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COURSEWORK Coursework A. Dynamic RAM is the type of memory that uses memory cells holding one bit of

information. DRAM chip is made of two parts (a transistor and a capacitor). Each capacitor is designed to store 1 or 0 (filled with electrons). It is charged and discharged according to the needs of CPU or memory controller. Thus, the memory is refreshed thousands of times per second to hold information in it. Static RAM does not need to be refreshed because information is stored in 4-6 capacitors permanently (, 2011). B. The term memory wall describes the difference in performance of CPU and memory. The thing is that since 1986 to 2000 the speed of CPU grew up to 55%; memory speed grew only up to 10% for the same period. Given these trends, it was expected that memory latency would become an overwhelming bottleneck in computer performance. (, 2010). Today, memory wall is not that critical due to the fact that the development of CPU technologies slowed down significantly and current design of CPUs has already reached this wall in some meaning. C. Flash memory work principle is based on the electrically erasable programmable readonly memory (EEPROM) that is also known as non-volatile. One of the restrictions of its application is the necessity to erase it in rather large blocks before they can be filled with new information. It has two types: NAND and NOR. Flash memory invention allowed miniaturizing most of the electronic gadgets of these days (USB drives, mobile phones, etc.). D. Non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is based on technology retaining information in case power is turned off. The best example of NVRAM is flash memory. Ferroelectic RAM (FeRAM) is similar to DRAM but it uses ferroelectric technology instead of dielectric in order to achieve non-volatility. Phase-change memory (PRAM) is another type of NVRAM. It uses chalcogenide glass as the layer to achieve non-voliatility.

COURSEWORK References (2010). Computer RAM. Retrieved from: (2011). What is the difference between static RAM and dynamic RAM? Retrieved from: