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Art on a Shoestring Budget: Making Affordable Art at the Springville Museum of Art i
Art on a Shoestring Budget:
Making Affordable Art
at the Springville Museum of Art
i
Art on a Shoestring Budget: Making Affordable Art Contents
Art on a Shoestring Budget:
Making Affordable Art
Contents

Artists & Artworks

1

Lessons

11

Drawing the Wire: beginning drawing lesson

13

Simple Lines: The Visual Vocabulary of Art

19

Found Object Sculptures and Photographs

23

Recycled Papermaking/Colored Paper

29

Painting” with Crayons

33

Is it Good, Bad or Ugly?

37

Environment Mural

39

Fourth Graders Make Primitive Instruments

41

From Cheap to Chic: Inexpensive Costume Ideas for School Productions

47

Drawing Trees—Simple Techniques

51

Life Size Self-Portrait

59

Making Encaustic Pizza

63

One Minute Sculpture/ Two Minute Drawing

69

van Gogh Impasto Paintings

73

Paper Mâché Puppets

77

Boogie Woogie Flow Grid

85

Found Object Art: Sculptures by Deborah Butterfield and Tom Friedman

89

What Can You Do with Paper?

93

Pop Art with Faux Silk Screening

113

Visual Culture Vinyl

117

Postcards from the Other Side

123

How to Shake the Tree

131

Some Possible Resources on a Shoestring Budget

135

iii

Art on a Shoestring Budget: Making Affordable Art Artists & Artworks
Art on a Shoestring Budget:
Making Affordable Art
Artists & Artworks

SPRINGVILLE MUSEUM OF ART IMAGES

Art Artists & Artworks SPRINGVILLE MUSEUM OF ART IMAGES Bird, Elzy J “Bill”, Mt. Olympus (1935)

Bird, Elzy J “Bill”, Mt. Olympus (1935)

OF ART IMAGES Bird, Elzy J “Bill”, Mt. Olympus (1935) Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Millcreek

Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Millcreek Road (1936)

(1935) Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Millcreek Road (1936) Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Vine St.

Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Vine St. & 9th E. (1936)

Elzy J (Bill) Bird, Near Vine St. & 9th E. (1936) Carel Brest van Kempen, Lizard

Carel Brest van Kempen, Lizard Relay: Jaguarundi with Green Iguanas and Banded Basilisks (1991)

1

George Wesley Browning, Wasatch Mountains in Early Spring (1921) Lou Jene M Carter, Mostly Flowers

George Wesley Browning, Wasatch Mountains in Early Spring (1921)

Wesley Browning, Wasatch Mountains in Early Spring (1921) Lou Jene M Carter, Mostly Flowers (1993) James

Lou Jene M Carter, Mostly Flowers (1993)

Spring (1921) Lou Jene M Carter, Mostly Flowers (1993) James C Christensen, Fantasies of the Sea

James C Christensen, Fantasies of the Sea (1985)

(1993) James C Christensen, Fantasies of the Sea (1985) Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke, Entertaining Favorite

Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke, Entertaining Favorite Ladies II (1992)

Clarke, Entertaining Favorite Ladies II (1992) Cyrus E Dallin, Bust of Emmaline B. Wells (1928) Cyrus

Cyrus E Dallin, Bust of Emmaline B. Wells (1928)

Favorite Ladies II (1992) Cyrus E Dallin, Bust of Emmaline B. Wells (1928) Cyrus E Dallin,

Cyrus E Dallin, Jimbo (1928)

2

Alex B Darais, Over Three Billion Served (1974) H Lee Deffebach, George II (1967) Maynard

Alex B Darais, Over Three Billion Served (1974)

Alex B Darais, Over Three Billion Served (1974) H Lee Deffebach, George II (1967) Maynard Dixon,

H Lee Deffebach, George II (1967)

Billion Served (1974) H Lee Deffebach, George II (1967) Maynard Dixon, Road to the River: Mt.

Maynard Dixon, Road to the River: Mt. Caramel, Utah (1940)

3

Dixon, Road to the River: Mt. Caramel, Utah (1940) 3 John O Erickson, Gethsemane: Self Portrait

John O Erickson, Gethsemane: Self Portrait (1986)

(1940) 3 John O Erickson, Gethsemane: Self Portrait (1986) Calvin Fletcher, Logan Baseball (1936) Calvin Fletcher,

Calvin Fletcher, Logan Baseball (1936)

Gethsemane: Self Portrait (1986) Calvin Fletcher, Logan Baseball (1936) Calvin Fletcher, Wash Day in Brigham City

Calvin Fletcher, Wash Day in Brigham City

Sharon Pearl Gray, A Well-Red Individual (1978) Harrison Thomas Groutage, Integration (1959) John Hafen, Hollyhocks

Sharon Pearl Gray, A Well-Red Individual (1978)

Sharon Pearl Gray, A Well-Red Individual (1978) Harrison Thomas Groutage, Integration (1959) John Hafen, Hollyhocks

Harrison Thomas Groutage, Integration (1959)

(1978) Harrison Thomas Groutage, Integration (1959) John Hafen, Hollyhocks (1909) John Hafen, Mountain Stream

John Hafen, Hollyhocks (1909)

Integration (1959) John Hafen, Hollyhocks (1909) John Hafen, Mountain Stream (1903) Thomas Sylvester

John Hafen, Mountain Stream (1903)

Hollyhocks (1909) John Hafen, Mountain Stream (1903) Thomas Sylvester Hoffman, Mini-Me (2001) Fred J Hunger,

Thomas Sylvester Hoffman, Mini-Me (2001)

Stream (1903) Thomas Sylvester Hoffman, Mini-Me (2001) Fred J Hunger, Morning-White, Shadows and Monoliths (1974)

Fred J Hunger, Morning-White, Shadows and Monoliths (1974)

4

Marion Roundy Hyde, Six and Seven/Eighths (1983) Michael J Mogus, Century’s End (1997) Hermann Dudley

Marion Roundy Hyde, Six and Seven/Eighths

(1983)

Marion Roundy Hyde, Six and Seven/Eighths (1983) Michael J Mogus, Century’s End (1997) Hermann Dudley Murphy,

Michael J Mogus, Century’s End (1997)

(1983) Michael J Mogus, Century’s End (1997) Hermann Dudley Murphy, Marigolds and Cosmos (1937) Donald P

Hermann Dudley Murphy, Marigolds and Cosmos

(1937)

(1997) Hermann Dudley Murphy, Marigolds and Cosmos (1937) Donald P Olsen, Chelsea VI (1980) Bonnie Gile

Donald P Olsen, Chelsea VI (1980)

and Cosmos (1937) Donald P Olsen, Chelsea VI (1980) Bonnie Gile Phillips, Whole wheat on Tuna

Bonnie Gile Phillips, Whole wheat on Tuna (1981)

Chelsea VI (1980) Bonnie Gile Phillips, Whole wheat on Tuna (1981) Lee Greene Richards, Autumn Stream

Lee Greene Richards, Autumn Stream (1930)

5

Lee Greene Richards, Big Cottonwood Stream (1932) Paul Salisbury, Riders of the Range (1953) Dennis

Lee Greene Richards, Big Cottonwood Stream

(1932)

Lee Greene Richards, Big Cottonwood Stream (1932) Paul Salisbury, Riders of the Range (1953) Dennis Von

Paul Salisbury, Riders of the Range (1953)

Stream (1932) Paul Salisbury, Riders of the Range (1953) Dennis Von Smith, Keeper of the Gate

Dennis Von Smith, Keeper of the Gate (1989)

Range (1953) Dennis Von Smith, Keeper of the Gate (1989) Mahonri Mackintosh Young, Agriculture: The Farm

Mahonri Mackintosh Young, Agriculture: The Farm Worker (1938)

OTHER IMAGES

Young, Agriculture: The Farm Worker (1938) OTHER IMAGES Deborah Butterfield, Lucky (1996) Deborah Butterfield,

Deborah Butterfield, Lucky (1996)

The Farm Worker (1938) OTHER IMAGES Deborah Butterfield, Lucky (1996) Deborah Butterfield, Vermillion and Willy 6

Deborah Butterfield, Vermillion and Willy

6

Deborah Butterfield, Woodrow (1988) Chinese Paper Cut 1 Chinese Paper Cut 2 Marcel Duchamp, Fountain

Deborah Butterfield, Woodrow (1988)

Deborah Butterfield, Woodrow (1988) Chinese Paper Cut 1 Chinese Paper Cut 2 Marcel Duchamp, Fountain (1917)

Chinese Paper Cut 1

Deborah Butterfield, Woodrow (1988) Chinese Paper Cut 1 Chinese Paper Cut 2 Marcel Duchamp, Fountain (1917)

Chinese Paper Cut 2

Woodrow (1988) Chinese Paper Cut 1 Chinese Paper Cut 2 Marcel Duchamp, Fountain (1917) Albrecht Dürer,

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain (1917)

Cut 1 Chinese Paper Cut 2 Marcel Duchamp, Fountain (1917) Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at 13 (1484)

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at 13 (1484)

Duchamp, Fountain (1917) Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at 13 (1484) Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (1491-92) 7

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (1491-92)

7

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at 21 (1493) and Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait at 28 (1500) G Mark

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at 21 (1493) and Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait at 28 (1500)

21 (1493) and Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait at 28 (1500) G Mark England, St. George (2000) Fayum

G Mark England, St. George (2000)

at 28 (1500) G Mark England, St. George (2000) Fayum Funeral Portrait 8 Fayum Funeral Portrait

Fayum Funeral Portrait

8

G Mark England, St. George (2000) Fayum Funeral Portrait 8 Fayum Funeral Portrait 2 Funeral Portrait

Fayum Funeral Portrait 2

England, St. George (2000) Fayum Funeral Portrait 8 Fayum Funeral Portrait 2 Funeral Portrait 3 Andy

Funeral Portrait 3

England, St. George (2000) Fayum Funeral Portrait 8 Fayum Funeral Portrait 2 Funeral Portrait 3 Andy

Andy Goldsworthy, Cairn

Andrew Goldsworthy, Stone River (2001) Andrew Goldsworthy, Tree in Wall Example of Traditional Scherenschnitte 9

Andrew Goldsworthy, Stone River (2001)

Andrew Goldsworthy, Stone River (2001) Andrew Goldsworthy, Tree in Wall Example of Traditional Scherenschnitte 9 Jen

Andrew Goldsworthy, Tree in Wall

Stone River (2001) Andrew Goldsworthy, Tree in Wall Example of Traditional Scherenschnitte 9 Jen Stark,

Example of Traditional Scherenschnitte

9

Tree in Wall Example of Traditional Scherenschnitte 9 Jen Stark, Sedimentary [close up] (2008) Jen Stark,

Jen Stark, Sedimentary [close up] (2008)

Scherenschnitte 9 Jen Stark, Sedimentary [close up] (2008) Jen Stark, Transfixed (2008) Vincent van Gogh, Vase

Jen Stark, Transfixed (2008)

Stark, Sedimentary [close up] (2008) Jen Stark, Transfixed (2008) Vincent van Gogh, Vase with 12 Sunflowers

Vincent van Gogh, Vase with 12 Sunflowers (1888)

Art on a Shoestring Budget: Making Affordable Art Lessons
Art on a Shoestring Budget:
Making Affordable Art
Lessons

11

Art on a Shoestring Budget Drawing the Wire: beginning drawing lesson
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Drawing the Wire: beginning drawing lesson

Elementary Visual Arts Lesson by Joseph Germaine

YOU CAN’T DRAW A HAND! You can grow a

hand on the end of your arm You can shake a

hand

something with a folded up hand, but you can’t

draw a hand

shapes, values, colors, and textures that may or may not remind you of what a hand looks like No matter how well you draw it…It is still not a

real hand

picture of a hand is to learn how to draw

interesting lines, shapes, and textures lesson about drawing what you see

You can clap a hand

You can even punch

All anyone can do is draw lines,

So, the best way to draw an interesting

This is a

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate an understanding of “looking to see” in the context of drawing by closely observing a non-objective wire design and accurately as possible rendering the wire line they are studying with pen on paper

MATERIALS Wire, Black Ballpoint Pen, and Copy Paper

Let’s spend a moment and discuss why pen and

why pencil for drawing

and strengths and weaknesses

using a ballpoint pen the student can’t waste

time trying to erase

see on white paper No time wasted in the chatty

pencil sharpening line

sharpener The teacher does not have to spend a

whole prep period sharpening pencils

it is a little harder to learn to shade values with

a pen (but it can be done) and pens might be

a little less familiar and comfortable for some

younger students

cheaper than pens (not much)

Each has its own nuance

PENS: When

A black pen line is easer to

No noise from the pencil

However,

PENCILS: pencils are a little

If you actually

However, PENCILS: pencils are a little If you actually “My Wire,” by Hannah, 5th grade 13

“My Wire,” by Hannah, 5th grade

13

use sets of calibrated, good drawing pencils, they are considerably more expensive than cheap

ballpoint pens

of the traditional #2 or #2 5 traditional pencil

suggests to young students that they should smudge around in an attempt to erase, and that they don’t have to think first because the eraser can miraculously make all mistakes just disappear. Students become satisfied with that

smudgy ugly smear left by erasers It’s easier to

learn to shade gradients of value

children are allowed access to pencils, so they are more familiar

The eraser that comes on the end

However, all

STATE CORE: Rainbow Chart: 2nd grade, Elements of Art, Line Design (repeating organic

eyes to focus on and study the specific details

of the lines and shapes

This is an exercise in

line)

3rd grade, Elements of Art, p 1, Line Design:

observation

IF YOU CAN SEE IT, YOU CAN DRAW

(repeat lines to make organic patterns)

4th

IT!

grade, Elements of Art, p 1, Contour Line: (a

drawn line that defines the edge of an object). 5th grade, Elements of Art, Blind Contour Line:

(drawing when the observer looks only at the

subject while drawing)

Art, Structural Lines, (interior lines that show the object’s unique construction)

6th grade, Elements of

All you need for this exercise is a length of scrap flexible wire or (as I usually use) an old wire coat hanger carefully snipped open and bent with

pliers

let the older students make the wire image inexpensive copy paper and a ballpoint pen

This

can be done with pencil or even fiber-tip pen.

Be careful not to stab or cut yourself

I

Use

PROCESS: Here’s a fun, easy exercise for beginners of all ages. This is one of the first

drawing exercises that I use with a new class for

primary grades

the wire shapes are nonobjective abstract designs

you can’t really be critical of because no two can

be exactly alike

to the students because they are student created Each student will have a different view and a

different perspective

hand-eye co-ordination because the wire doesn’t

look like anything except 3-dimensional lines and you can’t revert to drawing what you think you

know

Bend the wire into any random, three-

dimensional shape you like

spirals, odd curves and irregular squiggles

the coat hanger wire, once it has a few bends in it,

you can easily reshape it different angles

Try turning it around at

Try a variety of

It is non-threatening because

With

The wire designs are interesting

It is also a great exercise in

Place these wire constructions on the table with students sitting around so that each student has

a slightly different view of the object

place them on a large sheet of white paper to

help isolate them visually from the rest of the

environment

I usually

Instead, you have to consistently use your

Encourage students to look at and study the lines, the shapes the lines create, and the way they intersect each other to create new shapes that might only exist from one person’s

perspective

for observing

increase their focus time by having them follow the wire lines slowly with their eyes After they have traced the line visually, it is time to draw

Give a lot of time Help students

Try not to make the drawing

look realistic

“line in space ” The drawings

Just see it as a

Bowdee and Matia constructing wire designs

drawing look realistic “line in space ” The drawings Just see it as a Bowdee and

14

Matia’s wire construction EXTENSIONS: Sometimes “exercises” are a bit unfulfilling for young students who see

Matia’s wire construction

EXTENSIONS: Sometimes “exercises” are a bit unfulfilling for young students who see “practice”

as somewhat punitive

Drawing Lesson would be to use the excise to

complete a design by filling in the shapes and

spaces with lines, colors, and textures

would be an excellent “Texture” lesson if you have students invent different textures to put into some of the shapes in their drawing

An extension to the Wire

This

Another interesting extension would be to have student screate wire sculptures other than

abstract nonobjective forms

used for this drawing exercise

These also could be

See examples of drawings on the next 2 pages

can be completely flat, or you can use line weight to create a sense of depth, by pressing harder to get a strong line as the wire comes toward you

Don’t worry about shadows or highlights

are interested in is the line

and shape of the wire

the lines as continuous and

relaxed as possible

use short, sketchy, uncertain strokes. A flowing line that isn’t perfect is better that a load of perfectly placed but

tentative lines

several on a page of the same wire by moving students around the object or by having them move to different

tables ) Remember this is

an exercise; it doesn’t matter what the drawing looks like Take your time and observe

carefully

work together You are training your brain to see specifically what your eyes are looking at.

All we

to see specifically what your eyes are looking at. All we Matia and Bowdee focusing on

Matia and Bowdee focusing on the wire

Keep

Don’t

(You can do

You are training your mind and hand to

15

SOURCES: “Drawing For the Absolute and Utter Beginner,” by Claire Watson (used $10 00)

“Beginning Drawing for Young People”, by Ralph

Pereida and Lester Rosin

“Child Art: The Beginnings of Self Affirmation,” by Hilda Lewis (used, $2 21)

(used $4 22)

Video: “Getting to Know LINE in Art,” (designed for K-5) “Everyone Can LEARN to Draw,” program 1 of 5, (curved lines and circles)

Websites: www.gettingtoknow.com (free teacher’s guide available online)

(free teacher’s guide available online) Drawing the wire “The Sleeping Wire Laying Down,” by

Drawing the wire

(free teacher’s guide available online) Drawing the wire “The Sleeping Wire Laying Down,” by Matia, 3rd

“The Sleeping Wire Laying Down,” by Matia, 3rd grade

16

Bottom right, “Standing Up,” by Hannah, 5th grade 17 Top left, “The Wire” by Bowdee,

Bottom right,

“Standing Up,”

by Hannah,

5th grade

17

Top left, “The Wire” by Bowdee, 5th grade

Bottom right, “Standing Up,” by Hannah, 5th grade 17 Top left, “The Wire” by Bowdee, 5th
Art on a Shoestring Budget Simple Lines: The Visual Vocabulary of Art
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Simple Lines: The Visual Vocabulary of Art

Elementary Visual Arts Lesson By Joseph Germaine

“If you can see it, you can draw it ”

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate an understanding of the line and looking carefully to see detail by drawing the lines they find wiggling around in the palms of their own hands

UTAH VISUAL ARTS STATE CORE Rainbow Chart, Third Grade page 1 Art, Organic Line

Elements of

MATERIALS Copy paper and black ballpoint pens or pencils

PROCESS

This lesson is much like the one in Betty Edwards’

Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain

right about using her lesson because she got it from The Natural Way to Draw: A Working Plan

for Art Study, by Kimon Nicolaides published back

in the 1941

cover, and the best drawing instruction book I have ever used

I feel all

It is now in print again and in soft

Drawing is a kind of seeing

can draw it

between “Looking” and “Seeing ” One looks

with the eyes, but one sees with the brain

see means to understand

I guess we should say, “If you can understand it, you can draw it.” The first step in seeing is looking, and successful looking takes practice and

should start with the youngest of students

If you can see it you

We are making a serious distinction

Too

See what I mean? So

19

are making a serious distinction Too See what I mean? So 19 Detail from Trevor Southey’s

Detail from Trevor Southey’s Brother’s Keeper SMA

If you want to learn to draw from life, you must

learn to see it

practice looking to see, and it doesn’t cost a

thing

just like the traditional game of the same name,

a student is chosen to pick out an object in the

room and then give hints as to the nature of the

object

what that object is

the clues use elements of art such as line, shape,

value, color, and texture

student who guesses correctly but the student who gives the best clues and has the least number

of guesses because the clues are so good

students describe with one clue at a time, starting with line by naming the line they see in the object Like, “I spy with my little eye something with a curly wiggly line ” Move on to the other elements because, obviously, few young students are going to guess on that first clue. The point is identifying

Here is a little game we play to

It is called, “I Spy With My Little Eye” and

Other students get to guess, one at a time,

The difference here is that all

The winner is not the

Have

and describing the visual elements in the object

they have chosen

guesser has to use specific descriptive words

and names when he or she makes a guess

is all about developing an accurate descriptive vocabulary in the arts and training the eye to identify descriptive details

No pointing in the game

The

This

The game is not the project for the drawing assignment

students to scrunch up the palm of their hand just a little until the lines and wrinkles become

more visible and then give a descriptive name to one of the wrinkles like crooked, straight, curved

or wavy

hand and focusing on it is a grand achievement for most very young students

It is just a warm up You can also direct

Just isolating a line in the palm of their

Have students study their hand, observing the

lines and wrinkles

ballpoint pens and paper and without watching the paper or pen, have them try to reproduce the lines they see in the palm of their hand on the paper Do not draw the contour shape of the hand or outline of the fingers. I never get too controlling about the “don’t look at the paper” part, but try to get students to learn to spend their energy on closely observing the nature

of their subject rather than the lines they have already drawn. When they have finished, have them compare the drawn lines with the lines

in their hand

Now give students black

We are working for accurate

hand Now give students black We are working for accurate Alyssa, looking to see. 2nd grade

Alyssa, looking to see. 2nd grade

are working for accurate Alyssa, looking to see. 2nd grade Kai, studying his hand. 5th grade

Kai, studying his hand. 5th grade

Repeat

the exercise several times

a student does this project, the student will find new and interesting lines to observe and draw

observation and accurate reproduction

Notice that each time

This is a good way to learn to avoid the obvious

This is in the “Shoestring” lessons because of

the minimal cost of materials and because it is

the foundation of all drawing from nature

inexpensive black ballpoint pens rather than

pencils because it requires students to think a little before they put down a line and because

they can’t erase a pen line

book she encourages students not to use the symbolic left hemisphered naming of objects because there is a predisposition to symbolic rendering of the five digit glove, or as we say in

our art class, “It is a hand not five weenies and a

Instead of telling students to draw

hamburger”

a picture of their hand, tell them to look at their

hand until they can see it, and then to draw what they see

I use

In Betty Edwards’

20

“My Hand” 1st drawing, by Kai, 5th grade “My Hand” 2nd drawing, by Kai, 5th

“My Hand” 1st drawing, by Kai, 5th grade

“My Hand” 1st drawing, by Kai, 5th grade “My Hand” 2nd drawing, by Kai, 5th grade

“My Hand” 2nd drawing, by Kai, 5th grade

21

5th grade “My Hand” 2nd drawing, by Kai, 5th grade 21 “My Hand” 3rd drawing, by

“My Hand” 3rd drawing, by Kai, 5th grade

EXTENSIONS: The obvious next lesson is to do contour and blind contour drawings of their hand, but contour is different from the internal lines in the hand and much more akin to texture drawing

SOURCES: Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, by Betty Edwards and the “Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain,” Video

Another good resource for drawing is, Drawing Dynamic Hands by Burne Hogarth

Art on a Shoestring Budget Found Object Sculptures and Photographs
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Found Object Sculptures and Photographs

Elementary Visual Arts Lesson by Joseph Germaine

An important part of education, especially in the

arts, is to model that art (or any subject) is not a thing that takes place exclusively in the school or

the classroom

a classroom, and we don’t only read while we are at school; likewise, we need to extend the creative

arts experience into our students’ “real” life

main reason that we seldom send art homework home with the students is that the parents are insecure about the making of art and frequently will unteach art by demeaning the process or

teaching short cuts and symbolic shorthand in

art production such as stick figures and coloring

book artwork

untrained in the production of visual art want to avoid the uncomfortable while maintaining

credibility with their children

send projects home, we have the opportunity to put learning into our students’ whole lives and also have a chance to impact the parents’ art education. Be specific in your expectations.

We don’t use Math exclusively in

The

Like all adults, parents who are

However, if we

OBJECTIVE: Students will demonstrate an understanding of 3-dimensional composition by creating a found object sculpture of natural materials at home and then photographing the sculpture and bringing the photo to school

MATERIALS: Since this is a “Home” project there

are no required materials

aides such as books and videos on “Found

Object” sculpture are suggested

shoestring”, they are not absolutely required Bibliography for a list of suggested visual aids

See

Some preparatory

However, “on a

23

visual aids See Some preparatory However, “on a 23 Andrew Goldsworthy

Andrew Goldsworthy

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:YSP_

goldsworthy_07-3.JPG

C C A-S A 2.5

UTAH STATE VISUAL ARTS CORE Rainbow Chart: Fourth Grade: Elements of Art with definitions; Unity & Emphasis, page 3 & 4.

PROCESS:

We should start with some background and

insight into the world of “Found Object” sculpture and some instruction on the compositional

principles of visual art

know about principles of design, they won’t

bother using these ideas

to these basic concepts, they will be willing and able to use them in their works of art For this project we are looking at building

If your students don’t

Once they are exposed

3-dimensional compositions made from natural found objects such as leaves, sticks, rocks and pebbles, plants and flowers, and any other found things including debris. Rather than “finding” them in nature, we want to reorganize these objects to compose a meaningful arrangement of visual elements using visual principles of art

It is a good idea to demonstrate in class by using

natural found objects from the playground

usually start by recruiting several students to compose something from found objects on the school grounds

I

PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL DESIGN:

Balance: Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium, and the idea relates to our physical

sense of balance

forces in a composition that results in visual

stability

balance in one of two ways: symmetrically or

asymmetrically

object is easy to understand; if balance isn’t achieved, the object tips over Stacking 3-dimensional objects is a terrific way to learn about visual balance

Balance in a three-dimensional

It is a reconciliation of opposing

Most successful compositions achieve

Proportion: Proportion refers to the relative size

and scale of the various elements in a design

issue is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole

The

Rhythm: Rhythm can be described as timed movement through space; an easy, connected path along which the eye follows a regular

arrangement of motifs

creates predictability and order in a composition There are many variations of visual rhythm such as variation and repetition and gradation

The presence of rhythm

Emphasis: Emphasis is also referred to as “point of focus” or “center of interest ” It marks the locations in a composition that most strongly

draw the viewer’s attention

primary, or main point of emphasis, with perhaps other secondary emphases in other parts of the composition

Usually there is a

Unity: Unity is the underlying principle that

there is a Unity: Unity is the underlying principle that Practicing in class with playground chips

Practicing in class with playground chips

summarizes all of the principles and elements

of design

whole, the sense that all of the parts are working together to achieve a common result—a harmony

of all the parts

It refers to the coherence of the

There are other principles of design composition such as contrast, variety, proximity, scale, movement, and pattern; but for young students I usually focus on balance, proportion, rhythm,

emphasis, and unity

learned by observation and exposure to their successful use in nature and in works of art

written (memorized) recitation of definitions is not necessarily a successful way for students to learn competence in manipulating these design principles to communicate their own over riding visual intent

The

These principles are best

Notice that the expense in this project is only the reusable media such as books and videos

and images

images, can be found for free on the internet, in

media centers and Public Libraries

Most of that information, including

24

In my class, we do this project as a response to Andrew Goldsworthy’s work and photographs Some discussion about competent photography and the difference between an “Art” photograph

and a family “snapshot” is important

people think that the camera “takes the picture ”

This is not true in art photography

takes the picture and uses the camera as a tool to render the idea 2-dimensionally As with all homework assignments, there will

always be some students who don’t play

the exhibition incentive as a carrot to get students

Most

The artist

I use

incentive as a carrot to get students Most The artist I use A finished stack with
incentive as a carrot to get students Most The artist I use A finished stack with

A finished stack with coke can

“A Flower of Flowers” by Claire, 4th grade

Below, “Ring Around the Rocksies,” by Sarah, 3rd grade

on board

photographs in the “Main Hall Gallery” at our school, and it has

become a Fall and Spring tradition If you have students who just don’t get to it or don’t have access to a camera, let them do this project with material from the playground

and use a school camera

possible to have students bring in their found object assemblage and avoid the whole issue of photography

We display the student

It is also

bring in their found object assemblage and avoid the whole issue of photography We display the

25

EXTENSIONS Any thematic home photography project can be

used

in the project because if not, you will get a lot

“snapshots” of pets and friends without any

sense of composition or meaningful photographic

content

a photograph interesting is necessary Not

only does the sculpture need to make good use of the “principles of design,” but so does the photographer Some interesting thematic photographic projects to be done at home are “Winter” or “Spring” photos

Make sure that there is a learning window

Some discussion about what makes

SOURCES Here are some books and videos by Andrew Goldsworthy, who is a preeminent environmental and nature sculptor and photographer (Three images on the CD included in the packet) “Wall” by Andrew Goldsworthy, used at Amazon for under $8 00.

“Andy Goldsworthy: A Collaboration with Nature”, by Andrew Goldsworthy. “Time”, by Andrew Goldsworthy “Wood”, by Andy Goldsworthy

Video: “Andy Goldsworthy’s Rivers & Tides”

is an excellent film that can be purchased from Amazon used for under $6 00 and can be rented from some video stores

This

Andrew Goldsworthy websites:

For free image downloads try: wikimedia.org/ walk/Category: Andy Goldsworthy

If you would like to make a bigger print or adjust

the photograph, just click on the image and a

larger version will come up

it into iPhoto so you can adjust it, enlarge it and

print it as photo quality, just drag the free image onto your desktop; then drag it into iPhoto and

use the adjustments

you have a computer and a decent printer I got

my printer as a gift from the PTA

what you need and how you are going to use it

If you will just do a Google search for Andrew

Goldsworthy, you will come up with dozens of

sites, many with free downloads

You can always

use the school digital projector to get very large images

If you want to drag

Of course, this assumes that

Let them know

you want to drag Of course, this assumes that Let them know Goldsworthy working, nga.gov public

Goldsworthy working, nga.gov public domain

If you have photoshop, you can also make copies by right clicking on the image, choosing “copy” from the drop-down menu, creating a new file in Photoshop, and pasting the image. Then flatten the image under “Layer” The image cam be saved as a jpg, so it’s not too big a file but is a good quality

Another good Andy Goldsworthy site is http://

archlandscapes.com/2009/inspiration/12/andy-

goldsworthy/

Other found object sculptors to look up online are

Michelle Salrin Stitzlein at, http://www.artgrange.

com/HTML/foundobjectsculpture.html elegant butterflies from found objects.

She does

Zach Pine at, homepage.mac.com/zpine Look up Nemo Gould (animal sculptures) and Jim Shores (faces and masks)

26

Left, Andy Goldsworthy, Stone River http://godutchbaby.blogspot.com/2009/03/stone- river-by-andy-goldsworthy.html image

Left, Andy Goldsworthy, Stone River

http://godutchbaby.blogspot.com/2009/03/stone-

river-by-andy-goldsworthy.html image used by permission

The photograph below does not exactly meet the criteria for the assignment, but it does show some creative thinking. Both little girls are former students at our school.

for the assignment, but it does show some creative thinking. Both little girls are former students

27

Art on a Shoestring Budget Recycled Papermaking/Colored Paper
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Recycled Papermaking/Colored Paper

Elementary—Secondary Visual Arts Lesson by Joseph Germaine

Have any of you teachers noticed how often our classrooms are used for advertising? Nearly every day

I pass out handouts to be sent

home with students

some of the handouts have to

do with school business and issues, most of the handouts are advertising all kinds of extracurricular activities, places to eat and play, and

vacations and sales

think of the expense of paper in my art program for over 700 students, I wish that I could confiscate that paper for

art projects

I figured out that many of those handouts end up in the trash or

on the playground ways for recycling

beautifully colored papers might be used as paper

I started saving the throw-a- It dawned on me that all those

I started saving the throw-a- It dawned on me that all those The Diamond Sutra of

The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 CE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

This is

Desert Industries

$6 00 for one, usually less), mulch screen (The mulch screen is called a deckle, which is also the name of the ragged edge of hand made paper The deckle can easily be made from window screen (D I “As Is” Dept ) and scraps of wood about 2”

x 2” It is okay to tack or staple the screen to the

wood

wooden frame

you want the finished paper to be. I use a range

of sizes from about 4” x 6” to 24” square), white glue (liquid starch will do) and canvas or felt,

a sponge and a heavy rolling pin

need a plastic washtub or basin large enough to immerse the frame

I have never paid more that

An old picture frame works well as the

Make the frame about the size

You will also

While

When I

Several years ago

mulch for a wide variety of art projects just one

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate an understanding of papermaking and color compositions by recycling colored paper into simple pictures made from colored recycled paper mulch

MATERIALS Throwaway paper, water, a blender (I have always used the heaviest duty blender I could find at

29

UTAH STATE VISUAL ARTS CORE Rainbow Chart, 3rd grade, pg. 3, Refine/ Contribute: Create an abstract painting Fifth grade, page 1, Refine/Contribute: Create a distorted work of art

PROCESS

The invention of handmade paper in about 105

A D is credited to the Chinese artist, Ts’ai Lun

This paper is not to be confused with Egyptian

papyrus

consisted of boiling vegetable fibers with lye.

Today, handmade paper is often considered an art form with examples of cast and manipulated paper seen in art galleries around the world

Ancient methods of making pulp often

Keep the wet pulp in a plastic container or plastic

bag until ready to use

dishpan full of water is adequate to make a few

sheets of paper approximately 4” by 6 “ Students could work in groups to prepare the vat of pulp When the pulp is in the dishpan, stir it up to

disperse the pulp evenly

of liquid starch or white glue for sizing

the screened frame into the bottom slurry with the flat back side up. Level it out while it is

submerged and gently wiggle it side-to-side until

the pulp on top of the screen looks even

lift the screen up out of the water Let most of the water drain out of the sheet of paper The thickness of the paper depends on the amount of pulp in the slurry

A handful of pulp in a

Add 2 or 3 teaspoons

Place

Slowly

The first step is to collect the discarded paper and organize

it

step is to collect the discarded paper and organize it Pulling the screen from the paper

Pulling the screen from the paper mulch

When the screen stops dripping, gently place on edge on the side of a square of fabric (felt or

canvas of flannel). Gently ease the mold down flat, with the paper directly on the fabric. Use a sponge to press out as much water as possible Hold the fabric square flat, and slowly lift the

edge of the screen remain on the fabric

The wet sheet of paper should If it sticks to the screen, you

may have pulled too quickly or not pressed out

enough water It takes a little practice

gently press out bubbles or loose edges at this point This is the procedure for making a sheet of

You can

into colors

I use boxes for

color bins

White is one of

the colors

Students collect

paper from other teachers

We collect so much paper that this ongoing project became a recycling project for the whole school until other teachers started doing the paper-making process in their

own class

I love when that

happens!

Have students do the

preparation

paper into colors, students should select the color or

color and texture blends they

want

tear the paper into small pieces about 1 ½ by 1 ½

inches square

cut

a pint or two of water This will grind the paper

scrap into a very wet slushy pulp

it to pureed slurry or loosely to a rough texture

of larger chunks

wire screen sieve before blending the next batch

It is possible to blend about a gallon of pulp in

less than half an hour You can also blend large quantities of pulp by using an 18-inch paint- mixing extension on the end of an electric drill

After sorting the

Students should then

These scraps should be torn, not

Put a half dozen of these into a blender with

Try blending

Pour the watery pulp through a

30

paper, but we are now going to build an image on this background by using colored pulp and thinly smearing it and placing it in the appropriate

places to create the desired image

detailed images as this medium lends itself to a

looser, freer application

to the artist’s satisfaction, place another piece

of material over it and roll it down flat with the

rolling pin

the water squeezes out of the image

There you have a paper pulp image ready to dry by hanging on a clothesline or flat on a sheet of newspaper When it is dry, frame it, and exhibit the handmade paper artworks

Avoid tight,

When the image is done

Start lightly and increase pressure as

And voila!

Either set up a corner of your room for paper making, with small work groups, or use the entire room for paper making for short periods of time The students will begin to use their imaginations only after understanding the basic process, so allow time and experience for experimentation

process, so allow time and experience for experimentation The Eagle, by Landon, 3rd grade 31 The

The Eagle, by Landon, 3rd grade

31

for experimentation The Eagle, by Landon, 3rd grade 31 The Book Cover , by Jesse, 4th

The Book Cover, by Jesse, 4th grade

Color is created by the dye in the colored paper

you are using

adding dye or colorants to the slurry to intensify

or mix the colors

various colorants such as food coloring, tempera

paint, or batik dyes

molding or rotting and creating an unpleasant odor, add a about a cup of rubbing alcohol to the vat

You can augment this color by

Feel free to experiment with

To keep the slurry from

EXTENSIONS

This paper mulch can be used to create direct

It does not stand up well so

use wood or wire armatures

also be put into any kind of mold and it will take

on the form of the mold

molds or making ceramic press molds, or even plaster molds

additive sculptures

The wet mulch can

Try using simple Jell-O

This paper, after being flattened and dried, can be used for printmaking or for book covers in a

bookmaking project

to the mulch or laying materials on the surface of the wet paper such as leaves, grass, colored pencil shavings, and flower petals.

Try adding other materials

Try some other kinds of recycled paper such as newspaper, magazines (National Geographic),

egg cartons, toilet paper (not recycled), brown paper bags, non-waxed boxes (pre-soak in warm water), wrapping paper, tissue paper,

napkins, construction paper, and so on imagination

Use your

SOURCES Paper, Handmade Style, by Jeanette Bakker, Jill Elias and Helen Roberts Hill The Papermaker’s Companion, by Helen Hiebert (used for $9 00) The Art & Craft of Handmade Paper (used for $1 00) The Complete Book of Papercraft, by Lynne Garner (new $8 95, used $1 00)

http://www pioneerthinking com/makingpaper html has links to videos

Art on a Shoestring Budget “Painting” with Crayons
Art on a Shoestring Budget
“Painting” with Crayons

Elementary Visual Arts Lesson By Louise Nickelson

OBJECTIVES Students will explore mark and line making with

crayons and will use some of the kinds of marks and lines they discover in a landscape painting Students will also incorporate the color of their piece of construction paper in their painting Students will discuss artworks and look for specific qualities in those artworks. Students will use problem-solving skills in a variety of

decisions as they make their artwork

also choose to incorporate some of the specific skills and ideas listed in the Rainbow Chart section below )

(You may

UTAH STATE VISUAL ARTS CORE

Rainbow Chart—Elements of Art: K: Line,

Color, Art Criticism

Organic shapes, Art Criticism, Color, Unity

Characteristics of line, Organic shapes

Contour line, Organic line, Texture, Aesthetics

4 th : Contour line, Characteristics of line, Implied texture, Art Criticism 5 th : Unity, Organic shapes, Value, Art Criticism 6 th : Contour lines, Cross

contour lines, Unity, Value skills

1 st : Line, Organic Line,

3 rd :

2 nd :

All ages, Increased

MATERIALS

• Images of E. J. Bird’s Conte crayon artworks from the CD, preferably, made into overhead transparencies

• Crayons (Crayola’s Construction Paper Crayons are particularly nice, but regular crayons work too)

• Colored construction paper: 1 full sheet per student and some ¼ sheets of differing

colors

If you don’t have construction paper

of differing colors If you don’t have construction paper E. J. Bird, Mount Olympus SMA crayons,

E. J. Bird, Mount Olympus SMA

crayons, you may have to choose lighter colored paper

33

• Copy paper for planning

• Pencils

To the teacher: Often, elementary students use crayons only to create solid areas of color, usually within lines on a photocopied design

encouraged to explore, students will discover that

crayons can make a variety of interesting kinds of

marks and lines

of a painting, hence the title of the lesson

If

These marks can create feeling

Show the class at least 2 examples of E J Bird’s

work from the 3 on the CD

to identify as many kinds of lines and marks as

they see

used the color of the paper as a main color in

his paintings

provide more control than regular crayons, but sharpened crayons can make similar marks ) You may also want to tell the students a little about the artist (see artist Biography, at the end of the lesson)

Ask the students

Also ask them to look at how Bird has

(Bird used Conte crayons, which

Pass out the small pieces of paper and ask the students to see how many kinds of marks and

lines they can make

ideas, you can ask the class for ideas

can then look at their marks and lines and

identify ways they might use the different kinds

of marks in a painting

of marks might work best for grass, or trees, or look like wood, or the sky, or dirt? Which kinds of marks have energy and which are peaceful

and calm?

go in the same direction, in different directions? You can have this discussion as a class or in small groups

If students need help with

Students

For example, what kinds

What happens when all your marks

For example, what kinds What happens when all your marks Pass out the planning paper and

Pass out the planning paper and have students

A

5-year-old’s ideas for lines and marks. If this

fold the paper into 4 planning spaces by folding

is

the response you’re getting, make all kinds of

in half one direction and then in half the other Have students make a sketch of a landscape, using techniques you have learned, or teach a few

marks on the board—at this point, copying is not the issue, you want the students to develop a rich visual vocabulary of mark making.

of these techniques as a prelude to this lesson For example, use of overlapping shapes, greater detail in close objects, objects in the foreground (the front) are bigger Students should think about which way they want to orient their paper, vertically, or horizontally

of the paper as an integral part of the drawings As they work on their landscapes, remind them to occasionally glance at their experiments with mark making to see if a particular kind of mark is suitable for part of their drawing

When students have chosen their best sketch, they should choose the color paper they want

to use

sheet and a ¼ sheet in their chosen color The

¼ sheet is for trying out ideas as they work on

the painting

background, they should identify places on their sketch they particularly want the paper color to

show through

at Bird’s work to see how he has used the color

If possible, let them each have 1 full

Having chosen the color for the

Students may want to look again

You may want to have the students draw a border around their paper Bird drew his freehand,

but students could use rulers instead

should first lightly sketch in the major shapes of the landscape with a darkish crayon or with

colors that work with the particular part of the

design

the “painting” with a variety of marks that help to convey the texture, shape, and sense of the objects in their drawings

Students

Then students should begin to color

34

You may find it helpful to give the students a list of criteria they must meet in order to be

“finished” with their painting. is one possibility:

The following list

2 small sheets in different colors with lots of kinds of marks on them

1 planning sheet with 4 sketches Border drawn around paper

Landscape that fills the area within the border

6 kinds of marks

Background color shows through in some places

Have students write a label to go with their artwork that has their name, the title of the work, and a comment about how they have used crayons in the “painting ”

Display the finished works in an appropriate area of the school

ASSESSMENT Young students should be given credit for completing the assignment when they meet all the criteria Older students can use the criteria as a checklist for formative assessment, and self-assess the quality of the work using a form similar to the following:

I completed these parts of the assignment:

2 small sheets in different colors with lots of kinds of marks on them 1 planning sheet with 4 sketches Border drawn around paper Landscape that fills the area within the border 6 kinds of marks Background color shows through in some places

I used marks in a way that made my painting interesting I used 3 techniques to show distance My painting looks different from everyone else’s My painting has variety and unity

35

VARIATION FOR YOUNGER STUDENTS Show the students the artworks and tell them a

little bit about the artist (see the brief bio, below) You may also want to show them the image on the CD from the children’s book, How Do Bears Sleep? (The image is not listed in “Artists & Artworks, but is in alphabetical order on the CD ) Explain that they are going to learn how to use crayons

like an artist would

sheets of paper and let them practice making

different kinds of short lines as a way of applying the crayon. Have them try going first all the same

way (see example 1)

it: “This is the way we draw our lines,” or “color our pictures,” “or draw like artists ” Then, if the students seem to have mostly mastered that skill, have them make lines going one direction, and then another Have them use their new skills in a landscape or a drawing of their own choosing

Give the students small

You can even sing about

Artist Biography

Elzy Jay “Bill” Bird (1911-2001) is a Utah artist

who painted with oils, watercolors, conte crayons, made prints, cartoons and drew architectural drawings (buildings) He studied art with several Utah artists and then went to California to study

He wrote and illustrated children’s books, including How Do Bears Sleep?

Bird worked as an animation artist at Walt Disney Studio and participated in several government programs such as the Public Works of Art Project, as well as a time as director for the Utah Federal

Art Project

New York World’s Fair and in many other places, including at the Springville Museum of Art

more

He had artworks exhibited at the

Art on a Shoestring Budget Is it Good, Bad or Ugly?
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Is it Good, Bad or Ugly?

Elementary Art & Science By Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will evaluate how their actions and lifestyle impact their environment and have a creative experience turning something undesirable into a work of art that reflects the things they have learned

Utah State Visual Arts Standard 3: choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols and ideas

MATERIALS 2pieces of cardboard about 2’ x 3’ glue green & black paint trash and litter the students have collected an image of Alex Darais’ painting or SWAP poster, Over Three Billion Served(included on the CD)

THE LESSON Part 1 Give the students an assignment to bring a grocery bag to school and for the next week

collect whatever trash and litter they see coming to and from school (If the students ride a bus, ask them walk around the school grounds before and after school to collect it ) *Have an aesthetic discussion about this experience

1 How do they feel about finding trash in their neighborhood?

2 Do they think litter makes things more or less attractive? Why?

3 Do they have any ideas about how to solve this problem?

4 Why do they think people throw trash

37

this problem? 4 Why do they think people throw trash 37 Alex Darais, Over Three Billion

Alex Darais, Over Three Billion Served (1974) SMA

on the ground instead of putting it in its proper place?

5 Has this activity made them more aware of their own actions?

6 Do they think they will change their behavior?

Part 2 Discuss biodegradable and non-biodegradable and have the students investigate the different effects the things in each category have on the environment Have the students sort the trash/litter they have collected into these two categories Have a discussion about “going green,” and have the students investigate what people and companies are doing to make things more environmentally friendly

Show: The print or an image of Over Three Billion Served

Have the students identify what is in the picture Tell them the title of the artwork Have them express their ideas about why the artist created the artwork Ask if they see any symbolic images Let them talk about how they feel about what they think the artist is saying

The Project The students are going to create two symbolic collages On one piece of cardboard, the students are

going to make an interesting arrangement of the things in the biodegradable category and on the other piece of cardboard a collage of the non-

biodegradable stuff

everything to the cardboards

that the arrangement of items be attractive before being glued down )

They will then securely glue

(It is important

The biodegradable collage will then be painted green, and the non-biodegradable collage painted black

Discuss why the biodegradable collage is being painted green and why the other is being painted black

Have the students decide what name or title they will give each of the collages, and make a label for each

Display the art

EVALUATION

Discuss the origin of the trash on each collage, (Who made it?) and how the students obtained

it

understanding of their (people’s) impact on the environment? Discuss how they feel about making something undesirable into a work of art How do feel about the statement the artwork makes, and do they think it will make other people more aware of their influence on the environment?

Ask the students if they have a clear or better

ASSESSMENT Have the students become more environmentally aware? Have they made any changes in their own behavior? Do they understand the difference biodegradable and non-biodegradable items have on the environment? Have they become aware of how art is sometimes used to express feelings or ideas? Did they want to share their artwork with others and explain its meaning?

VARIATION Secondary: Explore the works of artists such as Rosalie Gascoinge, HA Schult, Robbie Rowlands

38

Art on a Shoestring Budget Environment Mural
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Environment Mural

Elementary Visual Arts Lesson by Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will work collectively to create a class mural that portrays an environment or habitat they have been studying

UTAH STATE CORE STANDARDS Science – 1 st – Standard 2, Objective 1 2 nd grade – Standard 4- objective 1 3 rd grade - Standard 2- objective 1 4 th grade- Standard 3– Objective 3 5 th grade – Standard 5- objective 2 Visual Arts – 6 th Grade – Standard 3- objective 2a

Arts – 6 t h Grade – Standard 3- objective 2a Carel Brest van Kempen, Lizard

Carel Brest van Kempen, Lizard Relay: Jaguarundi with Green Iguanas and Banded Basilisks (1991) SMA

MATERIALS A long table, butcher paper, drawing paper, pencils, scissors, glue, markers and/or paint

THE LESSON Have a discussion about the environment or habitat that the class has been studying by asking the following questions:

What are the physical components of this environment? (Mountains, water, trees, rocks, sand, grass, etc ) How do these things affect the climate or are affected by the climate? What is the connection between the environment and the kinds of people and/or animals who live there?

Show whichever picture from the Springville Art Museum Collection is the most appropriate for your project: Integration, Fantasies of the Sea, Mountain Stream, Riders of the Range, Keeper

of the Gate, Lizard Relay, or any other work of

art that reflects the environment or habitat the

students will be creating in their mural

the things in the picture

the artist has done to create this environment, including the use of color and the arrangement of the items in the picture

Name all

Discuss all the things

Tell the class they are going to create a mural that portrays the environment they have been studying (make sure they know what a mural is), and have them list the things that will need to be in the mural to reflect this environment or habitat (Make sure they include the sky and everything that is important to the animals or people in the environment such as food, shelter/ houses, power poles, roads, climate, etc )

Divide the class into committees or groups to create the following components of the mural:

39

Background committee to create the sky, mountains, foreground, or ocean and sand, or whatever is needed for the foundation of the environment Vegetation committee to create the trees, grass, seaweed, etc Shelter or house committee Animal or people committee Whatever misc committees that are needed The members of each committee will work together to draw or create their parts of the mural using whichever media is the most appropriate

The Project Cut a piece of butcher paper to fit the size of the table. (Use white or choose a color that will fit the background ) If the environment has mountains, cut a second piece of paper the length of the table for the background committee to use to cut out the mountains Have the other committees use whatever colors of butcher paper will work for their assignments The students should cut out the shapes of the items they’re making, and use the markers to draw the details

The animal and people and the house/shelter committees will use drawing paper for their assignments and cut out their drawings after they are colored The misc committee can use whichever paper is appropriate

Before the students start their projects, discuss the size of the mural and the proportions of

the objects each group will be putting on it

necessary, have this discussion again before the

students glue anything on the mural

If

Two options for finishing the mural:

1 Hang the mural up and, as a class, decide where to place the other objects

2 Have each committee take turns placing their objects on the mural, starting with the background committee, then the vegetation committee, and ending with the animal or

Then hang up the mural

people committee

ASSESSMENT Evaluate how the mural reflects the environment or habitat the students have been studying See if the class members can explain how each component of the environment works together, and why each is necessary

Discuss the experience of working in committees and how that influenced the appearance or

outcome of the mural

and/or disadvantages of doing a class mural as opposed to each person doing his or her own

drawing

Discuss the advantages

Display the mural in the hall and ask the students to take the opportunity to explain or discuss the mural with other students not in their class

explain or discuss the mural with other students not in their class http://www.deq.state.va.us/info/esound/2008.01.html 40

http://www.deq.state.va.us/info/esound/2008.01.html

40

Art on a Shoestring Budget Fourth Graders Make Primitive Instruments
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Fourth Graders Make Primitive Instruments

Elementary Level by Korin Ross

OBJECTIVES Students use measurement to create tube drums Grades 4-6

CORE Standard 4 objective 1a (Grade 1 Standard 2 2b) (Grade 2 standard 2 3a) Extension lessons include Social Studies 4 th grade Native American culture (We included music from other primitive cultures as they are similar e g I am from Africa and I had to include African Drumming and music of course ) We included some Latin music with Guiros and drums We also made maracas out of paper mache’ gourds and dowel sticks Using poetry and cultural songs in literature Younger grades could do word wall rhythms, patterns, and tap and drum vowels and

consonants respectively objective 1 Patterns)

(Grade 2 standard 2

Writing lessons include sequencing and poetry rhythms, raps and other chants for all grade

levels

invitations to the event and a newspaper article after the event Music rhythms could be used to learn about fractions, ie demonstrating the number of beats in a bar using various notes and separating out note values to equal a bar, or a whole note (Grades 4-6 standard 1 objective 2) (I am not musical I am sure people who know how to read and or play music will be able to really extend and have fun with these ideas )

We had a concert and children wrote

fun with these ideas ) We had a concert and children wrote Joseph DeSantis, Head of

Joseph DeSantis, Head of a Negro Dancer (1930) SMA

41

MATERIALS

Drums:

Concrete tube forms available at Home Depot or Lowe’s each makes 2-3 drums ($12)

These are available in 8inch, 10inch, and 12 inch

diameters

drums we made taller, until we realized that we could save money and get 3 out of 1 tube Smaller children manage these shorter drums better, although the different sizes do give a lovely variation of sound Dowel sticks:

The dowels at Home Depot are longer than those at Wal-Mart; I think between 8 and 12 inches long, and about ½ inch in diameter or slightly smaller (Use whatever you can get ) I had a

I used 12- and 10-inch forms

Some

parent donate some he had laying around the garage ) ($1) Wooden embroidery hoops 2 per drum (available at craft stores, 2 hoops $3) Fret saw to cut embroidery hoops and dowel sticks Gorilla glue Clamps, about 12 needed Pencil Tape measure

Pack cloth, available online at Beacon Fabrics (google “pack cloth” for other sources, $10 per yard) Duct tape($3) (Compressor and stapler if available) Fabric or large sheets of paper for skin Paint / brushes

Decorations (feathers, etc

used woven basket strips) Hot glue gun Model magic for drumstick head Sharp Stanley Knife to cut tubes (Strong adult

person needed to cut the tubes)

Be creative—I even

A teacher on a budget (aren’t we all?) could make a few each year This works because of the group effort and children could take turns

playing the drums

This is also effective if you

have other instruments available like the maracas

or rhythm sticks

the materials for the drums and purchased other

primitive instruments with the money Motion catalog )

I wrote a grant and purchased

(Music in

Making the Drums Divide students into groups of 3 Depending on age and ability divide the tube length 36 inches into 3 sections of 12 inches (For

taller drums divide into 2 eighteen inch sections) Children measure from the end of the tube and draw a small line every about four inches Connect the small lines to create a ring around

the drum

(Have an adult cut on the line ) The adult should check the measurements to

ensure for accuracy or the drum will be crooked I had my fourth graders use the saw to cut the

embroidery hoop open

rim of the tube

Repeat on other end for 3 drums

Clamp it inside the open

Place

Measure and cut off excess

Clamp it inside the open Place Measure and cut off excess a small amount of gorilla

a small amount of gorilla glue inside the rim and clamp the hoop to fit snugly. We often had to add

a tiny piece of wood so the edges fit tightly or the

rim will bend when you pull the fabric tight

second hoop may be glued over the first for added

sturdiness after the first hoop is dry. (Gorilla glue

expands, so do not use too much)

hours for the glue to dry before removing clamps

A

I allow 24

While the drum is drying, I had the students begin

on the drum skin

I had the students draw even distanced lines along the width of the paper; teach parallel lines You can require certain distances for patterns

Example; from the edge draw a line eight inches wide. From this first line draw a line two inches away running parallel, then eight, then two,

and so on

symbols to create patterns in the lines Studies 4th grade)

I used black butcher paper

I had students use Native American

(Social

42

Management:

I give each child one color of paint and a

paintbrush

designs

between this pattern?”) No one is allowed to

touch another person’s color This prevents mess

and keeps the colors pure

builds community

I laminate the skins when they are dry

Children collaborate to create these

(“Will you please put some yellow dots

At the same time it

Measure and cut the pack cloth

longer than the diameter A ten-inch drum will

use a 22- inch square of pack cloth

children measure, and the adult checks the

measurement You can use permanent marker to

draw the lines

child measures and cuts for their own drum

have four children help to stretch the pack cloth

on the drum

to prevent the cloth from being pulled off on one

side Adult uses duct tape to secure the cloth

adult secures one side and glues and or staples

the pack cloth stretching it as much as possible

all the way round tape to add the skin

I cut it 12 inches

Once again,

Each

I

Children cut the pack cloth

Each child pulls 2 opposite ends,

The

Allow glue to dry and use clear

Once the drums are made they may be used for several years Average cost per drum less than $20 once you have clamps, glue etc The pack cloth is the most expensive part, so shop around for a good price

Drumsticks Children measure and divide the dowel stick, (usually about 3 sticks per dowel )

Older children saw the sections off

interesting to teach the children how to use a

small saw

smaller than a ping-pong ball, is formed into a

ball on the tip of the dowel

on later When this is dry children paint or wrap on a small piece of soft leather or fabric with a rubber band or string in case the clay cracks

It is

A small amount of Model Magic, a little

These may be glued

Children can tap on drums with their hands—a

different sound is created

the sticks to tap on the edge of the drum for a

wonderful variation of sound

around the drumstick heads to make them look

primitive

Children can use

We glued feathers

Some of the children made headbands with feathers to add to the ambiance

ASSESSMENT

The assessment has to be ongoing for a good

product

adult supervision, the assessment is easy

assemble only one or two drums a day ) This

takes a long time overall but only actually takes a

few minutes each day

each student and one extra for the teacher

Because these drums need so much

(I

I like to make a drum for

these drums need so much (I I like to make a drum for 43 The girls

43

The girls in the back row have shorter drums; the taller ones are in the front played by the boys.

Measurement is graded according to independent accuracy Overall accuracy A Needs prompting B Needs intervention C A separate art/music grade could be assigned

usually don’t assign the art or music grades and if

I do, it is just a participation grade

I

music grades and if I do, it is just a participation grade I One of the

One of the boys demonstrates the “Talking Drum,” an African drum that has strings that are depressed and released to create many variations of sound. Notice the quaint curved drum-stick. The tube drums you can see here have been covered with a leopard skin patterned fabric and string is glued on for the decorative primitive look.

Notice the leaders in the front, facing the children. They are asking questions and the rest of the students reply. (Our version of talking drums.) This will be demonstrated for teachers. Notice the children tilt the drums forward. This is for easy access and allows the sound to escape.

for teachers. Notice the children tilt the drums forward. This is for easy access and allows

44

The girls in the back row are playing the maracas that they made. The boys

The girls in the back row are playing the maracas that they made. The boys are playing the tube drums. They are playing the Utah Indian song, (Fourth Grade curriculum).

This is a close-up of one of the drums for the patterns that were created. Notice the bear footprint in the top left of the boy’s shoulder.

one of the drums for the patterns that were created. Notice the bear footprint in the

45

The girls sing an African Litany about a Thunderstorm (Weather-fourth grade science curriculum.) Notice some

The girls sing an African Litany about a Thunderstorm (Weather-fourth grade science curriculum.)

Notice some of the other primitive instruments in the background

(Weather-fourth grade science curriculum.) Notice some of the other primitive instruments in the background 46

46

Art on a Shoestring Budget From Cheap to Chic
Art on a Shoestring Budget
From Cheap to Chic

Inexpensive Costume Ideas for School Productions, grades K-12 By Lisa Bean

Focus: Inexpensive Costuming Ideas (particularly for low budget grade school productions)

Intro One of the first questions a student actor asks when told of an upcoming school production is “What will my costume be like?” This enthusiasm for wearing a costume is universal, and is seen

across all ages

into his or her part, and make the performance more exciting for actor and spectator alike Costumes are just plain fun, and for many, the more elaborate, the better! However, most

schools have severely limited or even no budget

for costuming

teachers must find creative alternatives. The following are some tried and true solutions which have worked for me as I’ve directed numerous low and no budget student productions

Costumes help the performer get

That’s when directors and

Basic Black

Have your performers wear all black: black shirts, black pants Almost everyone has a black shirt or tee, and most have black jeans, dress

slacks or skirts

their own “basic black,” you create a quick and

inexpensive look which makes a strong, unified

statement

their tee shirts, have them turn the tees inside

out

tells me he doesn’t have black pants, I invite him

to wear the darkest pants he owns

dark enough to create the unified look. It is also easy to pick up super-inexpensive black tees and

When you have students provide

Since most students have logos on

It’s not perfect, but it works

When a student

It’s usually

47

not perfect, but it works When a student It’s usually 47 pants at yard sales or

pants at yard sales or thrift shop; that way you have a few items on hand to supplement those who have nothing black in their home closets When you add a simple prop or accessory to basic black it really stands out, and helps communicate the essence of the character to the performers and the audience

Jeans and …

A variation on the “basic black” idea is to have performers wear jeans and either a white shirt

or colored tees

still help unify the production visually Simple accessories, such as a tie, a hat, a pair of glasses, an umbrella can complete the look, and give emphasis where needed

This look is more casual, but can

No-Sew Tunics and Shoulder Drapes This is one of my favorite inexpensive costuming solutions, perhaps because it provides so much color, or perhaps because it is so quick and

easy

around the actor Fabric can be draped over the shoulder like a wide sash, or cut to be placed over the head and worn like a poncho or tunic To make a short tunic, purchase one to one and

a half yards of fabric (using standard 45” wide

material)

in half once lengthwise, then the other direction

once widthwise)

the double-folded corner For a larger head, you

may need to make a small slit down the back

pinking shearers or apply Fray Check (a fabric

glue) to prevent fraying

use two to three yards of fabric

Long tunics can

To make a longer tunic,

The idea is simple: drape fabric over and

Fold the fabric into quarters (folding

Cut a three inch semi-circle on

Use

be secured with scarves, old belts, rope, ties or cut

lengths of fabric (strips of tricot are easy)

and small safety pins can hold folds and tucks into

place

Large

Have plenty on hand

Hats and Headbands Commercially produced hats can cost quite a bit, but when added slowly and judiciously to a director’s wardrobe collection can be utilized for

a great costuming effect

unexpected hat to be found at yard sales and thrift

shops

is made for the production

several sources, such as inexpensive baseball

caps, paper bags and lightweight cardboard

Baseball cap bills can serve as animal snouts or

bird beaks

serve as a base for rounder-headed animals, to

which is attached eyes, ears, antennae, whiskers,

etc

Keep an eye out for the

More likely, however, is the headwear that

These can come from

When turned backwards, caps may

Paper bag hats can be made by rolling the edge down about ½ the length of the bag, then crushing the bag into the desired shape, taping and spray painting it Headbands made from tagboard (cut into 2”-3” wide strips, then stapled specifically the actor’s head circumference) can have feathers, flowers and designs attached or drawn Even paper plate character faces can be placed above the actor’s own face—indicating character,

but still allowing the actor’s facial expressions to be seen

Thrift Store Treasures

Sometimes a teacher/director will happen upon

unusual items at a thrift store or yard sale

came upon a dozen or so vests at a thrift shop They were each different, one made out of burlap, another with a design of jewels on it, oriental

flowers, solids, fancy embroidery, ruffles, etc. At

only $3 a vest, I couldn’t pass them up

them all

initial outlay of cash

over again

Your director’s sense will tell you when to make

the purchase for future use

aprons, shawls and capes to be highly useful

I store them in

under many costuming situations clear plastic bins

I once

I bought

They have more than made up for my

I’ve used them over and

Be on the lookout for the unexpected

I have found vests,

Dollar and Party Stores, after-holiday sales Dollar stores sometimes carry party hats or

other accessories that nicely fit a low-budget

production

costume hats that are far less expensive than their

real counterparts

the day after Halloween is a great time to pick up

costumes for as much as 75% off

Many party supply stores carry

Going to department stores

Accessories

Sometimes a simple accessory is all the costuming

needed

and could a single prop or accessory define that essence? It might be a bowtie, a flashy bracelet, a whistle, golf club, briefcase, book, ladle, handbag, hairbrush, iPod, broom, watch, or a wallet Whatever it is, the well-chosen accessory or prop can communicate character and purpose to the actor and his/her audience

What is the essence of the character,

Specific Costumes

For Elizabethan looks: shortened trousers (cut off just below the knee and cinched with a safety pin or button) and an adult-size white collared shirt, belted and/or vested can effectively communicate

another time period

right length and secure with a safety pin

belt on over the shirt and let the tail hang out below Long skirts paired with ladies’ blouses can

Roll the sleeves to the

Put a

48

substitute for “period” dresses blouses work

Pirate dresses/

For Colonial looks: use the same as above, but tuck the white shirt in and add a vest

Mid 1800s: wear long pants, and flip the white

shirt’s collar up

a yard long) to make a large bowtie Pioneer: Cut off the collar, and pair with

Use a long fabric piece (2” wide,

suspenders

For the girls: add a bonnet and

shawl

Remember to Ask for HELP Some parents love to help with play production, and you may even find a willing costumer among

them

their child has, so don’t be afraid to ask for what

you envision

you need

Enough is as good as a feast—and when treated with enthusiasm, will be good enough for your low or no budget productions

Most parents care what kind of costume

Send notes home, and ask for what

Be willing to accept what is offered

Art on a Shoestring Budget Drawing Trees—Simple Techniques
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Drawing Trees—Simple Techniques

Elementary — Secondary Level by Louise Nickelson

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate improved draftsman- ship by using line, general shapes, blocking in, gesture, and shading to draw trees

UTAH STATE CORE: Elements—Line, Contour Line

MATERIALS

• Images of artworks from the CD or other appropriate artworks On the CD: St. George , Logan Baseball, Big Cottonwood Stream, and Wasatch Mountains in Early Spring

• Other artworks such as Road to the River, Mt. Carmel, Maynard Dixon, and Wash Day in Brigham City, Calvin Fletcher; both SMA Elementary Poster Set

• Drawing paper

• Pencils (optional: a variety of drawing pencils, such as 4b, 2b, & 2h)

• For older students, add charcoal or neutral pastels

Background Information

One of the most important drawing skills is actu-

ally seeing

than what is visually there

realistic art as “looking like the real thing,” actu-

ally, what artists do is create two-dimensional

representations we identify as real

by using line, texture, color, etc , in ways that

produce visual simulations we can recognize as representations of real objects or parts of a

scene

of thousands of leaves, yet artists represent trees with blocks of color and value and shape—not

Although we think of

We tend to see what we know rather

They do this

For example, trees have thousands or tens

They do this For example, trees have thousands or tens Calvin Fletcher, Logan Baseball (1936) SMA

Calvin Fletcher, Logan Baseball (1936) SMA

51

by painting individual leaves

know that things farther away from us do not get smaller, or grayer, or have fewer details, our eyes perceive scenes that way, so artists use those facts to recreate the sense of looking at a three-dimen- sional scene

Or, although we

The following lessons take students through

exercises designed to get students to look more carefully at trees and make drawings based on

what they see

the simplest approach for K-1st and increase in

The numbered lessons start with

difficulty. Although designed with different age levels in mind, the lessons can also be used at any age level as a step-by-step approach to improving the quality of the students’ seeing and drawing These lessons include using line, general shapes, blocking in, shading, adding detail, and experi- menting with media to explore the myriad ways of representing trees, in a more-or-less realistic manner

1. Using a variety of shapes for trees

K—Making, 1000-0101 Create basic shapes as a starting point for more complex shapes

State Core:

Young children often draw trees as if they were lollipop shaped, sometimes with the trunk as

wide as the top

make a triangular tree something like a Christmas

tree

start by showing them some photographs of dif- ferent kinds of trees such as can be found in a tree

book. Point out some specific trees that grow in

your area

photocopied, with the general shape of the tree

outlined in marker (see example, below)

show the students the tree shapes worksheet (at end of lesson) and tell them they are going to look for trees with the shapes on the worksheet Every time they see a tree shaped like one on the

Many children also learn how to

To broaden their tree-drawing repertoire,

Show them a couple pages you have

Next,

repertoire, Show them a couple pages you have Next, worksheet, they can make an X by
repertoire, Show them a couple pages you have Next, worksheet, they can make an X by

worksheet, they can make an X by that tree (see

above)

to look at various trees in the area Acknowledge their identifications as you walk.

Take the children on a preplanned walk

Allow a little more time for the children to tell you about the different trees shapes they found when

you return to the class

and have the students try drawing some of the new tree shapes they identified on their walk. [If you cannot take the students to see trees, have

photographs for them to look at ] Encourage students to draw the shape of the ground where it meets the tree

Pass out pieces of paper

Then show the class the slides of St. George,

Logan Baseball, Wasatch Mountains, and Big Cottonwood Stream and ask them to find how many different kinds of trees the artists have

drawn or painted

crayon drawing of your school or their house or apartment building with one of the new shaped trees they can now draw. Display the finished drawings and let the children have a few minutes to look at all the different kinds of trees the class members drew

Then, have students make a

52

A 6-year-old’s trees after using the tree shapes worksheet. Although a big improvement over trees
A 6-year-old’s trees after using the tree shapes
worksheet. Although a big improvement over
trees that have tops the same size as the trunk,
these are still probably tree symbols. Next, you
have to get the students to look at real trees as
they draw, so they really see trees.

Have students put the sheet of tree shapes they drew in their folders for future reference

ASSESSMENT Assess tree drawings for completion and effort

Related curriculum: Have students name the tree shapes: oval, oblong, circle, triangle

2 Using general shapes and contour drawings to

represent trees

0101 Block-in basic shapes and general shapes prior to adding detail while drawing

State Core: 1st—Making, 1010-

Show the class the slides of St. George, Logan Baseball, and Big Cottonwood Stream, and have

the students identify all the different kinds and shapes of trees the artists have drawn or painted Show the class some actual photographs of trees

with different shapes

photocopied photos of trees with the general

Then show them some

53

shape drawn in marker You may want to let stu- dents try making the general shapes from some photographs, but be sure to take them outside,

if at all possible

to begin with, and demonstrate to the students

what the overall shape is, Figure 1

should make several lines, if they need to, to get the shape right, drawing over the first lines rather than erasing the first ones.

Choose a simple-shaped tree

Students

Figure 1

Figure 1

After students have had a chance to draw the gen- eral shape of two or three trees, demonstrate how to draw over the first shape with contour lines, to

make the outline of the tree more realistic don’t erase any lines, Figure 2

Again,

Figure 2
Figure 2

Have students draw different-shaped trees using

contour lines on top of the general shapes

these drawings back to the classroom and have the students use them as a reference for drawing a simple landscape that contains at least one of the tree shapes they drew

Take

Related curriculum: Science, Standard 3010-04 After the students have completed the tree draw- ing, bring some plants to school and have stu- dents use the skills they have developed to draw

You

the plant as part of their science curriculum

may choose to have them label the parts of the plant as the students learn those parts

3 Using general shapes, blocking-in, and gesture,

to draw trees State Core: 2nd—Making, 1020- 0101 Use and develop skills for beginning a draw- ing; e g , blocking-in, gesture

For older students, take the previous activity further by having the students make shapes, then draw the contour, then indicate the general ges- ture and position of the branches, Figure 3

the general ges- ture and position of the branches, Figure 3 This step will be easier

This step will be easier if you choose a tree

with foliage that isn’t too dense

need at least glimpses of the branches

need to help the students look carefully at the

branches by asking questions about the trees example:

Students will

You may

For

• Are the branches straight, or curved?

• Do they curve up or down?

• Do the branches come from near the bottom of the tree?

• Are the sets of branches spaced evenly on the trunk?

• How big around are the branches?

• How many branches can you see?

After indicating the gesture of the branches, students can block in the biggest masses of the leaves, Figure 4

Figure 4
Figure 4

Then simple shading can make the masses sug-

gest the tree is three-dimensional

very simple shapes and students can skip the step of blocking in masses and just use shading to cre- ate the feel of the form, Figure 5, next page

Some trees are

54

Figure 5

Figure 5 To make trees that are a small part of a landscape, keep the shapes

To make trees that are a small part of a landscape,

keep the shapes simple

groups and pass out postcards of the artworks

with trees

the artists have indicated different kinds of trees Have students try drawing some of these with

charcoal or neutral pastels

least two different trees in a landscape

drawings with fixative—make sure you are in a well-ventilated place—outside is good if weather permits

Divide the class into

Have the students look at the ways

Have students use at

Spray the

Display the landscapes and have students identify and sketch two kinds of trees another student

made, which the student likes

previous sketches in a folder for future reference [Although we tend to think of artists as coming up with brand new ideas all the time, in actual- ity, artists use all kinds of things for inspiration:

Put these and the

sketches, other artists’ work, previous work, and so forth ]

ASSESSMENT Have students self-critique their drawings using a simplified version of the teacher’s rubric, on the next page

55

Critique the student drawings using the rubric provided or something similar Rubrics natu- rally have limitations, but they can be adapted as needed using criteria specific to the assignment and then adapted and refined during use.

4. Finding ways to represent different leaf con-

formation State Core: 4th—Making, 1040-0101 Use blocking-in, gesture drawing as start-up

skills for drawing

Use value and texture to create

interest

Render details with a high degree of ac-

curacy

For older or more advanced students, complete the previous activity and then have them choose

a particular tree and make a close-up sketch of

some leaves

ways to create the feel of those leaves in ways that can be used on the whole tree, Figure 6, below

Next, they can experiment with

whole tree, Figure 6, below Next, they can experiment with You may want to have the

You may want to have the students make a close-

up sketch of a section of bark before completing

their drawing

pleted drawing of the tree

drawings and have students discuss the different

ways they were able to make particular kinds of

foliage

tree branch using another student’s drawing

Have the students make a com-

Display the completed

Have students make a small sketch of a

ASSESSMENT Use the rubric for lesson 3, adding appropriate criteria

Possible Rubric for Drawings

Rubric

Contour Lines

Gesture

Blocking in

Excellent

Contour lines suggest the actual shape of the tree, carefully drawn

Drawing has captured the gesture of the main branches

Main leaf masses ap- propriately blocked in

Satisfactory

Contour line somewhat realistic

Drawing suggests a few branches with some gesture

Leaf masses blocked in, some reference to tree

Needs Improvement

No real attempt to re- produce shape

Branches added with- out gesture, no refer- ence to actual tree

No real care taken, leaf masses put in without reference to tree

5. After completing activity 3, give students a variety of media such as charcoal, neutral-toned

pastels, or Conte crayons, and let students experi- ment with the ways they can draw trees with

those media

to give them more ideas to try

time to experiment, have students draw a real or

imaginary landscape using several of the trees they’ve drawn

Show students the artworks again,

After a little more

drawn Show students the artworks again, After a little more 6. For advanced students: 1 Understanding

6. For advanced students: 1 Understanding and

applying media, techniques, and processes, and 5 Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of their work and the work of others

6. Show the class the two images, Autumn Stream

and Big Cottonwood Stream

If

they don’t figure it out themselves, point out that Autumn Stream was done en plein air, and then Big Cottonwood Stream was painted in the studio Ask students to consider what the strengths of

each painting are

talk about the differences in the two paintings

Have the students

Ask them to think about and

discuss the reasons a plein air painting might be

better than a photograph as a reminder of a scene

they want to paint in a studio

help the artist capture a particular scene well Next, take students on a walking tour and have them make quick sketches of many different

kinds of trees, using general shapes, blocking in,

gesture, contour line, and simple shading

sketches should be kept for future reference Next, Have students choose one of the trees they sketched and return to that tree and make draw- ings using three different kinds of media: pencils,

What else might

These

56

Autumn Stream , above, and Big Cottonwood Stream, below, by Lee Greene Richards. Which do

Autumn Stream, above, and Big Cottonwood Stream, below, by Lee Greene Richards. Which do you like best, the plein air piece or the studio work?

do you like best, the plein air piece or the studio work? 57 charcoal, colored pencils,

57

charcoal, colored pencils, or pastels

students display the finished drawings and dis-

cuss what qualities the different kinds of media

convey for the different trees

particularly suit specific varieties of trees? How

do the expressive qualities of the trees differ ac- cording to tree type and to media? When would each drawing be effective? Have students take notes about the comments made about their

trees

one particular medium to explore further by in- cluding the tree in a landscape painting or draw- ing

Have

Do some media

Students should choose one kind of tree in

7 Aesthetics Puzzle: Show the students the two paintings by Lee Greene Richards and ask them to debate which piece is the most realistic—the

one completed on site, while looking at the actual scene, or the piece that uses the oil sketch for reference, but is a more detailed, possibly less

accurate representation

term “realism” means, to them, to the art world

Ask them to discuss how they, personally, feel about Realism in art

Ask students what the

ASSESSMENT as part of their portfolio both for the quality of the original drawings and also for whether the students show evidence of having used the skills they learned in future landscape assignments

VARIATION If you have a warmish day after the leaves have

fallen, take students outside to draw trees when

the branch structure is obvious

keep their drawings

copies of the drawings and have students look at the same trees and add leaves, or use tracing or thin paper and add the leaves on that layer This approach is similar to learning to draw the skele- ton and muscles before drawing a clothed person

Have students

In the spring, make photo-

EXTENSION See http://www squidoo com/draw-a-tree for ideas for advanced students

Name

Tree Worksheet

Put an X by all the shapes of trees you see
Put an X by all the shapes of trees you see

58

Art on a Shoestring Budget Life-Size Self-Portrait
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Life-Size Self-Portrait

Elementary — Secondary Viosual Arts Lesson by Carrie Wilson

OBJECTIVES The students will create a life-size self-portrait using simple mixed media and personal visual imagery (Standard 1and 3, VSA) Student Friendly Language:

I can create an art piece that represents who I am

Rainbow Chart: 4 th Grade Distinguish between a positive shape and the negative shape/space surrounding it

MATERIALS Paper for Brainstorming (Scrap paper is great ) Pencil Large roll of any type of craft paper or billboard paper (The stuff in the teachers’ lounge ) Magazines Markers, Chalk, or Crayons (Anything you’ve got to add color) Scissors Glue Stapler Newspaper

Artworks: (all but Kahlo image on the CD) Artist: H Lee Deffebach Movement: Contemporary Artwork: George II (1967) Mixed Media (Use of Portraiture in a creative way and use of different materials ) Artist: John Owen Erickson Movement: Expressionism Artwork: Gethsemane: Self- Portrait (1986) Oil on Canvas

Artwork: Gethsemane: Self- Portrait (1986) Oil on Canvas Thomas Hoffman, Mini-me (2001) SMA (Interesting use of

Thomas Hoffman, Mini-me (2001) SMA

(Interesting use of an expressive monochromatic portrait ) Artist: Thomas Hoffman Artwork: Mini-me (2001) Oil on Canvas (Good use of interesting perspective and realism in a portrait ) Artist: Frida Kahlo Movement: Surrealism Artwork: Self- Portrait (1940) Oil on Canvas http://picasaweb google com/lh/photo/ FIsvz7JI4ZzX7yuqgmX4qw or use an image search

59

(Kahlo is great to show how symbols can be used to represent ideas about yourself ) Artist: Albrecht Durer Artwork: Self-Portraits 1-4 (Great example of realism )

Web Resources for information about the artists:

http://springvilleartmuseum org/collections/ index html

Vocabulary Positive Shape, Negative Shape, Outline, Shape, and Emphasis

ACTIVITY

Introduce: Show the work of any artist whose work you enjoy who does self-portraits Talk about how artists have always done one form of self-portrait or another. All artwork is a reflection of that certain artist, whether it is indeed a self- portrait, a symbolic self-portrait, or art on any subject

1 Have the students brainstorm in small groups about themselves You can use the “All about Me” worksheet, at the end of this lesson) Have the students really work out different aspects of themselves It will help with the imagery later If the class seems a little stumped, ask them questions like how many brothers and sisters they have, or where they traveled in the summer, or if they have a pet

2 Have the students get in pairs, so they can switch off on tracing the outline of the body (Suggestion: have girls with girls and boys with boys) There are two ways of doing the outlines One way is to project light with a projector or a strong light source, but sometimes there can be distortion in the figure (which could

be cool)

especially for younger students, is to simply have one student lie down and another one trace around the figure.

The way I would recommend,

3 The students can pick a dynamic body stance or a static position Talk about the positive and negative space, or about the important inside space and the area around that

60

4 Have the students trace the outline

5 Now there are two ways to finish the self- portrait One is to have the students keep the negative space; and in the negative space, draw or collage things about their outside selves Then the positive space would be about how they see themselves or their personality This way, the pieces are easier to hang up They are like personality scrolls The second way is to cut off the negative shapes, which may make the artwork more exciting, and then use the positive space to draw or collage about themselves

6 Option two: Cut two layers of the figures, and after they are drawn on, sandwich the two parts together and staple around the outside edge leaving places to stuff the

form

the open parts. Hang up with fishing line. Super Cool! 3-D forms

Stuff with newspaper and staple

line. Super Cool! 3-D forms Stuff with newspaper and staple http://artedmethods.blogspot.com/2009/10/les-

http://artedmethods.blogspot.com/2009/10/les-

son-plan-1-life-sized-self-portraits.html

7 Once the figure is complete, hang the work up for all to see

Disclaimer: Please remind the students that the information they are putting on their work will be for public display

VARIATION If you do not have access to craft paper, no worries, just use newspaper and tape the pieces together!

If your students are older, you can have them use old sheets of cardboard and trace themselves onto that by lying on it or by using a projector or strong light to project a shadow and have a

partner trace the shadow This version of the self- portrait is a little stronger and if the cardboard is thick enough, the portraits can even be free standing Using cardboard is a great way to bring

in the idea of recycling

any type of computers, see if you can get the boxes because they are nice and thick

If your school is getting

ASSESSMENT

 

Name:

Student Checklist:

 

Questions

Student Answer

Teacher Check off

Did you work well with your partner?

Yes

or

No

 

Did you understand positive and negative shapes?

Yes

or

No

 

Did you create a figure?

Yes

or

No

 

Did you finish?

Yes

or

No

 

What was your favorite part of the project? What did you like the best?

 

Teacher’s Comments:

 

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Brainstorming Sheet: All about ME

Name

Inside the Circle: list or draw thing about your outside self (Sports, thing you do with your friends, etc )

Inside the Plus: List or draw things you do with your family, things that are special to you

Inside the Triangle: List or draw things About your personality

you do with your family, things that are special to you Inside the Triangle: List or

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Art on a Shoestring Budget Making Encaustic Pizza
Art on a Shoestring Budget
Making Encaustic Pizza

Elementary—Secondary Visual Arts Lesson by Amanda Toler

OBJECTIVES Students will be able to: define what encaustic painting is and the materials used; create an encaustic inspired artwork using crayons; compare and contrast ancient encaustic paintings with contemporary uses of the medium; analyze various uses of wax in visual culture today

UTAH VISUAL ARTS STATE CORE (based on fifth grade core curriculum, but lesson can be used and adapted for all grades) Standard 1 (Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes Objective 1: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes Objective 2: Predict the processes and techniques needed to make a work of art Standard 2 (Perceiving): The student will analyze, reflect on, and apply the structures of art Objective 2: Create works of art using the elements and principles

a Use contour lines to indicate the form of

objects

b Create a work of art with symmetry

Standard 4 (Contextualizing): The student will interpret and apply visual arts in relation to cultures, history, and all learning Objective 1: Compare the arts of different

cultures to explore their similarities and diversities

cultures to explore their similarities and diversities Fayum Funeral Portrait

Fayum Funeral Portrait

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fayum-34.jpg

public domain

MATERIALS

• Multiple images of encaustic paintings

• Crayons

• Watercolors

• Paper, regular drawing and newsprint

• Iron

• Cheese grater

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ACTIVITY Start out by showing an encaustic painting and have students try and guess what the medium is that was used After students have guessed the medium discuss how the students think an artist can paint using wax What method or process might be used? Have a short discussion about the history of Encaustic painting

Art History:

Encaustic means: “to burn in” This is a process of applying molten wax colors

to a surface for the creation of images, decoration

and so forth It started over 2 millennia ago The Hot Wax Method - is how we might think of

encaustic in its truest sense - that is in using heat

as the solvent for beeswax based pigmented wax

paints It is generally agreed that there were three tools used in this type of working

Cautarium - probably a type of metal palette knife that could be used heated to blend the wax colors Cestrum - a small needle-like pointed item that may have been used to draw into the wax cold or perhaps it was heated It may also have been used more directly in the molten wax Pencillium - brushes used to apply most of the wax color and backgrounds in the portraits

There is also a cold wax process that can be used, but this lesson will not focus that process

(http://www encaustic com/features/history/ history html)

The History of Encaustic

Greek artists as far back as the 5th century

B C practiced encaustic painting Most of our

knowledge of this early use comes from the Roman historian Pliny, who wrote in the 1st century A D Pliny seems to have had very little direct knowledge about studio methods, so his account of techniques and materials is sketchy According to Pliny, encaustic was used in a

variety of applications: the painting of portraits and scenes of mythology on panels, the coloring

of marble and terra cotta, and work on ivory

(probably the tinting of incised lines)

Wax is an excellent preservative of materials It was from this use that the art of encaustic

painting developed The Greeks applied coatings

of wax and resin to weatherproof their ships

Pigmenting the wax gave rise to the decorating of warships Mention is even made by Homer of the painted ships of the Greek warriors who fought

at Troy The use of a rudimentary encaustic was

therefore an ancient practice by the 5th century

B C It is possible that at about that time the

crude paint applied with tar brushes to the ships

was refined for the art of painting on panels.

Fayum Funeral Portraits

for the art of painting on panels. Fayum Funeral Portraits Perhaps the best known of all

Perhaps the best known of all encaustic work are the Fayum funeral portraits painted in the 1st and 2nd centuries A D by Greek painters in

Egypt. A significant Greek population had settled

in Egypt following its conquest by Alexander,

eventually adopting the customs of the Egyptians This included mummifying their dead A portrait

of the deceased painted either in the prime of

life or after death, was placed over the person’s

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mummy as a memorial Many of these pieces have survived to our own time, and their color has remained as fresh as any recently completed work

In the 20th Century Encaustic Painting began to become popular as an art form again because of new technology and tools that make it easy and more efficient to do.

(See Ralph Mayer, The Artist’s Handbook) (http:// www cpittmanart com/EN/EncausticPainting html)

Criticism:

Have students compare and contrast an encaustic image from the Fayum funeral portraits with an image from a contemporary encaustic artist How have things changed? What was most important to the artist thousands of years ago as compared to today? Do the styles differ significantly? (search “encaustic art,” or use some of the urls under SOURCES )

Visual Culture:

After a brief discussion on the history of using colored wax in painting discuss how wax is used today in visual culture Some discussion of

contemporary encaustic could happen here

much of current encaustic painting is abstract because of the difficultly with getting detail. What ideas do the students have about why most encaustic paintings of the past were detailed and now abstract images may be more prevalent Many of today’s encaustic artists use multi media in their work

So

Some other ideas of how wax is used in today’s visual culture would include food preservation such as canning for commercial purposes Wax is used on snowboards and skiis, on cars and kitchen floors, and in some types of theatrical make-up Students may mention the use of colored wax in candles and crayons in their own classroom

Aesthetics:

With respects to the philosophical question of “What is Beauty?” Or ideas of artistic creation,

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have students discuss why it may be important to some cultures throughout history to decorate or beautify functional objects, when they are meant to be used rather than just looked at Studio project:

Once students have mentioned that crayons are

a type of colored wax, then introduce the class

project

painting through using modern inexpensive tools

found in the classroom, crayons. Specifically, talk about how encaustic painting started after wax was seen as a preservation technique and then people began to find that adding colored pigment created great decoration for the items

they were preserving

be designing and preserving a pizza using colored

wax (crayons) and heat (iron)

Students will be exploring encaustic

Tell students that they will