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A JOURNEY INTO

THE WORLD OF
PRINTING

By:- AIBA
KUSHAL
SWETA
• Printing can also be defined as localized
dyeing.
• Defined as the application of dye or pigment
in a different pattern on the fabric and by
subsequent after treatment of fixing the dye
or pigment to get a particular design.
• Sometimes a printed fabric can be identified
by looking at the back side of fabric where
there is no design or color as face side.
• In cotton, dyes like vat, reactive are used
• In manmade, dyes like disperse and cationic
are used
DIFFERENT STYLES OF
PRINTING
There are three basic approaches to printing
a color on a fabric
1. DIRECT PRINTING
2. DISCHARGE PRINTING
3. RESIST PRINTING
DIRECT PRINTING
• In this type of printing dye is applied onto
the fabric by carved block, stencil,
screen, engraved roller etc.
• The dye is imprinted on the fabric in
paste form and any desired pattern may
be produced
• Example:-Block Printing, Roller Printing,
Screen Printing etc.
DISCHARGE PRINTING
• In this method the fabric is dyed and then
printed with a chemical that will destroy
the color in designed areas.
• Sometimes the base color is removed and
another color printed in its place.
RESIST PRINTING
• In this method bleached fabric are printed with a
resist paste ( a resinous substance that cannot
be penetrated when the fabric is immersed in a
dye ).
• The dye will only affect only the parts that are not
covered by the resist paste .
• After the fabric has passed through a subsequent
dyeing process the resist paste is removed,
leaving a pattern on a dark background
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
PRINTING
• BLOCK PRINTING
• ROLLER PRINTING
• SCREEN PRINTING
• FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING
• ROTARY PRINTING
• TRANSFER PRINTING
• STENCIL PRINTING
• DIGITAL PRINTING
• BATIK PRINTING
• TIE & DYE
BLOCK PRINTING
• It is the oldest and simplest way of printing
• In this method a wooden block with a raised pattern
on the surface was dipped into the printing colorant
and then pressed face down on to fabric.
• The desired pattern was obtained by repeating the
process using different colors.
• Generally the wooden block is carved out of hand
• Printing is done manually
BLOCK PRINTING
BLOCK PRINTING
BLOCK PRINTING
BLOCK PRINTING
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. Simple method of 1. Involves much
printing manual work
2. No expensive 2. Method is slow and
equipment required therefore low output
3. No limitation in repeat 3. Good skilled labors
of size of style needed for multi color
4. Prints produced have design
great decorative value 4. Fine and delicate
and stamp of designs hard to
craftsmanship produce
ROLLER PRINTING
• It is the machine method of printing designs on
cloths by engraved rollers.
• The design is engraved on the surface of a metal
roller, to which dye is applied, and the excess is
scraped off the roller's surface, leaving dye in the
engraved sections. When it rolls across the fabric,
the dye on the roller transfers to the fabric.
Diagram of roller printing m/c
ROLLER PRINTING M/C
ROLLER PRINTING
ROLLER PRINTING
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. Large quantities of 1. Not economical for
fabric at the rate of short run of fabrics.
914-3658m per hour 2. Difficult to produce
can be printed. blotch designs.
2. Faulty joints or joint 3. Repeat of design
marks are absent. limited to the size of
3. Fine sharp outlines the rollers.
and good prints can 4. Setup cost of roller
be obtained which is printing m/c is high
difficult to get in
block printing.
STENCIL PRINTING
• It is one of the oldest way of printing.
• In it color is applied to the fabric by brushing
or spraying the interstices of a pattern cut
out from a flat sheet of metal or waterproof
paper or plastic sheet or laminated sheet.
• A stencil is prepared by cutting out a design
from a flat sheet of paper, metal, or plastic.
A simple stencil design
Example of stencil printing
STENCIL PRINTING
• ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
1. Simple and cost 1. Good design is
effective. difficult to obtain.
2. Stencils can be 2. Process is laborious.
made rapidly and 3. Not suitable for large
can be used for scale production.
small orders.
3. Color combination is
good in it.
SCREEN PRINTING
• It involves the application of the printing
paste through a fine screen placed in
contact with the fabric to be printed.
• A design is created in reverse on the
screen by blocking areas of the screen
with a material such as an opaque paint.
• The screen is then placed over the fabric
and the printing paste is forced through
the open areas of the screen using a
flexible synthetic rubber or steel blade
known as a squeegee.
PROCESS OF SCREEN PRITING

SCREEN PAPER SIDE SCREEN SQUEEZE SIDE

ORIGINAL PRINT PRINT ON FABRIC


SCREEN PRINTING
• ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
1. Simple and cost 1. For high production
effective. large no. of tables
2. Quick pattern making required.
3. 16 colors can be used 2. Delicate shading
in a design. difficult to obtain.
4. Sharp lines and 3. Screen clogging
features easily may be there in fine
produced. areas.
FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING
• It is the advanced version of screen printing
by using automatic m/c to do work
• It consists of printing table, conveyor belt,
number of screens, mechanism to print on
the fabric, etc.
• First the fabric is brought on the printing
table through a feeding arrangement and it
is gummed to the conveyor belt on the table
• Conveyor brings fabric periodically under
screen and stops while the screen are
lowered on the required parts of the fabric.
• Printing paste is distributed throughout the
full length of the screen.
• The squeeze is pressed to the screen .
• One or more strokes of the squeeze
ensure simultaneous printing of the
pattern by the common action of all
screens which applies printing paste as
required by the color in the design.
FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING M/C
FLAT SCREEN PRINTING
• ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
1. Greater production 1. A big setup required
than manual screen for more number of
printing screens
2. Printing with 2. Prints with more
different repeat can colors may not be
be made easily possible
3. Good print is 3. Printing paste not
obtained evenly controlled
ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING
• Rotary screen printing involves a series of
revolving metal cylinder , each with revolving
screens, each with a stationary squeegee
inside which forces the print paste onto the
fabric.
• Twenty or more colours can be printed at
the same time.
• The process is much quicker and more
efficient than flat screen printing .
Working of rotary screen printing
m/c
A rotary screen printing m/c
Feeding of color to rollers
TRANSFER PRINTING
• It is a indirect method of printing in which dyes
are transferred from paper to a thermoplastic
fabric under controlled conditions of
temperature, time and pressure.
• The image is first engraved on a copper plate.
• Then pigment is applied on these plates.
• The image is then transferred to a piece of
paper, with a layer of glue applied .
• This is then placed on the fabric and heat and
pressure applied which fixes the print onto
fabric.
Process of transfer printing
TRANSFER PRINTING
• ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
1. Operation is simple 1. Process applicable to
and no expensive synthetic fabric like
m/c is required. polyester .
2. No after treatment of 2. Color range is limited.
fabric required 3. Cost of printed paper
3. Print on fabric is of high.
excellent quality 4. Not economical for
small orders.
RESIST PRINTING
• There are two types of resist printing
• BATIK PRINTING
• TIE & DIE PRINTING
BATIK PRINTING
• Originated on island of Java and is a
cottage based industry.
• Batik is derived from word “AMBATIK”
• The resist-dyeing process, whereby
designs are made with wax on a fabric
which is subsequently immersed in a dye
to absorb the color on the unwaxed
portions, is known as batik printing.
• Special feature is the fine lines of color
running irregularly across the fabric.
BATIK PRINTING
• ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
• Gives a good artistic • Laborious
effect • Time taking
• Cheap printing
• Cracking effect
• Greater artistic design
• Dye should be
• Fabric has a rich and
applied at low
graceful appearance
temperature than
wax.
TIE & DYE
• It is same as that of batik printing but here
the dye is resisted by knots that are tied in
the cloth before it is immersed in dye bath.
• The outside of the knotted portion is dyed,
but inside is not penetrated if the knot is
firmly tied.
• This gives a characteristic blurred or
mottled effect .
TIE & DYE
• ADVANTAGE • DISADVANTAGE
• Interesting design • Costly
created on fabric • Laborious
• No m/c cost is there • Time taking
• Skilled labour
required
DIGITAL PRINTING
• It is the more advanced type of printing.
• This includes :-
Jet spray printing
Electrostatic printing
Photo printing
Differential printing
JET SPRAYING MACHINE
ELECTROSTATIC PRINTING M/C
PHOTO PRINTING M/C
PRINTS
CLASSICAL
Also known as ethnic or traditional print. In
this print classical motifs or traditional
collections are used such as mango,
elephant with the chariots, old musical
instruments etc. the culture of any
particular place can also be considered
such as tie and dye , batik, block of
Rajasthan etc
FLORAL PRINT
It has the print of varieties of flower either
in bunch or single spotted , huge or
small , combination of leaves and other
addings.

Color combination is very important.


STRIPES
• PIN STRIPES
• ZIGZAG STRIPES
• SPIRAL STRIPES
• ZEBRA STRIPES
• DIAGONAL STRIPES
• HORIZONTAL STRIPES
• VERTICAL STRIPES
• CURVED STRIPES
• TOOTHPASTE STRIPES
• LAMP POST STRIPES
PIN STRIPES
• THESE ARE STRIPES WHICH IS
PRINTED LINES AT HAIRY DISTANCE
AND MOSTLY TWO OR THREE COLORS
ARE USED INCLUDING THE
BACKGROUND.
ZIGZAG STRIPES
• IT CAN COME IN HORIZONTAL OR
VERTICAL BUT IN THE SHAPE OF
ZIGZAG.
SPIRAL STRIPES
• THE PRINT LOOKS LIKE A STRETCHED
SPRING AT MEDIUM PRESSURE, THIS
CAN EITHER BE VERTICAL OR
HORIZONTAL.
CURVED STRIPES
• THIS PRINT HAS THE EFFECT OF A
WAVE FOLLOWED EITHER
VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL.
TOOTHPASTE STRIPE
• THIS STRIPE CAN BE MULTICOLORED
AND THE DISTANCE CAN VARY BUT
THE WIDTH OF EACH STRIPE SHOULD
BE RANGING FROM 0.5-1.5CMS THE
WIDTH OF THE TOOTHPASTE.
ZEBRA STRIPES
• IN THIS STRIPES ONLY TWO COLORS
ARE USED AND MOSTLY NEUTRAL
COLORED SCHEME IS SEEN .
• THESE STRIPES ARE PLACED AT
EQUIDISTANCE.
• THE WIDTH OF EACH STRIPE WILL
NOT BE MORE THAN 1.0CM
LAMP POST STRIPE
• THE WIDTH STARTS FROM 3-5CM.
• IT CAN BE COMPOUND STRIPES.
• THE PRINT HAS RUNNING LINES OF
FIXED WIDTH.
CHECK PRINTS
• THESE ARE GOT BY INTERSECTING
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES AT
90 DEG ANGLES.
• IT IS OF 4 – TYPES
• PLAIDS
• MADRAS CHECK
• BOMBAY CHECK
• OXFORD CHECK
PLAIDS
• PLAIDS ARE SIMPLE CHECK WHERE
ALL THE SQUARES ARE OF EQUAL
SIZE AND IT HAS THE COMBINATION
OF ANY TWO COLORS WHICH ARE
MOSTLY USED FOR SCHOOL
UNIFORMS.
• LOOKS LIKE THE CHECKS IN A CHESS
BOARD
MADRAS CHECK
• IT HAS GOT NO MORE THAN 2 OR 3
VERTICAL STRIPES WITH
EQUAL(SINGLE) HORIZONTAL
STRIPES.
• COLORS USED BLUE, RED, ORANGE,
ETC
• USED FOR LUNGIS, BURMUDAS AND
COATS
BOMBAY CHECKS
• THESE CHECKS ARE MOSTLY
AVAILABLE IN LIGHT COLORS.
• HERE NO PROPER NUMBER OF
STRIPES CAN BE COUNTED EITHER
HORIZONTALLY OR VERTICALLY BUT
STRIPES ARE VERY CLOSELY
PRINTED
• USED IN SHIRTS
OXFORD CHECK
• THIS IS FOUND IN DARK COLORS
WITH WHITE COMBINATION.
• HERE THE STRIPES PRINTED
HORIZONTALLY WILL BE EQUAL TO
THE STRIPES PRINTED VERTICALLY
AND AT EQUAL THICKNESS PLACED AT
EQUIDISTANCE
• USED IN UNIFORMS, MAT, BED
COVERS, DRAPERIES ETC
DOTS
• THESE ARE SPOTS EITHER DESIGNED
OR PLAIN IN DIFFERENT COLORS
• 3 – TYPES
• BIG DOTS(3-10CM)
• SMALL DOTS(PIN- 1.5CM)
• POLKA DOTS(MIXTURE OF ABOVE)
GEOMETRICAL PRINTS
• THIS IS THE PRINT WHERE ALL THE
GEOMETRICAL INSTRUMENT DESIGNS
ARE CREATED AND THE
MATHEMATICAL SIGNS ARE USED
SUCH AS PLUS, MINUS,
MULTIPLICATION DIVISION ETC.
DIRECTIONAL PRINTS
• ANY PRINT WHICH IS DESIGNED
DIRECTIONALLY EITHER HORIZONTAL,
VERTICAL OR DIAGONAL IS CALLED
THE DIRECTIONAL PRINTS.
• ITS FEATURE IS TO FOLLOW THE
DIRECTION OF THE FIRST ONE.
• USED IN EGYPTIAN DRESS
SELF PRINTS
• ANY DESIGN WHICH HAS TO BE
PRINTED SHOULD BE OF THE SAME
SHADES OF THE BACKGROUND
COLOR.
• RUBBER PRINT
COMPUTERISED PRINT
• THE DESIGN IS TAKEN FROM
COMPUTER GRAPHIC DESIGN AND
VIDEO GAMES .
• CAN BE USED FOR CHILDREN AND
TEENAGERS.
WILD PRINT
• THE EFFECT OF FOREST WITH OR
WITHOUT ANIMALS, NATURE ARE
USED IN THIS PRINT
• MOSTLY DULL COLORS ARE USED.
ANIMAL PRINT
• THE IMPORTANCE IS GIVEN TO THE
SKIN TEXTURE OF THE ANIMALS AND
THEIR PRINTS SUCH AS ZEBRA,
CHEETAH, TIGER, DEER, SNAKE ETC
ABSTRACT PRINT
• THIS PRINT IS MADE USING
IRREGULAR SHAPES WITH MATCHING
COLOR SCHEME.
NUMERICAL PRINT
• HERE THE NUMBER 0-9 ARE USED.
• SOME TIMES WITH OR WITHOUT
MATHEMATICAL SIGNS
ALPHABETICAL PRINTS
• THIS PRINT IS MADE USING
ALPHABETS, WORDINGS ETC
• EG: NEWSPAPER PRINT
CHILDREN PRINT
• THE PRINT CONSISTS OF DESIGNS
WHICH CAN EMPHASIZE THE
CHILDREN”S MOOD SUCH AS
CARTOONS, CHOCLATES, FRUITS, ICE
CREAM ETC
PHOTO PRINT
• THE PHOTOS OF THE FAMOUS STARS,
POP SINGERS, OLD CARS ETC ARE
PRINTED ON T-SHIRTS WHICH ARE
CALLED PHOTOPRINT
MARBLE PRINT
• THIS PRINT LOOKS LIKE A MARBLE
FINISH