Sie sind auf Seite 1von 382

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

138. 0WRH HISTEVXI ERYQMXI GSQTPI\I HI MRJIVMSVMXEXI GEVEGXIVMWXMGI MRXVSZIVXMXYPYM #M WSGSXMRH JETXYP G PYQIE ZEWX HI MHIM IWXI QEM TY'MR KYZIVREX HI I\XVEZIVXMX, GM QEM HIKVEF IP 7GVMWSEVI GXVI +SIXLI, HMR 5 MERYEVMI 1798. 7GVMWSEVI GXVI 7GLMPPIV, HMR 27 ETVMPMI 1798. 7GVMWSEVI GXVI 7GLMPPIV, HMR 6 MERYEVMI 1798. 7GVMWSEVI GXVI +SIXLI, HMR 31 EYKYWX 1794.

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MRXVSZIVXMXI, VITVI^IRXEX HI 7GLMPPIV.

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

0SG. GMX., T. 314. 0SG. GMX., T. 249.

QIVIY EGIEWX WYVW HYFP.91 (MWTS^M'ME WIRXMQIRXEP IWXI VI^YPXEXYP R^YMR'IM HI E VIWXEFMPM HYT GSR'MRYX, #M R GSRHM'MM HI VI4IG'MI, WIR^E'ME REMZ.92 4SI^ME WIRXMQIRXEP IWXI RE#XIVIE EFWXVEG'MYRMM.93 (MR GEY^E WXVHERMIM HI E RHITVXE HI PE IE (HI PE REXYVE YQER) XSEXI FEVMIVIPI, KIRMYP WIRXMQIRXEP IWXI I\TYW TVMQINHMIM HI E ERYPE GY XSXYP REXYVE YQER #M RY RYQEM HI E WI VMHMGE GIIE GI TSEXI #M XVIFYMI W JEG HIEWYTVE SVMGVIM VIEPMX'M HIXIVQMREXI #M PMQMXEXI, TR PE TSWMFMPMXEXIE EFWSPYX HIGM HI E MHIEPM^E GM #M HI E XVIGI HMRGSPS HI TSWMFMPMXEXI HIGM HI E I\EPXE. +IRMYP WIRXMQIRXEP TVWI#XI VIEPMXEXIE TIRXVY E WI VMHMGE PE RMZIPYP MHIMPSV #M E-#M HSQMRE QEXIVME R EGXMZMXEXI PMFIV #M WTSRXER.94 )WXI Y#SV HI Z^YX G, WTVI HISWIFMVI HI REMZ, WIRXMQIR XEPYP IWXI GEVEGXIVM^EX HI S EXMXYHMRI VI4I\MZ #M EFWXVEGXM^ERX. )P VI4IGXIE^ TI WIEQE SFMIGXYPYM, VIXVKRHY-WI HMR SFMIGX. )P IWXI E TVMSVM WITEVEX HI SFMIGX GRH RGITI W TVSHYG; RY SFMIGXYP PYGVIE^ R IP, GM IP RWY#M PYGVIE^. (EV RY R WMRI R WY#M PYGVIE^, GM HMRGSPS HI SFMIGX. )P IWXI HMJIVMX HI SFMIGX, RY IWXI MHIRXMG GY IP, #M GEYX W-#M WXEFMPIEWG VIPE'ME GY IP, W-#M HSQMRI QEXIVME. %GIEWX WITEVEVI E WE HI SFMIGX TVSHYGI MQ TVIWME HI HYEPMXEXI, WYFPMRMEX HI 7GLMPPIV, GGM WIRXMQIRXEPYP #M XVEKI WYFWXER'E HMR HSY WYVWI, HMR SFMIGX, VIWTIGXMZ HMR TIVGI TIVIE PYM, #M HMR WMRI RWY#M. -QTVIWME I\XIVMSEV E SFMIGXYPYM RY IWXI TIRXVY IP YR GI RIGSRHM'MSREX, GM YR QEXIVMEP TI GEVI P XVE XIE^ TSXVMZMX GY TVSTVMMPI WEPI GSR'MRYXYVM. )P WI WMXYIE^ EWXJIP HIEWYTVE SFMIGXYPYM, RXVI'MRRH XSXY#M S VIPE'MI GY IP, HEV RY S VIPE'MI HI VIGITXMZMXEXI, GGM IP GSRJIV SFMIGXYPYM ZEPSEVI WEY GE PMXEXI R QSH EVFMXVEV. %XMXYHMRIE WE IWXI HIGM MRXVSZIVXMX. 'EVEGXIVM^RH HVITX MRXVSZIVXMX #M, VIWTIGXMZ, I\XVEZIVXMX GIPI HSY EXMXYHMRM EPI PYM 7GLMPPIV, RY M-EQ ITYM^EX EGIWXYME MHIM PI. %QFIPI RSEWXVI QIGERMWQI RY WYRX HIGX JIRSQIRI JYRHE QIRXEPI HI REXYV HIWXYP HI KIRIVEP GEVI WYKIVIE^ HSEV ZEK 0SG. GMX., T. 250. 0SG. GMX., RSXE HI PE T. 301. 0SG. GMX., T. 303.

0SG. GMX., T. 314.

WTIGM3GYP. 4IRXVY R'IPIKIVIE REMZYPYM #M E WIRXMQIRXEPYPYM XVIFYMI W JEGIQ ETIP PE EPXI HSY TVMRGMTMM, ERYQI PE WIR^E'MI #M PE MRXYM'MI. :SQ ZSVFM QEM EQRYR'MX HIWTVI EGIWXI JYRG'MM R GYVWYP GIVGIXVMM RSEWXVI. %MGM E# ZVIE HSEV W EQMRXIWG G REMZYP IWXI GEVEGXIVM^EX HI TVIHSQMRER'E IPIQIRXYPYM WIR^SVMEP, WIRXMQIRXEPYP HI EGIIE E IPIQIRXYPYM MRXYMXMZ. 7IR^E'ME PIEK HI SFMIGX, IE EXVEKI GLMEV WYFMIGXYP R SFMIGX, HI YRHI TVMQINHME TIRXVY REMZ HI E WI EFWSVFM R SFMIGX. -RXYM'ME, GE TIVGIT'MI E TVSTVMMPSV TVSGIWI MRGSR#XMIRXI, WI EFWXVEKI HMR SFMIGX, WI VMHMG HIEWYTVE SFMIGXYPYM #M GEYX HI EGIIE RXSXHIEYRE W HSQMRI QEXIVME #M W-M HIE JSVQ TSXVMZMX GY TYRGXI HI ZIHIVI WYFMIGXMZI WEY GLMEV W S ZMSPIRXI^I JV W-#M HIE WIEQE. 4VMQINHME GEVI P EQIRMR' TI WIRXMQIRXEP VI^MH R HIWTVMRHIVIE XSXEP HI VIEPMXEXI #M R GYJYRHEVIE R JERXI^ME GI M^ZSV#XI HMR MRGSR#XMIRX (I\EPXEVI!). G) -HIEPMWXYP #M VIEPMWXYP 203. R EGIPE#M XVEXEX, 7GLMPPIV ENYRKI W WXEFMPIEWG I\MWXIR'E E HSY. )P E3VQ: %GIEWXE Q GSRHYGI W GSRWXEX RXV-YR ZIEG EXX HI GYPXMZEX YR JSEVXI WXVERMY ERXEKSRMWQ TWMLSPSKMG RXVI SEQIRM: YR ERXEKSRMWQ GEVI, 3MRH VEHMGEP #M R-XIQIMRHY-WI TI JSVQE MRXIVMSEV E WY4IXYPYM, TVSZSEG S WITEVEVI QEM KVEZ HIGX EGIIE TVSHYW HI YR GSR4MGX RXQTPXSV HI MRXIVIWI GEVI EV VTM EVXMWXYPYM #M TSIXYPYM SVMGI WTIVER' HI E TPGIE WEY HI E IQS'MSRE YRERMQ, GIIE GI MRXV HSEV R SFPMKE'MMPI PSV; GEVI P QTMIHMG TI 3PSWSJ, GLMEV HEG EGIWXE #M H XSEX WMPMR'E, W GSRZMRK RXVIEKE PYQI, GIIE GI IWXI HI JETX VSWXYP SVMGVIM 3PSWS3M; GEVI, R 3RI, RY ZE RKHYM RMGMSHEX SQYPYM R ZME'E TVEGXMG W-#M ZEH YRERMQ ETVSFEX QSHYP HI E EG'MSRE: TI WGYVX, YR ERXEKSRMWQ VIWTSRWEFMP HI EGIIE G RMGM S STIV E WTMVMXYPYM #M RMGM S JETX E MRMQMM RY TSEXI JEGI LSXVX JIVMGMVIE YRIM GPEWI ERYQI, JV E#M EXVEKI TVMR RW#M EGIEWX QTVINYVEVI GSRHEQREVIE EPXIME. %GIWX ERXEKSRMWQ IWXI, JV RHSMEP, XSX EXX HI ZIGLM GE #M RGITYXYP GYPXYVMM #M RY ZE TYXIE 3 PIWRI WYTVMQEX HIGX S HEX GY WJV#MXYP IM, HIGX HSEV R GE^YP GXSVZE VEVM WYFMIG'M GEVI HMR JIVMGMVI EY I\MWXEX HMRXSXHIEYRE #M ZSV I\MWXE QIVIY; HEV, HI#M TVMRXVI IJIGXIPI ERXEKSRMWQYPYM WI RYQV #M EGIPE HI E ^HVRMGM SVMGI RGIVGEVI HI E-1 WYTVMQE, TIRXVY G RMGMYRE HMR XEFIVI RY TSEXI 3 HIXIVQMREX W VIGYRSEWG S PMTW HI TEVXIE WE #M S VIEPMXEXI HI TEVXIE GIEPEPX, I\MWX XSXY#M YR G#XMK WYFWXER'MEP R E YVQVM EGIEWX WITEVEVI EXX HI MQTSVXERX TR PE YPXMQIPI IM M^ZSEVI #M HI E VIHYGI EWXJIP TYRGXYP IWIR'MEP EP GSR4MGXYPYM GIP TY'MR PE S JSVQYP QEM WMQTP.95

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WTYRI G: R ZVIQI GI EGIWXE, E4EX WYF GSRHM'ME EWIQRVMM GY HMZMRMXEXIE, WYJIV, 7Y4IXYP PYM TVIKXI#XI S PYGVEVI LV^MX EPMRVMM WYJIVMR'IPSV SQIRMVMM. 7Y4IXYP PYM 4VSQIXIY R^YMI#XI EWXJIP W ENYRK PE SEQIRM. 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE, PYGVEVIE TI GEVI IP S TPRYMI#XI #M S RJTXYMI#XI RY IWXI RXSGQEM GY EGIIE E 4ER15 7TOXIPIV, PSG. GMX., T. 107.

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

ERMQEPMG EP STSVXY RMX'MM. 0SG. GMX., TT. 132 #. YVQ.

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WYF TEXYP MQTSWMFMPIM TVIWYTYRIVM. 'E YR GVEF GEVI JYKI LSPFRHY-#M SXVZMXSV JSEVJIGIPI #M ^FVPMRHY-#M-PG ZVNQE# ? `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HI TVI^IR'E R MR0SG. GMX., T. 144. 0SG. GMX., T. 147. 0SG. GMX., T. 163. ). /SIRMK, %LEWZIV, 1907.

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

HGWZV#MVIE YRIM PYGVVM ERYQI, GMX TVMR ZEVMIXEXIE #M SVMKMREPMXEXIE TVSFERX E RYQIVSEWI TVIWXE'MM GI WI WYGGIH VETMH, HI EWIQIRIE TVMR JETXYP G SFM#RYMI#XI W EG'MSRI^I RIQMNPSGMX EWYTVE GSRXIQTSVERMPSV WM ? ` 7I GYZMRI HI EWIQIRIE WYFPMRMEX G ZMXI^E HI VIEG'MI QIRXEP IWXI HIXIVQMRERX TIRXVY WXEFMPMVIE XMTYPYM GVYME M ETEV'MRI WEZERXYP. 'IVGIXXSVM GY ZMXI^ JSEVXI QEVG HI VIEG'MI WYRX VSQERXMGM, GIM GY ZMXI^ QMG HI VIEG'MI WYRX GPEWMGM.2 'PEWMGYP EVI YR QSH PIRX HI TVSHYG'MI #M YRISVM H VIPEXMZ XV^MY PE PYQMR VSEHIPI GIPI QEM HITPMRI EPI WTMVMXYPYM WY.3 3 GEVEGXIVMWXMG E XMTYPYM GPEWMG IWXI, HYT 3WX[EPH, RIZSME WXVMRKIRX HI E ETVIE MVITVS#EFMP R JE'E STMRMIM TYFPMGI.4 8MTYPYM GPEWMG, 3WX[EPH, +VS3I 1RRIV, IH. 0SG. GMX., TT. 44 #. YVQ. 0SG. GMX., T. 89. 0SG. GMX., T. 94. E #M E 4-E, 1910.

GE S GSQTIRWE'MI TIRXVY MR4YIR'E TIVWSREP WG^YX, M IWXI GSRJIVMX MR4YIR'E GY EXX QEM KIRIVSEW E WGVMWYPYM5. 3VMGYQ RW, #M EGIEWX MR4YIR' EVI PMQMXI, HYT GYQ VI^YPX HMR YVQXSVYP GE^, EQMRXMX HI 3WX[EPH, HMR FMSKVE3E PYM ,IPQLSPX^. 'Y SGE^ME GIVGIXVMPSV QEXIQEXMGI EPI PYM ,IPQLSPX^ HIWTVI IJIGXIPI GYVIR'MPSV HI MRHYG'MI, (Y &SMW-6I]QSRH M WGVMI EGIWXYME: 8Y XVIFYMI RY QM-S PYE R RYQI HI VY W EM QEM QYPX KVMN R E JEGI EFWXVEG'MI HI TYRGXYP HI ZIHIVI EP #XMMR'IM XEPI #M E XI WMXYE R TIVWTIGXMZE TYRGXYPYM HI ZIHIVI EP EGIPSVE GEVI RY #XMY HIWTVI GI IWXI ZSVFE #M RY #XMY GI ZVIM W PI I\TPMGM. ,IPQLSPX^ VWTYRHI: R GI TVMZI#XI I\TYRIVIE EVXMGSPYPYM, IE QM-E HEX HI EWX HEX QYPX FXEMI HI GET, HEV GVIH, R GIPI HMR YVQ, G TSX 3 QYP'YQMX HI IE. 3WX[EPH SFWIVZ R EGIEWX SVHMRI HI MHIM: )P RY WI STVI#XI RMGMHIGYQ PE TVSFPIQE GMXMXSVYPYM GGM, TSXVMZMX REXYVMM GPEWMGYPYM, IP WGVMI TIRXVY WMRI, EHMG EWXJIP RIX I\TYRIVIE TVSTVMI W M TEV PYM, #M RY EPXSVE, MVITVS#EFMP. )WXI GEVEGXIVMWXMG GIIE GI M WGVMI (Y &SMW R EGIIE#M ITMWXSP PYM ,IPQLSPX^: &M-EQ GMXMX HI GXIZE SVM WXYHMYP #M I\XVEWYP JV W R'IPIK GI EM JGYX HI JETX ?A R GIPI HMR YVQ EQ HIWGSTIVMX WMRKYV QIXSHE XE #M XVITXEX 'M-EQ R'IPIW #M I\TYRIVIE.6 608. %GIWX GE^ VITVI^MRX YR IZIRMQIRX EFWSPYX XMTMG R ZME'E GPEWMGYPYM GEVI M^FYXI#XI VEVISVM WEY RMGMSHEX W ETVMRH TVMR WY4IXYP WY WY4IXI EWIQRXSV EPGXYMXI7 #M EVEX G I3GMIR'E TVMR WGVMW GEVI M IWXI EXVMFYMX ZMRI R TVMRGMTEP HI PE JETXYP G IE IWXI, HI VIKYP, TSWXYQ, GY EPXI GYZMRXI G WI JEGI WMQ'MX EXYRGM GRH SQYP IWXI YPXIVMSV HIWGSTIVMX TVMR WGVMIVMPI WEPI, E#E GYQ W-E RXQTPEX GY 6SFIVX

1E]IV. "M PYGVVMPI EGIWXYME TEV W 3I JSEVXI EHIWIE PMTWMXI HI EGIE MR4YIR' RIQMNPSGMX TIVWSREP GEVI GSRZMRKI #M R4GVIE^, GGM WGVMIVIE IWXI R GIPI HMR YVQ S I\TVIWMI PE JIP HI TIVWSREP GE #M S GSRZIVWE'MI WEY S GSRJIVMR'. -R4YIR'E QIHMEX HI WGVMIVI E GPEWMGYPYM WI RXIQIME^ HIGM QEM TY'MR TI GEPMX'MPI I\XIVMSEVI WXMQYPEXSEVI EPI EGIWXIME, #M 0SG. GMX., T. 100. 0SG. GMX., T. 280. 0SG. GMX., T. 100.

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

GLMEV TXMQE#, PE GEVI IQS'ME W WI HIWJ#SEVI R MRXIVMSV, MEV S I\GMXE'MI PYRXVMG JSEVXI TYXIVRMG W WI I\TVMQI TVMR GIE QEM HITPMR 0SG. GMX., T. 372.

PMRM#XI. -RXIVTVIXEVIE TI GEVI .SVHER S H XMTYVMPSV ME R GSRWMHIVEVI EGIEWX WXEVI HI JETX. )E RY NYHIG HYT S MQTVIWMI WYTIV3GMEP, GM HYT S R'IPIKIVI QEM EHRG E REXYVMM YQERI. 8VWXYVE HMWXMRGXMZ JYRHEQIRXEP E PYM 3WX[EPH WI WTVMNMR, GE #M ZIGLIE GPEWM3GEVI E XIQTIVEQIRXIPSV, TI MQTVIWME I\XIVMSEV. 8MTYP WY VSQERXMG IWXI GEVEGXIVM^EX HI S VIEG'MI VETMH R EJEV. 8MTYP GPEWMG VIEG'MSRIE^ TSEXI XSX EXX HI VETMH, HEV R MRXIVMSV. 4EVGYVKRH FMSKVE3MPI PYM 3WX[EPH, WI SFWIVZ JV HM3 GYPXEXI G XMTYP VSQERXMG GSVIWTYRHI XMTYPYM I\XVEZIVXMX, MEV XM TYP GPEWMG, GIPYM MRXVSZIVXMX. ,YQTLV] (EZ] #M 0MGFMK WYRX I\IQTPI #GSPEVI TIRXVY XMTYP I\XVEZIVXMX, HYT GYQ 6SFIVX 1E]IV #M *EVEHE], TIRXVY GIP MRXVSZIVXMX. 6IEG'ME R EJEV P GEVEG XIVM^IE^ TI I\XVEZIVXMX, GIE R MRXIVMSV TI MRXVSZIVXMX. )\XVEZIV XMXYP RY EVI HM3GYPX'M WTIGMEPI R E WI I\XIVMSVM^E, IP #M ZEPSVM3G ETVSETI MRZSPYRXEV TVI^IR'E, GGM RXVIEKE WE REXYV XMRHI W WI XVERWJIVI EWYTVE SFMIGXYPYM. )P WI HVYMI#XI Y#SV PYQMM RGSR NYVXSEVI, #M ERYQI RXV-S JSVQ RIGIWEVQIRXI GSQTVILIRWMFMP #M HIGM EGGITXEFMP TIRXVY QIHMYP WY. *SVQE IWXI HI VIKYP TP GYX, SVMGYQ RW GSQTVILIRWMFMP, GLMEV EXYRGM GRH I RITP GYX. 'GM 'MRI HI VIEG'ME #M HI I\XIVMSVM^EVIE VETMH JETXYP G EWYTVE SFMIGXYPYM WI XVERWJIV RY HSEV GIIE GI I HI TVI', GM #M GIIE GI I PMTWMX HI ZEPSEVI, EXX GIIE GI EXVEKI, GX #M KRHYVM #M EJIGXI VIWTMRKXSEVI. (MR GEY^E I\XIVMSVM^VMM #M XVERWJIVVMM VE TMHI, GSR'MRYXYVMPI WYRX TY'MR TVIPYGVEXI #M HI EGIIE Y#SV GSQ TVILIRWMFMPI, HMR GLMEV WYGGIWMYRIE GVSRSPSKMG E I\TVMQVMPSV RIQMNPSGMXI ETEVI S WGVMI KVEHEX HI MQEKMRM GEVI EVEX PMQTIHI TYFPMGYPYM HVYQYP TI GEVI W-E ERKENEX GIVGIXXSVYP, GE #M QSHYP R GEVI IP E SF'MRYX VI^YPXEXYP HSVMX. -RXVSZIVXMXYP, R WGLMQF, GEVI VIEG'MSRIE^ QEM RXM HSEV R MRXIVMSV, RY #M I\XIVMSVM^IE^ HI VIKYP VIEG'MMPI (GY I\GIT'ME I\TPS^MMPSV EJIGXMZI!). )P #M XVIGI WYF XGIVI VIEG'MMPI, GEVI TSX 3 PE JIP HI VETMHI GE #M GIPI EPI I\XVEZIVXMXYPYM. (EV IPI RY WI QERMJIWX #M HI EGIIE MRXVSZIVXMXYP PEW Y#SV MQTVIWME HI PIRXSEVI. (ISEVIGI VIEG'MMPI RIQMNPSGMXI WYRX RXSXHIEYRE MRXIRW TIVWSREPI, I\XVEZIVXMXYP RY TSEXI HIGX W-#M HIE PE MZIEP TIVWSREPMXEXIE. -R XVSZIVXMXYP R WGLMQF #M EWGYRHI TIVWSREPMXEXIE, XVIIRHY-#M VI EG'MMPI MQIHMEXI WYF XGIVI. )P RY XMRHI GXVI IQTEXMI, GXVI XVERWJIVYP GSR'MRYXYVMPSV WEPI EWYTVE SFMIGXYPYM, GM GXVI EFWXVEKIVIE HMR SFMIGX. R

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616. )\TPMGE'ME JYVRM^EX HI 3WX[EPH, VIWTIGXMZ PIRXSEVIE VIEG'MIM MRXVSZIVXMXYPYM, RY QM WI TEVI WY3GMIRX. 2Y IWXI HSZIHMX JETXYP G ,IPQLSPX^ TSWIHE S ZMXI^ HI VIEG'MI VIHYW. )P VIEG'MSRIE^ RY RYQEM R EJEV, GM #M R MRXIVMSV. )P RY EVI S VIPE'MI IQTEXIXMG GY IPIZYP, HI EGIIE RY R'IPIKI GI HSVI#XI EGIWXE. 'SRGIRXVRHY-WI EWYTVE KRHYVMPSV WEPI, IP RY VIEG'MSRE^ PE HSVMR'E TIVWSREP E IPIZYPYM, GM PE KRHYVMPI TI GEVI RXVIFEVIE IPIZYPYM M PI WYWGMX, #M ERYQI EXX HI VETMH #M HI XIQIMRMG RIX MRXYMI#XI TI PSG S RPR'YMVI ZEWX HI MHIM TI GEVI RW RY IWXI R QWYV W S WIWM^I^I MQIHMEX #M W S VIHIE RXV-S JSVQ EFWXVEGX #M IPEFSVEX, HEV RY TIRXVY G KRHI#XI TVIE PIRX, GM TIRXVY G IWXI SFMIGXMZ MQTSWMFMP W GYTVMRH TI QSQIRX, RXV-S WMRKYV JSVQYP #M R XSEX RXMRHIVIE IM, TVSFPIQE MRXYMX. 2ISFWIVZRH, 3VI#XI, G IPIZYP RY EVI LEFEV HI XSEXI EGIWXIE, IP GVIHI G I ZSVFE XSGQEM HI EGIE TVSFPIQ ERYQI #M RY HI YR WJEX I\XVIQ 9 0SG. GMX., T. 374. 10 0SG. GMX., T. 377.

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