, language, religion, aims and aspirations, culture and shared past gave rise to nationalism. Who was the main architect of the establishment of nation state in England? The English parliament which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 was the main architect, through which a nation state with England as its centre came into being. When was the Act of Union passed and with what results? The Act of Union between England and Scotland took place in 1701. It led to the formation of United Kingdom of Great Britain. Name the leader and the state which gave leadership in Italian unification. Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Piedmont and Sardinia gave leadership in Italian unification. Mention two ways in which Europe benefitted from French rule? In the areas occupied by Napoleon the feudal system was abolished and uniform laws and standardized weights and measures were introduced. How did France benefit from the revolution? France benefitted from the revolution in the following ways: It became a republic Right to vote was given to all adult males and Right to work was guaranteed to all. Name the famous hall when Otto von Bismarck gathered to proclaim the German empire headed by Kaiser William? The Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. When were United Kingdom and Ireland united and with what results?

Ireland was united with United Kingdom in 1800. This resulted in coming into being of Great Britain and new symbol of the British flag, national anthem and English language. By the 1790s, the French armies marched into which countries? They marched into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. By which name is the Civil Code of 1804 of France known? The Napoleonic Code The Habsburg empire ruled over which area? The Habsburg empire ruled over Austria Hungary. Who were called serfs? Serfs were poor peasants who were bound to the vast estates owned by aristocrats. Where and when did the industrial revolution begin in Europe? The industrial revolution began first in England in the 2nd half of the 18th century. When and by whom and why was the Congress of Vienna held? The Congress of Vienna was held in 1815. It was hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. It was held to draw up a new settlement for Europe after the defeat of Napoleon. Where and when was the Frankfurt Parliament held? In the Church of St Paul in the city of Frankfurt the Frankfurt Parliamnet was held on 18th May, 1848. The advantages of the administrative changes brought about by Napoleon were outweighed by which things? Mention two such factors. The advantages of the administrative changes brought about by Napoleon were outweighed by: Increased taxation Censorship and Forced recruitment in the French army conscription How were aristocracy organized in 19th century Europe? The aristocracy owned large estates in the countryside and also town houses. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful group, however was numerically very small. What is meant by allegory?

When an abstract idea like freedom, liberty, envy etc. is expressed through a person or a thing, it is called an allegory. Such an expression has two meanings, one literal and other symbolic. What is the significance of Marianne? Marianne was a female allegory, which symbolized the peoples nation in France. Her statues were erected in public places to remind the people of the national symbol of unity. What area was know as the Balkans? The vast territory lying between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea comprising the modern states of Romania, Albania, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro was known as the Balkans. All these states were once the part of the Ottoman empire, and were inhabited by people broadly known as Slavs. Differentiate between modern state and nation state in Europe. Modern State Modern state had been developing in Europe for a long period before nineteenth century. In it, a centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory. Modern states were multinational dynastic empires e.g., kingdom of Austria and Hungary. Nation states came into being through diverse processes in nineteenth century Europe. E.g., Germany, Italy. Nation states are one in which the majority of its citizens and its rulers come to develop a sense of common identity and share history or descent. This commonness is forged through such as struggles, endeavour of leaders and common people, sacrifice and devotion. The first clear expression of nationalism was evident where and when in Europe? The first clear expression of nationalism was evident in France, during the French Revolution in 1789. State two important political and constitutional changes which came in the wave of the French revolution. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution of 1789 were: The French revolution gave the people the concept of nation. Transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens, i.e., National Assembly. It was the people who would constitute the nation and shape its destiny. What fuelled the French revolutionary wars? Give two reasons. French revolutionary wars were fuelled by:

Revolutionary mission to liberate the people of Europe from despotism i.e., to help other people of Europe become nations. Setting up of Jacobin clubs in different cities of Europe by students and members of educated middle class. In the eighteenth century Europe which classes formed the (i) most dominant class, (ii) majority class? Socially and politically, the landed aristocracy, though numerically a small group formed the dominant class in eighteenth century Europe. They were united, bound across regional divisions by Common way of life Were owners of large estates in the countryside and possessed town houses. Interconnectd by ties of marriage. The majority class was made up of peasants i.e., people who worked on land as tenants, small owners or serfs. What marked the difference between the landholdings of east and west Europe? The difference between eh landholdings of east and west Europe were, while in the west the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, in the eastern and central Europe the pattern of land holdings was characterized by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs (bonded labourers). List the new social groups which came into being as a result of the Industrial revolution. The new social groups which came into being as a result of the Industrial revolution were: Working class population and Middle class made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals. Give two reasons why the ideology of liberalism and nationalism were late in developing in central and eastern Europe. The ideology of liberalism and nationalism were late in developing in central and eastern Europe because: In central and eastern Europe, industrialization began only in the late nineteenth century. Social groups like working class and educated middles class were smaller in number. It was among the educated liberal middle class that ideas of national unity and liberalism gained popularity and since this class grew later in central and eastern Europe, the ideology of liberalism and nationalism also developed later as compared to Britian and western Europe.

Who was characterized a revolutionary in the years following 1815? Give two characteristics. To be a revolutionary in the years following 1815 meant: Commitment to oppose monarchical forms established after the Congress of Vienna. To fight for liberty and freedom and To work towards creation of nation states. Name : An Italian revolutionary. Society of which he was a member. Society founded by him. Italian revolutionary - Guiseppe Mazzini

Society of which he was a member Carbonari ( a secret society ) Society founded: Young Italy in Marseilles Young Europe in Berne The most dangerous enemy of social order. Who said these works for whom? Why? Give two reasons. These words were spoken by Metternich, the Chancellor of Austria. They were spoken in reference to Guiseppe Mazzini (Italian revolutionary). Why: Because of Mazzinis relentless opposition to monarcy and Mazzinis vision of democratic republics. These ideas frightened conservatives, more so Metternich, because he was stubbornly hostile to all liberal hopes. What distinguished the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 from other risings of 1820s? what was similar? Distinguishing Features: unlike the other risings of 1820s:

The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 were liberal revolts led by broader elements of the wealthy middle class. They were primarily protests against the rigidities and shortcomings of the conservative policies adopted since 1815. Common: What they had in common with other uprisings of 1820s was a desire to bring governments into closer relationship with society, as society had developed to that date. Give some symbols used by the French revolutionaries to signify Liberty. Broken chain, Red cap Cockade and Tricolor flag equality before law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage in nineteenth century Europe. Give reasons. Reasons: In revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and get elected were granted exclusively to property owning men. Only during the brief Jacobin rule, did all adult males enjoy suffrage. Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century women and non propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal property rights.

Secret societies sprang up during the years following 1815. Give reasons. Name two such societies. Secret societies sprang up during the years following 1815 because:

Fear of repression by conservative regimes drove many liberal nationalists underground. To train revolutionaries in other European states and spread their ideas.

Examples : Carbonari Young Italy Young Europe. IV. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS V. The initial enthusiasm towards French armies soon turned to hostility? Give reasons. VI. Or VII. Why was Napoleonic rule over other regions unpopular with some sections of the people? VIII. Initially in many places like Holland and Switzerland the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. The administrative changes gave peasants, artisans, small businessmen a new freedom. But the French imperialistic designs outweighted the advantages following these changes: IX. Factors: X. Areas occupied by the French armies were made subservient to the French needs. XI. Increased taxation. XII. Censorship. XIII. Forced conscription into French armies to conquer other lands. XIV. The new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. XV. In Europe of mid eighteenth century there were no nation states. Comment. XVI. There were no nation states in mid eighteenth century Europe as we know them today. XVII.Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. XVIII. Eastern and central Europe were territorial kingdoms under autocratic monarchies. XIX. The Habsburg Empire was a patch work of regions and people. XX. The people of these territorial states did not share a common identity or common culture. XXI. They often spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups e.g., Habsburg empire. XXII. How did revolutionary ideas spread to other countries? XXIII. The French revolutionary ideas not only spreads to other countries but also inspired the oppressed people with liberal ideas. XXIV. How: XXV.French revolutionaries clearly state it was their mission to liberate not only the French people but also people of all parts of Europe from despotism. XXVI. Jacobin clubs. XXVII. With the outbreak of French revolutionary wars, the French armies carried the ideas of nationalism. XXVIII. Napoleon, when he conquered large areas indirectly contributed to creating a feeling of oneness by his uniform administrative system and civil code. He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from bondage. XXIX. Growth of industrialization changed the social and political equation in Europe. Discuss.

XXX. Industrialization brought about considerable change in the socio political sphere. XXXI. Western and central parts of Europe witnessed rapid growth leading to growth of towns and cities and a strong commercial class whose existence and prosperity was based on production for the market. XXXII. It resulted in the emergence of a working class population and a prosperous new middle class comprising of industrialists, businessmen and professionals. XXXIII. It was the new middle - class educated, prosperous and liberal which resented the aristocratic privileges and among whom the liberal ideas grew and struck roots. XXXIV. Imbued with the liberal ideas, the educated middle class demanded freedom of individuals, press, equality of rights and equality before law. XXXV. All these changes had a great impact on society and political life of the people. XXXVI. Politically they emphasized representative government based on consent of the citizens and governance by constitution. XXXVII. In economic sphere they opposed restrictions by state and advocated freedom of markets. XXXVIII. XXXIX. What was the Zollverin? XL. Under whose initiative was it formulated? XLI. What were its wider implications? XLII. XLIII. (i) & (ii) Zollverin was the customs unions formed among 17 German states, under the initiative of Prussia in 1834. XLIV. Implications: XLV. It removed artificial impediments to German economic integration and prosperity. XLVI. Zollverin was representative of German liberalism as understood by middle and professional classes and a forerunner to national liberalism. XLVII. Zollverin led to the growth of a new class of entrepreneurs who gave the much needed social backing to the new drive for national integration. XLVIII. Give four features of new conservatism after 1815. XLIX. Features: L. Conservatives believed the established traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, church, social hierarchies, private property and family should be preserved. LI. They did not, however, propose to return to society of pre revolutionary days. They realized modernization initiated by Napoleon could be used to make state power more effective and strong. LII. Efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy and abolition of feudalism could strengthen autocratic monarchies of Europe. LIII. The new conservative regimes were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism or dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. LIV. Briefly discuss the provision of the Treaty of Vienna. LV. Treaty of Vienna in 1815 was made by the Big Five, representatives of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, powers which had collectively defeated Napoleon and France.

LVI. Resorted the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and created a new conservative order in Europe. E.g., Bourbon dynasty in France. LVII. France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. LVIII. A series of strong states were set up on the boundaries of France, to contain it and prevent French expansion in future. E.g., Kingdom of Netherlands which included Belgium, was set up in the north, and Genoa added to Piedmont in the south. LIX. Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austrian was given control of northern Italy. LX. In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony. LXI. It sought to maintain a balance of power in Europe so as to prevent any one power from demanding too large an area in Europe. LXII. It underestimated the dynamism of nationalism. Territories such as Norway, Belgium and Finland were used as pawns, regardless of the wishes of their inhabitants. LXIII. Give four factors which contributed to the great economic hardships in 1830s in Europe. LXIV. Factors which contributed to the great economic hardships of the 1830s in Europe were: LXV. Enormous increase in population leading to unemployment in most countries. There were more seekers of job than employment. LXVI. Migration of population from rural to urban areas. LXVII. Imports of cheap machine made textile goods displaced many who were engaged in textile production in homes or small workshops. LXVIII. In central and eastern Europe where aristocracy still enjoyed privileges, peasants struggled due to feudal dues and obligations. LXIX. Bad harvests and rising food prices added to pauperism of towns and country. LXX. What were the two main political, social and economic consequences of the revolution of 1848? LXXI. Consequences of the revolution of 1848 : LXXII. Events of February 1848 in France brought about the abdication of the monarch Louis Phillipe and France proclaimed a republic based on universal male suffrage. LXXIII. In Europe it marked the end of the rule of Metternich and secured the overthrow of his system which had prevailed since 1815. LXXIV. Its greatest social and economic consequences was to destroy feudalism. Thus serfdom and bonded laobaur were abolished, both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia. LXXV. More autonomy was granted by the Habsburg rulers to the Hungarians in 1867. LXXVI. LXXVII. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS LXXVIII. Metternich once remarked when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold. Discuss this statement in reference to the July revolution of 1830. LXXIX. Metternich made this statement because: LXXX. The upheaval in France in July 1830 which led to the overthrow of the Bourbon dynasty and installation of constitutional monarchy under Louis Phillipe had repercussions all over Europe.

LXXXI. It sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands. LXXXII. Developments in France influenced Greek war of independence which began the 1821 against the Ottoman empire. Nationalists of Greece mustered support, won sympathies and immobilized public opinion among liberal nationalists in Western Europe. Finally by the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832, Greece was recognized as an independent state. LXXXIII. The ripples of the revolution spread throughout the lands of central Europe and even to the cantons of Switzerland. LXXXIV. In the German confederation, likewise, local revolts occurred and the success compelled to grant a more liberal constitution. LXXXV. In Italy, while the insurrections were crushed, the revolution of 1830 gave birth to the movement for national regeneration. LXXXVI. In Poland revolution in the form of an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place but it was crushed with a heavy hand and Poland was subjected to severe repression for another generation. LXXXVII. Distinguish between revolutions of 1830 and 1848. LXXXVIII. Unlike the revolutions of 1830 the revolutions of 1848 were marked by two different kinds of popular insurrections. Those in France, Switzerland and disturbances in Britain and Belgium were democratic protests borne out of political frustrations, due to the inadequacies and exclusiveness of middle class governments. They demanded social and democratic reforms. LXXXIX. Most of the revolutions in Italy, Germany, Austria and Hungary were nationalistic and popular insurrections against foreign rules. They were against the repressive policy of Metternich and his allies which kept aspirations for national unification and constitutionalism at bay. XC. In 1848, unlike 1830 there were two storm centres namely, France and Italy and the greater was that of Italy than France. XCI. Another distinguishing factor is the list of countries which escaped the 1848 revolution. In Britain and Belgium there were disturbances, the revolution did not occur in Poland and Russia. The Revolution was pre eminently central European events. They happened in territories of Germany, Switzerland and Italy and peasant countries of the Balkans. XCII. The revolutions of 1848 were in origin and impetus the work of towns e.g. in London nad Birmingham. Paris and Brussels, Rome and Berlin, Vienna and Budapest. XCIII. Leadership came from intellectuals, university professors and students, journalists and poets. XCIV. Describe the four stages of unification of Germany. XCV.German unification stages: XCVI. Administrative XCVII. Economic XCVIII. Nationalistic and cultural movements XCIX. Political C. Briefly trace the process of Italian unification.

CI. Like Germany, Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. By 1871, Italys political unification was complete. The mantle of Italian unification fell on King of Sardinia Piedmont and its chief architect was Cavour, the chief minister of King Victor Emmannuel II of Sardinia piedmont. CII. Italian Unification was a result of diplomatic alliances and series of diplomatic moves, military events and astute calculations of Cavour and support of Guiseppe Garibaldi. CIII. The north under Austrian Habsburg was acquired by Cavour through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and by defeat of Austrian forces in 1859. CIV. Guiseppe Garibaldi with armed volunteers acquired the southern kingdom of Italy and two Sicilies by driving out the Spanish rulers in the famous expedition of the Thousand of South Italy. CV. In 1861, only Venetia and the Papal city of Rome remained unincorporated. These were added in 1866 and 1870 as a result of Bismarcks defeats of Austria and France. CVI. As with Germany, strong nationalist feeling were widespread among the ruling elites of the region and middle class Italians. Though failed, as early as 1830s, Guiseppe Mazzini, founder of a secret society called YOUNG ITALY sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. CVII.Homogeneity of language, strong nationalist cultural movements, growth of rail roads and possibility of economic development and political dominance all were factors which prepared the ground for Italian unification prior to it becoming a reality. 4. Give four important factors which led to the growth of nationalism in nineteenth century in Europe. Apart from wars and territorial expansion, other factors which played a vital role in the development of nationalist spirit and in nations in nineteenth century Europe were: Romanticism: Romanticism as a cultural movement focused on involving and mystical feelings instead of reason and science to develop nationalist sentiment. They helped create a sense of collective heritage and cultural past as part of nation building through use of folk songs, dances, music, and folklore. Romantics such as Johann Gottfried claimed true German culture was to be discovered among the common people das volk. Emphasis on vernacular language and music helped keep alive nationalist feeling and carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterates e.g., in Poland Karl Kurpunski celebrated the national struggle through his opera and music. After Russian occupation of Poland, use of Polish language became a symbol of Polish struggle against Russian domination. Growth of new social groups belonging to the educated middle class, constituting professors, school teachers, clerks and business man. it was this class which belonged to liberal nationalist thinking and led the revolutions. Growth of the printing press: With the print revolution, a new reading public emerged. The hearing and reading public become intermingled. It enabled wide circulation of ideas of enlightened thinkers and introduced, a new world of debate and discussion on tradition and despotism. It opened up the possibility of thinking differently and moved people to action. Hunger and Hardships: The 1830s were years of great economic hardship, enormous increase in population, unemployment aggravated by migrant population from rural areas, imports of cheap machine made goods from England, peasant misery due to feudal dues, food shortages, rise in food

prices, bad harvests and condemnation of society based on privileges all added to the frustrations, and revolutionary thinking and revolutions. 5. How has French artist Frederic Sorrieu visualized in his first print, of the aeries of 4 prints, his dream of a world made up of democratic and secular republics? explain. The French artist Frederic Sorrieu visualized: (i) People of Europe and America men and women of all ages and classes marching in a long chain and offering homage to the statue of liberty as they pass it. (ii) On the earth, in the foreground, are depicted shattered remains of symbols of absolutist monarchies. (iii) Though there were no nation states, as we know them today, Sorrieu has grouped the people of the world as distinct nations, identified by their flags, and costumes. (iv) Leading the procession are the states of United States and Switzerland, which were already nations at that time. (v) After the French Revolution liberty was imagined as a female figure, so in the depiction the statue of liberty is a female figure who holds the torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other. 6. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe. Justify the statement with four examples. (i) Art and poetry, stories and music, helped express and shape nationalistic feelings. (ii) Romanticism, a cultural movement focused on emotions, institutions and mystical feelings. Romantic artists for example, Eugene Delocroix through his painting The massacre at Chios sought to appeal to the emotions of spectators and create sympathy for the Greeks. By highlighting the shared past, collective heritage and cultural past, romanticism sought to develop a form of nationalist sentiments. (iii) Through use of folk songs and folk poetry, folk dances, the true spirit of nationalism was popularized. Example: Karol Kurpunski of Poland turned folk dances like Polonaise and Mazurka through his operas into nationalist symbols. (iv) By use of vernacular language and folklore ancient national spirit was revived and modern nationalist message spread among large audiences. Example: Grimms Fairy Tales. 7. The Treaty of Vienna gave a setback to the process of nationalism. Justify the statement with examples. Points: (i) Bourban dynasty which was deposed during the French revolution was restorted to power. (ii) The Big five showed total disregard for national sentiments of others; in order to ensure France did not try to resume expansionist policies. Example: Austria was given control of northern part of Italy. East Russia was given part of Poland, while Prussia was given part of Saxony. (iii) Territories such as Norway, Finland and Belgium were used as pawns regardless of the wishes of the inhabitants. (iv) Restored monarchies created a conservative order in Europe. 8. The French Revolution signified the first clear expression of nationalism in France. Justify the statement. Points:

(i) The French flag, the tri colour replaced the formal royal standard. (ii) Estates General was elected by a body of native citizens and renamed the National Assembly. (iii) A centralized administrative system was put in place. Uniform laws for all citizens within the territory were formulated. (iv) As per the constitution, equal rights were given to all its citizens.

ACTIVITIES 1. In what way do you think this print depicts a utopian vision? ( textbook page 3 ) The print prepared by Frederic Sorrieu depicits a Utopian vision because: (i) In Europe there were no nation states as we know them today only modern states. Germany and Italy were divided into kingdoms whose rulers had their autonomous territories. What existed at that time were multinational dynastic empires. They became nation states only in 1871. (ii) Liberty as depicted by the statute of liberty was a far cry. There were autocratic monarchies, within the territories of which lived diverse people. The only ties binding them were common allegiance to the emperors. (iii) Fraternity or brotherhood among kingdoms was also nowhere to be seen. Each kingdom aimed at political domination of Europe, rivalries and imperial designs finally resulted in two World Wars and mass destruction. 2. (i) Describe the caricature (ii) How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament? (iii) What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey? (textbook page 20) (i) The caricature depicts Otto Von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany as holding a whip, while leading the parliament. The elected deputies are hiding under their tables fearful of his wrath. Bismarck is depicted as ruthless, with a strength of purpose, a man who ruled with an iron hand. (ii) The caricature depicts the predominance of Bismarck, and the elected deputies as subordinates. It depicts Bismarck as a determined reactionary, who dispised liberalism and parliamentary assemblies. (iii) The artist is trying to covey how shallow were the roots of constitutionalism and superficial the democratic process. 3. The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the King of Sardinia Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making? ( page 22 ) The caricature is trying to represent while King of Sardinia Piedmont Victor Emmanuel II held on to an entered through the Northern states of Itlay Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples which constituted the southern states. Multiple Choice Questions This of the following artists depicted a world made up of democratic and social republics?

1.

a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d.

Karl Kaspar Fritz Eugene Delacroix Frederic Sorrieu Lorenz Clasen The French revolutionaries sought to create A new nation A sense of collective responsibility A republic Universal adult franchise What was the end result of 19th century nationalism? Emergence of nation states Modern state Multidynastic empires Absolutist monarchies Which of the following was not among the measures adopted by French revolutionaries to create a collective identity? Ideas of la patrie and le citoyen Tricolor flag Regional dialects were encouraged Hymns composed The Habsburgs were rulers of Austria Hungary Dutch republic Germany Switzerland Which of the following was not a feature of liberal ideology in the political sphere? Freedom of the individual Equality of all before law Government by consent Violability of private property Liberalism in the economic sphere did not entail. Freedom of markets Abolition of state imposed restrictions on good Abolition of restrictions on movement of capital Feudal privileges Which customs union formed in 1834? Collectivization Zollverein European economic union Napoleonic code

9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d.

Which of the following was the implication of the Zollverein? Abolished tariff barriers Reduced number of currencies from 30 to 2 Economically bound Germans into a nation Stimulated mobility The new social group of the middle classes was made up of Working class population Industrialists and professionals Nobility and businessmen Clergy and aristocracy Which of the following was not a feature of Romanticism? Glorification of reason and science Focused on emotions and intuitions Believed true culture was to be discovered among das volk Sought to popularize true spirit of the nation through folk songs, poetry, music The Act of Union (1707) was between England and France England and Wales England and Ireland England and Scotland Which of the following societies was founded by Giuseppe Mazzini in Marsilles? Carbonari Young Italy Young Europe Jacobin Club Which of the following celebrated national struggle through Polonaise and Mazurka? Karol Kurpinski Johann Gottfried Grimm Brothers Eugene Delacroix The Frankfurt Parliament was convened on 8th May 1848 18th May 1848 18th May 1884 18th June 1848 The Frankfurt Parliament was convened in 1848 at The hall of mirrors The church of St Pauls The Indoor Tennis Court The Bastille

17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. 22. a. b. c. d. 23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d.

Italy was unified under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel II Louis Phillipe Duke Metternich Kaiser William I The treaty of Vienna was signed in 1812 1816 1815 1805 Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna? Britain Russia Prussia Switzerland Which treaty recognized Greece as an independent nation? Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Vienna Treaty of Constantinople Treaty of Lausanne Who said these words when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold? Bismarck Mazzini Metternich Garibaldi Which area was known as the powder keg of Europe? Ottoman Empire Italy Balkans Germany Who was responsible for the unification of Germany? Bismarck Garibaldi Cavour Mazzini In which of the following years Unification of Germany was achieved? 1856 1871 1860 1871 1866 1871 1865 1871

25. a. b. c. d. 26. a. b. c. d. 27. a. b. c. d. 28. a. b. c. d.

Find the odd one out Cavour Bismarck Garibaldi Mazzini Find the odd one out Carbonari Young Italy Jacobins Young Europe Who among the following was known as Bismarck of Italy? Camillo de Cavour Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Garibaldi Louis Philippe The other name for Napoleonic code was The Napoleonic Code of 1802 The Civil code of 1819 The Civil code of 1804 The Napoleonic Code of 1809

KEY 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. A 6. D 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. B 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. B 16. B 17. A

18. C 19. D 20. C 21. C 22. C 23. A 24. C 25. B 26. C 27. C 28. C