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<a href=AglaSem School bbbUQks bUQks sfVDl iiiiiss zfDVl sl&2 bUQks UQks UQks ZeZeZeZeZesfVDl sfVDl sfVDl sfVDl zfDVlsl&2 sl&2 sl&2 sl&2 zfDVl s zfDVl ss zfDVl ddd{kk d{kk {kk d{kk {kk XII la;k la;k lla;k la;k a;kstdstdstdstdstd %%%%% MMMkW- MkW- uhjt MkW- kW- uhjt HkkxZoZoZoZo kW- uhjt uhjt Hkkx uhjt Hkkx HkkxZo Hkkx ,lkfl; s sV~ izksQslj o foHkkxk/;{k] dEI;wVj foKku foHkkx egf"kZ n;kuUn ljLorh fo’ofo|ky;] vtesj yyyyys[kdx.k s[kdx.k s[kdx.k s[kdx.k %%%%% s[kdx.k vvvt; vt; vt; flgaa a aa xk t; flg xksM+ sM+ sMsM+ sM+ + t; flg flg flg xk xk xk MMMk Mk Mkkk W-W-W-W-W- fjr HkkxZoZoZoZo fjr fjr fjrqq q qq Hkkx fjr Hkkx HkkxZo Hkkx ,lkfl; s sV~ izksQlj s o foHkkxk/;{k] dEI;wVj foKku foHkkx izoDrk Vh-ts-,l- dkWyst vkWQ vkbZ-Vh-] dkVk s efgyk bathfu;fjax dkWyst] vtesj uuuusgk usgk sgk ’kekZZ Z ZZ sgk sgk ’kek ’kek ’kek ’kek iiiiwj.k iwj.k wj.k flgaa a aa wj.k wj.k flg flg flg flg izoDrk izoDrk lksfQ;k dkWyst] vtesj dqpkeu dkWyst] dqpkeu iiiizQizQzQzQzQ qYyqYyqYyqYyqYy u:dk u:dk u:dk u:dk u:dk ioDrk z vxoky z dkWyst] esM+rk ek/;fed f’k{kk ck ek/;fed ek/;fed ek/;fed f’k{kk ek/;fed f’k{kk cksMZ sMZ sMsMsMZ ZZ jktLFkku] vte f’k{kk f’k{kk ck ck ck jktLFkku] jktLFkku] jktLFkku] vtesjsjsjsjsj jktLFkku] vte vte vte jjjktdh; jktdh; fo|ky;kss s aa ss a aa eeeeess s ssaa a aa fu%’kqYd forj.k gggggsrsrsrsrsrqq q qq jktdh; ktdh; fo|ky;k ktdh; fo|ky;k fo|ky;k fo|ky;k fu%’kqYd fu%’k fu%’kqYdqYd forj.k fu%’kqYd forj.k forj.k forj.k " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">
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Open Source Software(OSS)
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Database Concept
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46 - 69
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Advance Concept of Visual Basic
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v/;k;
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124 - 159
PL/SQL
v/;k; 6 ih- ,y-@,l- D;q- ,y- dh vk/kfud
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160 - 180
Advance Concept of PL/SQL

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

1

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ekuo thou ds lexz bfrgkl esa foKku vkSj dyk dk fodkl] dYiuk] fl)kUrka]s vulq a/kku]
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gks ikrkA
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lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j dEI;Vj w Kku dks ijk/khurk l s LoPNanrk dh vksj y s tkus okyk ,d vfr fof'k"V
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vU; 'kCnkas esa] vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j dks fuEufyf[kr rhu vis{kkvksa dk vuqlj.k djuk pkfg,A
1- forfjr fd, x, lkW¶Vo;j s dk iqufoZrj.k fcuk fdlh izfrcU/k ds fd;k tk,A
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O;fDr@ny mlesa bPNkuqlkj cnyko dj lkW¶Vo;j s dks :ikarfjr dj vius mi;qDr cuk ldsA

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tk,A

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

2

vvvk vk vkkksiusiusiusiusiu lk lk lk lk lkslslslZ slslZZ ZZ lkW¶Vo s;j dddddss s ss ykHk
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fo'ks"khd`r la'kks/kuks a dh vko';drk gksrh gS ftlls fd lkW¶Vo;j s fof'k"V vis{kkvksa dks ifjr w djus

esa l{ke gks ik,A vvvk vk vkkksiusiusiusiusiu lk lk lk lk lkslslslZ slslZZ ZZ lkW¶Vo lkW¶Vo
esa l{ke gks ik,A vvvk vk vkkksiusiusiusiusiu lk lk lk lk lkslslslZ slslZZ ZZ lkW¶Vo lkW¶Vo lkW¶Vo lk lkW¶Vo W¶Vos;j s;j s;j s;j s;j ;g lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, NSA
(National Security Agency) us Lo;a dk ljf{kr q ykbZuDl izk:i r;kj S fd;k gSA
222- 2--- 2- Cost effectiveness : OSS ds mi;ksx l s ykblals Qhl lxBuk sa dks eqfDr fey tkrh gSA
bl cpr dk s laxBu viuk ewyHkwr lqfo/kkvksa dks lqn<` + dju s esa yxk ldrk gSA
33333 ----- iiik ik ikkksVsVsVsVsVZsfcfyVh ZsfcfyVh Z sfcfyVh% ZZ sfcfyVh sfcfyVh OSS IysVQkeZ bUMisaMsUV gkrs s gSA ;s dbZ rjg ds gkMZos;j vkSj lkW¶Vos;j ij
dke dj ldr s gSAa fdlh fof’k"V lkWQ~Vos;j dk iz;ksx djus ds fy, fdlh fof’k"V gkMZos;j ;k
lkW¶Vos;j IysVQkeZ dh vko’;drk ls ge eqDr gksrs gAaS
444- 4- ykblsUlsUlsUlsUlsUl % OSS GNU tujy ifCyd ykbllsa (GPL) ds varxZr ithd`r
4--- ykbl
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lkW¶Vos;j dks Lor=a lkW¶Vos;j Hkh dgr s gSA
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W¶Vo
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gSA OSS fdlh ,d dEiuh }kjk fufeZr ugh a gksrkA ;g rk s ,d leLr leqnk; ds ;ksxnku l s fufeZr
gksrk gS vkSj ;g dbZ ¶yols Z esa miyC/k gkrk s gSA
mnkgj.k d s fy,] fyuDl vkUnkyu s ,d O;fDr l s 'k:q gqvk] ftleas tYn gh db Z ikz xs kej z tMq r+ s
pys x,A bu izksxzkej u]s tks fo'o ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa ls Fk]s baVjuVs dk mi;kxs dj] ,d lkFk feydj
dk;Z fd;k vkSj fyuDl & ,d Js"B vksiu lkslZ IyVQkeZ s dh jpuk dhA
blh izdkj vksiu lksl Z lkW¶Vos;j dh fofHkUu ifj;ktukvk s sa ij dk;Z gks pqdk gS vksj vU; dbZ
dk;kZfUor gk s jgh gaSA ;g ifj;kstuk,¡ fodklijd gSa vkSj budk dkbs Z ifjHkkf"kr vUr ugha gkrkA s dbZ
'kSf{kd ifj;kstukvks a esa tSls fo'ofo|ky; vulq a/kku lqfo/kk,¡] dbZ cqfu;knh ifj;ktukvk s sa esa tSls
vksijsfVax flLVe] ,sfIyds'ku lkW¶Vo;j] s database dk fuekZ.k vkSj gtkjkas fof'k"V :i ls dke vkus
okyh ifj;kstukvks a es a vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j dk iz;ksx gks jgk gSA
FLOSS/FOSS (Free / Libre Open Source Software / Free & Open Source Software) :
FOSS og dEI;wVj lkW¶Vos;j gS tks fd izksxzkelZ ds vukSipkfjd legw ds lgdk;Z ls fufeZr
gkrk s gSA bu lkW¶Vo;j s dk lkslZ dksM ykblsal fu%'kqYd gkrk s gS vr% ;g :ikUrj.k vkSj lq/kkj dks
iz sfjr djrs gS aA
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lkW¶Vos;j dk vFk Z lgdk;Z ls fufeZr lkW¶Vos;j ls gSA FOSS tks fd nksuksa gh ifjiz s{; ds xq.kksa
¼Qk;nks a½ dks lekfo"V djrk gS] O;kid Lohd`fr vftZr dj jgk gSA
FOSS ds dqN mnkgj.k % ykbuDl Operating Sysem, OpenOffice.org tks fd Microsoft
Office ds leku gS] MySQL tks fd Open Source MkVkcls eSutes s UV flLVe g]S buds vfrfjDr Hkh

dbZ FOSS fufeZr gks pqds gSa vkSj lQyrkioZdw

jg s gASa

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GNU :

GNU, GNUs Not Unix dk iqujkorhZ vkfnof.kZd 'kCn gAS

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

3

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dk s fjpM Z LVkWyeSu }kjk MIT eas ?kksf"kr dh xbZ FkhA bl ifj;ktuk s dk y{; Fkk] i;kZIr Ýh lkW¶Vo;j s
cukuk ftlls fdlh izksikbVsjh lkW¶Vo;j s ds fcuk bLrseky fd;k tk ldsA tuojh] 1984 esa GNU
vkij s fVs xa flLVe d s fuek.k Z dh igy gbq AZ 1992 ea s bl y{; dh ifrw Z gbq Z tc fyuDl duZy dk s GNU
dk vk/kkj cuk;k x;kA blfy, dbZ oSKkfud ekurs gS a fd bl OS dks GNU / Linux ;k GNU
Linux OS dgk tkuk pkfg,A
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vknku&iznku djukA
FSF - Free Software Foundation
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laLFkkfir dh xbZ FkhA bl laLFkk dk y{; gS] Ýh lkW¶Vos;j vkanksyu tk s ,d dkWfiys¶V&vk/kkfjr
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s

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bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 4 OSI - Open Source Initiative OSI ,d ykHk&fujis{k laLFkk gS tks vksiu lkslZ
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OSI - Open Source Initiative
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;g laLFkk Qjojh] 1998 esa czwl isjUl vksj ,fjd jse.M }kjk xfBr dh xbZ FkhA
vkius lkls Z dk eyw fl)kUr cMk+ gh ljy gAS tc dbZ ikz sxkez fo'o d s fofHkUu Hkkxka s l]s bVju a sV
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mlesa nk"k s fudkyrs gS a] mudk fuokj.k djr s gSa vkSj ;g lc bruh 'kh?kzrk ls gkrk s gS ftldh ge
ijEijkxr] :f<xr + lkW¶Vos;j fuekZ.k i)fr ls dYiuk Hkh ugha dj ldrsA bl Rofjr mUeqDr
fodklewyd izfØ;k ls] ikjEifjd lhfer izfØ;k dh ryuk q esa dgh a mUur lkW¶Vos;j curs gS aA OSI
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6

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gh ns'kkas esa cksyh vkSj le>h tkrh gSA lkW¶Vo;j s esa Hkk"kk ds cU/ku ds dkj.ko'k dEI;wVj foKku vkSj
lkW¶Vo;j s dk mi;ksx lhfer gk s x;k gSA bl Hkk"kk dh lhek dks rksM+ dj gh dEI;Vj w dks tu lkekU;
ds fy, mi;ksxh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
Localisation ;k LFkkuh;dj.k vUrjk"Vªh; lkW¶Vo;j s dk s LFkku ;k Hkk"kk fof'k"V d s vuqdyw cukus
dh izfØ;k gSA ;g Hkk"kk ds vuqokn vkSj LFkkuh; ?kVdkas ds lkW¶Vos;j esa leko'k s ls laHko gSA
UNICODE (Universal / Uniform / Unique Character Encoding) :
lkW¶Vos;j ds LFkkuh;dj.k ds fy, lkW¶Vos;j dk LFkkuh; Hkk"kk esa izLrqrhdj.k vfuok;Z gSA gj
Hkk"kk dk ,d laizrhd leqPp; (character set) gksrk gS ftlesa ml Hkk"kk dk gj la[;k] gj v{kj

lfEefyr gksrk gSA

UNICODE ,d ,dy v{kj ladsru i)fr (character oncoding scheme) gS tk s gj Hkk"kk ds

gj v{kj dks gj IyVQkeZ

s

ds fy, lfEefyr djrh gSA

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

character set 256

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

7

character dk lds a ru dj ldrk gSA tcfd UNICODE set dgh a vf/kd la[;k esa v{kjkas dk lds a ru

dj ldrk gSA UNICODE orZeku dh eq[;r% lkjh thfor Hkk"kkvksa vkSj oSKkfud fpUgkas dks

lfEefyr djrk gS tSls vjfcd] s caxyk] fgUnh] Ýsap] bVSfy;u] tkikuht] rfey] rsyxq vkfnA dbZ

vkSj yxkrkj tqM+ jgh gSaA OSS dh tkudkjh izkIr djus ds i'pkr~ vc dqN OSS dk
vkSj yxkrkj tqM+ jgh gSaA
OSS dh tkudkjh izkIr djus ds i'pkr~ vc dqN OSS dk v/;;u djrs gASa
1- Linux : fyuDl ,d Ýh ;qfuDl dh rjg dk Operating System gS tk s ey:i w lss Linus
Torvalds }kjk fufeZr gS ftlesa nqfu;k&Hkj ds MoyilZ u s lg;ksx fd;kA ;g lkW¶Vos;j GNU
General Public License (GPL) ds vUrxZr fufeZr gS vkSj bldk lkslZ dksM lHkh dk s Lora=rk ls
miyC/k gSA
orZeku es a lSdM
a
+ks dEifu;k¡ vkSj laxBu vkSj brus gh ,dy MoyilZ us fyuDl es a vius
vu:i w l'kk a /kus dj blds dbZ izk:i (versions) foeksfpr fd, gASa
Linus Torvalds
fyuDl Lor=rk a ls forfjr gksus ds lkFk&lkFk] fyuDl dh dk;kRedrk] Z vuqdwyuh;rk vkSj
et+cwrh u s fyuDl dk s izksizkbVjh ;fuDl q vkSj ekbØkslk¶Vs Operating System ds fodYi ds rkSj ij
LFkkfir fd;k gSA fyuDl dk mi;ksx ?kj vkSj vkWfQl MsLdVkis Operating System o loZj
Operating System eas dkQh gk s jgk gAS fyuDl Operating System dk s ekbØksfpi eas lfUufgr fd;k
tk ldrk gS vkjs blh :i esa ;g Operating System dbZ midj.kksa vkSj ;a=kas esa Hkh bLreky s gk s jgk
gSA vkiuvkWQhl s .org, eksft+yk osc czkmt+j vksj dbZ mi;ksxh ,fIyds'ku lkW¶Vo;j s fyuDl ds lkFk
mi;ksx yk, tkr s gS aA fyuDl dk bLVk a ys s'ku Hkh vklku gS vkSj mldk j[k&j[kko HkhA
VVVDl
VDl
VDlDlDl

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

8

fyuDl dk 'kHk q dj a irhd] z ,d fyuDl iUxfou] s VDl gSA fyuDl u s vxLr] 1991 l s tc Linus

Torvalds us bls fufeZr fd;k Fkk l ss vc rd cgqr izxfr dh gSA ,dy MsoyilZ] fo'ofo|ky; ds

Nk=k]sa laxBukas us viuh t:jrksa ds eqrkfcd fyuDl dks la'kksf/kr fd;k vkSj ;gha ls fyuDl ds

^fMLVªhC;w'kUl* dk tUe gqvkA fyuDl ds lSdMk+ s distributions miyC/k gS vkSj dbZ vU; yxkrkj cu
^fMLVªhC;w'kUl* dk tUe gqvkA
fyuDl ds lSdMk+ s distributions miyC/k gS vkSj dbZ vU; yxkrkj cu jgsa gS aA fyuDl
fMLVªhC;w'kUl ds dqN mnkgj.k] Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu Linux Boss (Bharat Operating System
Solutions) tks fd Hkkjr esa CDA }kjk fufeZr gqvk gS] PC quest linux vkSj dbZ vU;A
ljdkj vkSj O;olk; uhao ifj;kstukvksa esa fyuDl dks fuEufyf[kr dkj.kksa ls mi;kxh s
ekur s gaS %
1- eeeYVhIy eYVhIy sVQkeZ ZZ leFkZu
eYVhIy
YVhIysVQke sVQke sVQkeZ sVQkeZ leFkZuZuZu % O;olk; vkSj ljdkjsa le; ds lkFk ,dkf/kd gkMZos;j architec-
YVhIy
leFkZu
leFk
leFk
ture ij lkW¶Vo;j s ds mi;ksx dh Hkwfedk le> jgs gS aA mnkgj.k ds fy, linux lsy Qksu ls lqij
dEI;Vj w rd lHkh hardware platforms ij pyk;k tk ldrk gSA bl rjg dk yphykiu] dkWikjs sV
;k foHkkxh; foy; gsrq] lqj{kk vko';drkvksa gsrq ;k vU; fdlh fo'ks"k dkj.kksa ls] vfuok;Z gSA
2- lllllqj{kk
qj{kk
qj{kk
qq
j{kk % dqN O;olk;kas vkSj ljdkjksa dk ekuuk gS fd] OSS dksM dh varfufgr
j{kk
Z
;kf=dh
a
ns[kus
d s fy, l{ke dj jg s gSa ftll s dkMs dh fo'oluh;rk vkjS lj{kk q eas mudk fo'okl c<rk + gSA fyuDl
viuh ifjiDork vkSj eq[; lkW¶Vo;j s foØsrkvksa ds 'kkfey gksus dh otg ls vf/kd lqjf{kr gS D;ksafd
lqj{kk esa pwd vkSj =qfV;ksa dks <w<+us vkSj gy dju s d s fy, cMh+ l[;k a esa fo'oHkj esa MsoyilZ bVju a sV
ds tfj, feytqy dj dke dj jgs gaAS
3- fffyuDl
fyuDl
fyuDl
yuDl
yuDl ,d,d,d,d,d vkfFk
vkfFk vkfFk vkfFk vkfFkZdZdZdZdZd fodkl ds ds dd s s lk/ku ds ds ds ds :i
fodkl
fodkl
fodkl
fodkl ds lk/ku
lk/ku
lk/ku
lk/ku ds :i
:i
:i
:i eees ee sasa a sasa % fodkl'khy n'kk s sa esa OSS dk mi;ksx
dj ?kjsyw lkW¶Vos;j mn~;kxs dks izksRlkgu fey jgk gSA LFkkuh; dkjkckfjd s xfrfof/k;ksa esa OSS
lkW¶Vos;j ds bLrseky ls rsth vkrh gSA fo'o “j dh ljdkjas fyuDl ;ksX;rk dsUnkz sa dh LFkkiuk]
dkS'ky fodkl vkSj fuos'k ds fy, dsUn z fcUnw ds :i esa dk;Z dj jgh gSaA
vkb,] vc ge dqN fyuDl dh dek.Ml dh dk;Z iz.kkyh n[k s sa &
fyuDl dk Qkby ljpuk a ¼LVªDpj½ fuEu izdkj dk gksrk gSA
lsEiy fyuDl dk Qkby LVªDpj

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

9

fyuDl ds funsZ’kksa dks Terminal esa $ prompt ds ckn fy[kk tkrk gSA dddqN ddqNqNqNqN Mk;jsDV
fyuDl ds funsZ’kksa dks Terminal esa $ prompt ds ckn fy[kk tkrk gSA
dddqN ddqNqNqNqN Mk;jsDV
Mk;jsDV
Mk;j
Mk;jsDVsDVsDVªhªhªhªhªh dek.M
Mk;j
dek.M
dek.M~
dek.M
dek.M~~ ~l~l~l~~ ~l~l %%%%%
1- djUV ¼orZeku½ MkbjsDVjh dks igpkuuk] pwd dek.M ( print working directory )
$ pwd < Enter >
/ usr / bin
$
;gka] / user / bin og MkbjDVjh
s
gS ftlesa ;wlj orZeku esa dke dj jgk gSA
2- djUV MkbjDVjh
s
dks cnyuk] cd dek.M (change directory )
$ cd / user / games
$ pwd < Enter>
/ user / Games
< Enter>
$
cd dek.M ls ;wlj dh working directory cny xbZA vc ;wlj / user / Games es dk;Z
djsxkA
3- ubZ MkbjDVjh
s
cukuk] mkdir dek.M ( make directory)
$ mkdir Alladdin < Enter >
$
bl dek.M ls Alladdin uke dh MkbjsDVjh] djUV MkbjsDVjh esa cu tk,xhA ijUrq ;g ubZ
MkbjDVjh]
s
djUV MkbjsDVjh ugh a curhA bls djUV MkbjDVjh
s
cuku s ds fy, cd dek.M dk mi;kxs
djAas
4- MkbjsDVjh dks gVkuk ] rmdir dek.M ( remove directory )
$ rmdir Alladdin < Enter >
$
bl dek.M l s Alladdin MkbjDVjh
s
fMyhV (Delete) gk s tk,xhA
,d MkbjsDVjh dks rHkh fMyhV dj ldr s gaS tc]
(a) og MkbjsDVjh [kkyh gks ¼mlesa dksbZ QkbYl ;k lc&MkbjsDVjhl u gks½

(b) og djUV MkbjsDVjh u gksA

s

5- MkbjDVjh

dh fo"k;&oLrq

ns[kuk] ls dek.M (list)

$ ls < Enter>

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

10

bl dek.M l s djUV MkbjDVjh

s

gks tk,xhA ddddqN dqNqNqNqN Qkby dek.Ml %&%&%&%&%& Qkby Qkby Qkby dek.Ml Qkby dek.Ml dek.Ml dek.Ml
gks tk,xhA
ddddqN
dqNqNqNqN Qkby dek.Ml %&%&%&%&%&
Qkby
Qkby
Qkby dek.Ml
Qkby dek.Ml
dek.Ml
dek.Ml

eas ftru s Hkh QkbYl vkSj lc&QksYMlZ g]a S mudh lph w iLrz rq

1- Qkby dh fo"k;&oLrq ns[kuk] cat dek.M ( concatenation) $ cat data 1 < Enter> A
1- Qkby dh fo"k;&oLrq ns[kuk] cat dek.M ( concatenation)
$ cat data 1 < Enter>
A sample file
$
2- Qkby dks dkWih djuk ] cp dek.M (copy)
$ cp data1 data3 < Enter>
$
bl mnkgj.k esa data1 dh fo"k;&oLrqq ,d ubZ Qkby data3 esa dkWih gks tkrh gSA
3- Qkby dk s gVkuk] rm dek.M (remove)
$ rm data1 < Enter>
$
bl dek.M l s data1 uke dh Qkby fMyhV gks tkrh gSA
4- Qkby dks eow djuk] mv dek.M (move)
$ mv /user/data/data2
$
/ user/Games/ < Enter>
bl mnkgj.k esa data2 Qkby Data QksYMj ls gV dj Games QksYMj es a eow dj xbZA
bu mnkgj.kksa l s ;g Li"V gS fd fyuDl dks manage djuk dkQh ljy vkSj lfo/kki
q
.k w Z gSA
Open Source OS ds v/;;u ds i'pkr~~ vkb, dqN Open Source Application lkW¶Vos;j
ds ckjs esa Kkuo/kZu djsaA
2.
eeek ek +yk QkbjQk
ekkk sftsftsftsftsft+yk +yk +yk +yk QkbjQksDlsDlsDlsDlsDl oooooscscscscsc ccccczkmt
QkbjQk QkbjQk QkbjQk
zkmt
zkmt
zkmt+j+j+j+j+j %
zkmt
Mozilla Firefox ,d Ýh vksiu lkslZ web browser gS tk s fd fo'oHkj esa izpfyr gSA Firefox,
Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Free BSD vkSj dbZ vU; IyVQkek
s sZ a lfgr fofHkUu
Operating System ij pyrk gAS uohure QkbjQkDls ea s VCMS ckmft z x] a oruh Z tkp¡ live bookmarking,
futh browsing, MkmuykMs manager dh lqfo/kk,¡ miyC/k gSaA QkbjQkDls esa Hkh vU; OSS dh Hkkafr
:ikUrj.k lEHko gSA ,slh dbZ fo'ks"krk,¡ baVjuVs ij miyC/k gSaA ;g O;kid p;u QkbjQkDls
mi;ksxdrkZvk sa dks vkdf"krZ djrk gSA
vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s 11 3. My SQL : My SQL fo'o dk lokZf/kd izpfyr Open
vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s
11
3. My SQL :
My SQL fo'o dk lokZf/kd izpfyr Open Source Database Software gSA vc rd My
SQL dh 100 yk[k ls Hkh vf/kd izfr;k¡ MkmuykMs vkSj forfjr dh tk pqdh gSA bldh csgrj xfr]
fo'oluh;rk vkSj mi;ksx esa vklkuh ds lkFk My SQL, Web, nwjlapkj dEifu;kas vkSj IT eSust+lZ ds
fy, ilanhnk fodYi cu x;k gSA My SQL izeq[k vM+puksa] tSls j[k&j[kko] vk/kqfud Online
applications, dk iz'kklu vkfn] dks nwj djrk gSA
nqfu;k dh lcl s cM+h vkSj rsth ls izxfr djrh lxBusa My SQL dk mi;kxs dj le; vkSj
/ku dh cpr djrh g Sa vkSj viuh mPp ek=k Websites, O;kikj iz.kkfy;kas vkSj software dks 'kfDr
iznku djrh gSAa
m|ksx esa vxz.kh Yahoo, YouTube, Google, Nokia, Wikipedia vkfn My SQL dk
mi;ksx dj jgs gS aA
MySQL esa MkVkcsl cukuk] Vscy cukuk vkSj Dosjh cukuk ,d vklku izfd;k gSA mnkgj.k
ds fy,] ge ,d SCHOOL uke ls MkVkcls cuk,xa s] mlesa ,d Vscy STUDENT cuk,ax]s mlesa
dqN fjdkMZl insert dj queries cuk,sxa sA
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 12 PostgreSQL : PostgreSQL dks nqfu;k dk lcls mUur MkVkcsl ekuk tkrk gSA PostgreSQL
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
12
PostgreSQL
:
PostgreSQL dks nqfu;k dk lcls mUur MkVkcsl ekuk tkrk gSA PostgreSQL ,d ’kfDr’kkyh

vkius lkslZ vksCtsDV&fjy’uy s MkVkcsl iz.kkyh gSA bldk 15 o"kkZas ls vf/kd le; ls lfØ; fodkl

gk s jgk gAS bldh ljpuk a u s fo’oluh;rk MVk s v[kMrk a vkjS ’k)rk q d s fy, ,d etcrw ifr"Bk z vftZr

dh gSA ;g fyuDl] ;qfuDl vkSj foUMkst lfgr lHkh izeq[k vksijsfVxa flLVe ij pyrk gSA blesa

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

13

QkWju dh] joins, views, triggers vkSj stored procedures ds fy, i.k w Z leFkZu gSA ;g dbZ Hkk"kkvksa

eas miyC/k gS vkSj SQL : 2008 d s

vf/kdka’k MkVkVkbi tlS

s INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN,

CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE vkSj TIMESTAMP blesa lfEefyr gS aA ;g fp=] /ofu ;k ohfM;ks

dks Hkh lap;u djus esa l{ke gAS blesa C / C++, JAVA, NET, PERL, PYTHON, RUBY,
dks Hkh lap;u djus esa l{ke gAS
blesa C / C++, JAVA, NET, PERL, PYTHON, RUBY, ODBC
ds fy, izksxzkfexa baVjQsl Hkh miyC/k gSA bldk MksD;wesUV’ku s Hkh vlk/kkj.k gSA
PostgreSQL ikbUV&bu&Vkbe fjdojh] VcyLi s ls usLVsM VªkUtSD’ku] vkWuykbu vR;k/kqfud
cSd&vi] ifj"d`r query Iykuj vkfn lqfo/kkvkas dk nkok djrk gSA ;g MkVk dh ek=k vkSj ;wtlZ dh
la[;k] nksuk sa gh {ks=ksa esa vR;f/kd Scalable gSA
PostgreSQL esa eSfDlee Vscy 32 TB rd ,d fjdkMZ 1.6 TB rd] ,d QhYM 1GB rd gks
ldrk gSA Postgre SQL us vius mi;ksxdrkZvksa ls cgqr iz’klk a izkIr dh gSA blus loZJs’B MkVkcsl
ds dbZ iqjLdkj Hkh vftZr fd, gASa
5. Pango:- Pango
iS axks ’kCn xzhd ’kCn pan ] ftldk eryc gS ‘lHkh’ vkSj tkikuh’kCn ‘go’ ftldk vFkZ gS Hkk"kk
ls feydj cuk gSA
iSaxksa ,d vksiu lkslZ dEI;wfVax iqLrdky; gS tks lkWQ~Vos;j MsoyilZ }kjk fo"k;&oLr q dks mPp
xq.koRrk ls izLrqr djus es mi;qDr gkrk s gSA ;g lkW¶Vos;j cgqHkk"kh fo"k;&oLrq dks leFkZu nsrk gSA
bldks fofHkUu ÝUV&,.M&cSd ,s.M~l ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlls iSaxks dk s Øzksl
IysV@QkeZ mi;ksfxrk dk leFkZu feyrk gSA iS axks ls izLrqr fo"k;&oLrq fHkUu vkWijsfVax flLVe tSls
fyuDl] ,Iiy] ekbØkslksQ~V foUMksl vkfn ij leku izLrqr gksrh gSA
iS axk s UNICODE dk lajpukRed <kpk a gS tk s vUrjk"Vªh; fo"k;&oLrq dk izfriknu djrk gSA
,d ckj ,d Hkk"kk dk byDVªk s sfud vuqokn gk s tk, rks mlls ocs dh lkexzh rS;kj dh tk ldrh gSA
fQj mlls lkW¶Vo;j s Hkh fodflr fd, tk ldr s gS vkSj muds fy, lkW¶Vos;j Hkh fodflr fd, tk
ldrs gS a vkSj muds fy, leFkuZ Hkh miyC/k djk;k tk ldrk gSA
bl izdkj ,d Hkk"kk dk s ;qfudksM ds ek/;e ls vuqokfnr dju s ls vUrjk"Vªh;dj.k vkSj
LFkkuh;dj.k dks izksRlkgu feyrk gSA
nqfu;k esa 150 l s vf/kd Hkk"kk,a] 25 fofHkUu ys[ku iz.kkfy;ks a ds ek/;e ls O;Dr dh tk ldrh
gS aA gj Hkk"kk ds fof’k"V xq.k gksr s gS aA iS axsk oreku Z esa thfor fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk dks fMftVy :i es a izLrqr
dj ldrk gSAA iSaxks 2004 esa open source initiative ds fy, iqjLd`r fd;k x;k FkkA
666- 6- 6--- vk vk vksiu vksiu vksiu siusiu vk vk vksfQl vksfQl vksfQl sfQl sfQl
. org
vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s <a href=AglaSem School 13 QkWju dh] joins, views, triggers vkSj stored procedures ds fy, i.k w Z leFkZu gSA ;g dbZ Hkk"kkvksa eas miyC/k gS vkSj SQL : 2008 d s vf/kdka’k MkVkVkbi tlS s INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE vkSj TIMESTAMP blesa lfEefyr gS aA ;g fp=] /ofu ;k ohfM;ks dks Hkh lap;u djus esa l{ke gAS blesa C / C++, JAVA, NET, PERL, PYTHON, RUBY, ODBC ds fy, izksxzkfexa baVjQsl Hkh miyC/k gSA bldk MksD;wesUV’ku s Hkh vlk/kkj.k gSA PostgreSQL ikbUV&bu&Vkbe fjdojh] VcyLi s ls usLVsM VªkUtSD’ku] vkWuykbu vR;k/kqfud cSd&vi] ifj"d`r query Iykuj vkfn lqfo/kkvkas dk nkok djrk gSA ;g MkVk dh ek=k vkSj ;wtlZ dh la[;k] nksuk sa gh {ks=ksa esa vR;f/kd Scalable gSA PostgreSQL esa eSfDlee Vscy 32 TB rd ,d fjdkMZ 1.6 TB rd] ,d QhYM 1GB rd gks ldrk gSA Postgre SQL us vius mi;ksxdrkZvksa ls cgqr iz’klk a izkIr dh gSA blus loZJs’B MkVkcsl ds dbZ iqjLdkj Hkh vftZr fd, gASa 5. Pango:- Pango iS axks ’kCn xzhd ’kCn pan ] ftldk eryc gS ‘lHkh’ vkSj tkikuh’kCn ‘go’ ftldk vFkZ gS Hkk"kk ls feydj cuk gSA iSaxksa ,d vksiu lkslZ dEI;wfVax iqLrdky; gS tks lkWQ~Vos;j MsoyilZ }kjk fo"k;&oLr q dks mPp xq.koRrk ls izLrqr djus es mi;qDr gkrk s gSA ;g lkW¶Vos;j cgqHkk"kh fo"k;&oLrq dks leFkZu nsrk gSA bldks fofHkUu ÝUV&,.M&cSd ,s.M~l ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlls iSaxks dk s Øzksl IysV@QkeZ mi;ksfxrk dk leFkZu feyrk gSA iS axks ls izLrqr fo"k;&oLrq fHkUu vkWijsfVax flLVe tSls fyuDl] ,Iiy] ekbØkslksQ~V foUMksl vkfn ij leku izLrqr gksrh gSA iS axk s UNICODE dk lajpukRed <kpk a gS tk s vUrjk"Vªh; fo"k;&oLrq dk izfriknu djrk gSA ,d ckj ,d Hkk"kk dk byDVªk s sfud vuqokn gk s tk, rks mlls ocs dh lkexzh rS;kj dh tk ldrh gSA fQj mlls lkW¶Vo;j s Hkh fodflr fd, tk ldr s gS vkSj muds fy, lkW¶Vos;j Hkh fodflr fd, tk ldrs gS a vkSj muds fy, leFkuZ Hkh miyC/k djk;k tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj ,d Hkk"kk dk s ;qfudksM ds ek/;e ls vuqokfnr dju s ls vUrjk"Vªh;dj.k vkSj LFkkuh;dj.k dks izksRlkgu feyrk gSA nqfu;k esa 150 l s vf/kd Hkk"kk,a] 25 fofHkUu ys[ku iz.kkfy;ks a ds ek/;e ls O;Dr dh tk ldrh gS aA gj Hkk"kk ds fof’k"V xq.k gksr s gS aA iS axsk oreku Z esa thfor fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk dks fMftVy :i es a izLrqr dj ldrk gSAA iSaxks 2004 esa open source initiative ds fy, iqjLd`r fd;k x;k FkkA 666- 6- 6--- vk vk vksiu vksiu vksiu siusiu vk vk vksfQl vksfQl vksfQl sfQl sfQl . org " id="pdf-obj-18-31" src="pdf-obj-18-31.jpg">

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

14

vkiuvk s fQl s .org ] lkekU;r% OOo ;k OpenOffice d s uke l s ipfyr z ,d vkius lkls Z ,fIyd’ku s

lkbVa gS ftlds eq[; ?kVd oMZ izkls fls x] a Liz sM’khV] izslsUVs’ku] xzkfQDl vkSj MkVkcsl ds fy, iz;qDr

gksrs gS aA ;g lkS ls vf/kd Hkk"kkvkas esa miyC/k gS vkSj fHkUu vkWijfVs ax flLVe esa mi;qDr gks ldrk gSA

;g vklkuh l s bVju a sV l s MkmuykMs fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj Lor=rk
;g vklkuh l s bVju a sV l s MkmuykMs fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj Lor=rk a l s fdlh Hkh dk; Z d s fy, iz;Drq
fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g ,d vrjk"Vªh; a [kqys ekud izk:i esa vkids lHkh MkVk (Data) dks i<+ ldrk
gS vkSj LVksj Hkh dj ldrk gSA ;g vU; vkfQl lkQ~Vo;j s dh Qkbykas dks Hkh [kksy vkSj fy[k
ldrk gSA
;g lkQ~Vos;j 20 lky ls vf/kd le; ls fufeZr gks jgk gSA bldh fo’oluh;rk dk dksbZ
eqdkcyk ugha gAS ;g lkW¶Vos;j oks lc djrk gS tk s vki ml lkW¶Vos;j l s djkuk pkgrs g aS vkSj og
Hkh ftl rjg ls vki pkgrs gAS
vksiuvksfQj.org dks lh[kuk vklku gSA vxj vki dksbZ vU; vkWfQl iSdst bLreky s dj jgs
gS a rk s vki lh/ks gh vkius vkfQl s esa dk; Z dj ldrs gS aA ;g lkW¶Vos;j Ýzh gS] vklkuh ls miyC/k g]S
vki ftru s pkg s mru s dEI;wVjkas ij bl s pyk ldr s gASa ?kjys ]w O;kolkf;d] ’kSf{kd] ’kklu izcU/k fdlh
Hkh dk;Z ds fy, bldk mi;kxs fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj bldk fcuk fdlh izfrcU/k ds forj.k fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
7. Apache Server : vvvvWikp vWikp Wikp loZjZjZj
Wikp Wikps ss ss loZj
loZj
lo
lo
vikph HTTP loZj ifj;ktuk s lg;ksxkRed lkW¶Vos;j ds fodkl ds fy, ,d iz;kl gSA bl
ifj;kstuk dk mn~n’;s ,d et+cwr] okf.kfT;d vkSj vktknh l s miyC/k lkz sr dksM dk;kZUo;u ds fy,
,d HTTP osc loZj cukuk gSA ;g ifj;ktuk s l;a qDr :i ls nqfu;kHkj esa fLFkr Lo;a lsodkas ds ,d
legw }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ;g ifj;kstuk vWikph] lkQ~Vo;j s QkmaMs’ku dk fgLlk gSA
vWikph loZj ,d epa gS ftl ij O;fDr vkSj laLFkk, a fo’oluh; iz.kkfy;kas dk fuekZ.k dj ldrs
gS] tks iz;ksxkRed iz;ktuk s s a vkSj fe’ku egRoiw.kZ iz;kstuksa esa mi;qDr gks lds aA vkWuykbu izdk’ku ds
midj.k gj fdlh ds gkFk esa gkus s pkfg,A blh ls osc esa mUufr gksxhA
vWikph dk izFke izk:i 1995 esa fodflr fd;k x;k FkkA 2009 esa vWikp s loZj 10 djkMs + osc
lkbV d s ehy ds iRFkj dk s ikj dju s okyk igyk ocs loZj cukA ;g lkQ~Vo;j s dbZ vksijfVs xa flLVe
ds fy, miyC/k gS tSls GNU ] fyuDl] ;qfuDl] lksykfjl] Ýzh BSD, Mac OSX, ekbØkslksQ~V
vkfnA vizsy 1996 ls vWikps mi;kxs esa fy;k tku s okyk lokf/kd Z ykdfiz; s loZj lkW¶Vos;j gSaA
uoEcj 2010 rd vWikps u s fo’o dh 59-36 izfr’kr osc lkbVksa dks lsok,¡ iznku dh gaSA ;g fo’o

dh 10 yk[k O;Lrre osc lkbVkas es a ls 66-56 izfr’kr osc lkbVksa ds fy, iz;qDr gksrk gSA

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

15

888- 8- VkWedSV 8--- Vk Vk VkWed Vk WedSV WedWedSVSVSV %%%%% vWikp s VkWedSV ,d vkius
888- 8- VkWedSV
8--- Vk
Vk VkWed Vk
WedSV
WedWedSVSVSV %%%%%
vWikp s VkWedSV ,d vkius lkz sr loyZ Vs dUVsuj gS tk s vikWph lkWQVo ~ ;j s Qkm.M’ku s (ASF) }kjk
fuferZ fd;k x;k gAS loZyVs ,d NkVk s lk ikz xs kez g S tk s lojZ ij py ldAs VkWedVS lu ekbØksflLVe
d s tkok loZysV vkSj tkok loZj it+ s l (ISP) d s funs’kksZa dk s ykx w djrk gSA ;g ,d ’kq) tkok HTTP
osc loZj okrkoj.k iznku djrk gS ftl ij tkok dksM dk fØ;kUo;u gks ldsA
VkWedSV vkSj vikWph osc loZj esa varj gSA vikWph osc loZj HTTP osc loZj dks C esa ykxw fd;k
x;k gSA VkWedSV ,d ,fIyds’ku loZj gS tk s tkok loZyVs ~l dks dk;kZfUor djrk gS vkSj JSP dksfMax
okys osc its izLrqr djrk gSA VkWedSV dk ckbujh vkSj L=ksr dksM izk:i] nksuksa gh vikWph osc lkbV
ij miyC/k gS aA VkWedSV dks LVMSa vyku] s vkrfjd a osc loZj ds lkFk iz;ksx yk;k tk ldrk gS vkSj
bl s vU; ocs loZj tlS s vikWph] ekbØklk s Qs ~V dk bVju a sV bUQksjes’ku lZoj (IIS) uVLd s si ,UVjikbt+ z
lZoj vkSj ekbØkslksQ~V ilZuy loZj ds lkFk Hkh mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
9. PHP :
PHP ,d fLØzfIVax Hkk"kk gS tks eyr% w Mk;ukfed osc istksa dks cuku s ds fy, fMt+kbu dh xbZ
FkhA ;g dek.M ykbu bVjQ a sl {kerk dks ’kkfey djrh g S vkSj LVSMvyk a su xzkfQdy ,fIyds’kUl esa
bldk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA PHP ,d O;kid :i ls iz;qDr lkekU; mn~ns’; okyh fLØfIVxa
Hkk"kk gS] tks fo’ks"k :i ls osc MoyiesaV ds vuqdwy gS ftls HTML ds lkFk iz;qDr fd;k tk ldrk
gSA vke rkSj ij ;g osc loZj ij pyrh gS] ftldh lajpuk PHP dksM dks vkxe dh rjg ysus vkSj
osc ist dVs aV dks fuxZe dh rjg nsus ds fy, dh xbZ gSA ;g vf/kdk’k a osc loZjksa vkSj yxHkx gj
vkWijsfVxa flLVe ,oa IyVQkeZ s ij eq¶r esa foLr`r dh tk ldrh gSA PHP 20 yk[k l s vf/kd
osclkbVks a vkSj 1 yk[k osc loZjkas ij laLFkkfir gSA
PHP leg] w mi;kxdrkZ s vkas ds vius Lo; a ds mi;ksxkFkZ] fuekZ.k] euialn rjhds ls cuku s vkSj
foLrr` djus ds fy, ijk w L=ksr dksM iznku djrk gS egRoi.k w Z osc lkbV PHP eas fy[ks vkSj tksM+ x,
gS a tSls Qslcqd] fofdihfM;k] ;kgw] oMZiz sl] ;wV~;wc vkfnA
PHP okD;&foU;kl
okD;&foU;kl
okD;&foU;kl
okD;&foU;kl
okD;&foU;kl ¼flUV SDl½
¼flUV ¼flUV ¼flUVSDl½
¼flUVSDl½ SDl½
SDl½

PHP dsoy vius ifjlhedksa ¼MhfyfeVlZ½ ds Hkhrj dkMs dh in&O;k[;k djrk gSA blds

ifjlhedkas ds ckgj tks Hkh gksrk gS og lh/ks fuxZe ds fy, Hkstk tkrk g S vkSj PHP }kjk in&foU;kl

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

16

¼,fDlD;wV½ ugh a gksrk gSA lcls vke ifjlhed gS < ? PHP vkSj ? > tks Øe’k% [kqys vkSj can

ifjlhed gASa

mnkgj.k ds fy, ]

< html > < head > < title > PHP Trial , </ title > <
< html >
< head >
< title > PHP Trial , </ title >
< /head >
< ? php
echo <p> Hello, welcome to PHP</p> ;?>
</body >
</html >
blh rjg ls]
< html >
< head >
< ? php
echo < title> My First PHP Script </title> ?;
? >
</head >
</body >
<?php
echo ‘ < p > This is generated by PHP </p> ;
?>
<p> This is static HTML/p>
</body>
</html>
bl PHP fLdzIV dks first.php ds uke l s lso dj osc loZj ij viykMs dj naAs tc bl ist
dks ocs czkmtj es a ns[ksaxs rks og dqN fuEu izdkj ls fn[kkbZ nsxkA
1110- 10- 10- 0- 0-
ikbFku ikbFku ikbFku ikbFku ikbFku %%%%%

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

17

ikbFku ,d lkekU; mnn~ ’;s mPp Lrjh; ikz xs kfez xa Hkk"kk g S ftldh ljpuk
ikbFku ,d lkekU; mnn~ ’;s mPp Lrjh; ikz xs kfez xa Hkk"kk g S ftldh ljpuk a dkMs dh fo’oluh;rk
ij tkjs nsrh gSA ikbFku dk mn~ns’; mYys[kuh; ’kfDr ds lkFk cgqr Li"V flUVDls gSA
ikbFku ,dkf/kd izksxzkfexa ifjizs{;kas dks leFkZu nsrk gSA ;g ,d i.k w Zr% xfr’khy (Dynamic)
izdkj dh iz.kkyh vkSj Lor% Le`fr izcU/ku ;kstuk dk vuqlj.k djrh gSA vU; Mkbukfed Hkk"kkvksa dh
Hkkfra ikbFku dk mi;ksx ,d fLØfIVax Hkk"kk ds :i es a fd;k tkrk gSA ijUrq ikbFku xSj fLØfIVxa
lUnHkks Za esa Hkh iz;qDr dh tkrh gSA
ikbFku dk fØ;kUo;u Lora= vkSj [kqyk L=ks sr lkW¶Vo;j s gSA ;g ,d leqnk; vk/kkfjr fodkl
ds ekWMy ij fufeZr gSA ikbFku dk fodkl vkSj lj{k.k a ikbFku lkW¶Vo;j s Qkm.Ms’ku uke dh ,d
ykHk fuji{k s laLFkku djrh gSA
ikbFku bUVjfizVl Z dbZ vkWijfVs xa flLVe ds fy, miyC/k gSA ikbFku dh ,d egRoi.k w Z fo’k"krk s
gS Mkbukfed use jstY;w’ku tk s esFkM (Method) vkSj ofj, s cys (Variable) ds ukeksa dks izksxzke
,fDlD;’ku w ds le; cka/krk gSA
ge lHkh dks Kkr gS fd bVju a Vs Kku dk HkaMkj gSA FOSS dh mUufr esa baVjuVs dk cgqr
egRoiw.kZ ;kxnku s jgk gSA vkb,] ge dqN vkius lkls Z ls lEcfU/kr osc&lkbVl dk v/;;u djsaA
www. sourceforge.net
;g usVodZ osclkbV vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s dk dks"k gSA ;gka ij vksiu lkls Z lkWQ~Vo;j s dks

MkmuykMs Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj uohu vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gSA bl

osclkbV esa 27 yk[k Msoyil]Z 260000 vkius lkslZ lkWQ~Vos;j ifj;ktukvk s sa ij dke dj jgs gASa

izfrfnu bl oclkbV s ls 2]000]000 MkmuyksM~l gkrs s gS aA ;g la[;k, a fnu izfrfnu c< + jgh gASa bl

osclkbV ij vkidk s gj izdkj ds] fofHkUu mi;ksxks a esa vkus okys lkQ~Vos;j miyC/k gaSA

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 18 www. opensource.org ;g oclkbV s OSI organization dh osclkbV gSA ;gka ij vksiu
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
18
www. opensource.org
;g oclkbV
s
OSI organization dh osclkbV gSA ;gka ij vksiu lkslZ bfuf’k,fVo (OSI) ds /
;s; ds ckj s es a tkudkjh miyC/k gSA vkius lkslZ dh ykblsUl izfØ;k] vksiu lkslZ dh f’k{kk] esfyax
fyLV~l vkjS dbZ rjg dh tkudkjh vkidks bl ocs lkbV esa feysxhA
vxj vki vksiu lkslZ lkWQ~Vo;j s eas dke dj jg s gS a vkSj vki dkbZ s iFk&izn’kZd ryk’k dj jgs
gS a rk s bl ocs lkbV ij vkidks dbZ jkg fn[kkus okys yksx feyasxsA vki bl lewg dk fgLlk cudj
vius lokyks a ds tokc [kkst ik,axsA

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

19

www. linux.com

;g ,d def’kZ;y (commercial) oclkbV s g S ftlea s vkidks fyuDl dh uohure [kcjsa feyxhA
;g ,d def’kZ;y (commercial) oclkbV s g S ftlea s vkidks fyuDl dh uohure [kcjsa feyxhA as
fyuDl dk MkWD;ew UVs s’ku] V;Vk w sfj;y] fofM;kls vkfn vkidk s bl osclkbV ea s miyC/k gkxs Aas ykbusDl
esa dSfj;j] fyuDl ds Vªsfuxa izksxzkEl vkjS Dykll] fyuDl dk O;olk; esa iz;ksx] fyuDl esa ukSdjh
dh miyC/krk,a vkSj dbZ vU; mi;kxh s tkudkjh bl osclkbV ij miyC/k gSA fyuDl ds fofHkUu
fMLVªhC;w’kUl dh tkudkjh ] fyuDl dh fdrkcs a] fyuDl dE;wfuVh] CykXls vkSj Qksje~l Hkh ;gka ij
izkIr gS aA vki bl oc&lkbV s esa jftLVj dj blds esEcj cu ldr s gSaA fyuDl dk Hkfo";] oreku] Z
mldh mUufr dk ekx]Z lHkh dqN bl osclkbV ij miyC/k gSA
www.linuxindia.org

laxBuk gSA bl osclkbV ij vkidks dbZ izdkj dh esfyax fyLV~l miyC/k gksxhaA tSls fd tujy]

gsYi] izksxzkEklZ] fMLd’kUl vkfnA izR;sd esfyax fyLV esa vkidks fyuDl ds Hkkjr esa mi;ksx ls

lacf/kr tkudkjh izkIr gksxhA vki pkgsa rk s vki mu esfyax fyLV~l esa lcLØkbc Hkh dj ldr s gAaS

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

20

,slk djus ls vki ml legw dk ,d lnL; cu tk,axsA bl izdkj vkidks Hkkjr ds vU; fyuDl

mi;ksxdrkZvks a l s lEidZ esa jgu s dk volj izkIr gksxkA vkidh fyuDl lEcfU/kr leL;kvks a dk gy

Hkh vkidks izkIr gkxkA s ;gka ij vksiu ppkZvksa esa lfEefyr gksdj fyuDl ds fo"k; esa
Hkh vkidks izkIr gkxkA
s
;gka ij vksiu ppkZvksa esa lfEefyr gksdj fyuDl ds fo"k; esa viuk Kku&
o/kZu dj ldrs gAaS
www.gnu.org
;g GNU ifj;ktuk s laxBu dh oclkbV s gSA ;gka ij vkidk s GNU dh fopkj/kkjk] ykblsUl
i.kkyh] z MkD;ew UVs s’ku miyC/k gkxkA s GNU/LINUX fMfLVªC;’kUl w dh lph w es a l s vk;As viuk eupkgk
lkQW Vo ~ ;j s MkmuykMs dj ldr s gaS ;gk a ij FSF d s ckj s ea s Hkh lwpuk ikI;z gAvki a S FSF ea s ’kkfey gkdj s
Ýh lkW¶Vos;j dh izxfr esa viuk ;kxnku s ns ldr s gSaA vki dkbZ s lkWQ~Vos;j fufeZr dj jg s gS a rks
vkidks ;gk a dbZ MoyilZ dk lg;kxs izkIr gksxkA blds vykok GNU vkij s sfVax flLVe dk
MkmuykMs Hkh ;gka ij lEHko gSA ;g osc lkbV dbZ Hkk"kkvksa tSls ikWfy’k] LiSfu’k] Mp vkfn esa
miyC/k gSA
www.openrdf.org

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

21

rdf ( Resource Description Framework ) W3C ifjokj dk ,d lnL; gSA bldk mi;kxs

lwpuk dk izfr:i rS;kj dju s esa gkrk s gS tk s fd ocs ij dk;kZfUor dh tkrh gSA

;g oclkbV s ,d dE;wfuVh osclkbV gS tks Sesame dh izxfr dks lg;ksx djrh gSA Sesame

vkSj MsoyilZ fey ldrs gSa] ppkZ dj ldrs gS a] iz’u iNw ldr s gSa vkSj
vkSj MsoyilZ fey ldrs gSa] ppkZ dj ldrs gS a] iz’u iNw ldr s gSa vkSj Sesame ls lEcfU/kr fdlh
Hkh leL;k dk fuokj.k ik ldrs gS aA
bl ocs lkbV ij sesame ls lEcfU/kr lkW¶Vos;j dk s MkmuykMs Hkh dj ldrs gaSA bl ij
MkD;weUVs ’ku] s esfyxa fyLV~l T;knkrj iwN s x, lokyka s ds tokc] lkW¶Vos;j IyxbUl vkSj ,DlVa’kUl s
Hkh miyC/k gSA
vvvH;kl
vH;kl iz'uz'uz'u %%%%%
vH;kl
H;kl iiiz'u
H;kl
iz'u
cccgcg cggg qp;ukRed
qp;ukRed qp;ukRed qp;ukRed
qp;ukRed iiiiiz'uz'uz'uz'uz'u
11111 ----- ,d vksiu lkls Z dEI;wfVxa iqLrdky; dk uke gS &
( v) Openoffice org
( l) Unicoal
( c) My SQL
(
n)
Pango
¼
½
2.
vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j ds D;k ykHk gS a\
( v) :ikUrj.k dh lqfo/kk
(c) Portability
( l) Clot effectivencs
( n) mijksDr lHkh
¼
½
3.
fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSulk lkW¶Vos;j] vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j dk mnkgj.k ugh a gS\
( v) My SQL
(
l)
Mozilla ...................
( c) Pestyre SQL
( n) Photoshop
¼
½
4.
fjpMZ LVkWyeSu us fuEu es a ls dkulh
S
lxBu
a
dh ljpuk dh\
( v) OSI
( l) W3C
( c) FSF
( n) buesa
ls dkbZ s ugha
¼
½
5.
vWikps VkWedSV ,d vksiu lkls Z &
( v) osc czkmtj gS
(
c)
ljZysV daVsuj gS
( l) fLØfIVxa Hkk"kk gS
( n) mijksDr esa ls dqN Hkh ugha
¼
½
6.
ykbusDl dk fuek.k Z eyw :i ls fdUgksaus fd;k gS\
( v) fyul VksjokYM~l
( c) fjpMZ LVkWyeSu
( l) fVe DuZlZ yh
( n) mijksDr lHkh us
¼
½
7.
vkius
vkfQl
s
.org dk mi;ksx dj ge D;k dj ldr s gS a\
( v) MkWD;es w UV cuk ldr s gS a
( c) iz sts+UVs'ku cuk ldrs gS a
( l) LizsM'khV cuk ldrs gS a
( n) mijksDr lHkh dj ldrs gS a
¼
½
8.
GPL D;k gS\
( v) ,d lkW¶Vos;j ( c) ,d ykblUls
( l) ,d vkWijfVs xa flLVe
( n) ,d dEI;Vj w lkbfUVLV
¼
½
9.
vkius
lkls Z lkW¶Vo;j s dk ykbuDls
ds lkFk&lkFk foUMksl vkWijsfVxa flLVe ij Hkh mi;kxs

fd;k tk ldrk gSA

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 22 ( v) gk¡ ( c) ugha ( l) (n) ¼ ½ 10. Unicode
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
22
( v) gk¡
( c) ugha
(
l)
(n)
¼
½
10.
Unicode D;k gS\
( v) ,d lkW¶Vos;j
( c) v{kj ladsru i)fÙk
( l) loZj
( n) mijksDr esa ls dqN ugha
¼
½
vvvfryÄqRjkRed
vfryÄ
vfryÄ
fryÄ qRjkRed iiiiz'u
fryÄ qRjkRed
qRjkRed
qRjkRed
iz'uz'uz'uz'u
1.
vkius
lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j dh ifjHkk"kk nhft,A
2.
vkius lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j ds pkj mnkgj.k nhft,A
3.
fuEufyf[kr dh ifjHkk"kk] nks mnkgj.kk sa lfgr nhft, &
(1) ÝhjSV
(2) 'kSjosj
(3) izksizkbVjh lkW¶Vos;j
(4) LFkkuhdj.k (5) iquhdkMs
4.
fuEufyf[kr dks foLrkfjr dj fyf[k, &
(1) FOSS
(2) GNU
(3) OSI
(4) W3C
(5) FSF
5.
vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j dh fdUgha nks osclkbV~l ds uke fyf[k,A
6.
OSI dh lxBuk
a
fdlus dh Fkh\
7.
FSF dk y{; D;k gS\
8.
baVjusV dk vkfo"dkj fdUgks aus fd;k\
9.
ykbusDl dh Com dek.M dSls dk;Z djrh gS\
10.
ls dek.M ls D;k gkrk s gS\
11.
vkt ds ;xq
esa vkius
lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s dh D;k Hkwfedk gS\
12.
vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j IySVQkeZ&bUMiUms sUV gksrs gaAS bl okD; dk D;k rkRi;Z gS\
13.
vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j dks ^Lora= lkW¶Vos;j* Hkh dgrs gS aA D;ksa\
14.
OSS vkSj FOSS esa D;k varj gS\
15.
GNU ifj;kstuk ds fo"k; esa laf{kIr esa fy[ks a\
16.
FSF vkSj OSI tSlh la[;k,¡ fdl fn'kk esa dk;Zjr gS a\
17.
ÝhoSj vkSj Ýh lkW¶Vos;j esa varj Li"V dhft,A
18.
lkW¶Vos;j dks izksizkbVjh djus ls D;k uqdlku gS\
19.
lkW¶Vos;j dk s LFkkuh; Hkk"kk esa cukus ls D;k ykHk gksxs a\
20.
ASCII vkSj UNICODE esa D;k varj gS\
yyyÄ
yÄqRjkRed iz'u
yÄqRjkRed
ÄqRjkRed iz'u
ÄqRjkRed
qRjkRed
iiz'u
iz'uz'u
1.
fyuDl ds vuds fMfLVªC;w'kUl ds miyC/k gksus dk dkj.k mnkgj.k lfgr le>kb,A
2.
vkius
lksl Z lkW¶Vo;j s ds ykHk foLrkj ls le>kb,A
3.
W3C la[;k ds vkn'kks Z dk s Li"V dhft,A
4.
ljdkjh] O;kolkf;d vkSj fuft ifj;kstukvks a ds fy, ykbusDl dks mi;ksxh ekuk tkuk gSA
D;ks a\
5.
HySQL D;k gS\ MySQL ds izpfyr gksus ds dkj.kksa dks le>k,¡A
6.
Pootgre SQL ds ckjs e sa 50&60 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A

vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s

23

7. PHP D;k gksrh gS\ fdl {ks= es a PHP dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA PHP
7.
PHP D;k gksrh gS\ fdl {ks= es a PHP dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA PHP dh mi;qDrrk ds dqN
mnkgj.k nhft,A
8.
VkWedSV vksj vWikps osc loZj ds ckjs esa fyf[k,A
9.
vksiu vkfQl] org fdl izdkj dk lkW¶Vos;j gS vkSj bldk mi;ksx dgk¡ fd;k tkrk gS\
fffucU/kkRed
fucU/kkRed iiiz'u
fucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed
ii z'uz'uz'uz'u
1.
vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j ds ykblals ds ckjs esa foLrkj ls crk,¡A
2.
fyuDl dh 4 Mk;jDVªh s dek.M~l mnkgj.k lfgr le>kb,A
3.
www.fourceforge.net osclkbV vkius n[kh s gksxhA bl osclkbV dh mi;ksfxrk ij izdk'k
MkysaA
4.
MySQL esa fuEufyf[kr d s fy, funZ'k s nhft, &
(i)
,d 'company' uke dk MkVkcsl cukb,A
(ii) bl MkVkcls esa ,d 'employees' uke dh Vcys cukb,A
Emp.no
Name
Age
Designation
(iii) bl Vscy esa 6 fjdkMZ Insert dhft,A
Emp.no
Name
Age
Designation
E001
Ankita Varma
30
SE
E002
Naman Dixit
23
SE
E003
Surbhi Verma
25
SE
E004
Tarun Kumar
42
TM
E005
Vinayak Sharma
38
TL
E006
Vivek Mathur
34
TL
(iv) ftu employees dh age 30 ls vf/kd gS] muds uke fn[kkb,A
(v)
TL designation okys employees dh lkjh details fn[kkb,A
(vi) 35 lky ls de mez okys TL designation ds employees ds uke fn[kkb,A
5.
vksiu lkslZ vkankyu s ds fo"k; ij ,d y[k s fyf[k,A
6.
vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j esa :ikarj.k dh lfo/kk q gksrh gSA bl lqfo/kk ds Qk;ns vkSj uqdlku ij
izdk'k MkyAsa
7.
vkids fopkj ls izksizkbVjh vkSj vksiu lkls Z lkW¶Vos;j esa l s dkSu lk csgrj gS vkjS D;ksa\
8.
Ýh lkW¶Vo;j] s vkisu lksl Z lkW¶Vo;j s vkSj ÝhoSj ds e/; vUrj dk s Li"V djsaA mnkgj.k lfgr
le>k,¡A
9.
irk dhft, fd Hkkjr dh dkSulh O;kolkf;d vkSj ljdkjh laLFkk,¡ vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j dk
iz;ksx dj jgh gS aA mudh ,d lwph rS;kj djsaA
10.
dbZ yksxksa dk ekuuk gS vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vo;j s ds fy, i;kZIr rduhdh lg;ksx miyC/k ugha
gSA bl fo"k; ij vki viu s fopkj izdV dhft,A
  • 11. bl ikB esa mYysf[kr vkius lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j ds vykok ¼chl½ 20 vU; vksiu lkslZ lkW¶Vos;j ds ckjs esa irk yxkb, vkSj mudh lwph rS;kj dhft,A

**********

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 24 vvv/;k;&2 v/;k;&2 v/;k;&2 /;k;&2 /;k;&2 MMMkVkc MkVkcsl MkVkcsl vo/kkj.kk kVkcsl vo/kkj.kk kVkcslsl vo/kkj.kk
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
24
vvv/;k;&2
v/;k;&2
v/;k;&2
/;k;&2
/;k;&2
MMMkVkc
MkVkcsl
MkVkcsl vo/kkj.kk
kVkcsl vo/kkj.kk
kVkcslsl vo/kkj.kk
vo/kkj.kk vo/kkj.kk
Database Concept
User interface : gkykafd cgqr ls ;tj w MkVkcsl dk mi;ksx djr s gSaA ysfdu dqN ;wtj MkVkcsl
dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy;s DoSjh yS aXost dk mi;ksx djrs gS aA T;knkrj ;wtj MkVkcsl dk mi;ksx
djus ds fy;s fuEu Vyw dke esa ysrs gSaA ftUgsa ÝaUV ,sUM Vyw Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ;s Vwy fuEu
izdkj gSa %&
1. Forms and Graphical user Inteface: ;g Vyw ;tj w dk s oY;S w ,UVj s dju s dh vuefr q inku z
djrs gS a] ftuds }kjk igys ls crk;s x;s dk;Z dks ijk w fd;k tkrk gSA blds ckn flLVe DoSjh dks
,fXtD; s Vw djrk g S vkjS ;tj w d s crk; s x; s QkWjeVs ea s fjtYV dk s vkmViVq d s :i ea s nsrk gAS xkfQDy z
;wtj bUVjQls ;wtj dk s vklkuh l s mi;ksx es a ykus oky s Vyw miyC/k djkrs gASa
ikz sxkej z xkfQDy z ;wtj bUVjQls dk s ocs czkmtj dk ÝUV,.Ms ds :i ea s i;k z xs djds r;kj S dj ldrk
gSA ;g blds fy;s og vU; izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvk sa ds }kjk miyC/k djk;s tkus okys QWkeZ vkSj nljh w
lqfo/kkvks a dk mi;ksx dj ldrk gSA bu lqfo/kkvkas dks ,Iyhds’ku izksxzkfeax bUVjQsl (API) dgk
tkrk gSA ftuesa java Swing fotqvy csfld ;k fotqvy lh $ $ dk mi;kxs fd;k tkrk gSA osc
czkmtj es a HTML ls fMtkbZu fd; s x;s QkWeZ dk mi;ksx cgqrk;r l s fd;k tkrk gSA
2. Report Genrator : ;g Vyw ;wtj ds fy; s igys l s fMtkbZu dh xb Z fjikVs Z esa orZeku MkVk dk
mi;ksx djus dh btktr nsrk gS ;gka fjiksVZ dk QWkjesaV igy s ls fu/kkZfjr gkrk s gSA bl QkWjesV esa
oSY;wt ml le; mi;kxs fd; s tkus okys MkVkcls ds vuqlkj mi;ksx gksrh gSA vkjS fo’ky"kds rFkk
eSustj fdlh fjiksVZ Hkfo"; dh :i js[kk rS;kj djus ds fy;s dke esa ysrs gaAS bl fjikVs Z ds vk/kkj
ij vxys fu.kZ; fy;s tkr s gSaA fjikVs Z tujsVj Vwy ,sl s Vyw gSaA ftuds }kjk ;wtj ds ]}kjk i< s tk
ldu s okyh lkjk’k a fjiksVZ rS;kj djrs gSaA blds }kjk bUVªsDV djds QkWjeVs sM VSDLV o pkV Z cuk;s tk
ldrs gASa fjikVs Z ds QkWjesV dks iznf’kZr djus ds fy;s ;tj w fjiksVZ tujVj s dh lqfo/kk dk mi;kxs
djrk gSA
fjiksVZ tujsVj VwYl tSls fØLVy fjikVs Z rFkk ,l-D;w-,y- loZj fjiksfVZ ax lfoZl miyC/k gSA blds
vykok ,e-,l-vkWfQl] pkVZ tujsVj] ,e-,l- ,Dlsy esa Hkh MkVkcsl dk mi;ksx djds QkWjesVsM
fjiksVZ rS;kj dh tk ldrh gSA
3. Data Analysis Tool : ;g Vyw ;tj w dks bUVªDVhoyh s MkVk dk mi;kxs dju s o mudk fo’ky"k.k s
djus dh vuqefr iznku djrs gSaA mijksDr Hkh bUVjQsl flQZ fdlh DoSjh Hkk"kk dk mi;ksx djrs
gS aA ftlds }kjk MkVkcsl flLVe rd ;wtj dh fMek.M Hksth tk lds] vkSj MkVkcsl fMek.M ds
vuq:i MkVk miyC/k djk ldsA

Web Inteface to Database : vktdy osc }kjk ÝUV,s.M ds :i esa fo’ks"k dk;Z fd;s tk jgs

gS a ftlds cgqr ls dkj.k gSa] oso czkmtj ,d lkoZHkkSfed Ý.V,s.M dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA ftles

nqfu;k ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx ls Hksth xbZ lwpuk,sa (BackEnd) ds :i es a fn[kkbZ tkrh gSAaa ;g Ý.V,.Ms

fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj ij fcuk fdlh fo’ks"k izkxs zke dks dke es fy;s mi;kxs fd;k tk ldrk gSA vkSj

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

25

blls fofHkUu izdkj ds MkVkcls dks tksMk tk ldrk gSA oso czkmtj ,d LVsVhd VkbZi dk Ý.V,.Ms

miyC/k djkrk gSA

Undrelaying database (BackEnd): bUVjfjyVs sM MkVk dk legw MkVkcsl dgykrk gSA ;g

MkVkcls fdlh ,sUVjizkbt ls lEcfU/kr lwpuk dk lp; a djrs gSAa MkVkcsl flLVe dk izkFkfed dk;Z
MkVkcls fdlh ,sUVjizkbt ls lEcfU/kr lwpuk dk lp; a djrs gSAa MkVkcsl flLVe dk izkFkfed dk;Z
,d mi;qDr rjhdk miYc/k djkrk gSA ftlds }kjk MkVkcsl esa lpukvk w s a dk s lap; fd;k tk lds
o vko’;drk iMu+ s ij mi;qDr lwpukvks dk a s izkIr fd;k tk lds A MkVkcsl flLVe cMh ek=k esa
lwpukvkas dks O;ofLFkr dju s dk rjhdk gAS blds vUrxZr lwpukvksa dks fdl izdkj laxzg fd;k tk
ldsA mudk <kapk D;k gks fu/kkZfjr fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk blds vyko MkVkcls laxzfgr lwpukvkas dh
fcuk vkKk dke dju s okyka s rFkk flLVe ds [kjkc gkus s ij lj{kk q Hkh djrk gAS ;fn lwpuk,as db Z ;tj w
ds fy;s ’ks;j dh xbZ gk s rks vokfNr a ifj.kkekas ls Hkh MkVkcsl dh lqj{kk djrk gSA MkVk fo’oluh;
cus jgrs gS aA D;ksafd fdlh ,Iyhds’ku ds fy; lwpuk vfregÙoiw.kZ gksrh gSA blfy;s dEI;wVj
oSKkfudksa us MkVk dh O;oLFkk ds fy;s fofHkUu rjhds o vo/kkj.kk;as miyC/k djk;hgSA ftUgaas cSd,.M
ds :i esa dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g cSd,.M izkslsflax osc loZj dk s dke esa ysdj Hkh fØ;kfUor dh
tkrh gAS ftld s fy; s
Java Servlets, Java Server page (JSP) ;k Active Server page (ASP)
dks dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA
cSd,.M esa MkVk dh lj{kk q d s fy; s rFkk mldh fo’oluh;rk dk s cuk;s j[kus ds fy;s daLVªUVs yxk;s
tkrs gSaA ;g daLVªsUV MkVk dh mi;qDrrk rFkk mlds vko’;d foLrkj dks pSdd djr s gS a vkSj mUgha
MkVk dk s lap; gksus dh vuqefr iznku djr s gSaA tks bu daLVªUVs dks Iyku djr s gSAaa
Integration of user Interfac and database : tSlk fd geus ns[kk fd ,Iyhds’ku dh
vko’;drkuqlkj ge ;tj w bUVjQsl ÝUV,.M rFkk MkVk lap;u cSd,.M djus gsrq MkVkcsl dke esa
ysrs gSa aA ;s Front End and Back End ;tj w o izksxzkej viuh vko’;rkvkas dks /;ku esa j[kr s gq,
fu/kkfjr Z djr s gSa buds fy; s dkSulh izksxzkfeax ySaXost ;k ,Iyhds’ku izksxzke mi;qDr gksxkA lk/kkj.kr%
fdlh Hkh DBMS izksxzke esa Front End and Back End vyx&vyx okrkoj.k esa cuk;s tkrs gASa
vkSj mUgsa vyx&vyx VLVs djds ,d lkFk dk; Z dju s gsrq tkMs +k tkrk gSA blh fØ;kfof/k dks
Intrageted user interfaca and Database
dgk tkrk gAS
;wtj bUVjQsl RkFkk MkVkcls
dks ,d lkFk dk;Z dju s ds fy;s nkuk s as dk bUVªhxs’ku fd;k tkuk
vko’;d gSA osc loZj ij Ý.V,s.M izkslsflxa djus ds fy;s ocs loZj dks dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA
ftlesa jave Servlets, java Server page (JPS) or Active Server Page
dk mi;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
Application of Database:
1. Inventory control : bl rjg ds ,Iyhds’ku esa Database esa Products ds ckjs esa tkudkjh
lp;
a
dh tkrh gAS ftlds }kjk cktkj esa izkstsDV cps s o [kjhn s tkrs gSAa bl rjg ds MkVkcls ikz sMsDV
ID uke] [kjhn] ewY;] [kjhn fnukda ] fcdk mRikn] mudk fjvkWMZj ysoy LVksj djrs gS aA bl rjg ds
MkVkcsl dk v/;;u djus ij mRiknd o fjVsyj Hkfo”; ds ckjs es a vuqeku yxk ldrs gS a fd mUgas

dkSulk mRikn dc o fdruk cukuk gS] eaxkuk gS vkSj mUgas cspus ds volj dgk a o dc fey

ldrs gSaA

2. Financial accounting : QkbusfU’k;y vdkm.fVax ds {k=s esa MkVkcsl dk mi;ksx mi;qDr

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

26

miHkksDrk dk s pquu s ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk mudk iwjk fooj.k j[kk tkrk gSA iqjkus MkVk dk

mi;ksx djds vuqeku yxk;s tkrs gSa fd fdlh miHkksDrk dks fdruk Fincance fd;k tk ldrk gSA

vkSj mlds Finance dks pqdkus dh D;k&D;k laHkkouk,a gk s ldrh gS aA D;k oks miHkksDrk fo’oluh;

miHkksDrk dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr] ekfld vk;] O;;] iwoZ yku] s f’k{kk Lrj] bR;kfn dh tkudkjh MkVkcls
miHkksDrk dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr] ekfld vk;] O;;] iwoZ yku] s f’k{kk Lrj] bR;kfn dh tkudkjh MkVkcls
esa lapl djrs gS aA
3.
Pay-Accounting System : blesa MkVkcsl dk eq[; mi;ksx fofHkUu deZpkfj;ksa dh cfld s
is] dVkSfr;k]a osru o`f)] HkÙk s rFkk o`f) fnukad] fy;s x; s yksu bR;kfn d s ckj s esa tkudkjh j[k mudh
osru Lyhi fudkyuk gkrk s gSA ftlls fdlh izdkj dh xyfr;ka gksus dh lEHkkouk de gks tkrh gSaA
blds vykok fdlh deZpkjh dh vyx&vyx le; ij fdlh osru o`f) gqbZ D;k dVkSfr;ka gqbZ dh
tkudkjh izkIr dh tkrh gSA
4.
Invoicing Managment System : bl izdkj ds flLVe esa MkVkcsl dks fofHkUu izdkj ds
yu&n s u] s fcfyx] a d’kc s d] q eUVs us Uls o fofHkUu idkj z d s LVVes UVs ikIrz dju s d s fy; s dke ea s fy;k tkrk
gSA vyx&vyx [kkrks a o enkas ds [kpZs] izkfIr;kas ls lEcfU/kr lwpukvksa dks lap; djds mudh
vyx&vyx djkas o C;kt bR;kfn dh x.kuk,aa dh tkrh gS aA vkSj lEiw.kZ ys[k cuk;s tkrs gSaA
5.
Personal Mangment System/HRD System : bl izdkj ds flLVe esa fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa
d s vk/kkj ij vyx&vyx ;ktukvk s a s l s lEcfU/kr MkVkvkas dk s ldfyr a djd s mld s vk/kkj ij fofHkUu
tu mi;kxh s ;kstukvksa dks ykxw fd;k tkrk gS rFkk mu ;kstukvks a ds izHkkoks a ds vk/kkj ij u;h
;kstukvksa ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; fy;s tkrs gS aaA
6.
Fees managment System : bl rjg ds flLVe fofHkUu f’k{kk laLFkkuksa esa fo|kfFkZ;ks a dh
Qhl dk ys[kk tk[kk s j[kus d s fy; s dke esa fy; s tkr s gSaA ftll s fofHkUu M~;t] w fofHkUu enka s dh Qhl
rFkk M~;w fnukda dk irk yxk;k tk ldrk gSA Qhl dh jlhn fizUV dju s rFkk vyx&vyx dkls Z
ds vuqlkj Qhl Lor% x.kuk dh tkrh gSA vkSj mlds vk/kkj ij fofHkUu dkls stsZ ls vk; o O;; dks
tkuk tk ldrk gSA
7.
Result Analysis System : bl izdkj ds flLVe esa fofHkUu ijh{kkvkas ds ifj.kke fudkyus
muds vk/kkj ij fofHkUu J.kh s Kkr dju s esa MkVkcls dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fdlh ijh{kk ifj.kke
dk s Kkr dju s d s fy; s fofHkUu le; ij gq, VsLV mud s i.kk w dsa Z o ikIrk z dk a a s ds vk/kkj ij izfr’kr fudkys
tkrs gaAS vkSj mlds vuqlkj Jsf.k;k]a vf/kdre vad gj fo"k; esa] vf/kdre o U;ure w vad VkVys o
gj fo"k; es a izfr’kr ikl o Qy fo+|kfFkZ;ksa dh x.kuk; as dh tkrh gSAaa
8.
Addmission Managment System : bl flLVe esa MkVkcsl esa izos’k ds fy;s vk;s QkeZ
dh lpuk; w sa lp; a dh tkrh gSaA mlds i’pkr fofHkUu fu;eksa ds vk/kkj ij izos’k grs q ik=rk dk s tkapk
tkrk gSA vkSj mlds ckn izos’k gsrq ik= lHkh izo’kkfFk s Z;ks a dk s NkaVk tkrk gSA blds i’pkr vkj{k.k
ds vk/kkj ij izo’k s lwfp;ka cuk;h tkrh gS aA vkjS izos’k uk yus s dh fLFkfr esa gkus s okys vU; izos’k ds

fy; dqy lhVks a ds vk/kkj ij osfVax fyLV rS;kj dh tkrh gSA

9-Insurence Management System : bl flLVe ea s fofHkUu eSus tj^]; s fuV w eSutj]],Q- s

lh rFkk fQYM ea s dk; Z dju s oky s viu s }kjk fd;s x; s fctul dk fglkc j[kr s gSa vkSj mld s vuqlkj

vius VkjxsV dks izkIr djus ds iz;kl djrs gaAS fofHkUu dkWy ij tku s dh rkfj[k rFkk fofHkUu dkWy

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

27

ij D;k izksxzsl gwbZ budk fglkc j[kr s gs Sa A buds vk/kkj ij fu"d’k Z fudkys tkrs gS a fd fdl O;fDr

dk s dkuS lh ikWfylh vkWQj dh tk; s o fdl ,fj;k ;k Lrj d s ykxs dkulh S ikfylh W dks yus s d s mRlqd

gksxa sA

MMMkVkc MkVkc MkVkc kVkc kVkc slslslslsl eeeeeSuSuSuste SuSuste ste ste stess saVaVaVss aVaV flLVe flLVe flLVe
MMMkVkc MkVkc MkVkc kVkc kVkc slslslslsl eeeeeSuSuSuste SuSuste ste ste stess saVaVaVss aVaV flLVe flLVe flLVe flLVe flLVe
MkVkcsl eSustes aV flLVe ,d ,lk s flLVe gS tks MkVkcls dks eSuts djrk gS vFkkZr fdlh
MkVkcsl dk lqfu;ksftr fof/k }kjk çcU/ku djuk MkVkcsl eSustes aV flLVe dgykrk gSA de ls de
ç;Ru esa mi;ksxh lwpuk,¡ MkVkcsl eSustesaV flLVe }kjk gh çkIr dh tk ldrh gSA bl ç.kkyh
¼System½ esa MkVk dks tksM+uk] gVkuk ;k mls cnyuk fdlh vU; ç.kkyh ls vklku gS A Mh-ch-,e-
,l- dk çkFkfed y{; ,slk okrkoj.k çnku djuk gS] tks fd lqfo/kktud ,o a MkVkcls lwpuk dks
LVkjs djus ,o a fjVªho djus ds ;ksX; gkAs
MMMkVkc
MkVkc
MkVkc kVkc
kVkcslslslslsl eeeeeSuSuSuSuSuste
ste ste ste
stess aVaVs ssaVaVaV flLVe
flLVe flLVe flLVe
flLVe ddds ddss ss Qk;n
Qk;n Qk;n Qk;n
Qk;nss s ss %%%%%
1- MkVkcsl l s dkQh gn rd MkVk jhM~;wMsUlh ¼MkVk MqIyhds’ku½ ?kVkukA
2- MkVkcsl ls cM+h gn rd MkVk laca/kh vfu;ferrk dks fu;U=.k djukA
3- MkVkcls ls vklkuh l s MkVk dks Access djuk A
4- MkVk ds fc[kjko dks jksdukA
5- MkVk dks lqjf{kr j[kukA
Data Models ¼¼¼MkVk
¼MkVk ek WMYl½
¼MkVk
MkVk ekWMYl½
MkVk ekWMYl½
ekWMYl½ ek
WMYl½
MkVk ekWMy ,ls s fHkUu ekWMy gkrs s gS a] ftudk mi;kxs MkVkcsl dks fMtkbu djus esa gksrk gSA
MkVk fMtkbu es a MkVk dk o.kZu] MkVk fjy’ku’khi] s MkVk dh Hkk"kk fo"k; tkudkjh vkSj daflLVValh s
daULkVªsDVl tSlh ckras ’kkfey gksrh gSA fofHkUu LVªDpj vkjS verw Zrkvksa ¼,DLVªD’kUl½ s ds lkFk fofHkUu
MkVk ekWMy çLrkfor fd, x, gS A
DATA MODELS
Object based Data
Models
Record based Data
Models
Relation al Data Model
Entity Relationship Data
Model
Network Data Model
Object Oriented Data
Model
Semantic Data Model
Hierarchical Data
Model

vkWCtkk WCtWCtWCtsDVsDVsDVsDVsDV vk/kkfjr MkVk ek WMYl

vvvk vkWCt

vk/kkfjr MkVk ekWMYl

vk/kkfjr

vk/kkfjr

vk/kkfjr MkVk

MkVk ek ek ekWMYl %%%%%

MkVk

WMYl

WMYl

fp= 1 Data Models

ykWftdy o O;w ysoy ij vkWCtsDV vk/kkfjr ykWftdy ekWMYl dk mi;ksx MkVk dks fMLØkbo

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

28

djus ds fy, ç;qDr gksrk g S A mudh fof’k"Vrk bl rF; esa gS fd o s dkQh yphyh <kpkxr a {kerk

miyC/k djkrs gS vkSj MkVk dULVª sUV~l dks Li"V :i ls O;Dr dju s dh lqfo/kk nsrs gS A

1- ,aVhVh fjys’ku’khi ekWMy

2- vkWCtsDV vkfj; s saVsM ekWMy 3- flesafVd MkVk ekWMy 4- QaD’kuy MkVk ekWMy ¼¼¼1½ ¼1½
2- vkWCtsDV vkfj; s saVsM ekWMy
3- flesafVd MkVk ekWMy
4- QaD’kuy MkVk ekWMy
¼¼¼1½ ¼1½ ,aVhVh
¼1½ 1½ ,aVhVh fjyfjyfjy
,,,aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh fjy s’ku’khi MkVk ekWMyWMy %&%&%&%&%&
fjys’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi MkVk ekWMy
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk ekWMy
ek ekWMy
,aVhVh fjy’ku’khi s MkVk ekWMy ml fj;y oYMZ dh le> ij vk/kkfjr gS] tks eyHk w wr
vkWCtsDV ftUgsa ,aVhVht dgk x;k gSS d s lxa gz l s cuk gqvk g S A bl le> eas bu vkWCtsDVl ds vkilh
lac/k a Hkh vkrs gS A ,d ,aVhVh fj;y oYMZ dh ,lh s oLr q ;k y{; gS] tks vU; oLrqvksa ls fHkUu gS A
fdlh vkWCtsDV esa ,aVhVht dk s ,VªhC;wV~l ds lsV ls of.kZr fd;k tkrk gS A dbZ ,VhVht a dk vkilh
la?k gh fjy’ku’khi s dgykrk gS A ,d gh çdkj dh lHkh ,aVhVht ds lsV vkSj ,d gh çdkj dh
fjys’ku’khi ds lsV dk s Øe’k% ,VhVh a lsV vkSj fjys’ku’khi lsV dgrs gS A
,aVhVht vkSj fjy’ku’khi
s
ds vykok E-R ekWMy dqN daLVªUVs l~
dks Hkh çnf’kZr djrk gS A
MkVkcsl dk s ftuds vuq:i gksuk pkfg, A ,d egRoiw.kZ daLVªsUV gS A eSfiax dkMZufyVht] ,aVhVht
dh og la[;k crkrh gS] ftuls fjy’ku’khi s lsV ds tfj; s vU; ,VhVh a tksM+h tk ldrh gS A
MkVkcsl dks vkWojvkWy ykftdy <kpk a xzkfQDl rjhds ls E-R fp= ds lkFk vfHkO;Dr fd;k
tk ldrk gS] tks fuEu dEikus sUV~l ls cuk gkrk s gS A
1-
vk;r
&
tk s ,VhVh
a
lsV dks n’kkZrk g S A
2-
nh?kZ o`r
&
tk s ,aVhC;Vw ~l dks n’kkZrk gS A
3-
leprqHkZtq
&
;g ,VhVh
a
lsVl~ ds chp lac/kk a as dks çnf’kZr djrk gS A
4-
ykbZUl & ;g ,VhC;Vlw dks ,VhVh a lVs ~l vkSj ,VhVh a lVs l~ dh fjy’ku’khi s
ls tkMs +rk gS A
fp= 2 E-R Models
¼¼¼2½ ¼2½ vkWCtWCtWCtsDVsDVsDVsDVsDV vk sfj;
¼2½ 2½ vkWCt
2½ vkWCt
vk vk
vk vk vksfj;
vksfj; sfj;
sfj;aVaVaVaVaVsMsMsMsMsM MkVk ekWMyWMyWMyWMy %&%&%&%&%&
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk ek ek ekWMy
MkVk ek

E-R MkVk ekWMy dh rjg] vkWCtsDV vksfj;Vsa sM ekWMy vkWCtsDV ds laxzg ij vk/kkfjr gS A

vkWCtsDV esa blds bLVa sUl osfj;scYl eas lxa fgr z oY;s tw gkrh s gS A vkWCtsDV esa dksM lca a/kh ckWMht gksrh

gS] tk s vkWCtsDV ij vkWijsV gkrh s gS A dksM dh bu ckWMht dks esFkM dgrs gS A

vkWCtsDV ftlesa leku çdkj dh osY;wt vkSj leku çdkj dh esFkM gkrh s gS] dks vkil es as

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

29

Dyklst ¼Jsf.k;ks a½ esa xzqi fd;k tkrk gS A Dykl vkWCtsDV ds fy, ,d çdkj dh MsfQus’ku gS A VkbZi

MsfQus’ku ls cuk MkVk o esFkM dk ;g dkWEchus’ku çksxzkfexa ysaXost ,CLVªDVs MkVk VkbZi ds

leku gS A

,d ek= rjhdk ftll s ,d vkWCtsDV nlj w s vkWCtsDV ds MkVk dk s ,Dlls
,d ek= rjhdk ftll s ,d vkWCtsDV nlj w s vkWCtsDV ds MkVk dk s ,Dlls dj ldrk g S A og ml
vU; vkWCtsDV dh esFkM dks cqykuk ¼ invoke½ djuk gh gSA ;g fØ;k vkWCtsDV dks eSlts Hkstuk
dgykrh gSA bl izdkj fdlh vkWCtsDV dh esFkM dk dkWy baVj Qsl ml vkWCtsDV ds ckg; :i ls
n’kZuh; fgLl s dks fMQkbZu djrk gAS vkWCtsDV dk vkrfjd a fgLlk] bLVUls osfj;cYl s vkSj esFkM dkMs
ckgjh rkSj ij utj ugh a vkr s gSA bldk ifj.kke f}Lrjh; MkVk ,CLVD’ku s esa fudyrk gSA E-R ekWMy
dh ,VhVht a d s foijhr izR;ds vkWCtDVs dh viuh lo/kk Z fHkUu igpku gkrh s gSA tk s ble s fufgr oY;s tw
l s Lora= gkrh s gSA bl çdkj ,d gh oY;s w oky s nks vkWCtsDV fcYkdyq fHkUu gkrs s gSA fMfLVDVj ª vkCts W DV
vkbMUVhQk;j s ds vlkbZues aV ds }kjk HkkSfrd Lrj ij vkWOtsDVl ds chp fHkUurk cuk, a j[kh tkrh gSA
jjjjsdkMZ jsdkMZ sdkM sdkM sdkMZZ Z vk/kkfjr vk/kkfjr vk/kkfjr vk/kkfjr vk/kkfjr MkVk MkVk MkVk MkVk MkVk ekWMYl ekWMYl ek ekWMYl ekWMYl WMYl %%%%%
jsdkMZ vk/kkfjr ykWftdy ekWMy dk mi;ksx ykWftdy o O; w ysoy ij MkVk fMLØkbo djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gAS vkWCtsDV vk/kkfjr MkVk ekWMy ds foifjr mudk mi;kxs MkVkcsl ds vksojvkWy
ykWftdy LVªDpj dk s LilhQkbZ s djus vkSj bEiyhesaVs’ku dk mPp Lrjh; fMLØI’ku miyC/k djkus
nksuksa ds fy, gkrk s gS A
jsdkMZ vk/kkfjr ekWMykas dks ,lk s uke blfy, fn;k x;k gS] D;kfdsa MkVkcsl dks dbZ çdkj ds
fQDl QkWjesV fjdkWM~ Zl esa <+kyk tkrk gS A çR;sd jsdkMZ Vkbi r; lLFkk a esa QhYM ;k ,VªhC;Vw dks
fMQkbu djrk gS vkSj çR;sd QhYM vkerkjS ij fQDl yEckbZ dk gkrk s gS A r; yEckbZ okys fjdkWMZ
dk mi;ksx MkVkcsl ds HkkSfrd Lrjh; fØ;kUo;u dks ljy cuk nrk s gS A
fjy’ku] s uVod s Z vkjS gk;jvkdh Z ekMyW ; s rhu :i O;kid :i l s Lohdk; Z fjdkMW Z vk/kkfjr ekMyW gAS
fffjyfjy
fjyjyjy s’kuy MkVk ek WMYl %%%%%
s’kuy
s’kuy
s’kuy MkVk
s’kuy MkVk ekWMYl
MkVk
MkVk ek ek ek
WMYl
WMYl
WMYl
;g ekWMy MkVk vkjS mu MkVk ds chp lca /kk a sa dk s n’kkuZ s ds fy, Vcys d s lxa gz dk mi;kxs djrk
gS A çR;sd Vscy esa dbZ dkWye gksrs gS vkSj çR;sd dkWye dk fof’k"V uke gksrk gS A bl fp= esa rhu
Vscy ls cus fjys’kuy MkVkcsl dk ueuk w fn;k x;k gS A
Customer Table
Customer ID
Customer Name
Customer Adress
Customer City
101
Raj Kumar
C-12, Shyam Nagar
Jaipur
102
Pooran Singh
142, Chopasani
Jodhpur
103
Parfull Naruka
Aasha Ganj
Ajmer
104
Bharat Kumar
Ram Nagar
Udaipur
105
Vijay
Kumar
166, Shiv Nagar
Kota
106
Ram Singh
200/ USD Colony
Delhi
107
Vikas Kumar
North Street
Ajmer

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

30

Account Table

Account No. Balance A-10001 50,000 A-20001 25,000 A-20016 35,000 A-40007 1,45,000 A-40013 1,35,000 A-50000 70,000 A-50020
Account No.
Balance
A-10001
50,000
A-20001
25,000
A-20016
35,000
A-40007
1,45,000
A-40013
1,35,000
A-50000
70,000
A-50020
85,000
Depositer Table
Customer ID
Account No.
101
A-10001
102
A-20001
103
A-20016
104
A-40007
105
A-40013
106
A-50000
107
A-50020
;gk ¡ çFke Vcys Customer, Customer d s ID, uke] irk] ’kgj d s ckj s ea s tkudkjh nrh s gS] tcfd
nljh w Vcys vdkmUV] vdkmUV u-a o cyS la s dh tkudkjh nrh s g S A fdUr q nkuk s a s Vcys d s e/; Depositer
Table ds ek/;e l s fjys’ku LFkkfir fd;k x;k A çFke Vscy es a ls Customer ID o f}rh; Vcys
esa Account No. ,d Unique dkWye gk s budh lgk;rk ls ge nksuksa VscYl esa fjy’ku s dk irk dj
ldrs gSaA
fjys’kuy MkVkcsl cgrq ’kfDr’kkyh gksrh gS] D;kafds MkVk dSls lacf/kr a gks ;k bls MkVkcls ls
dSls fudkyk tk;sxk A
fffjys’kuy
fjyfjyjyjy s’kuy
s’kuy
s’kuy
s’kuy ek ek ekWMy ek
ekWMyWMyWMyWMy dddddss s ss xq.k
xq.k
xxxq.k q.k q.k
1-
laiw.kZ MkVk Vcys
ds :i esa çnf’kZr fd;k tkrk gS A
2- MkVk ds e/; fjy’ku’khi s dk s dkWye oY;s w ls n’kkZ;k tkrk gS \

3- ;g MkVkcsl es Qsjcny dh fLFkfr esa ,Iyhds’ku izksxzke cnyko ykus dh vko’;drk dks

[kRe dj nrk s gSA

4- ;wtj dk s MkVkcsl dk mik;kxs djus ds fy, Hkkfrd S jpuk Lo:i dh Bhd&Bhd tkudkjh

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

31

gksus dh vko’;drk ugh a gksrh gSA

5- HkkSfrd jpuk Lo:i es fd, x, fdlh Hkh Qsjcny ds f[kykQ ;wtlZ dks laj{k.k feyrk gSA

6- fjy’kUl s dh ifDr;k a a s dk s Tuples o dkWye dk s ,VhC;ª Vw ¼Attributes½ d s :i e s mYyf[kr s fd;k

tkrk gSA 7- fjys’ku dk çR;sd xq.k dk viuk fof’k"V eku gksrk gSA 8- ,VªhC;wV ;k
tkrk gSA
7- fjys’ku dk çR;sd xq.k dk viuk fof’k"V eku gksrk gSA
8- ,VªhC;wV ;k dkWye ds fy, osY;w ]osY;wt ds lsV esa l s fudkyh tkrh gSA bl lsV dh Mksesu
dgrs gSA
fffjyfjyfjyjyjy s’kuy ekWMyWMyWMyWMy dddddss s ss ykHk
s’kuy
s’kuy
s’kuy ek ekWMy ek
s’kuy ek
ykHk
ykHk
ykHk
ykHk
1- <kapkxr ;k jpukRed LorU=rk %& fjys’kuy MkVkcsl ekWMy esa <kpkxr a LoraU=rk gSA
2- vo/kkj.kkRed ljyrk %%%&fjy %&%&&& s’kuy MkVk ekWMy fMtkbZuj dks HkkSfrd MkVk d s C;kSjka s l s eqDr
j[krk gSA fMtkbulZ MkVkcsl ds ykWftdy O; w ij viuk /;ku dsfUær j[k ldr s gSA
3- fMtkbZu ] fØz;kUo;u ]j[kj[kko o mi;kxs esa vklkuh %& fjys’kuy MkVkcsl ekWMy MkVk o
<kpkxr a LorU=rk nkuk s as gkfly djrk gSA ftlds dkj.k MkVkcsl fMtkbZu j[kj[kko ç’kklu vkSj
mi;ksx] vU; ekWMyksa dh rqyuk esa dgh a vf/kd vklku gk s tkrk gS A
fffjyfjy
fjyjyjy s’kuy ekWMyWMy dh [kkfe;k¡ ¡
s’kuy
s’kuy
s’kuy ekWMy
s’kuy ekWMy dh [kkfe;k¡
ek ekWMy dh dh dh [kkfe;k¡
[kkfe;k
[kkfe;k¡ %%%%%
11111 ----- gggkMZo gkMZo gkMZo kMkMZoZos;j s;j s;j s;j s;j es es es eea a a sasa vfrfjDr vfrfjDr vfrfjDr vfrfjDr vfrfjDr [kp [kp [kp [kp [kpZZ Z ZZ %%%%% fjys’kuy MkVkcsl flLVe] fØ;kUo;u laca/kh tfVyrkvksa
vkSj fQftdy MkVk LVksjst C;kSjks dk s ;wtlZ ls fNikdj j[krk g S A bls djus ds fy, vFkkZr ;wtlZ
ds fy, phtsa vklku cuku s ds fy, fjy’kuy s MkVkcls flLVe dks vf/kd ’kfDr’kkyh gkMZos;j
dEI;Vlw Z vkSj MkVk LVksjst lsokvkas dh vko’;drk gksrh gS A
22222 ----- fffMtkbu fMtkbu fMtkbu Mtkbu Mtkbu dh dh dh dh dh vklkuh vklkuh vklkuh vklkuh vklkuh [kjkc [kjkc [kjkc [kjkc [kjkc fMtkbu fMtkbu fMtkbu fMtkbu fMtkbu dk dk dk dk dks s s s s tUe tUe tUe tUe tUe nnnnnss s s s ldrh ldrh ldrh ldrh ldrh gggggSS S SS %%%%% fjy’kuy s MkVk ekWMy
ea s ;tl w Z dk s fQthdy MkVk LVkjs ts d s tfVy C;kSj s tkuu s dh vko’;drk ugh a g S A mUga s ;g Hkh tkuus
dh vko’;drk ugha gS fd MkVk okLro esa dSl s LVksj gS o bl s dSls ,sDlsl djuk gS A
NETWORK DATA BASE MODEL
usVodZ MkVk ekWMy eas MkVk esa jsdkWMZ o fjys’ku’khi ds laxzg dk s fyad ls n’kkZ;k tkrk gS vkSj
bUgas iksbUVl Z Z d s :i esa ns[kk tk ldrk gS A MkVkcls dk s euekus xkQz ds laxgz d s :i esa vkWxZukbZ s t
fd;k tkrk gS A
School
English
Hindi
Science
Maths
Yogita
Pushpendra
Pawan
Gopal
Vinod

fp= 3 Network Models

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

32

uuuuusVodZ

sVodZ

sVodZ

sVodZ ekWMy

sVodZ

ek ekWMy ekWMyWMy ds ds ds ds ds xxxxxq.k q.k q.k q.k q.k %%%%%

ekWMy

s

1- uVodZ

ekWMy esa MkVk dk s jdkWMZ

s

,o a fyda

}kjk n’kk;k Z tkrk gS A

2- MkVk ds chp fjys’ku’khi dk s fyad vkSj iksbZaaVlZ ls çnf’kZr fd;k tkrk gS A

vkuj fjdkWM~lZ rFkk esEcj fjdkMW Z ds :i es a tkus tkrs gS A 4- lsV
vkuj
fjdkWM~lZ rFkk esEcj fjdkMW Z ds :i es a tkus tkrs gS A
4-
lsV esa vkWuj vkSj esEcj fjdkMW Z ds chp ,d o dbZ ¼i : n½ fjy’ku’khi s gS A
5-
lsV esa esEcj fjdkMW Z rks ,d ls T;knk gk s ldrs gS] ysfdu vkWuj fjdkMW Z ,d gh gksxk A
uuuuusVodZ
sVodZ
sVod
sVod MkVk ek
sVod Z ZZ MkVk ekWMyWMyWMyWMy dddds ds ss s ykHk %%%%%
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk ek ekWMy ek
ykHk
ykHk
ykHk
ykHk
11111 ----- vvvo/kkj.kkRed vo/kkj.kkRed vo/kkj.kkRed o/kkj.kkRed o/kkj.kkRed ljyrk ljyrk ljyrk ljyrk ljyrk %%%%% usVodZ ekWMy Hkh vo/kkj.kk ds Lrj ij cgqr ljy vkSj fMtkbu
djus esa cgqr vklku gS A
22222 ----- vvvf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
f/kd
f/kd fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi Vkb
Vkb
Vkb
VkbZi
VkbZiZiZiZi dk dk dk dk dks s s ss gggggsaMysaMys aMyss aMyaMy dju
dju
dju
dju
djuss s ss eees es l{ke %%%%% uVodZ
es sasa a a a l{ke
l{ke l{ke l{ke
s
ekWMy ,d ls dbZ
(i
: m ) vkSj dbZ ls dbZ ¼m : m½ fjy’ku’khi s dks lHkky a ldrk gSA okLrfod thou dh fLFkfr;ksa dks
ekWMy djus esa ;g okLrfod enn gS A
33333 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk ,Dlslslslslsl eees es vklkuh %%%%% uVodZ
MkVk kVk ,Dl
kVk ,Dl
,Dl
,Dl
es sasa a a a vklkuh
vklkuh
vklkuh
vklkuh
s
ekWMy esa MkVk ,Dlls
vklku vkSj yphyk gS A
44444 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk q)rk
MkVk kVk ’kq)rk
kVk ’k ’k ’kq)rk
’k
q)rk
q)rk %%%%% uVodZ
s
ekWMy fdlh Hkh esEcj dk s fcuk vkWuj ds ugha jgus nrk s gS A bl
çdkj ;tj w dks igys vkuj fjdkMW Z ifjHkkf"kr djuk pkfg, vkjS mld s ckn esEcj fjdkMW Z A bll s MkVk
dh ’kq)rk cuh jgrh gS A
55555 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk kVk dh dh dh LorU=rk
MkVk dh LorU=rk
kVk dh LorU=rk %%%%% usVodZ ekWMy esa tfVy fQftdy LVkjs st C;kSjksa ls çksxzke dk s vyx
LorU=rk
LorU=rk
dju s ¼ijh w rjg l s ugh a oks vkaf’kd :i ls gh lgh½ d s fy, vPNk gS A ;g dNq gn rd ;g lqfuf’pr
djrk gS fd MkVk dSjsDVj fLVdl ea s ifjoruZ d s dkj.k ,Iyhd’ku s çkxs kez ea s Qsjcny dh vko’;drk
u gk s A
uuuusVod
usVod
sVod
sVod
sVodZZ Z ZZ ekWMy
ekWMy
ek ek
ekWMyWMyWMy dh
dh dh dh
dh [kkfe;k
[kkfe;k
[kkfe;k
[kkfe;k¡
[kkfe;k¡ ¡¡ ¡ %%%%%
11111 ----- ffflLVe
flLVe dkEIysfDlVh
flLVe
lLVe dkEIy
lLVe dkEIy sfDlVh %%%%% uVod
dkEIy
dkEIy
sfDlVh
sfDlVh
sfDlVh
s Z ekWMy MkVk dks usohxs’kuy ,Clsl dh lqfo/kk nsrk gS]
ftlesa MkVk ,d le; ,d gh fjdkWMZ dks ,Dlsl djrk gS A ;g usohx’kuy s MkVk ,Dlsl esdsfuTe]
flLVe bEiyheVsa s’ku dks cgqr tfVy cukrk g S rFkk MkVkcsl ,MfeuhLVªsVj] MkVk fMtkbZuj] çkxs kel z Z
rFkk ,aM ;wtlZ dk s MkVk dks ,Dlsl djus ds fy, baVjuy MkVk LVªsDpj ls Qsesfy;j gksuk pkfg, A
22222 ----- LLLVLVLVVªDpjy
VªDpjy
ªDpjy
ªDpjy LorU=rk dh vu qifLFkfr %%%%% pwafd MkVkcsl usVodZ ekWMy es MkVk ,Dlls djus
ªDpjy LorU=rk dh vuqifLFkfr
LorU=rk
LorU=rk
LorU=rk dh dh dh vu
vuqifLFkfr vu
qifLFkfr qifLFkfr
dh fof/k uohx s s’kuy flLVe gS rks vf/kdrj fLFkfr;ks a esa MkVkcsl ij dkbZ s Hkh lajpukRed ifjorZu
dfBu gksrk gS rFkk dqN fLFkfr;ks a esa ;g vlEHko gksrk gS A
gggggsjkfdZdyMkVk
sjkfdZdyMkVk
sjkfd
sjkfdZdyMkVk
sjkfdZdyMkVk
ZdyMkVk ek ekWMy ek ekWMyWMyWMyWMy
ek
gsjkfdZdyekWMy] usVodZ ekWMy dh rjg gh bu vFkkasZ esa leku gS fd MkVk rFkk fjys’ku’khi
dks Øe’k% jsdkWM~lZ }kjk çnf’kZr fd;k tkrk gS A gsjkfdZdyekWMy jsdkWMZ dks Vªh es a vkxs ZsukbZt fd;k
tkrk gSA
MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk 33 fp= 4 Heirarchical Models gggggsjkfd sjkfd sjkfd sjkfd sjkfdZdy Zdy Zdy Zdy Zdy
MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk
33
fp= 4 Heirarchical Models
gggggsjkfd sjkfd sjkfd sjkfd sjkfdZdy Zdy Zdy Zdy Zdy ek ek ekWMy ek ekWMyWMyWMyWMy dddds ds ss s xxxxxq.k q.k q.k q.k q.k %%%%%
1- gsjkfdZdy ekWMy esa fjdkWM~l Vªh QkeZ esa vkWxukbt sZ fd, tkrs gS A
2-
gk;dhZ ,d lqO;ofLFkr Vªh gS tk s le>us esa vklku gS A
3-
MkVk ds chp fjys’ku’khi fjdkWMZ vFkok fyad ls n’kkZ;k tkrk gS A
4- Vªh dks ukM~ s l ds lsV ds :i esa fMQkbu fd;k tk ldrk gS] oSl s blesa ,d fo’ks"k rkSj ij
funs’k Z ukMs gkrk s gS ftl s :V dgrs gS A
5- Vªh ds lsV es a ,dek= ijs aVs gkrk s gS ijs saV d s dksb Z Hkh ugh]a ,d ;k vf/kd pkbZYM ¼cPp½s ukMs l~
gk s ldrs gSA
6- gjkfd s dy Z ekWMy ea s ijs Va s fjdkMW Z vkdjlsa d s fcuk dkbs Z Hkh fMiMsa Vas fjdkMW Z ugh a gk s ldrk A
gggsjkfd gsjkfd Zdy MkVk ekWMyWMy dddddss s ss ykHk
gsjkfd
sjkfd
sjkfdZdy
Zdy
Zdy
Zdy MkVk ekWMy
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk ekWMy
ek ekWMy
ykHk ykHk ykHk
ykHk %%%%%
11111 ----- llljyrk
ljyrk
ljyrk %%%%% pw afd MkVkcls
jyrk
jyrk
gsjkfdZdyLVªDpj ij vk/kkfjr gS fofHkUu ys;lZ ds chp laca/k
ykWftdyh ¼vo/kkj.kkRed :i ls½ ljy gS A bl rjg gsjkfdZdyMkVkcsl dk fMtkbu ljy gS A
22222 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk
MkVk kVk lllllwj{kk
kVk
wj{kk
wj{kk
wj{kk
wj{kk %%%%% gjkfdZ
s
dyekWMy eas MkVk lqjf{kr jgrk gS A
33333 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk
MkVk kVk ’k ’k ’k ’kq)rk q)rk q)rk q)rk q)rk %%%%% pw afd gsjkfdZdyekWMy isjsaV@pkbZYM lac/k a ij vk/kkfjr gS blesa ges’kk isjs aV
kVk ’k
vkSj pkbYMZ lxe s Va s ea s fyda cuh jgrh g S A pkbYMZ lsxeVa s ge’kk s Lopkfyr rjhd s l s viu s ijs Va s jQj s la s
djrs gSA bl rjg ;g ekWMy MkVk bafVfxzVh dk s c<krk + g S A
44444 ----- dddk;
dk; Z{kerk %%%%% gsjkfdZdyMkVkcsl ekWMy cgqr gh dk;Z l{ke lkfcr gksrk gS A tc MkVkcls
dk;k;k;Z{kerk
Z{kerk
Z{kerk
Z{kerk
esa cM+h la[;k esa 1 : n fjy’ku’khi s ¼,d ls dbZ½ gk s vkSj ;wtj dh fQDl fjys’ku’khi okys MkVk dk
mi;ksx djds cgqr lkjs VªkatsD’ku dh vko’;drk gks A
ggggsjkfd gsjkfd sjkfd Zdy MkVk ekWMyWMyWMy dh [kkfe;k¡ ¡¡ ¡
sjkfd
sjkfdZdy
Zdy
Zdy
Zdy MkVk ekWMy dh [kkfe;k
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk ekWMy
ek ek
dh dh dh [kkfe;k
[kkfe;k
[kkfe;k¡
11111 ----- fffØ;kUo;u fØ;kUo;u fØ;kUo;u Ø;kUo;u Ø;kUo;u dh dh dh dh dh tfVyrk tfVyrk tfVyrk tfVyrk tfVyrk %%%%% gsjkfdZdyMkVkcsl ekWMy vo/kkj.kkRed :i ls ljy gS vkSj
fMtkbu es a Hkh vklku gS] yfdu s vey eas ykus es a dkQh tfVy gS A MkVkcls fMtkbZul Z dk s fQftdy
MkVk LVksjst dk cgqr vPNk Kku gksuk pkfg, A
22222 ----- MMMkVkc
MkVkcsl
MkVkcsl eeeSueSueSuSuSuste
kVkc
kVkcslslsl
ste ste ste
stesaVsaVs aVsaVsaV dh leL;k,
dh dh dh leL;k,¡
dh leL;k,¡ %%%%% gjkfdZdyMkVk
leL;k,
leL;k, ¡ ¡¡
s
ekWMy esa MkVkcsl vkSj ,Iyhds’ku dk
j[kj[kko cgqr dfBu gks tkrk gS A
MMMkVkc
MkVkc kVkc
MkVkc
kVkc slslslslsl yyyyysaXosaXos ss
aXoaXoaXoststststst
11111 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk MsfQu
MkVk kVk MsfQu s’ku yyyyyss aXoaXosaXoss aXoaXoststststst ¼¼¼¼¼DDL½½½½½ %%%%% MkVkcsl Ldhek dk s fMQkbu djus esa mi;ksx esa ykbZ
kVk
MMsfQu
MsfQu
sfQus’ku
s’ku
s’ku
s’ku

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

34

tkus okyh ys aXots dks MkVk MsfQus’ku yaXos st ¼DDL½ dgrs gS A MkVkcsl dks fMQkbu dju s ds fy,

mi;ksx esa ykbZ tkus okyh dek.M~l DDL dek.M~l gS A MkVk MsfQus’ku dek.M~l MkVkcls LVªDpj

ij dk;Z djrh gS A DDL dek.M~l }kjk Vcys dks cukus] Vscy ds LVªDpj ¼Ldhek½ cnyko djus] o

Vscy fMfyV dju s ds ç;kxs es a yk;k tkrk g S A 22222 ----- MMMkVk
Vscy fMfyV dju s ds ç;kxs es a yk;k tkrk g S A
22222 ----- MMMkVk
MkVk kVk eeesfuI;
MkVk sfuI;wywywywywys’ku
kVk
eesfuI;
sfuI;
sfuI; s’ku yyyyyss aXoaXoaXos ss aXoaXoststststst ¼¼¼¼¼DML½½½½½ %%%%% og yaXos st tks ;wtlZ dk s MkVk ,Dlsl ;k esfuI;yw sV
s’ku
s’ku
s’ku
djus esa ç;ksx yh tkrh g S mls MkVk esfuI;wy’ku s yaXos st dgrs gS A MkVk ,Dlsl ;k esfuI;yw sV djus
d s fy, mi;ksx eas ykb Z tku s okyh dek.Ml~ DML dek.M~l dgykrh gS A DML dek.M~l fjdkWM~lZ
ij dk;Z djrh gS A blesa lwpukvka]s balVZ] fMfy’ku vkSj viMs’ku dek.M~l ’kkfey gksxh A DML
eyr% w nks çdkj dh gksrh gS &
(i)
çççk çk çkkkslhtjy slhtjy slhtjy slhtjy slhtjy MkVk MkVk MkVk MkVk MkVk esfuI; esfuI; esfuI; eesfuI; sfuI;wywywywywys’ku s’ku s’ku s’ku s’ku yyyyyss aXoaXos aXosaXosaXoststststst %%%%% blesa ;wtj dks ;g LiflQkbZ s djuk
vko’;d gS fd fdl MkVk dh vko’;drk gS] mls dSls çkIr fd;k tk ldrk gS A
(ii)
uuukWu&çk
ukkkWu&çk
uk slhtjy MkVk sfuI;wywywywywys’ku s’ku s’ku s’ku
Wu&çk
Wu&çkslhtjy
Wu&çk
slhtjy
slhtjy
slhtjy MkVk eeesfuI;
MkVk
MkVk
MkVk
eesfuI;
sfuI;
sfuI; s’ku yyyyyss aXoaXosaXoss aXoaXoststststst %%%%% bles a ;wtj dk s dsoy ;g crkuk
gkrk s gS fd fdl MkVk dh vko’;drk gS ukWu&çkslhtjy DML esa ;wtj ;g LislhQk; ugh a djrk
gS fd MkVk dSls çkIr gksxk A
33333 ----- MMMkVk MkVk MkVk kVk kVk daVªk daVªk daVªk ddaVaVªkªksysysysysy yyyyysaXosaXoaXos ss aXoaXoststststst ¼¼¼¼¼DCL½½½½½ %%%%% MkVkcsl daVªksy djus ds fy, mi;ksx dh tkus okyh ysaXost
dks MkVk daVªkys ys aXost DCL dgrs gS A MkVkcsl dk s daVªksy djus okyh dek.M~l DCL dek.M~l
dgykrh gS A DCL dk ç;ksx fo’k"kkf/kdkj s ds mi;ksx vkSj MkVk dfefVax MkVkcsl daVªkys djrk gSA
44444 ----- VVVª VVªª ªªkkkkk aatsD’ku tsD’ku atsD’ku atatsD’ku sD’ku dddaV ddaVaVaVªk aVªkªkªkªksysysysysy yyyyyaXoaXoss s aXoss aXoaXoststststst ¼¼¼¼¼TCL½½½½½ %%%%% MkVkcsl ij vkWijs’ku fu"iknu dh çfØ;k dks
VªkatsD’ku dgrs gS A tc Hkh MkVkcsl ij ,d fuf’pr VªkatsD’ku fu"ikfnr gksrk gS] rk s ;g fu"iknu
daVªksy ds vUrxZr gksuk pkfg, A bl vkWijs’ku dks fu"ikfnr djus ds fy, tk s ysaXost ç;ksx esa ykbZ
tkrh gS mls VªkatsD’ku daVªkys ys aXost TCL ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS A
,,,,,aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh fjys’ku’khi
aVhVh fjy s’ku’khi ek
fjy
fjy
fjy
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi ekWMyWMyWMyWMy
ek ekWMy ek
,aVhVh fjys’ku’khi ekWMy dk mi;ksx vo/kkj.kkRed MkVk ekWMy cukus esa fd;k tkrk gS A
;g lkW¶Vo;j s l s LorU= MkVkcls d s LVªDpj o dULVªDVs l~ MkVkcls dk s vey ea s yku s d s fy, mi;kxh s
gS A blls ,lkfl,V s MkVk ekWMy fj;y oYMZ ¼MkVk½ ds fu;eksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrk g S A
,,,,aVhVh
,aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh fjy
fjyfjys’ku’khi
fjy
fjys’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi ekWMy
s’ku’khi
ekWMy
ek ek ekWMyWMyWMy dddddss s ss ?kVd
?kVd
?kVd
?kVd
?kVd rRo
rRo
rRo
rRo %%%%%
rRo
,,,,,aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh %%%%% ,aVhVh fj;y oYMZ es a dkbZ s O;fDr] LFkku] oLrq] ?kVuk ;k vo/kkj.kk gkrh s gS] tks vU;
lkj s vkWCtsDV ls fHkUu gksrh g S A ,VhVh a e s çkWiVhZt dk lsV gksrk gS vkSj çkWiVhZt d s dqN lVs dh oY;s w
fof’k"V rjhds ls ,aVhVh dh igpku dj ldrh gS A ,aVhVh ,VªhC;wV~l ds lsV ls n’kkZbZ tkrh gS A
,aVhVh nks çdkj dh gkrh s gS &
¼¼¼1½ ¼1½ ¼1½ 1½ 1½ LLLVLVLVVªk Vªkªkªkªksaxsaxs axss axax ,,,,,aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh %%%%% LVªkax ,aVhVh og gksrh gS] ftldk vfLrRo vU; ,VhVh
aVhVh
a
ls LorU= gkrk s gSA
nwljs ’kCnks sa esa ftl ,aVhVh lsV dh çkbejh dh gksrh gS] mls LVªkxa ,aVhVh lsV dgrs gS a A
¼¼¼2½
¼2½
¼2½ 2½ 2½ ooohdohd
ohdhdhd ,,,,,aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh
aVhVh %%%%% ohd ,VhVh
a
og gksrh gS] ftldk vfLrRo fdlh vU; ,aVhVh lsV ij fuHkZj
gksrk gS A nwljs ’kCnk sa es a ,slk ,VhVh a lsV ftlds ikl çkbejh dh cukus ds fy, i;kZIr ,VªhC;Vw ugha

gks mls ohd ,VhVh a lsV dgrs gSA

,,,,,aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh aVhVh lllllsVsVsVsVsV %%%%% ,aVhVh lsV] leku çdkj dh ,VhVh a dk lVs gksrk gS] bu ,VhVh a dh çkWiVhZ ;k

,VªhC;wV leku gksrs gS A ,aVhVh lsV dk s vk;rkdkj ckWDl }kjk çnf’kZr fd;k tkrk gS A

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

35

tSls %& fdlh cS ad ds xzkgdkas dk lsV

Customer & fdlh cSad fo’ks"k }kjk fn, x, lHkh çdkj ds _. k Loan ,,,V,V,VVªhC; VªhC;ªhC;ªhC;ªhC;wVwVwVwVwV~l~l~l~l~l
Customer
& fdlh cSad fo’ks"k }kjk fn, x, lHkh çdkj ds
_.
k
Loan
,,,V,V,VVªhC; VªhC;ªhC;ªhC;ªhC;wVwVwVwVwV~l~l~l~l~l %%%%% ,VªhC;wV~l dks ,VhVh a dh çkWiVhZ ;k djsDVj LVhDl ds :i esa fMQkbu fd;k tk
ldrk gS A çR;sd ,aVhVh lsV esa blds lkFk tqM+s ,VªhC;wV dk lsV gkrk s gS A ,VªhC;wVl~ dks v.Mkdkj
vkÑfr (Oval Shape) }kjk çnf’kZr fd;k tkrk gS A
fp= 5 Attribute of Customer
11111 ----- ffflflflllaiyaiyaiyaiyaiy vk vk vk vkSj vkSjSjSjSj dddaik daik daik aik aiksftV sftV sftV sftV sftV ,V,V,VªhC; ,V,VªhC;ªhC;ªhC;ªhC;wV~lwV~lwVwVwV~l~l~l %%%%% fliya ;k ,VkWfed ,VªhC;Vw ~l os gkrs s gS tks NksVs
Customer_Street
Customer_City
lcikVZ ¼mifgLlka½s esa ugh a ckVa s tk ldr s gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, ,VªhC;wV LVwMs aV jksy uEcj dks
mifgLlkas esa ugh a foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS A daiksftV ,VªhC;wV~l os gkrs s gS] ftUgas vkSj NkVs s fgLlkas
Customer_Name
Customer_Id
esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ,VªhC;Vw LVwMsaV use dh rhu miHkkxks esa foHkkftr fd;k tk
ldrk gS A çFke uke] e/; uke] vafre uke A
Customer
22222 ----- ffflflflllaxyaxyaxyaxyaxy ooooosY;sY;sY;sY;sY;w w w ww vk vk vk vk vkSjSjSjSjSj efYV efYV efYV efYV efYV ooooosY;sY;sY;sY;sY;ww w w w ,VªhC; ,VªhC; ,VªhC; ,V,VªhC;ªhC;wVwVwVwVwV~l~l~l~l~l %%%%% flaxy osY;w ,VªhC;Vw ~l og gksr s gS] ftlesa
dsoy ,d gh osY;w gksrh gS A mnkgj.k & ,d vdkmaV cSysal esa dbZ ckj esa ,d gh oY;s w gk s ldrh
gS A ;g flxya
oY;s w ,VªhC;wV dk gh mnkgj.k gS A
efYVosY;w ,VªhC;wV] og ,VªhC;wV gS] ftlesa ,d ls vf/kd oY;s w laHko gS A tSl s ,d O;fDr ds
,d ls T;knk Qkus
uEcj lEHko gS A
33333 ----- fffMjkb fMjkbZo fMjkbZo Mjkb MjkbZoZoZo ,V,V,VªhC; ,V,VªhC;ªhC;ªhC;ªhC;wVwVwVwV~lwV~l~l~l~l %%%%% ,slk ,VªhC;wV tks fdlh vU; lacaf/kr ,VªhC;wV l s fy;k x;k gS] mls
fMjkbZo ,VªhC;wV~l dgrs gS A tSl s fdlh deZpkjh dh mez ¼Age ½ dh x.kuk MsV vkWQ cFkZ ls dh
tkrh gS A
44444 -----
uuuyuyuyyy ,VªhC;
,VªhC;
,V,VªhC;
,VªhC;ªhC;wVwVwVwVwV %%%%% ,slk ,VªhC;wV ftles a uy oY;s w gk s ldrh gSA uy ,VªhC;wV dgykrk gS A uy
osY; w dk mi;kxs rc fd;k tkrk gS tc ,VhVh a ds ikl ,VªhC;Vw d s fy, osY; w ugh a gkrh s gS A mnkgj.k

ds fy, fdlh ,aVhVh ,EIykbZ s ds ,VªhC;wV Qksu uEcj esa osY;w gks Hkh ldrh gS vkjS ugh a Hkh gks ldrh

gS A lHkh deZpkfj;kas ds ikl Qksu gk]s ;g t:jh ugh a A ;gk¡ Qkus

eeeeesfisfisfisfisfiaxaxaxaxax dULVª

dULVªs ss s

dULVª

dULVª

dULVªs aVaVaVaVaV~l~l~l~l~l

uEcj uy ,VªhC;wV gS A

E-R baVjçkbtst Ldhek dqN dULVªsaV~l dks ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrk g S A MkVkcls ds daVsV dks

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

36

ftuds vuq:i gksuk pkfg, A bl çfØ;k dks esfiax dULVªsV~l dgrs gS A

fffjy fjy s’ku’khi %%%%% fjyjys’ku’khi jys’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi 11111 ----- ,,,d,d,ddd lllllss s ss ,d,d,d,d,d fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi
fffjy fjy s’ku’khi %%%%%
fjyjys’ku’khi jys’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi
11111 ----- ,,,d,d,ddd lllllss s ss ,d,d,d,d,d fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi
s’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
(One to One Relationship) %%%%%
A
es a
,d ,aVhVh B dh
vf/kd ls vf/kd ,d ,VhVh a vkSj B esa ,d ,aVhVh A dh vf/kd ls vf/kd ,d ,aVhVh ls tqM+h gksuh
pkfg,A
a1
b1
a2
b2
a3
b3
a4
b4
fp= 5 One to One Relationship
22222 ----- ,,,d,d,ddd lllllss s ss vu vu vu vu vusdsdsdsdsd fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi (One to Many Relationship) %%%%% A esa ,d ,aVhVh B esa
fdruh Hkh la[;k esa ,aVhVh ls tqM+h gk s ldrh gS A gkykfda B esa ,d ,aVhVh A esa vf/kd ls vf/kd
,d ,VhVh
a
ls tqM+ ldrh gS A
fp= 6 One to Many Relationship
33333 ----- vvvu
vu
vuusdusdsdsdsd lllllss s ss ,d,d,d,d,d fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi
s’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi
s’ku’khi
(Many to One Relationship) %%%%%
blesa A esa ,d ,VhVh a vf/kd ls vf/kd B dh ,d ,aVhVh ls tqM+ ldrh gS A gkykafd B
esa ,d ,VhVh
a
A esa fdruh Hkh la[;k ,VhVht
a
ls tqM+ ldrh gS A
a1
a2
b1
a3
b2
a4
b3
a5
a1
a2
b1
a3
b2
a4
b3
a5

fp= 7 Many to One Relationship

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

37

44444 ----- vvvu

vuuusdsdsdsdsd lllllss s s vusdsdsdsdsd fjyfjyfjyfjyfjys’ku’khi

vu

s vu

vu

vu

vu

s’ku’khi (Many to Many Relationship) %%%%% A esa ,d ,aVhVh B es a

s’ku’khi s’ku’khi s’ku’khi

fdruh Hkh la[;k es a ,aVhVht ls tqM+ ldrh gS vkSj B es a Hkh ,d ,VhVh a

,aVhVht ls tqM+ ldrh gS A

A esa fdruh Hkh la[;k esa

a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 a4 b4 fp= 8 Many to Many Relationship E-R Mk;xzke
a1
b1
a2
b2
a3
b3
a4
b4
fp= 8 Many to Many Relationship
E-R Mk;xzke
Mk;xzke
Mk;x
Mk;x zkezkezke
Mk;x
MkVkcsl d s vkojvkWy s ykWftdy LVªDpj dk s xzkfQd :i esa E-R Mk;xzke l s O;Dr fd;k tk
ldrk gS A bl Mk;xzke okyh rduhd dh rqyukRed ljyrk rFkk fp=kRed Li"Vrk E-R ekWMy ds
O;kid mi;ksx esa dkQh fgLlk j[krh gS A
E-R MMMk;x
Mk;x
Mk;x
k;xzkezkezkezkezke ijEijk,¡ %%%%% E-R Mk;xzke esa ,aVhVht vkjS
k;x
ijEijk,¡
ijEijk,¡
ijEijk,
ijEijk, ¡¡
,VªhC;wV~l dks n’kkZus dh dqN
çFkk,¡ gS &
1- ,VhVht a dks pkSdksj ckWDl ls n’kkZ;k tkrk gS vkSj ,VhVh a dk uke vk;rkdkj ckDl eas
gksrk gSA
2- ,VªhC;wV dk s lca f/kr a ,aVhVh ls ykbZu d s tfj; s tMq h+ vaMkdkj vkÑfr l s fn[kk;k tkrk g S vkSj
bls ,VªhC;wV ues l s ysoy fd;k tkrk gS A
3- ,VhVh a ues dks dsfiVy ¼vijdsl½ vkSj ,VªhC;wV use dks Leky ¼ykWojdsl½ ysVj esa fy[kk
tkrk gS A
4-
çkbejh dh dk s vaMjykbZu fd;k tkrk gS A
5-
,VªhC;wV~l dks ,aVhVht ls ykbZu ds tfj;s tksM+k tkrk gS A
E-R Model eeees es ss aa s a aa ç;k
ç;k ç;k ç;k
ç;ksxsxsxsxsx fd; tku ss s ss oky
fd;
fd;
fd; tku
fd;ss s ss tku okyss s ss flflflflflacyacyacyacyacy %%%%%
tku
tku oky
oky
oky
dddh dh dhhh ¼¼¼¼¼ Key½½½½½
dh og ,VªhC;Vw ;k ,VªhC;wV~l ds lVs gS ftudk mi;ksx ,aVhVh lsV esa ,d ,VhVh a dks nljh w
ls vyx djus esa fd;k tkrk gS A
çççkb çkbZejh çkbZejh kbkbZejh Zejh Zejh dh dh dh dh dh %%%%% çkbejh dh çR;sd fjdkWMZ esa ,d ;k ,d l s vf/kd QhYM dk legw gkrk s gS] tks
fd çR;sd fjdkWMZ dks vyx ls çnf’kZr djrk gS A ;g MkVk ds eku dh ,d ls vf/kd çfof"V dks
jkdrh s gS A fdlh Vcys esa fjdkWMZ dks ;wfud rjhds ls vk;Ms afVQkbZ djus ds fy, dkWye esa ,aVj dh

xbZ lkjh osY;wt ;wfud gksuh pkfg, vkSj mles a dksbZ uy osY;wt ugh a gkuh s pkfg,A

Qkkksjsjsjsjsjsususususu dh

QQQk Qk

dh %%%%% Qksjsu dh dk ç;kxs nk s VcYl s ds e/; laca/k LFkkfir djus ds fy, fd;k

dh dh dh

tkrk gS] nkuk s sa Vscy ds e/; de ls de ,d QhYM dkWeu gksuk pkfg, A çFke Vscy esa ;g dh

çkbZejh dh dgykrh gS ,o a nljh w Vcys ea s ;g dh Qkjs us dh dgykrh g S A Qkjs us dh dk eku ckj&

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 38 ckj vk ldrk gSA Strong Entity Associative Entity Weak Entity Attribute Multi-valued Relationship
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
38
ckj vk
ldrk gSA
Strong Entity
Associative
Entity
Weak Entity
Attribute
Multi-valued
Relationship
Attribute
Derived
Primary Key
B
Attribute
A
Many To
Many
Many To One
Relationship
Relationship
One To One
Relationship
One To Many
Relationship
fp= 9 E-R Model esa ç;ksx fd;s tkus okys flacy %
lllllwij wij wij wij dh %%%%% ;g ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd ,VªhC;wV dk lsV gkrk s gS] tks fof’k"V rjhds ls fdlh
wij dh
dh dh dh
,aVhVh lsV esa ,aVhVh dks igpku ldrk gS A lwij dh ds fdlh lwij lsV dks Hkh lwij dh ds :i esa
fy;k tk ldrk gS A tSl s fd ,d ,VhVh a ds pkj ,VªhC;wV A, B, C vkSj D gS] ;fn ,VªhC;wV A fdlh

,aVhVh dh fof’k"V igpku dj ldrk gS rks A ml ,aVhVh ds fy, lwij dh gS A blh rjg fdlh

,VªhC;wV ;k ,VªhC;wV dk ,VªhC;wV ds lkFk dkWfEcu’ku s lij w dh dgyk ldrk gS A {AB}, {AC},

{AD}, {ABC}, {ABD}, {ACD} vkSj {A, B, C, D} dks lwij dh

dgk tk ldrk gS A

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

39

Concept of RDBMS using SQL : sql dk okLrfod laLdj.k IBM dEiuh }kjk San Jose

Research Lab esa cuk;k x;kA IBM ds }kjk cuk;h Hkk"kk dk uke Sequal FkkA Sequal Hkk"kk es a dqN

cnyko djd s bl s sql uke fn;k x;k ftld iwjk uke LVsªDpj DoSjh yS aXost gSA sql us vkt [kqn dks

lkQ :i ls Relational database Language ds :i es a LFkkfir dj fy;k gSA 1986 esa
lkQ :i ls Relational database Language ds :i es a LFkkfir dj fy;k gSA
1986 esa American National Institute rFkk International Organization for Standardization
u s sql d s ekud cuk; s ftl s sql-86 dgk x;kA vkt t:jr d s vulkj q sql dk s vkjS vf/kd foLrr` fd;k
x;k gSA bldk vk/kqfud laLdj.k sql 1999 gSA
SQL esa fjy’kuy s MkVkcls dks mfpr izdkj ls O;ofLFkr djus ds fy; s cgqr ls Hkkx gSa tks
fuEu gSa %&
1.
DDL Datadefination language : bld s }kjk dek.M dke esa ysdj Relation scheme dks
fMQkbZu esa fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk fjy’kUl s dks fMfyV o eksfMQkbZ fd;k tkrk gSA
2.
Interactive data manipalation_language (DML): ;s fjys’kuy ,ytczk s o V;wiy
fjy’kuy s dYdS ylw ij vk/kkfjr LVVes UVs gkrs s gAa S bld s }kjk u; s fjdkMW Z tkMs s tkr s gAaS ijku q s ea s cnyko
fd;k tk ldrk gSA rFkk gVk;k Hkh tk ldrk gSA
3.
View defination : blesa SQL DDL LVsVesUV gkrs s gS a ftuls Viewdks cuk;k tkrk gSA
4.
Transaction : blds }kjk Trnasaction dh ’kq:vkr o vUr dks crk;k tkrk gSA
5.
Embedded SQL and dynamic SQL : blds }kjk crk;k tkrk gS fd SQL
LVsVesUV fdl rjQ vU; izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvkas ds lkFk dk;Z dj ldsaxsA
6.
Integrity : SQL ds DDL LVsVesUV d s }kjk Constraints yxk;s tkrs gSa ftudk ikyu djds
gh MkVk Vcys esa LVkjs gk s ldrk gSA budk ikyu uk dju s oky s MkVk [kkfjt dj fn;s tkrs gASa
7.
Authorization : SQL ds DDL LVsVesUV ds }kjk MkVk dks Access djus ds vf/kdkj fn;s
tkrs gS aA fjy’ku s MkVkcls esa MkVkcsl dk legw gkrk s gSA ftudk ,d vyx uke gksrk gSA fdlh SQL
lehdj.k dk ,d cfld s LVªDpj gksrk gSA ftlds rhu Hkkx Select, from o Where gksrs gSAaa
Select : ;g Projection Operatin ls lEcfU/kr gksrk gAS ;g mu vVªhC;wV ds uke nus s ds fy;s
mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSA ftUgsa ge vkmViqV esa ns[kuk pkgrs gASa
From : ;g Cortesion_product l s lEcfU/kr gkrk s gSA blds }kjk ml fjy’ku s dk s crk;k tkrk
gS ftlls ,Dlizs’ku dks izkIr gksrk gSA
Where : ;g Selection operation ls lEcfU/kr gkrk s gSA ;gka vVªhC;wV ls lEcfU/kr d.Mh’ku
dks crk;k tkrk gSA tks From clause dh Vscy ij ykxw fd;s tkr s gSaA
Data Mining :- MkVk ekbZfuax dks lk/kkj.k rkSj ij cM+ s MkVk cls l s pkgs x;s mi;ksxh MkVk
fudkyus dh rduhd dgk tk ldrk gSA vkfVZfQf’k;y bUVyhtsUlh s o lkaf[;dh ds {ks= esa mi;ksxh
gSA MkVk ekbZfuax e’khu yfuZax ls vUrj j[krh gSA tks LFkk;h :i ls LVksj fd;s x;s gkrs s gSaa ls pkgs
x; s vkadMksa dks pquus dk dk;Z djrh gSA vr% MkVk ekbfuaax MkVkcsl ls ukWyts ys sus dk dk;Z
djrh gSA

bl izdkj dh ukWyst fMLdojh grs q dNq fu;eka s dk ikyu djuk gkrk s gSA tlS s ,d ;odq ftudh

ekfld vk; 50]000 ls vf/kd gS NksVh dkj ysuk ilUn djrs gS aA ;g fu;e ges’kk lR; ugha gksrk

gSA rFkk blds lgh gkus s dk vuqikr vyx&vyx gks ldrk gSA nwljh rjg dh ukWyst lehdj.kkas ds

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

40

}kjk vyx&vyx ,d nlj w s l s lEcfU/kr pjkas ds }kjk iznf’kZr dh tkrh gSA ftuesa dqN pj dk eku

gesa Kkr gksrk gSA LVksj fd;s x;s MkVk vyx&vyx rjg gk s ldrs gSsa ftUgsa izkIr djus ds fy;s

vyx&vyx rjhdk dke esa ysuk gksrk gSA

lk/kkjr;k MkVk ekbZfuxa esa ,d oS;fDrd Hkkx gksrk gS tks izkslfls ax ls ioZ w Lohdk;Z
lk/kkjr;k MkVk ekbZfuxa esa ,d oS;fDrd Hkkx gksrk gS tks izkslfls ax ls ioZ w Lohdk;Z iSVuZ tkpu a s
dk dk;Z djrk gSA rFkk nljk w Hkkx MkVk ds i’pkr fudky s x; s MkVk ls mi;qDZr }kjk pquu s dk dk;Z
djrk gSA ,lk s lEHko gS fd fdlh MkVk esa cgqr l s mi;kxh s iSVu Z gkaAs vr% mueas l s mi;Dq Zr dk pquko
djus ds fy;s oS;fDrd rkSj ij pquko djuk gksrk gSA blh dkj.k MkVk ekbZfuxa dks v()ZLopkfyr
fof/k ekuk x;k gSA
Data Warehousing :- cM+h dEifu;kasa d s dbZ txg ij dk;kZy; gksrs gSaA gj dk;kZy; esa cgqr
cMs MkVk ,d= fd;s tkrs gS aA tSls & bU’kksusUl dEiuh rFkk dkWyts cgqr cM+h la[;k es a gkrs s gS a vkSj
gj yksdy dEiuh o dkWyst esa vkdM a +k sa dh la[;k gtkjksa yk[kk sa esa gk s ldrh gSA blds vykok bu
dEiuh o dkWytk s a s ea s vyx&vyx J.kh s eas i.kkyh z es a Hkh vUrj gk s ldrk gAS tlS s ,d mRiknd dEiuh
viu s }kjk mRikfnr izkMs s DV dh tkudkjh j[kus ds fy; s vyx&vyx MkVkcsl dk mi;ksx djrh gAS
ysfdu fo’ky"kds bu lHkh vkadMksa dk mi;ksx djrh gSA ftlls fd lgh fu.kZ; fy;s tk lds a mlds
}kjk dke esa ykbZ xbZ rduhd vyx gks ldrh gSA blds vykok MkVkcsl esa T;knkrj oreku Z MkVk
gh ljf{kr q j[kk tk ldrk gSA tcfd fo’ky"kds iow Z MkVk Hkh mi;kxs eas ysrs gaAS MkVko;j s gkml bUgh
leL;kvksa dk lek/kku djrk gSA
MkVko;j s gkml fofHkUu lk/kukas ds ek/;eksa l s izkIr lpuk, w sa lp; a djus dk rjhdk gSA MkVko;j s
gkml dk s ,d ckj fufeZr djus ds ckn yEcs le; rd iqjkuk MkVk LVksj fd;k tk ldrk gSA vr%
MkVkos;j gkml mi;kxdrkZ s dks ,d ,fd—r rjhdk miyC/k djkrk gSA vkSj fo’kys"kd MkVkos;j
gkml ls MkVk izkIr djrs oDr lqfuf’pr dj ysssrs gSa fd bl izfØ;k ds nkSjku vkWuykbZu flLVe dh
dk;Ziz.kkyh izHkkfor uk gksA
Data Dictionary :- dqN le; igys rd ge izLrqfrdj.k ds lac/k a dks gh ekurs FkAs ,d
fjys’kuy MkVk s csl flLVe dk s laca/k ds vuqlkj MsVk dks O;ofLFkr dju s dh vko’;drk gkrh s gSA
tSls lEcU/kksa dk vkUrfjd Lo:i (Schema) bl izdkj dh lwpukvksa dks MsVk fMD’kujh ;k dsVykWx
dgrs gS aA
fuEufyf[kr esa ls lwpukvkas dks fdlh Hkh izdkj l s lap; fd;k tk ldrk gS %&
1- lEcU/kkas dk uke
2- lEcU/kh ds xq.kkas dk uke
3- xq.kk sa dh yEckbZ o Mksesu
4- MsVkcsl esa ifjHkkf"kr fd; s x; s O;w dk uke] O;w dh ifjHkk"kk
5- la;qDr ikcfUn;k (Integrity constraints)
blh ds lkFk] fofHkUu flLVe blh izdkj dk MkVk ;tj w ds flLVe ij j[kr s gS a %&

1- ekU; mi;ksxdrkZ dk uke

s

2- mi;kxdrkZ

dh okf.kfT;d lwpuk

3- vU; lwpuk tSls ikloMZ tk s fd ;wtj&dh ekU;rk dks fu/kkZfjr djrk gSA

MsVkcsl es a lEcU/kks a dk lkaf[;dh o foLrr` MsVk fd;k tkrk gS tSls %

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

41

1- lEcU/kksa esa vku s okys fjdkWMZ dh la[;k

2- lEcU/kksa dks lap; djus dk rjhdk

MsVk fMD’kujh es a lapf;r laxBu dk s Hkh eq[; :i fn;k x;k gSA tSl s ghi] g’k S vkfn

1- ;fn lEcU/k vkijW sfVxa flLVe QkbyZ ea s lp; a fd;k x;k g S rk
1- ;fn lEcU/k vkijW sfVxa flLVe QkbyZ ea s lp; a fd;k x;k g S rk s fMDlujh ml QkbZy dk uke ljf{kr q
djsxhA
2- ;fn MsVk csl ds lHkh lEcU/k ,d gh QkbZy esa gS rks fMDlujh mu lHkh fjdk WM Z dk
CykWd lqjf{kr djxhA s tSl s fyad fyLV ds lekuA
gesa izR;sd bUMsDl ds ckjs esa lwpuk vkSj izR;sd fjys’ku dh vko’;drk gksrh gS tks fuEu izdkj gS %&
1- bUMsDl dk uke
2- lEcU/k dk uke ftlls bUMsDl fd;k x;k gSA
3- og xq.k ftl ij bUMsDl ifjHkkf”kr fd;k x;k gSA
4- bUMsDl cukus ds izdkj
bl izdkj dh lHkh lwpukvkas o izHkko fefups;j MsVkcls dgykr s gS aA dqN MsVkcls bl izdkj dh
lwpukvkas dks fo’ks"k izdkj ds MsVk LVªDpj o dkMs esa lp; a djr s gS aA eq[; :i ;s ;g izpfyr gS fd
MsVkcsl ds fy;s MsVk lp; a MsVkcsl esa gh lp; a gksuk pkfg,A flLVe dk izdkj MsVk dSls iznf’kZr gks
bldk fu.kZ; flLVe fMtkbZuj djrk gSA ,d lEHkkfor izLrqfrdj.k fuEu izdkj gAS ftlesa izkbejh
dh dk s js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gSA
MetaData :- fdlh MsVk os;j gkml ds fy;s esVkMkVk cukuk ,d vR;kf/kd dfBu dk;Z gSA
esVk ’kCn ,d xzhd ’kCn gS ftldk vFkZ gS lkFk essa] ckn esa vkSj dksbZ ,d
esVk MkVk ,d lpuk w gS tks fd vU; tkudkjh iznku djrh gSA MsVko;j s gkml esa esVkMkVk
fofHkUu izdkj dh ifjfLFkfr;kas d s fy; s mi;ksx esa yh tkrh gSA esVk MkVk ds lEcU/k esa lpuk w dks dgk
tkrk gSA esVk MkVk dks fuEu ds fy;s mi;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gS %&
1- MsVk dks cnyuk vkSj yksM djus gsrq
2- MsVk dh O;oLFkk ds fy;s
3- DoSjh dks cuku s grs q
Relation-Metadata (relation-name, no_of-Attribute, Storage-org, locaility)
Attribute_Metadata (Athivute-naem, relation-name, domain_type, position, length)
Index-Metadata(Index-name, relation-name, index-type, ind-attribute)
View-Metadata(view-name, defination)
Object Oriented modeling using UML : fdlh lkW¶Vo;j
s
flLVe esa ER Diagram MkVk
dks fjiztsUV dju s okys dEiksusUV ds :i esa enn djrk gSA gkykfda
MkVk fjiztsUV’ku
s
fdlh flLVe
dk ,d ikVZ gh cukrk gS] flLVe ds nlj w s Hkkx ;wtj bUVjsd’ku] ekWMy dk LislhfQds’ku rFkk bu
Hkkxksa dk vkil es a lEcU/k gS aA
;wfuQkbZM ekWMfyax ySaXost ,d LVs.MMZ gS tks fd vkWCtsDV eSustesUV xz qi ds }kjk cuk;h x;h

gSA ;g yS aXost flLVe ds fofHkUu dEiksusUV dk LislhfQds’ku rS;kj djus esa lgk;d gSA

UML ds fuEu Hkkx gS a&

* Class diagram: ;g E-R Mk;xzke tSlk gksrk gSA

* Use-case-diagram : ;g Mk;xzke flLVe o ;wtj esa bUVjsD’ku dks crkus dk dk;Z djrk

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

42

gSA eq[; :i ls mu LVsi dks crkrk gS tks ;wtj fdlh dk;Z dk s djus ds fy; mi;kxs esa ykrk gSA

* Activity Diagram : bl Hkkx }kjk fdlh dk;Z dk s dju s ds fy;s flLVe ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa

esa fdl izdkj lkeatL; ¼¶yks½ gksrk gS] crk;k tkrk gSA

Inplementation diagram : ;g flLVe dEiksusUV o mud s bUVjduD’ku s dk s crkrk gSA blesa
Inplementation diagram : ;g flLVe dEiksusUV o mud s bUVjduD’ku
s
dk s crkrk gSA blesa
gkMZos;j dEiksusUV o lkW¶Vos;j dEiksuUVs ’kkfey gksrs gASa
UML entity sets dks box ds :i esa iznf’kZr djrk gSA UML okLro esa vkWCtsDV dk s cukrh gSA
vkWCtsDV ,sUVhVh dh rjg gkrs s gSa vkSj mud s vVªhC;Vw Hkh gkrs s gSa ij ;s lkFk gh QX’ku a ¼eFkM½ s ds cukrs
gSa tk s vVªhC;Vw fn;s tku s ij vkWCtsDV }kjk fd;k tk;sxk rFkk lkFk gh ;s vkWCtsDV dk s viVMs w V djrs
gS a aA
ge UML ds }kjk ckbusjh lEcU/kkas dks Hkh crk ldrs gSaA blds fy; s flQZ nks ,sUVhVh dk s tksM+us
okyh ykbu cuk;h tkrh gSA vkSj bl ykbu ij fjys’kuf’ki dk uke fy[k fn;k tkrk gSA bl ykbu
ij ge jksy uEcj fy[k dj ;g Hkh crk ldr s gS a fd ,d ,UVhVh s fdlh fjys’kuf’ki esa D;k jkys vnk
dj jgh gSA
UML 1.3 ukWu ckbujh s fjys’kuf’ki dk s likVs Z djrk gAS bl s fjiztUVs dju s d s fy; s igy s ckbujh
fjys’ku es a cnyk tkrk gSA
UML ea s dULVªsUV Hkh mlh izdkj crk;s tkr s gSa tlS s fd ER ekMyW eAa s budh Qke Z l l s fn[kkbZ
...
h
tkrh gSA tgka l l s de ls de o h T;knk ls T;knk fjy’kuf’ki s dks n’kkZrk gS tks fd dkbZ s ,sUVhVh
fuHkkrh gSA ;gk a dUlVª sUV dks Lrj E-R Mk;xzke esa dULVªsUV ds Lrj dk foifjr gksrk gSA tSls fp=
esa crk;k x;k gSA
dUlVªsUV 0 E2 lkbM esa rFkk 0---1 E, lkbZM esa ;g crkrk gS fd E2 ,sUVhVh flQZ ,d
...
*
fjys’kuf’ki esa rFkk E1 ,sUVhVh cgqr lh fjy’kuf’ki s esa Hkkx ys ldrh gSA nwljs ’kCnkas es a dg ldrs
gS a fd E1 l s E2 esa fjy’kuf’ki s esuh Vw esuh gSA ,d eku tSls 1 o * fdlh ,d lkbZM fy[kk tkrk
gSA vkSj ,d eku 1 fdlh lkbZM 1 k rFkk * 0 cjkcj ekuk tkrk gSA
...
1,
...
*
UML ds }kjk tujyykbZts’ku o LislhykbZts’ku dks cukus ds fy; s ykbZu ds ,d fljs ij
f=Hkqt ds }kjk tksM+k tkrk gS ;g f=Hkqt tujy ,sUVhVh lsV dh vksj gksrk gSA tSlk fd ,UVhVh s lsV
- Person costumer vkSj Employee dk tujykbZts’ku gSA
UML fp= disjoint constreints o tujykbZts’ku ij Overlaping dks Hkh vyx ls crkrk gSA
;g fp= esa Costmer ;k Employee dk Person ls crk;k x;k gSA ;fn Costmer ;k Employee dk
Person l s fMltkbVs tujykbZts’ku gS rks bldk eryc gS fd dksbs Z Hkh Costmer o Employee nksuksa
ugha gks ldrkA ,d Overlapping Gevieralization ;g btktr nsrk gS fd ,d Person ,d
Costmer rFkk Employee nksuksa gks ldrk gSA
Client-Server System :- tSls O;fDrxr dEI;Vj w QkLV] vf/kd o l{ke o lLrs gkrs s tk
jg s gSAa os lsUVªykbt flLVe ls njh w cuk jgs gS aA ;s dEI;wVj lsUVjykbt flLVe ls tqM+ s VfeZuy dh

txg yrs s tk jg s gaAS blds vljLo:i vkt lsUVj flLVe loZj dh Hkfedk w fuHkkrs gaS tks Client

flLVe dh Request dks Satisfy djrs gSaA fuEu fp= es a Client server dk LVªDpj crk;k x;k gSA

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk 43
MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk
43

fp= 10 UML

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 44 Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Server Network fp= 11 Client-Server
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
44
Client 1
Client 2
Client 3
Client 4
Server
Network
fp= 11 Client-Server System
MkVkcsl ds dk;Z nks Hkkxksa es a CkaVs gkrs s gSaA Front end rFkk Back End
SQL User
Form
Report
Graphical
Interface
Interface
Writer
Interface
Front End
Interface (SQL+API)
SQL Engine
Back End
fp= 12 Front end rFkk Back End
Back end MkVk dks dke esa ysus dk rjhds dk fu;af=r Optimize, Concurrency control o
recovery dk dk;Z djrk gSA ogh a Front End dqN [kkl VwYl forms, report vkSj GUI ls lEcfU/kr
gksrk gSA bu nksukas End ds e/; lkeatL; cSBku s dk dke SQL ;k ,sIyhds’ku izksxzke ds }kjk fd;k
tkrk gSA
OBBC o JDBC ekud Client o Server ds e/; Interface dk dk;Z dju s d s fy;s fufeZr fd;s
x;s gASa igy s Client o Server lk¶Vo W ;j s ,d gh dEiuh }kjk miYc/k djk; s tkr s FkAs yfdu s rduhd
esa o`f) gkus s
ds dkj.k Front-End user interface o back End Server vyx&vyx dEiuh }kjk
miyC/k djk; s tkr s gS aA Application development Tools dks ;wtj bUVjQsl ds fy;s dke es a fy;k
tkrk gSA

vk/kqfud ;xq eas fdlh usVodZ eas ;fn vyx&vyx dk; Z ds fy; s vyx&vyx fo’k"kKs dEI;Vj w

yxk fn;s tkrs gS aA rFkk ;s dEI;wVj vius dk;Z ds vykok nwljk dk;Z ugh a djr s loZj dgykr s gS aA

rFkk vU; dEI;wVj tks flQZ ykdy s izkslsflax dk dk;Z djrs gaAS rFkk nwljs dk;kZs a ds fy;s fo’ks{kK

dEI;wVj ij vk/kkfjr jgr s gSa DykabVZ dEI;wVj dgykrs gASa bl rjg dk uVodZ s DykbV&loZ a j usVodZ

MkVkcls vo/kkj.kk

45

dgykrk gAS bl flLVe es a a ykdy s o Xykcys nkuk s a s idkj z dh izkls fls xa djk;h tkrh gAS vkSj ;s izkls fls xa

iwoZ fu/kkZfjr gksrh gSA fd DykbVa D;k dk;Z djsaxs o loZj D;k dk;Z djaxs sA

vvvvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv H;kl vvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vvvH;kl vvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vH;kl H;kl vH;kl iiiiiz'uz'uz'uz'uz'u HHH;kl H;kl iiiiiz'uz'uz'uz'uz'u %%%%% H;kl
vvvvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv
vvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv H;kl
vvvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv
vvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vvvH;kl
vvvvvvvvcvcvcvvvv vH;kl H;kl
vH;kl iiiiiz'uz'uz'uz'uz'u HHH;kl
H;kl iiiiiz'uz'uz'uz'uz'u %%%%%
H;kl
;kl
;kl
cccgqp;ukRed
cg
cggg qp;ukRed
qp;ukRed
qp;ukRed
qp;ukRed iz'u
iz'u
iiz'u
iz'uz'u
11111 ----- fjys’ku MkVkcsl es a MkVkcsl dk vFk Z gSA
¼v½ rdZ
¼c½ Vsfcy
¼l½ fj’rk
¼n½
laca/k
¼
½
22222 ----- MkVkcsl ,Iyhds’ku ds eq[; Hkkx gSA
¼v½ Ý.V,.M]
s
cds ,.M
¼c½ ;wtj] MkVk
¼l½ Vsfcy] MkVk
¼n½ MkVk] fQYM
¼
½
33333 ----- fofHkUu {k=k s sa esa dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx l s lHko a gSA
¼v½ le; dh cpr
¼c½ esu ikoj dh cpr
¼l½ x.kuk;sa de djuk
¼n½ mijksDr lHkh
¼
½
44444 ----- ,sUVhVh ls vFkZ gSA
¼v½ Vsfcy
¼c½ fQYM
¼l½ fjdkWMZ
¼n½ buesa ls dksbZ ugha
¼
½
55555 ----- ,l-D;w-,y-dk iwjk uke gSA
¼v½ flDos al DoSjh yS aXost
¼c½ lUVs Dls
DoSjh ySXost
¼l½ LVªDpj DoSjh yS aXost
¼n½ mijkDrs
lHkh
¼
½
66666 ----- vVªhC;wV dk izdkj ugha gSA
¼v½ flxya
¼c½ eYVhoSY;wM
¼l½
dEikftV
s
¼n½ Mcy
¼
½
vvvfry?k
vfry?k qjkRed
vfry?k
fry?k qjkRed
fry?k qjkRed
qjkRed
qjkRed
iiiiiz’uz’uz’uz’uz’u
111- 11
;tj
w
bUVjQls dk vFkZ gSA
222- 2--- 2- MkVkcsl dks ifjHkkf"kr djksA
333- 3--- 3- ,sUVhVh D;k gSA
444- 4--- 4- vaVªhC;wV D;k gksr s gS aA
5-
loZj dk eq[; dke D;k gSA
yyy?k
y?k qjkRed iiiiz’u
y?k ?k qjkRed
?k qjkRed
qjkRed
qjkRed
iz’uz’uz’uz’u
111- 1--- 1- ER Mk;xzke dk s le>kvksa
222- 2--- 2- ER Mk;xzke esa dke vkus oky s fofHkUu fp= dkSul s gASa
333- 3--- 3- fofHkUu izdkj dh fjys’kuf’ki dk s mnkgj.k lfgr le>kvkas
444- 4--- 4- f’k{kk ds {ks= esa MkVkcsl eSustesUV flLVe dk D;k dk;Z gSA
555- 5--- 5- MkVk fefuax D;k gSA
666- 6--- 6- esVk MkVk dk D;k mi;ksx gkrk s gSA
777- 7--- 7- flLVe MoyiesUV ykbZi lkbfdy ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fy[kksA
fffucU/kkRed
fucU/kkRed iiiz’u
fucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed
ii z’uz’uz’uz’u
111- 1--- 1- DBMS dh mi;kfxrk s ij ys[k fyf[k,A
2- fjys’ku MkVkcls flLVe D;k gSA bldk egÙo crkbZ;sA

3- Ý.V,.Ms o cSd,.M D;k gSA ;g D;kas vko’;d gSA

4- MkVko;j s gkÅl ij ys[k fy[ksaA

5- UML dk fdl izdkj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gAS

**********

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 46 vvv/;k;&3 v/;k;&3 v/;k;&3 /;k;&3 /;k;&3 eeekb ekbkbkb ZØk ekb slk W¶VW¶V fot ZØk
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
46
vvv/;k;&3
v/;k;&3
v/;k;&3
/;k;&3
/;k;&3
eeekb
ekbkbkb ZØk
ekb slk W¶VW¶V fot
ZØk ZØk ZØk
ZØkslkW¶V
slkW¶V
slkW¶V
slk
fot
fot
fot
fotqvyqvyqvyqvy
qvy cccccsfld
sfld
sfld
sfld
sfld
MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC
Visual Basic 6 esa izkxs zkej Form o Control d s vk/kkj ij Application cukr s gSaSA tks Applica-
tion d s e[;q rÙo gAa S bld s vfrfjDr VB6 vuds VYlw dk s voyEc inku z djrh gSA tk s Application
cuku s esa enn djrs gSaA
VB6 dks fo’ks"kr% bUVjusV dk iz;ksx djus ds fy; s cuk;k tkrk gAS blesa vuds ,sl s Control
gS aA tks Web Based Application cukus esa enn djrs gS aA bUgas Active X Executable dgk tkrk gSA
;s Stand Alone Application dh rjg dk;Z djr s gS aA bUgas Internet Explorer ds }kjk Access fd;k
tk ldrk gSA blds u; s xq.kksa ds vk/kkj ij Distributed Application Hkh cuk ldr s gS aA
fooototottt qvyqvyqvyqvyqvy cccccsfld
sfld sfld sfld
sfld 66666 dh fo’ks"krk,
dh dh dh fo’k
dh fo’k s"krk,ss saa ssa aa %&%&%&%&%&
fo’k
fo’k
s"krk,
s"krk,
s"krk,
blds yphyius ds dkj.k ge VB es a jgr s gq, ekbZØklk s W¶V fotvyq LVfM;k w s d s vU; lkW¶Vos;lZ
ds VwYl dks Hkh iz;ksx esa yk ldrs gS aA blesa cgqy MkWD;wesaVl bUVjQsl MDI ,dy MkWD;wesaVl
bUVjQsl SDI rFkk foUMkst ,DlIykjjs dks dke es a ysdj NksVs&cMs ,Iyhds’ku dk fuekZ.k ljyrk ls
dj ldr s gSA
VB ds u;s laLdj.k esa vkWuykbZu gsYi Hkh miyC/k gSA
INTRODUCTION :
dEI;Vj w dks funZs’k nus s ds fy; s dbZ izdkj dh dkfMs ax dk lgkjk fy;k tkrk gAS vk/kfud q ;qx
Visual izkxkfe s xa dk gSA D;ks afd dEI;wVj izksxzkEl dk s Visual okrkoj.k esa cukuk cgqr gh vklku
gksrk gSA
bl Visual Environment dks GUI ;k xzkfQdy ;wtj bUVjQsl dk uke fn;k x;k gS vkSj
ekbØkslkW¶V dEiuh us iow Z esa py jgh Basic izkxkfe s xa Hkk"kk dks Visualize djds Visual Basic 4 ds
uke ls izLrqr fd;k bl Hkk"kk dh lQyrk ds ckn bl s vkSj vf/kd cgrj s cukus ds fy;s le;&le;
ij blesa u;h fo’ks"krk,sa lEefyr djds u; s lLdj.k a ds :i esa izLrqr fd;k x;kA ifj.kkeLo:i vc
bUVjusV ds bl vk/kqfud ;xq esa izksxkfexa Hkk"kk fiNM+h ugh a gS vkSj u;k lLdj.k a Visual Basic 6 es a
bUVjusV lEcfU/kr fo’k"krkvk s sa dk leko’k s fd;k x;k gSA
Visual Basic 6 esa IDE ds ¼bUVhxzsVsM MoyiesUV ,uok;jes s UV½ dks vkSj vf/kd vkd"kZd cukdj
bles a vuds u; s Tool ’kkfey fd;s x;s g Sa tk s Visual Programming dks vkSj vf/kd ljy cukrs gS aA
iiizk izk izkzkzksxsxsxsxsxzkezkezkezkezke ,fMVj ,fMVj ,fMVj ,fMVj ,fMVj %%%%% VB esa tc dksM fy[ks tkr s gS] rks dkMs foUMks esa LVsVesUV vkSj QaD’ku fy[kus
ds lkFk gh gesa mldk flUVsDl D;k gksxk irk py tkrk gS rFkk vU; isjkehVj ds ckjs esa MªkiMkmu

lwph iznf’kZr gkrh s gSA ftlls okfNr a iSjkehVj pqus tk ldr s gS a tk s Error dh lEHkkouk dk s de

djrs gS aA

VB ds u, laLdj.k es a fdlh izzksxzke esa ;fn dksbZ xyrh gS] rks ml s NksVs&NkVs s CykWDl esa ckaVdj

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld

47

<<a w ldr s gaS vkSj ml s njw fd;k tk ldrk gAS ,d CykdW ea s fdruh Hkh ykbUlZ dk s j[kk tk ldrk gAS

IDE fffoUMk foUMk foUMk oUMk oUMkss s s s %%%%% bUVhxz sVMs MoyiesUV ,sUok;jesUV] fdlh ,sIyhds’ku dks fodflr djus ds fy,

,dh—r fodkl dk okrkoj.k miyC/k djkrk gSA VB6 ea ss vkWCtsDV czkmtj d s }kjk lh/k
,dh—r fodkl dk okrkoj.k miyC/k djkrk gSA
VB6 ea ss vkWCtsDV czkmtj d s }kjk lh/k s dkMs ij igpdj qa mll s lEcfU/kr tkudkjh yh tk ldrh
gSA bles a fMcx foUMk s dks tksMk x;k gSA tks ykdy
s
osjh;soy ds ekukas dks n’kkZrh gSA
VVVVVwyckj
wyckj
wyckj
wyckj
wyckj %%%%% blesa dek.Ml vkbdkWu ds :i esa ’kkfey gSa ftUgs ekml ds fDyd }kjk pyk;k tk
ldrk gAS blesa ,d QkeZ ,fMVj Vwyckj gS] ftlls QkeZ dk ,ykbesUV] vkdkj rFkk ykWd lqfo/kk
dks fu;af=r fd;k tk ldrk gSA
fffotkMZl
fotkMZl %&%&%&%&%& VB-6 esa yxHkx lHkh izdkj ds dk;kZ ass dks ljyrk ls djus ds fy, fotkMZ
fotkMZl
otkMZlZl
otkM
miyC/k gSA ftudh lgk;rk ls izksxzkej ’kh?kzrk ls dk;Z dj ldrk gSA
VVVVVsEiy
sEiy
sEiy
sEiy
sEiysVsVsVsVsV %& VEiy
s
sV igys ls cus gq, ,sls QaD’ku gksrs gS a] ftUgas izkstsDV ds vUrxZr fdlh dk;Z
dks lEiUu dju s ds fy;s iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA VB-6 esa bu VsEiysV dh l[;k a Hkh i;kZIr gSA
ftUgas dke esa ysdj izksxzkej Rofjr xfr l s dk;Z dj ldrk gSA
IDE :- (Integrated Develpment Enviornment) fotqvy csfld esa dk;Z djus okys okrkoj.k
dks IDE dgk tkrk gSA D;ksafd ;g vusd NksVs&NkVs s VwYl ,oa foUMkst dk cuk gksrk gSA blesa
vyx&vyx dk;Z dju s ds fy;s vyx&vyx VYlw miyC/k gS aA bu VYlw dk s vko’;drk iM+us ij
gkbM Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gAS
VB-6 dh IDE foUMk s ds eq[; Hkkx fuEu izdkj gS a %&
A.
esU;w ckj
B ’kkWVZdV esU;w
C Vwy ckj
D Vwy ckWDl
E izkstsDV ,Dliyksjj foUMks
F izkWiVhZt foUMks
G QkWeZ foUMks
H dksM foUMks
I QkeZ yvkmV s foUMks
J. dyj IysV
K.
yksdy foUMks
L. bfefM,V IyVs
DDDykl Dykl Dykl ykl ykl ekM ekM ekM~; ekM~; ekM~;~;~;wYlwYlwYlwYlwYl %%%%% VB esa izkxs zkfexa djuk vR;Ur ljy gkrk s gS] D;kafds lHkh dksfMax QkeZ ds
fy;s boUVs izklhtl s Z ds }kjk dh tkrh gSA ;s boUVs izkslhtlZ VB esa igys ls cus gksrs gS aA vr% buds
flUVsDl dks ;kn j[kuk Hkh vko’;d ugha gkrkA s bu boUVs ikz lhtl s Z d s lkFk gh vko’;drk gkus s ij
u; s ikz lhtl s Z Hkh cuk; s tk ldr s gAa s S VB ea s ikz xs kej z viuh Lo;a dh dkMs ykbcjh s z cukdj viu s ,Iyhd’ku s
dk s viuh vko’;drk d s vulkj
q
fMtkbu dj ldrk gAS
dddk dk dkkkssMMMsMMss ekM ekM ekM ekM ekM;;~~ ;~;;~~ YlYlww wYlYlYlww ,o,o,o,o,o aa a aa Dykl Dykl Dykl Dykl Dyklssttts sstt %%%%% ,Iyhd s ’ku s cuku s d s fy; s nk s eyHk w rw egÙoi.k w Z CykDlW Qke Z rFkk
dUVkª sYl dk i;k z xs fd;k tkrk gASS ,Iyhd s ’ku s ea s i;k z xs gkus s okyk rhljk egÙoi.k w Z CykdW dkMs ekM;~ yw
gksrk gSA dksM ekM~;wy ASCII VSDLV QkbZy gksrh gS] ftlds vUnj mi&izkslhtlZ ¼Sub-Procedurs)
QaD’ku] osfj;scy] rFkk dkWUlVsUV gksr s gS aA izkstsDV cukus ds fy;s dkM~ s l dks vyx&vyx CykWDl esa

foHkkftr dju s ds fy; s ,d ls vf/kd ekWM~;wYl dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA bl izdkj izR;sd CykWd ds

fy;s vko’;drkuqlkj vyx&vyx dk;Z fu/kkZfjr fd;s tkrs gS aA ekWM~;Ylw cukdj iz zkxs zzkej vius

ikz ts s DV ds fy; s dh xbZ dkfMs ax dk s ljy cukr s gASa ftll s izksxkez dk s fMcx djuk o dksM dks le>uk

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

48

vklku gksrk gSA

fotvyq cfld s ea s ;g leLr dk; Z dju s d s fy; s Dykl ekWM;~ Ylw dk fuek.k Z fd;k tkrk gAS ftUga s

lkekU;r% Dyklst ds uke l s Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA Dykl vkWCtsDV vksfj,.VMs izksxzkfexa ds fy;
lkekU;r% Dyklst ds uke l s Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA Dykl vkWCtsDV vksfj,.VMs izksxzkfexa ds fy; s eyHk w wr
egÙoi.k w Z CykWd gkrh s gSA blds vfrfjDr bl izksxkfez xa d s fy; s ,d vU; egÙoi.k w Z rÙo vkWCtDVs gkrk s
gSA ,d Dykl dh viuh fuf’pr izkWiVhZt] bosUV~l ,o a esFkM~l gkrs s gS aA tks fd muds }kjk fd;s tkus
okys dk;Z ls lEcfU/kr gksr s gASaa ,d vPNh rjg fMtkbZu dh xbZ Dykl dkMs dk ,d Lo&i;kZIr [k.M
gkrk s gSA vr% ge Dykl dk s ,d izkstsDV ls fdlh vU; izkstsDV esa ;wt dj ldrs gaAS D;kafds dkMs
,oa Dykl ekM~;Ylw nksukas gh vyx&vyx QkbZy ds :i esa lqjf{kr jgrs gS aA vr% bUgsas ,d ls vf/kd
izkstsDV es a iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA lkekU;r% ekWM~;wYl dk iz;kxs Shared izkstsDV cuku s ;k
Multimedia Device dk s vuds LFkku l s Access djuk ljy cukus ds fy; s fd;k tkrk gSA ,d leku
QaD’ku dk s ,d dksM ;k Dykl ekWM~;wYl esa los djds izksxzkej viuh dkMs ykbczsjh cuk ldrk gSA
bu ekWM~;wYl dks ,d fof’k"B QksYMj ;k mi QksYMlZ esa lso djds j[kk tk;s rks budk iz;ksx fdlh
vU; ikz ts DVs ea s Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl idkj z dkbs Z ykbcjh s z cuk dj dkM~ s l ;k ekWM~;yw dk s ckj&ckj
i;k z xs fd;k tk ldrk gS ftll s nkckjk s dksfMxa dh ij’kkuh s d s lkFk gh VkbeZ dh Hkh cpr gkrh s gAS
dddk dk
dkkksMsMsMsMsM ykb sjh cukuk
ykb
ykbZc
ykbZcZcZcz Zcz zz sjh cukuk %%%%% ekWM~;wYl dh dksM ykbczz sjh cuku s ds fy;s fMLd ij ,d QkYMj
ykb sjh zsjh sjh cukuk
cukuk cukuk
s
cukuk
gkrk s gSA bl QksYMj esa izksxzkej ckj&ckj iz;ksx esa vku s okys ekWM~;Ylw dks lso dj ldrk gSA bl
QksYMj dk uke Codelib j[kk tk ldrk gSA
dddk dk
dkkksMsMsMsMsM ekWM~;
ekWM~;
ek ek
ekWM~; WMWM~;~;wywywywywy cukuk
cukuk cukuk cukuk
cukuk %%%%% fdlh izkts s DV esa bl dksM ekWM~;wy dk iz;ksx djus ds fy;s foT;wvy
csfld esa izkts s DV ,DlIykjjs ij ekml ikbaVj ykdj ekml dk nk;k a cVu ncku s ij fuEukfdr a fp=
1 dh Hkkfra iznf’krZ gksus oky s ’kkWVZdV esU; w esa l s Add dek.M ij ekml ikbUVj yku s ij inf’k z rZ gkus s
okys lc&esU;w esa ls Add ekWM~;wy dek.M gks pqu ysrs gASa

fp= 1 dksM ekWM~;wy

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld 49 fp= 2 Add module Mk;ykWx ckWDl bl s p;u dju s ij
ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld
49
fp= 2 Add module Mk;ykWx ckWDl
bl s p;u dju s ij Add module Mk;ykWx ckDlW mijkDrs fp= 2 dh Hkkfra inf’k z Zr gkrk s gAS blea s
nks Vsc New o Existing gksrs gS aA vc New dks Select djds Module dks pquk tkrk gSA rFkk Open
Command cVu ij fDyd dju s ij ,d u;k dksM ekWM~;wy izkstsDV esa tqM+ tkrk gSA vc izksiVhZt
fo.Mks a esa bl dksM ekWM~;wYl dh Name izksiVhZ dk fu/kkZj.k djrs gS aA blds ckn VB ds QkbZy esU;w
l s Save Module As dek.M }kjk Save as Mk;ykWx ckWDl vksiu djds ekWM~;wy dks Codelib QksYMj
esa dksbZ mi;qDr uke ndj s lso dj fn;k tkrk gSA ekWM~;wy dk foLrkfjr uke (Extnsion BAS)
gksrk gSA
dksM ykbczsjh ls ekWM~;wYl dks izkstsDV esa tksMuk
blds fy; s Add Module Mk;ykWx ckWDl ls nwljs Vsc Existing dks pquk tkrk gSA ;s fuEu
fp= 3 dh rjg [kqyrk gSA vc blls Codelib QksYMj dk s pqu dj okafNr dksM ekWM~;wy QkbZy dks
izkts s DV esa tksMk tk ldrk gSA
fp= 3 Add Module Mk;ykWx ckWDl ls nljk
w
Vsc
lllc&i lc&i slhtj cukuk
lc&i
c&izkzkzkzkslhtj
c&izk
slhtj
slhtj
slhtj cukuk %&%&%&%&%& fotqvy csfld esa lHkh bosUVl dh dksfMaax izklhtj
cukuk
cukuk
cukuk
s
ds }kjk dh

tkrh gSA ;s izkslhtj VB esa igys ls fMtkbu fd;s gksrs gS aA bu izkslhtlZ dks bosUV izkslhtlZ dgk

tkrk gSA buds vykok izksxzkej [kqn ds u;s izkfltl s Z Hkh cuk ldrk gSA u;s lc izksfltlZ dk fuekZ.k

nks rjhdks a ls fd;k tkrk gSA igyh fof/k es a izkstsDV esa dksM O;w esa tkdj VB ds Tool esU;w ls Add

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

50

Procedure dek.M dks purq

s gSsaaA blls ,d Add Procedure Mk;ykWx ckWDl [kqyrk gSA

fp= 4 Add Procedure Mk;ykWx ckWDl bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa izksfltlZ dk uke rFkk Type Ýse
fp= 4 Add Procedure Mk;ykWx ckWDl
bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa izksfltlZ dk uke rFkk Type Ýse ls Sub o Scope l s Public Option dks
pquk tkrk gSA OK dek.M cVu ij fDyd djus ij ;g izksfltlZ fuEu izdkj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
fp= 5 Form Coding Box
nwljh fof/k ds }kjk dkMs O;w esa gh LVsVesUV VkbZi djds izksfltlZ dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk ldrk
gSA blds fy; s igy s izksfltlZ dk Ldksi Public ;k Private rFkk izdkj esa Sub vkSj vUr es a izkfltl s Z
dk uke VkbZi fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn izksfltlZ dk Ldkis VkbZi ugh a djsa rks ;g ckbZ fMQkYV Private
gksrk gSA
mmmnkgj.k mnkgj.k mnkgj.k nkgj.k nkgj.k %&%&%&%&%& ;gk a ;wtj ds }kjk tc dek.M cVu ij fDyd fd;k tk;sxk rk s ,d eSlst ckWDl
iznf’kZr gkxkA s bl eSlts ckWDl dks izkfltl s Z }kjk cuk;k x;k gSA ;g¡k lcls igys New Project
ea s l s Standard Exe puq dj OPEN ij fDyd djr s gAa S rFkk QkeW Z dh fuEu ikz iVh s tZ dk p;u djr s gAa S
Name
Caption
Message from
Procedure Example

dek.M cVu dh fuEu izksiVhZt lso djr s gASa

Name

Message Caption & Run sub Procedure

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld

51

dksM fo.Mk s esa fuEu dkMs fy[kr s gS aA

Public sub messc ( ) Msgbox (“Hi! I have called by procudur”) End sub Caption Procedure
Public sub messc ( )
Msgbox (“Hi! I have called by procudur”)
End sub
Caption
Procedure Example
blds ckn dek.M cVu Message ds fy;s blds Click bosUV ij fuEu dksM fn;k tkrk gSA
Private sub message_Click ( )
Mess
End sub
bl izkxs kez
dk s ju dju s ij fuEu Output izkIr gksrk gS SA
fp= 6 Output Form
tgk a dek.M cVu ij fDyd dju s ij fuEu eSlst ckWDl iznf’kZr gkrk s gSA
fp= 7 Output Form
QQQQQaD’ku
aD’ku
a aaD’ku
D’ku
D’ku %&%&%&%&%& ; s Hkh lkekU; ikz fltl
s
Z d s leku gh gASa nkuk s a s ea s vUrj ;g g S fd QD’ku
a
ju gkus s ij
,d eku ykSVkr s gSa ij ikz fltl
s
Z dkbs Z eku ugh a ykVkr
S
sA QD’ku
a
ea s x.kuk dju s d s fy; s vuds idkj
z
dh

oSY;tw dk s mlea s ikl djuk gkrk s gAS bUga s vkX;eZw sUV dgk tkrk gAS x.kuk d s ckn izkIr eku dk s fjVuZ

oY;S w dgk tkrk gAS QD’ku

a

cuku s d s fy; s VB d s TOOL eU;s w l s Add Procudure dek.M dk p;u

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fd;k tkrk gAS ftll s fp= 4 dh rjg LØhu inf’k z rZ gkrh s gAS ;gk a Name es a QD’ku a dk uke fn;k tkrk

gAS bld s ckn Type l s Function rFkk Scope l s Public option dk s puk q tkrk gAS OK ij fDyd djus

ij QD’ku a dkMs fo.Mks ea s tMq + tkrk gAS rFkk End function d s End dk s iznf’krZ djrk gAS bu nkuk s a s ds

chp QD’ku a dh dkfMs xa dh tkrh gAS bl QD’ku a dk s dkWy dju
chp QD’ku a dh dkfMs xa dh tkrh gAS bl QD’ku a dk s dkWy dju s ds fy; s blds uke dk mi;kxs fd;k
tkrk gSA rFkk vkX;wZesUV nks NkVs s dk"Bdk s sa ds e/; dksek ls lsijsV djds fn; s tkrs gSaA
QQQQQaD’ku aD’ku aD’ku aD’ku aD’ku es es es eeaa a sasa vkX; vkX; vkX; vkX; vkX;wZewZew Zeww ZeZesUVsUVsUVsUVsUV ikl ikl ikl ikl ikl djuk djuk djuk djuk djuk %&%&%&%&%& ;g dk;Z fofHkUu rjhdks a ls djk;k tkrk gSA QaD’ku es a dqN
vkX;wZesUV t:jh gksr s gS a vkSj dqN tks x.kuk esa Hkkx ugh a ysrs t:jh ugha gkrs s tks vkX;es wZ UV x.kuk
eas Hkkx ugha yrs s mUga s ikl djku s d s fy; s Optional Keyword dk mi;kxs fd;k tkrk gAS oukZ QD’ku a
bUgsa Hkh x.kuk es a mi;ksx djrk gSA
mnkgj.k Lo:i % ;wtj dk ID o ikloMZ vkX;wZesUV ds :i es a ikl dju s ds fy; s blds ckn
dek.M cVu Message ds fy; s blds Click ( ) bosUV ij fuEu dkMs fn;k tkrk gSA
Public Function Create_user (U-ID as String, Password As string, optional Description
As String)-As Boolean
End Function
;gka Description ,d Optional vkX;Zes w UV gSA ftldk eku nsuk ;wtj ds foosd ij fuHkZj
djrk gSA
VB esa vkX;wZesUV dks ikl djku s ds fy; s Byref dh&oMZ Hkh dke esa fy;k tkrk gS ftls ;wt
ugh a dju s ij vkX;wZesUV ckbZ fMQkYV Byref gh ikl gksrs gASa bl dh&oMZ dk vFkZ By Reference
gkrk s gSA Byref dh&oMZ ds }kjk ikl fd; s x;s vkX;es wZ UV ls mudk Address ikl fd;k tkrkgSA
ftll s mudk eku ’kh?kzrk ls izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA VB esa vkX;wZesUV dks Byval dh&oMZ }kjk Hkh
ikl djk;k tk ldrk gSA bldk vFkZ Byvalue gkrk s gSA ,slk djus ij VB ds }kjk osfj;cys dh
,d&,d izfr vkX;wZesUV dks ikl dh tkrh gSA vr% okLrfod ofj; s scy o formal Agrument ds chp
dksbZ lEcU/k ugh a jgrk gSA ;fn QD’ku a essa ,sjs dk iz;kxs fd;k tk jgk gSA rc Param/Array dh&oMZ
dk iz;kxs vR;Ur egÙoiw.kZ gksrk gSA ;g QaD’ku esa vlhfer l[;k a eas ijkehVl S Z ikl dju s esa lgk;rk
djrk gSA ParamArray dk ;wt djus ij MkVk VkbZi Varient ?kksf"kr djuk vko’;d gksrk gSA
DDDykl% Dykl% Dykl% ykl% ykl% ;g vkWCtsDV vkfj,UV s sM izksxzkfeax dk egÙoi.k w Z rÙo gSA
Class dks cuk dj mls izkstsDV esa vko’;drk ds vuqlkj dgh a Hkh iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
Class d s mi;kxs l s cM s ikz sxkez dk s dbZ Hkkxka s es a ckVa dj ljyrk l s cuk;k tk ldrk gSA bu Dyklts
dk mi;ksx djds izkts s
DV esa Activex Control, Dynamic Link library rFkk Custom control cuk;s
tk ldrs gS aA Dykl LVsVesUV dk lewg gkrk s gSA ftldh viuh izksiVhZt o esFkM~l gksrs gS aA fotqvy
csfld esa lHkh dUVªksy fdlh Dykl ds lnL; gksr s g Sa ftlds }kjk bUgsa cuk;k tkrk gSA bu dUVªksy
dk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh QkeZ ij fcuk fdlh dkbZ s la’kks/ku ds fd;k tk ldrk gAS vr% izkxs zkej }kjk
cuk;h x;h Dykl Hkh bu dUVªkys dh rjg ;tw dh tk ldrh gSA ijUrq buds dUVªksy izkxs zkej dks

Lo;a cukus gksrs gaAS Dykl ,d QkeZ jfgr QkbZy gkrh s gSA tks nks izksfltlZ Class Intialiaze ( ) o

Class-Terminate ( ) ds lkFk mifLFkr gkrh s gSA

Class Intialiaze ( ) ds mi;ksx ls Class dks cuk;k tkrk gS rFkk Class Terminater ds }kjk

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dk;Z lekIr gksu s ds ckn mls gVk;k tkrk gSA

DDDykWl DykWl DykWl ykWl ykWl ds ds dds ds s eeeesFkM esFkM sFkM~l sFkM~l sFkM~l~l~l cukuk cukuk cukuk cukuk cukuk %%%%% ;g dk;Z dksM ekWM~;wy ds fy;s izksfltj dk fuekZ.k djus ds leku

gh gksrk gSA eFkM s cukus ls igy s blds uke ds iwo Z bldk Scope
gh gksrk gSA eFkM s cukus ls igy s blds uke ds iwo Z bldk Scope Private ;k Public tksMuk + vko’;d
gksrk gSA
DDDykl Dykl Dykl ykl ykl dh dh dh dh dh iiizk iizkzkzkzksiVh siVh siVh siVhZt siVhZtZtZtZt cukuk cukuk cukuk cukuk cukuk %%%%% izksiVhZt fdlh Hkh Dykl ds fy;s osfj;scy dh rjg dk;Z djrh
gSA fdlh Hkh vkCtsDV ds fy;s bu osfj;scy ds ekuksa dks lqjf{kr j[kk tkrk gSA rkfd eku dh
vko’;drk gksus ij bldk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldsA budk Scope Hkh Public ;k Private gksrk gSA
lkekU;r% izksiVhtZ dks Public Ldksi ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Dykl tc fdlh Dykl dks i.k w Z
:i ls blds ckgj l s gh fu;af=r djuk pkgrs ga Sa rks Get, let rFkk Set LVsVesUV dk iz;kxs fd;k tkrk
gSA Property Get LVVes UV] s ,d ifCYkd bUVjQls dh rjg dk; Z djrk gSA tk s fd ox Z d s vUnj ?kksf"kr
fd;s x;s osfj;scy] ftls izksxzke lh/ks&lh/k s Access ugh a dj ldrk ds eku dks izkIr dju s ds fy;s
fd;k tkrk gSA Property Let, Property Get LVsVesUV ds Bhd foifjr dk;Z djrk gSA ;g Dykl ds
yksdy ofj; s scy dk eku fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy; s iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Property Set LVsVesUV gesa
Dykl ds jQj s Uls esa ,d vkWCtsDV ikl djkus dh vuqefr iznku djrk gSA
DDDykl
Dykl ds fy; bobobobobosUVsUVsUVsUVsUV~l~l~l~l~l %%%%% bosUV Dykl dk egÙoi.k w Z Hkkx gSA boUVl
Dykl
ykl ds fy;ss s ss
ykl ds ds ds fy;
fy; fy;
s
’krkZ sa ds lewg ds izkIr
gkus s ij fdlh Hkh Dykl d s fy; s Application dk s lpuk w okfil Hktu s s dh vuefr q inku z djrk gAS buds
;wt ls izksxzke dks Oprate gkuk s boUVs ds mRiUu gksus ds Øe ij fuHkZj djrk gAS fotqvy csfld ds
lHkh iwoZ ifjHkkf"kr Procedure tks fd dksM fo.Mk s esa iznf’kZr gksrs gS aA bosUV~l gksrs gSaA tSls Click
( ), Key press vkfn Dykl esa bosUV cuku s ds fy;s Public event dh&oMZ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
rFkk bu LVVes s UV dks Module ds General ,oa Declaration okys Hkkx es a ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA
bldk flUVDls fuEu gSA
Public Event Event-Name (Parameters)
bosUV izksfltlZ dh Hkkafr iz;ksx djus ds fy;s fuEu l=w dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Private with Events X as Class Name
;gka With Events dh&oMZl dk iz;ksx ugh a djus ij] ge dsoy Public izksiVhZt ,oa Dykl ds
esFkM~l dks gh Access dj ldr s gSaA bosUVl dk s ugh]a D;ksafd ,Iyhds’ku dh Data ds fy; s Poll djus
dh vko’;drk ugha gksrh gSA boUVs izkfltj s vR;Ur ’kfDr’kkyh gkrs s gS aA Polling dk vFkZ ekuksa dh
tkap djus ls gSA ekuksa dh tkap rc rd ugh a gksrh gSA tc rd nh xbZ ’krZa a ijh w uk gks tk;sA
Decision Meaking :
lk/kkj.k r;k izksxzke ,XthD;q’ku Vksi&Mkmu vizksp esa ,d ds ckn ,d yxkrkj LVsVesUV
,sfDtd;w’ku ds }kjk gksrk gSA ijUrq gesa dbZ ckj izksxzke d.Mh’ku ds vuqlkj ,sfXtD;wV djku s gksrs
gS aA vf/kdrj izkxs zke ds LVVes
s
UV dk ¶yks fuEu esa ls ,d dsVsxjh ds vuqlkj gksrk gSA
1- daMh’kuy ;k fMlhtu LVsVesaV] ;g LVsVesaV daMh’ku ds lR; ;k vlR; gksu s ij fuHkZj

djrk gSA

2- yfiw ax LVsVesUV esa VsLV daMh’ku ds lR; gksus rd LVsVesUV ,sfXtD;wV gksrs gSaA

3- czkfpax LVsVesUV es a VsLV daMh’ku ds vk/kkj ij izkxs zke dk dkbZ s ,d fgLlk gh

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl 54 ,fXtD;Vw gkrk s gSA The if Statment :- If -then-else LVsVesUV ds mi;kxs
bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl
54
,fXtD;Vw gkrk s gSA
The if Statment :- If -then-else LVsVesUV ds mi;kxs ls ;fn daMh’ku lgh gS rk s Then okys
LVsVesUV vU;Fkk else okys LVsVesUV ,sfXtD;wV gksrs gASa
bl LVVes s UV dk mi;ksx nks rjhds ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA
111- 1--- 1- **fl
**fl **fl **fl
**flaxyaxyaxyaxyaxy ykb
ykb
ykbZu
ykbZuZuZuZu LVLVLVsVesUV** LVLVsVe sVe sVe
ykb
sVesUV**
sUV** sUV**
sUV**
bld s fy;s flUVDls
fuEu izdkj gksxkA
If expression Then Statement [else[statement]]
mnkgj.k%
Private Command_Click()
x=InputBox (“Please Enter Percentage”)
if x>=75 Then
Form1.Print ”HONOURS”
End If
End Sub
222- 2- efYViy
2--- efYViy ykbZuZuZuZuZu LVLVLVLVLVsVe
efYViy
efYViy ykb
efYViy ykb
ykb
ykb
sVe sVe sVe
sVesUVsUVsUVsUVsUV
bld s fy;s flUVDls
fuEu izdkj gksxkA
If expression then
{Statement}
[else]
[Statement]
End if
if dMh’ku a d s True gkus s ij if d s ckn vku s oky s lHkh LVVes UVs ,fXtD;Vw gkxa s s vkjS dMh’ku a xyr
gksus ij else ds ckn vkus okys LVsVesUV ,fXtD;Vw gkaxs sA
If ds vUnj tks ,Dliz s’ku mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA og cqfy;u ,Dliz s s’ku gksrk gSA
.........
then
bld s nk s lHko a
eku True (1) or False (0) gks ldrs gS aA
mDr nksukas izdkj esa if ds lkFk else CykWd fy[kuk t:jh ugha gSA
tc ge flxya ykbZu if LVsVesUV dk mi;ksx djrs gS rk s End if fy[kuk vko’;d ugha
gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
Private Command_Click()
x=InputBox(“Please Enter I No.”)
y=InputBox(“Please Enter II No.”)
if x>=75 Then
Form1.Print ”I No. is Larger”
Else
Form1.Print ”II No. is Larger”
End if
End Sub
Example:

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if-else(Ladder):-

Private Command_Click() age=InputBox (“Please Enter Age of a Person”)

if Age>=75 Then Form1.Print ”You are senior citizen” Elseif age>40 Then Form1.Print ”You are middle age
if Age>=75 Then
Form1.Print ”You are senior citizen”
Elseif age>40 Then
Form1.Print ”You are middle age citizen”
Elseif age>16 Then
Form1.Print ”You are Younger”
Else
Form1.Print ”Enjoy childhood”
End If
End Sub
Example :Nested If:-
Private Command_Click()
age=InputBox (“Please Enter Age of a Person”)
category=InputBox (“Please Enter Category”)
if x>=20 Then
If category=’m’ OR category=’M’ Then
Form1.Print”Your Fees is:500”
Else
If category=’f’ OR category=’F’ Then
Form1.Print”Your Fees is:250”
End If
End If
Else
If If category=’m’ OR category=’M’ Then
Form1.Print”Your Fees is:200”
Else
If category=’f’ OR category=’F’ Then
Form1.Print”Your Fees is:100”
End If
End If
End Sub
Select - case Statment: ;g if-then-else dk oSdfYid dekaM gSA ;g fn;s x;s vuds
CykWDl esa ls flQZ ml CykWd dks ,fXtD;wV djrk gS tks nh daMh’ku dks larq"V djrk gSA

Syntax :

Select case expression case result [Statement block]

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case result [Statement block] = case else [Statement block]

=

END select lysDV dsl LVªDpj ,d ,sDlis’ku z dks gy djrk gSA ;g LVªDpj ds VkWi
END select
lysDV dsl LVªDpj ,d ,sDlis’ku z dks gy djrk gSA ;g LVªDpj ds VkWi ij fn;k gkrk s gSA tc
fd If-then-else LVªDpj izR;sd Elseif dFku ds fy;s ,d vyx ,Dliz s’ku dk mi;kxs djrk gSA
,Dli’ku sz flQ&U; Z es w fjd ;k fLVªax gks ldrk gSA ;gk a fjtYV ,d ;k vf/kd oSY; w dh fyLV gk s ldrh
gS ftUgs a dkek s yxkdj vyx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g ,Dliz s’ku fdlh ,d ifj.kke ds vk/kkj ij CykWd
dk pquko djrk gSA LVVesUV s rc rd ,sfXtD;wV gkrs s gSa] tc rd vxyk Case level ugha vk tkrk
;k End select ij ugh a igpqa tkrkA ;fn ,Dlizs’ku ls ,d ls vf/kd vkWI’ku eSp djrs gSa] rc lcls
igyk eSp djus okyk CykWd ,sfXtD;wV gkrk s gSA ;fn dksbZ Case vkWI’ku eSp ugha djrk rk s Case
End ds ckn vku s okys LVVes s UV ,fXtD;wV gkrs s gSaA ;fn Case End ugh a fn;k x;k gk s rk s End select
ds ckn ds LVsVesUV ,fXtD;wV gksrs gASa
Example :
Select case txt house value text
case “Red”
Msgbox “Boy from Red house”
Case “Yellow” , “Blue”
msgbox “Boy from Yellow or Blue House”
Case 1 to 9
msgbox “Invalid Number”
case else
msgbox “Invalid Entry”
End select
Example :

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qyukRed vkWijsVlsVlsVlsVlsVlZZ Z ZZ %%%%% ;s vkWijsVlZ nks oSY;w dh rqyuk dju s ds fy;s iz;ksx fy;s tkrs gSaA rqyuk

qyukRed vkWij

vkWij

qyukRed vkWij

rrrrrqyukRed

qyukRed

vkWij

djus ij ; s Boolean osY;w fjVuZ djrs gSa ftlesa 1, True ds fy;s rFkk 0, False ds fy;s gksrh gAS VB

esa fuEu rqyukRed vkWijsVlZ miyc/k gSaA ________________________________________________________________________ vk vk vk vkWij vkWij Wij Wij WijsVj sVj
esa fuEu rqyukRed vkWijsVlZ miyc/k gSaA
________________________________________________________________________
vk vk vk vkWij vkWij Wij Wij WijsVj sVj sVj sVj sVj
uke
uke
uke
uke
uke
________________________________________________________________________
Equality
Inquality
Less then
Morethen
Less then or equal to
>= Greater then or equal to
________________________________________________________________________
=
<>
<
>
<=
VB Logical Operators dks likVs Z djrh gSA tks nks ;k nk s ls vf/kd rqyukRed ,Dlizs’ku dks
tksM+us ds dke vkr s gS aA
__________________________________________________________________________
Operator
Description
_________________________________________________________________________
And
Or
Both side must betrue
one side or other must be true
Xor
Not
one side or other must be true but not both
Negates truth
__________________________________________________________________________
Constants : VB ges a Constants declare djus dh lqfo/kk nsrk gSA ;s ,d izdkj dh Values
gS a tks izksxzke ,fXtD;w’ku ds nkSjku cnyrh ugha gSA
tSls
If Action = 3 then “code” End if
Action 3 dks ge As dksalVUV ?kkf"kr
s
dj ldrs gASa
tSls
If Action = CANCELORDER Then
A Executive code
Endif
bl mnkgj.k esa mnkgj.k esa Cancelorder ,d Constant gS a] ftls geus igy s okys Constant 3
ds LFkku ij fMtkbZu fd;k g S izkstsDV esa dgh a ij Hkh dksalVUV fMDys;j fd;s tk ldrs gaAS fdUrq
lkekU;rk fMDyjs s’ku] ekWM~;wy ds tujy fMDys;js s’ku lSD’ku esa djuk mi;qDr gksrk gSA ftls

fMDys;j djus ds fy; s Constant dh oMZ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

Variable Type : VB 6 esa osfj;scy VkbZi myiC/k gS aA

____________________________________________________________________________

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Type Rang Note ________________________________________________________________________ Byte 0-255 Boolean Occupies i byte of meory Stored or an integer
Type
Rang
Note
________________________________________________________________________
Byte
0-255
Boolean
Occupies i byte of meory
Stored or an integer
Interger
Occupies
2 byte of memory
Long
Single
True or false
-32, 767-32768
-2, 147, 483, 648-2 147,
483, 647
See below
Double
See
below
Currencey
-922, 337, 203, 685, 477,
5808, to 922, 337, 203, 685,
hold 4 byte
4 byte of memory
holds 8 bytes
8 Bytes
Dec
477, 5807
+/- 79, 228, 162, 574, 264,
337, 593, 543, 950, 335, or
+/-7, 92281625142643375935439
50335 with decimal places
hold 12
bytes of memory
String
Holds Alphanumaric vol.
Date
Variant
Holds date & time
it is generic data type
________________________________________________________________
Loops : ;fn gesa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd LVsVesUV ckj&ckj ,sfXtD;wV djku s gksrs gS a rks ge yiw
dke esa ysrs gS aA VB esa fuEu izdkj ls ywi iz;ksx fd; s tkrs gS aA
1. For_Next : ;g ywi fdlh LVVes UVs
;k LVsVesUV xqiz dk s ,d fof’k"B d.Mh’ku rd ,fXtD;Vw
gkrk s gSA bldk flUVsDl fuEu gSA
For Countervariable = Start to End
Statements
Next Countervariable
bl yiw esa tc VB izksxzke ,fXtD;wV gksrk gS] rks Countervariable LVkVZ oSY;w ls bfu’kykbZt
gkrk s gAS bld s ckn dMh’ku a d s lgh jgu s rd LVVes UVs ,fXtD;Vw gkrs s jgxs a As tc ikz xs kez d.Vkª ys Next
ij igqaprk g S rks ;g Contervariable dks 1 ls c<k+ nsrk g S rc Variable dh Test condition l s pSfdax
gkrh s gSA dMh’ku a d s lgh gkus s ij Statement fQj ls ,fXtD;Vw gkrs s gSa vkSj ;g Øe dMh’ku a d s False
gkus s rd tkjh jgrk gS vkSj yiw ckWMh ds ckn ds LVVes s UV ukseZyh ,fXtD;wV gkrs s gSAaa
mnkgj.k %%%%%
,Mj izkxs zke ds QkeZ yksM bosUV ij fuEu dkMs dks VkbZi djus ij

Dim I as Integer for I = 1 to 10 Debug print “hello I=’’ &I Next I Debug.print “Out of loop I =” &I Hello

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;gk¡ I dh Value 10 ckj 1 ls 10 rd fizUV gksxhA I dh osY;w 11 gkus s ij Out of loop Print

gksxkA

mnkgj.k %

For-Next Private Command_Click() For i=1 to 10 Form1.Print i Next i End Sub ffflUV flUV flUV
For-Next
Private Command_Click()
For i=1 to 10
Form1.Print i
Next i
End Sub
ffflUV
flUV
flUV
lUV sDlsDlsDlsDlsDl O;k[;k
lUV
O;k[;k
O;k[;k
O;k[;k
O;k[;k %%%%%
for Contervariable = Start to End [Step]
[Statement] [Exit for]
[Statements]
Next [Counter]
2. Do yyyyywiwiwiwiwi %%%%% VB 6 esa ,d cgqr gh lqfo/kktud tujy ijit yiw gS] ftls Do ywi dgrs gS aA
bldk flaVsDl fuEu izdkj gSA
Do [{While/until}exprssion]
[Statement][Exit Do]
Loop
or
Do
[Statement]
[Exit Do]
Loop [{While/until/}expression]
bl yiw dk tkjh jguk vkSj [kRe gkuk s nk s vyx rjhds l s gk s ldrk gSA ;g ge While o until
dh oMZ ds }kjk dj ldr s gSAa ;s dh&oMZ yiw d s ’kq: ;k vUr nksukas LFkku ij fn; s tk ldrs gS aA ;gka
;fn Expression ugha fn;k tk; s rks ywi vuar le; rd pyrk tk;sxkA bls jksdus ds fy, Ctrl +
Break dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
Do
Debug.Print “Bharat”
Loop
Do while : While daMh’ku dk mi;ksx djds ge ;g crk ldrs gS a fd ywi fdruh ckj
,fXtD;wV gksxkA mijksDr mnkgj.k dk s tks fd vuUr ywi dk gS] mls fuEu izdkj fy[kk tk ldrk
gSA

Example :

Sum = 0 Do while sum < 50

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Sum=Sum+1

loop

Debug.Print Sum

tc ;g ywi [kRe gksxk] ;g 50 fizUV djxkA s ;g uEcj ,M djxk] s fdUrq
tc ;g ywi [kRe gksxk] ;g 50 fizUV djxkA
s
;g uEcj ,M djxk] s fdUrq flQZ 50 gkus s rdA
izR;sd le; esa yiw
esa oSY;w 50 ls de gkxhA
s
;fn ,Dlizs’ku xyr gS rks bldk eryc gksxk] fd
;k rk s ,Dliz s’ku es a Sum dh oSY;w 50 gks xbZ gS ;k blls vf/kdA
Do until : While yiw rc rd pyrk gS] tc rd dh dMh’ku a xyr gkrh s gS vkSj Until rc rd
pysxk] tc rd fd daMh’ku lgh gSA bls fuEu mnkgj.k ls Li"V fd;k tk ldrk gSA
Name = “RajasthanBoard.”
P = 0
char = “ “
Do until Char = “ ”
P = P + 1
Char = mid (Name, p, 1)
Loop
Debug. print char & “found at position” & p
;g izkxs zke Name osfj;scy ds vUnj izR;sd djsDVj dks vlkbu djxkA
s
tc djsDVj (Period)
gksxk rc izkxs kez VfeZuVs gks tk;sxkA ;fn mijkDrs nkuk s sa yiw eaa as igyh ckj es sa gh dMh’ku a izkIr gk s tkrh
gS rk s yiw lh/kk Exit gksxk vkSj ywi Body ,sfXtD;wV ugha gksxkA
Example :
num=1
Do
Form1.Print num
num=num+1
Loop until num=11
Loop While : ;fn ge pkgsa fd yiw de l s de ,d ckj rks ,fXtD;Vw gks rc geas yiw LVVes UVs
d s lkFk Exit daMh’ku yxkuh pkfg, uk fd Do LVVes s UV ds lkFkA fuEu mnkgj.k eas ,slk Li"V fd;k
x;k gAS
I
= 10
Do
Debuge.print “Body of the loop”
Debuge.print “New I”
I
= I + 1
Loop while I < 10
Debuge.print “out at loop; Now I is” & I
mijkDrs
mnkgj.k esa I dh Value 11 gkxh s vkjS ywi flQZ ,d ckj pyxkA
s

Example :

num=1

Do

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld

61

Form1.Print num

num=num+1

Loop while num=11

Loop until : tSls While daMh’ku dk mi;ksx Lohp ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS] mlh izdkj
Loop until : tSls While daMh’ku dk mi;ksx Lohp ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS] mlh izdkj Until
dks Hkh Lohp ds lkFk ;wt fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;fn fdlh LVªhax e sa fdlh djsDVj dks <+<wa +uk gks rks ges a
ywi de ls de ,d ckj rks pykuk gh gksxkA yiw
ds vUr es a Until nsu s ls fLVªax ds djsDVj dh
’kq:vkr es a D;k osY; w gS] ml dks dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+sxkA
Name = “Raj.board of secondary educaion”
P = 0
Do
Pos = Pos + 1
Char = Mid (name,p,1)
Loop until char = “ .”
Debug.print char & “found at position” & pos
Example :
num=1
Do until num=11
Form1.Print num
num=num+1
Loop
TheWhile---------Wend Loop : ;g ywi Do-while dh rjg gh gSA While-wend ds LFkku
ij Do-While dk mi;kxs djuk vf/kd lfo/kktud
q
gkrk s gSA While-wend dk flUVsDl fuEukuqlkj
gSA
While [Expression]
[Statements]
Wend
fffLV fLVª
fLVª LVLVªªaxaxªaxaxax %&%&%&%&%& bldk mi;ksx djsDVj MsVk LVksj djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA VB esa ge 2 fcfy;u
djsDVj LVkjs dj ldr s gSaA fLVªax ds nk s izdkj gksrs gASa
111- 1- 1--- osfj; osfj; ooosfj; sfj; sfj;scyscyscyscyscy yyyyysUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk fLV fLV fLV fLV fLVaa a ªxªxªxaa ªxªx
222- 2- fQDLM
2--- fQDLM
fQDLM fQDLM
fQDLM yyyyysUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk fLVª ªª ªaxaxaxaxax
sUFk fLV
fLV
fLV
fLVª
111- 1- 1--- ooooosfj; sfj; sfj; sfj; sfj;scyscyscyscyscy yyyyysUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk fLV fLV fLVª fLV fLVªªaxaxªªaxaxax %%%%% bl izdkj dh fLVªxa ,d ukeZy fLVªax osfj;scy dh rjg gh fMDys;j
dh tkrh gSA
tSls
Dim name As string
bl izdkj osfj;scy fMDy;j s dju s ij ;g 10 ckbV vfrfjDr LVkjs st yrk s gSA
222- 2---++ 2- + + + fQDl yyyyysUFk sUFk sUFk sUFk fLVaxaxª axªªaxax %%%%% bl izdkj dh fLVªxa fMDys;j djrs le; mldh vf/kdre yEckbZ
fQDl
fQDl
fQDl
fQDl
sUFk fLVª
fLVª
fLV
fLV

Hkh crkuk vko’;d gkrk s gSA

mnkgj.k %

Dim name As string * 30

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

62

;gka geus 30 djsDVj dh ,d fLVaªx fMDys;j dh gS ;s fLVªxa vf/kdre 30 djsDVj dk eSeksjh

Lisl ysxh pkgs bles a de djsDVj gh LVksj fd;s tk;saA

String Function :- fLVªxa dk s db Z izdkj l s izkls ls fd;k tkrk gSA ;s fLVªax izkslfls xa vius vki

esaa tfVy dk;Z gSA vr% LVªhax izkls fls ax dks vklku cuku s ds fy; s
esaa tfVy dk;Z gSA vr% LVªhax izkls fls ax dks vklku cuku s ds fy; s VB gesa dbZ bufcYV fLVªxa QD’ku a
miyC/k djkrh gSA tks fuEu izdkj gS aA
Len :
ffflUV
flUV
flUV
lUV
lUVsDlsDlsDlsDlsDl % Len(string)
;g QaD’ku bfUVtj esa LVªhax dh yEckbZ crkrk gSA
Example : Dim
name As string
Dim c As Integer
Name = “Rajasthan”
C
= LAN (Name)
Debug.pring C
Instr :
ffflUV
flUV
flUV
lUV
lUV sDlsDlsDlsDlsDl
%%%%% Instr ([Start postion], string, substring [compare])
fdlh nh xbZ LVªhax esa fdlh Substring dks crkbZ xbZ Position ls <w+a<rk gSA
Left :
ffflUV
flUV
flUV lUV
lUV sDlsDlsDlsDlsDl %%%%% Left (String, Length)
fdlh LVªhax ls Left most character ls crk;h x;h l[;k es a character dks fjVuZ djrk gSA
Example :
Dim name As string Dim (as string)
Name = “Rajasthan”
C
= Left (Name, 4 )
Debug.pring C
Right : ;g QaD’ku fdlh String ls crk;s x;s la[;k esa Right side l s character fjVuZ djrk gSA
Syntax :
Right (String, Length)
Example:
Dim Name As Integer
Dim c As String
Name = “Dr. Neeraj Bhargava”
C = Right (name, 8)
Debug.pring C
Mid : ;g QaD’ku crk;h x;h la[;k es a fdlh String l s Specified position l s djsDVj fjVuZ djrk
gSA
Syntax :

Mid (String, Start, Length)

Example :

Dim name As integer

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld

63

Name = “Computer” Debuge.print mid(String, 3, 4)

UCase & LCase : Ucase QaD’ku nh xbZ LVªhax dks Upper Case esa rFkk Lcase lower case

esa cnyrk gSA Syntax : Ucase (string) L case (string) Dim val As string Val =
esa cnyrk gSA
Syntax :
Ucase (string)
L case (string)
Dim val As string
Val = “Computer”
Debuge.print Ucase (val)
Debuge.pring Lcase (val)
Ltrim, Rtrim & Trim : ;s QaD’ku fdlh LVªhax ls Øe’k% Left, Right, o nksuksa vkSj ds
Leading o Trailing Lisl dks gVkr s gSaA
Syntax :
Ltrim (string)
Rtrim ( string)
Trim (string)
Example :
Dim val 1 As string
Dim val 2 As string
Dim val 3 As string
Val 1 = “Rajasthan ”
val 2 = “
Val 3 = “
Board of
Secondary Education”
Debug.print Rtrim (val1)
Debug.print Ltrim (val2)
Debug.print Trim (val3)
Asc : ;g fdlh djDVj
s
dh ASCII Value ykSVkrk gSA
Syntax :
ASC (stringchar)
Example :
Dim A as string
A = ‘A’
Debuge.pring ASC (A)
char: fdlh U;esfjd
w
dksM ds cjkcj djsDVj oSY;w ykSVkrk gSA
Syntax :
char (Number)

Example :

Dim A As Interger A = 126 Debuge.print char (A)

bUQkZesfVDl iszfDVl

64

Space : crk;h x;h la[;k esa Lisl dh LVªhax ykSVkrk gSA

Syntax : Space (Number) String : ;g QaD’ku fdlh Specified flaxy djDVj s dk s crk;h
Syntax :
Space (Number)
String : ;g QaD’ku fdlh Specified flaxy djDVj
s
dk s crk;h x;h ckj nksgjk dj fy[krk gSA
Syntax :
String (Number, Character)
Example :
Debuge.pring.string(5, ‘P’)
Lset & Rset : ; s QD’ku a Øe’k% ,d LVhª xa d s vUnj nljh w LVhª xa Left tLVhQkbM o Right Justified
fy[kr s gAa S
Syntax :
Lset string 1 = string 2
Strcomp : ;g ,d U;wesfjd osY;w LVªhax dh rqyuk ds vk/kkj ij ykSVkrk gSA
Syntax :
Strcomp (String 1, string2, [compare])
bbbui buiqV buiqV ui uiqVqVqV ck ck ck ckWDl ckWDlWDlWDlWDl Qyu Qyu Qyu Qyu Qyu %%%%% blds }kjk fn;k x;k buiqV fdlh osfj;scy esa lxa zfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
Variable Name = Input Box (Prompt)
;gka Variable Name ml ofj; s scy dk uke gS ftlesa eku lxa zfgr gksxkA Prompt Mk;ykWx
ckWDl esa inf’k z rZ gkus s okyk lna ’k s gAS buiVq ckWDl Qyu esa ,d Mk;ykWx ckWDl curk gS ftlesa ;tj w
ds fy;s ,d lna s’k iznf’kZr gkrk s gSA blds lkFk ,d VSDlV ckWDl Hkh iznf’kZr gksrk gSA ftlesa ;wtj
buiqV gksrk gS vkSj lkFk esa nks dek.M cVu OK ,o a Cancel Hkh gksrs gS aA
fffot fot
fototot qvyqvyqvyqvyqvy cccccsfld
sfld sfld sfld
sfld eeeeess saa ssa aa miyC/k
miyC/k miyC/k miyC/k
miyC/k dddddqNqNqNqNqN U;U;U;U;U;wewewewewesfjdsfjdsfjdsfjdsfjd Qyu fuEufyf[kr gggggSS Sa aa SS aa %&%&%&%&%&
Qyu
Qyu
Qyu fuEufyf[kr
Qyu fuEufyf[kr
fuEufyf[kr
fuEufyf[kr
1.
Abs(n) : ;g fdlh fn;s x;s uEcj dh ,sClwyVs osY;w ykSVkrk gSA
2.
Atn(n) : ;g n dh vklZVsUtsUV jsfM;Ul esa ykSVkrk gSA
3.
Cos(n) : ;g n dh dks.k dk dkslkbZu ykSVkrk gS S tks jfM;Ul s esa gksrk gSA
4.
Exp(n) : ;g Qyu dklV a sUV e dh ?kkr n rd c<+k dj osY;w ykSVkrk gSA
5.
Int(n) : ;g Qyu n ls mldk bfUVtj Hkkx ykSVkrk gSA ¼iw.kkZ ad½
6.
Rnd(n) : ;g Qyu ,d jsUMe uEcj mRiUu djrk gS ftldk eku 0 ls cM+k ;k cjkcj rFkk 1 ls
NksVk gksrk gSA
7.
Sgn(n) : ;g Qyu 1 ykSVkrk gS ;fn n ,d ls NkVk s gks] 0 ykSVkrk gS ;fn n Hkh 0 gk s rFkk $1
ykSVk;sxk ;fn n dk eku 0 ls cM+k gkAs
8.
Sin(n) : ;g Qyu fdlh fn;s x; s dks.k dh Sine osY;w jsfM;Ul esa ykSVkrk gSA
9.
Sqr(n) : ;g Qyu fn;s x;s uEcj dk Ldok;j :V ykSVkrk gSA
10. Str(n) : ;g fdlh U;wesfjd eku dks fLVªxa osY;w es cnyrk gSA

11. Tan(n) : ;g Qyu fdlh dks.k dk Tan eku jfM;Ul s esa ykSVkrk gSA

12. Val(n) : U;wesfjd fLVªax osY;w dks uEcj oY;s w esa cnyrk gSA

Date & Time QQQyu

Qyu %&%&%&%&%& fotqvy csfld ds ikl i;kZIr la[;k esa flLVe DykWd dk s ;tw

Qyu

yu

yu

djus o

ekbZØkslkW¶V fotqvy csfld

65

MsV o VkbZe dks izkslsl dju s ds fy; s Qyu gS aA ;s Qyu vklkuh l s dke es a fy; s tk ldrs gSa vkSj

budk fjtYV fo’oluh; gkrk s gAS

;gk a

ge ikpa MVs VkbeZ Qyu dk s crk jg s ga S tk s flLVe DykdW dk s jhM djd s ikz xs kez dk s oY;s w ykVkr S s gASa

1. Now : ;g Qyu oreku Z flLVe MVs o VkbeZ ykVkrk S g S bldk
1.
Now : ;g Qyu oreku Z flLVe MVs o VkbeZ ykVkrk S g S bldk QkeW VZ s DD/MM/YY, HH:MM:SS
gkrk s gAS
2.
Date : ;g MsV osY;w dks uEcj oY;s w es a ykSVkrk gSA bldk QkWeZsV DD/MM/YY gksrk gSA
3.
Date$ : ;g oreku Z flLVe MVs Qkjes Vs Ms fLVxa ª d s :i ea s ykVkrk S gAS bldk QkeW Vs Z MM-DD-YY
gkrk s gAS
4.
Time/Time$ : ;g Qyu pkSfcl ?k.Vs dh osY;w ds :i esa le; crkrk gSA bldk QkWeZ sV HH
: MM : SS gksrk gSA
5.
Date & Time formats : Format ( ) Qyu dk s fdlh Hkh uEcj osY;w dk s MsV o VkbZe ds :i
esa iznf’kZr djus ds dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA bldk flUVDls
fuEu izdkj gSA
Format (Value, “Format string”)
QksjesV fLVªax uhps nh xbZ fLVªax dh rjg gks ldrh gAS
d
dd
ddd
dddd
M/MM
Day of the month number, with no leading zero
Day of the month number, with leading zero
Day of the week, abbreviated
Day of the week in full
Month number, with out/with leading zero
MMM
Month name, abbreviated
MMMM
YY
YYYY
h/hh
M/MM
S/SS
Month name in full
Year as two digit
Year in full
Hours
Minutes, when used with h
Seconds
AM/PM
Use 12-Hours
clock with added AM or PM
Example :
“dddd mmmm yyyy”
“dd - mm - yy”
“ hh : mm AM/PM”