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Eurofighter

SPECIAL

EXCLUSIVE 20TH ANNIVERSARY SPECIAL PUBLICATION

T YPHOON

From Production to Future Capabilities

EAP AND THE TEST FLEETS MULTI-ROLE OPERATORS, TEN YEARS PIONEERS AND PILOTS OPTIONS UNITS & CREWS OF RAF OPS

EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON £5.99

THE COMPLETE STORY

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Welcome!
S TEST pilot Peter Weber said during recent celebrations to mark the 20th anniversary of his first flight in the jet, "Eurofighter is an amazing story".  This special souvenir publication, timed to coincide with the 20th anniversary of the Eurofighter’s first flight — although if you include the Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP) technology demonstrator it's closer to a 30th birthday — aims to tell that amazing story, with more detail than has ever been attempted before.  One wonders if any aircraft has ever been developed under such public scrutiny. This unique military project, forged from the political will of European nations (and, of course, former enemies) to work together on common defence, has also had to come through the choppy waters of national and Chief Writer: Alan Warnes Consulting Editor: Paul Hamblin Design: Lee Howson, Moppy Smith Production Editor: Janet Watkins Advertising Manager: Ian Maxwell Production Manager: Debi McGowan Marketing Manager: Martin Steele Marketing Executive: Shaun Binnington Commercial Director: Ann Saundry Managing Director and Publisher: Adrian Cox Executive Chairman: Richard Cox

A

Royal Air Force/29 Reserve Squadron Typhoon FGR4 ZK343 ‘BX’ seen on March 31, 2014, after being unveiled earlier the same day at its base at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, in special markings for the Eurofighter Typhoon Display Team.  The colours are based on the various elements of the 29 (R) Sqn emblem.  This year’s RAF display pilot is Flt Lt Noel Rees, a Qualified Flying Instructor with 29 (R) Sqn. MOD Crown Copyright/Senior Aircraftman Daniel Herrick LBIPP

international economic constraints and priorities. Its position at the forefront of European defence in the second decade of the 21st century will be a surprise to many who doubted it could last the course.  In a bid to provide more value for money to British, German, Italian and Spanish taxpayers, the fourth generation jet has transitioned from air defence to multi-role. Industry has transformed Eurofighter by consistent and relentless software updates, Drops and Phased Enhancements. At the same time there has been continual co-ordination of effort between the four Eurofighter Partner Companies (EPCs) and the six — soon to be seven — air forces operating it. This publication encapsulates everything Contacts Key Publishing Ltd, PO Box 100, Stamford, Lincs, PE9 1XQ Email: enquiries@keypublishing.com www.keypublishing.com Distribution Seymour Distribution Ltd, 2 Poultry Avenue, London EC1A 9PP Tel: 0207 4294000

from the pioneering days of EAP right up to Eurofighter's future capabilities. It has been written and edited from an objective, independent perspective. While we have approached key players at Eurofighter for help with facts, figures and information, it is not sponsored or officially approved by Eurofighter or any of its partner companies. 

Alan Warnes Chief Writer Printed By: Warners (Midlands) plc, Bourne, Lincs The entire contents of this special edition is copyright 2014. No part of it may be reproduced in any form or stored on any form of retrieval system without the prior permission of the publisher. PUBLISHER: Key Publishing Ltd PRINTED IN ENGLAND

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Eurofighter
T YPHOON

EXCLUSIVE 20TH ANNIVERSARY SPECIAL PUBLICATION

6 The Dream
Back in the mid-80s, the Experimental Aircraft Programme was being used as a technology demonstrator for a dream future aircraft – the Eurofighter.

14 Lift Off!
After years of political posturing and disagreement, the prototype Eurofighter finally flies.

26 IPAs Are Go
As the prototype programme headed towards a conclusion, aircraft coming off the production line were being used for development.
An RAF Typhoon sits on the ramp at Red Flag 13-3 in February/March 2013. Jamie Hunter

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34 Production Perfection
With four Eurofighter Partner Companies responsible for building Eurofighter, production has to be timed to perfection.

50 Forza Italia
Italy’s EF.2000 is scrutinized by Riccardo Niccoli.

86 Red Flag
Jamie Hunter reports on the RAF Typhoon Tranche 2 deployment to Nellis AFB, Nevada.

38 The Office
A look inside the cockpit.

56 Tifón on Track
Roberto Yañez and Alex Rodriguez give an account of the Tifón in Spanish service.

88 Sizzling Saudis
Royal Saudi Air Force Typhoons were on exercise at RAF Coningsby in September 2013, to learn some tricks of the trade from the RAF.

42 Deutsche Eurofighters
Dietmar Fenners looks at the Eurofighter in German Air Forces (GAF) service.

62 Ten Years of Typhoon
A decade of RAF Typhoons ops from Case White to the last Tranche 2 delivery in March 2014.

92 Going Digital...
Despite being in service ten years, Eurofighter still continues to evolve, with the latest technologies being integrated now and into the future.

46 Work Hard, Play Hard
The GAF’s JG 73 deployment to Deci back in July 2010 was a massive occasion, but why?

74 Flying Typhoon
Wg Cdr ‘Cab’ Townsend discusses what its like to fly the RAF’s premier fighter.

48 German Stars
June 2012 saw eight GAF Eurofighters head to Alaska, to fight with the best in the world.

80 Testing, Testing 1,2,3... - and 4
All four nations have test departments, but how is the testing process split?

98 Milestones
Dave Allport looks at the important dates and moments in the history of Eurofighter.

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I

N THE early 1980s, the Cold War was at its coldest. If it got dirty, hundreds of Warsaw Pact fighter aircraft would have to be defeated. The tension between East and West seemed permanent. A new, agile fighter that could mix with and defeat the best the Soviets could muster was a priority for anxious European governments. In such an atmosphere, the Eurofighter EFA (European Fighter Aircraft) was born. It would eventually become the most expensive military procurement programme among any of its four partners: Italy, Spain, West Germany (later Germany) and the UK. However, when the unthinkable happened, it came in a way no-one had quite foreseen. Instead of war, peace ‘broke out’ and by 1990, the Cold War as the world knew it was effectively over. What would this mean for the EFA? Many years of debate between partners, taxpayers, governments and politicians

Above: Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP) technology demonstrator ZF534 made its first flight on August 8, 1986, with test pilot Dave Eagles at the controls. EAP would demonstrate technologies that would eventually be used on Eurofighter. Back in the mid-80s, the project was a dream which throughout the 90s looked likely to fail. BAE Systems-Geoff Lee Top: With its sleek lines and canards, it is difficult to believe the EAP was designed over 30 years ago. Its futuristic looks seemed light years ahead of other RAF fighters at the time – the Phantom, Jaguar and Tornado – which the Eurofighter would replace. BAE Systems-Geoff Lee

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The Dream
A distant 30-plus years ago, Eurofighter – or European Fighter Aircraft (EFA) – was just a dream. But a technological demonstrator, known as the Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP), was being designed. This is the story.
ensued, as defence budgets plummeted and European monetary crises came and went. At the time of going to press, in spring 2014, the Eurofighter is whatever the partners want it to be; an air defender for some and a multirole aircraft for others. Undeniably, all of those original partners as well as Austria, Oman and Saudi Arabia, have one of the best fighters in the world. The Eurofighter is far from the finished article – it is a case of evolution rather than revolution – but its potential is jaw-dropping.

Evolution not Revolution

Who could have imagined back in 1979, when the UK and West German governments launched a proposal for a European Combat Fighter, that it would be such a colossal effort? There were hopes other European nations would join the programme and, slowly, they did. Italian aerospace giants, Aeritalia joined in 1980 and for five years

Above: Seen at Farnborough in 1982 was the canard delta designed twin-fin ACA (Agile Combat Aircraft), allowing the public to get its first feel of how futuristic the European Fighter Aircraft would look. By the end of 1982 the design had evolved into a single tail. Key Archives

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EAP Pilots
At the end of the flying trials, 13 test pilots had been fortunate enough to add the EAP to their logbooks: Peter Orme Chris Yeo Peter Gordon-Johnson Don Thomas Keith Hartley Dave Eagles Peter Weger Derek Reeh Napoleone Bragagnolo Etore Nappi Mirco Zuliani Colin Cruikshanks Bernie Scott 132 flights 57 flights 24 flights 21 flights 6 flights 4 flights 3 flights 3 flights 2 flights 2 flights 2 flights 2 flights 1 flight

Dassault of France were also in. However, disagreements over workshare, design and export leadership as well as manufacturing, eventually led to the French dropping out, opting instead to concentrate on their own Rafale, an arch-rival of the Eurofighter today. By April 1982, Anglo-German co-operation resulted in the mock-up of a canard delta designed twin-fin ACA (Agile Combat Aircraft) specialising in air superiority that went on to appear at the 1982 Farnborough Air Show. By the end of that year, the design had morphed into the single tail EAP (Experimental Aircraft Programme). The objective of EAP was to demonstrate new, emerging technologies that could be merged into a European fighter aircraft. However, these plans were dashed when the German and Italian Governments withdrew in 1983, leaving the UK and British Aerospace (BAe) to pursue the project on their own. The UK Government, committed to producing the next combat aircraft as a collaborative venture, would only fund EAP if it was a technology demonstrator and not a production line fighter. Fortunately, industry recognised the project’s potential and continued to support

Above: The EFA mock up was seen at the Farnborough Air Show in September 1986, where the real aircraft made its public debut with Chris Yeo at the controls. Key Archives Below: Four key personnel of the EAP programme seen in the mid-80s (from left to right): John Vincent EAP Executive Director along with test pilots Chris Yeo (57 fl ights), Pete Orme (132 fl ights) and Dave Eagles (four fl ights). Dave Eagles

the project, leading to Turbo Union lending a couple of Mk 104 engines with thrust reversers removed, while many other companies provided components. Initial plans saw Germany’s MBB, then carrying out carbon fibre research, produce the EAP’s centre and rear fuselage, while Italy’s Aeritalia concentrated on the wings, in a similar work share to the Tornado. When they both pulled out, BAE was forced to re-design, take over production and use Tornado parts whenever possible to keep to the deadline. EAP Test Pilot Dave Eagles, who flew the EAP on its first flight, explained in 2012, “The loss of interest by two of the original three governments made the project management easier. The build was extremely fast and I was very impressed by the hands-on control of our then Managing Director, Frank Roe, who ran the early build management meetings himself.”

Below: By the early-90s a newer, more modern full scale model of EFA had appeared in a pale grey air superiority camouflage. The aircraft is seen here carrying a representative weapon load of AMRAAM, ASRAAM and fuel tanks. Note the RWR housing at the top of the tail. Key Archives

EAP

The EAP was rolled out at British Aerospace Warton on April 16, 1986 and made its first flight on August 8, 1986, when Dave Eagles, the company’s then executive director

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Unsung stalwart - Jaguar ACT
While most people look at the EAP as the Eurofighter technology demonstrator, the huge role of BAe’s Jaguar Active Control Technology (ACT) has been largely overlooked. The aircraft was used to develop the Typhoon’s unique flight control system. After finishing life as an RAF GR1 with the 226 OCU at RAF Lossiemouth in June 1976, the fighter was stored before being flown to BAe Warton on August 4, 1978, where it was modified by installing electronic systems and eventually leading edge strakes. BAe Test Pilot, Chris Yeo flew the Jaguar ACT for the first time on October 20, 1981. In doing so XX765 became the first aircraft to fly with an all-digital quadruplex fly-by-wire flight control system with no form of reversionary (back up) support. That meant the pilot would have had to eject if control was lost! At the EAP Unveiling at RAF Cosford on February 14, 2014, Chris provided an insight into the ‘raspberry ripple’ jet. “It flew in standard Jaguar avionics with a FBW initially. Then we put ballast on the fourth fuel tank at the back, so we could destabilise it longitudinally. Then the strakes went on, and

with ballast it became highly unstable in the air using the FCS. The handling of the aircraft was configured by the FCS, by looking after the loads and Angle of Attack (AoA), which EAP eventually did. The standard Jag was quite a demanding aircraft to fly – had serious AoA limits, G limits, negative angle of attack limits, rapid rolling limits and performance varied depending on how full the tanks were and the underwing stores on board! “By the time we had finished with this aircraft it was virtually carefree – it looked after negative and positive AoA, rapid rolling, wing loads and the only thing the pilot looked out for was G. As Jaguar was a 7 1/2 G aircraft, the FBW aircraft demonstrated a standard aircraft could be made carefree. “This aeroplane has been forgotten but if you look at the technical achievement, flying an longitudinally unstable aircraft, single-pilot without reversion, it was a fantastic achievement at the time. The technologies led to the interactive concept on EAP. EAP took it to the next level, by using the FCS on a different configuration where you didn’t know the characteristics or you

Chris Yeo.

Chris Yeo In the lead up to EAP's first flight, test pilot Chris Yeo flew the Jaguar ACT 45 times for a total of 36 hours 25 minutes between October 20, 1981 and September 10, 1984. During those three years he matured the Jaguar's fly-by-wire systems for EAP and eventually the Eurofighter. didn’t know intellectually/by design whether it would work until it flew. It was a very important stepping stone.”

The Jaguar ACT was the fi rst quadruplex Fly By Wire fighter and flew with no revisionary (back up) system. Much of BAE’s understanding of FBW came from this jet, so it played a big role in the development of EAP and eventually the Eurofighter. After being retired in 1984, British Aerospace acquired the aircraft for ground testing before it was delivered to the Loughborough University of Technology and was then put on exhibition at RAF Cosford Museum in November 1999. BAE Systems

of flight operations, took it to Mach 1.1, faster than the speed of sound. All went according to plan. “We checked the landing gear, general handling at 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000ft, took the aircraft supersonic to Mach 1.1 and looked at handling in the circuit,” he said. The aircraft itself stood up to everything asked of it. “It was very responsive to control input,” Dave explained. “Stick forces in pitch were slightly heavier than our classic British standard as seen in the Hunter, but very satisfactory.” Apart from a slight rumbling from the cockpit floor when the engines were throttled back, the aircraft performed smoothly. Eagles went on, “It was a delight to handle, even though the leading edge flaps, which were to be an active part of the flight control system, were locked for the early flying. It would obviously have made a superb fighter as it stood, with the introduction of a weapons system.” Dave Eagles retired shortly after the first

flight and the bulk of the EAP flying was shared by Pete Orme, the EAP project pilot and Chief Test Pilot Chris Yeo, who flew the jet at the Farnborough Air Show barely a month after its first flight. Chris Yeo told this publication in February 2014: “With the canard, EAP had a different control system. People who were designing EAP had learnt from the Jaguar ACT (above) before it. So technologies for Eurofighter would have come from EAP and then progressively built up. That’s why demonstrators are so important and why EAP was so important – it had all kinds of

EFBites

 The test pilot’s job is to demonstrate an aircraft’s capabilities and report any flaws in design or the aircraft’s system.  EAP was officially rolled out at Warton on April 6, 1986.  The ECR 90 radar was renamed CAPTOR when the project passed the production contract milestone..

new technologies which included a digital FBW, canard and carbon brakes. “Today everyone has carbon brakes, but in those days, it was very early carbon technology. It had a super plastic form titanium keel section which was also a new technology as well as lithium alloys, while its primary structures were carbon fibre – all sorts of new technologies which are taken for granted today.” After its final flight in May 1991, the airframe was stored at Warton, having made 259 test sorties, totalling 195.21 flying hours, reached speeds in excess of Mach 2.0 and angles of attack of over 35° in controlled flight. During June 1996, it was taken to Loughborough University, Leicestershire, for undergraduate students to carry out design appreciation exercises, before making the move to Cosford in March 2012. During its flying career as a proof-of-concept demonstrator it contributed much to computer controls, advanced aerodynamics and new methods of construction.

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EAP Statistics
Type: In Use: Max Speed: Engine: Single-seat technology demonstrator 1986-1991 Mach 2 (1522 mph/2,450 km/h at sea level) Two 9,000 ibf/40 kN (dry thrust) Turbo Union RB199 3-spool turbofans

Empty weight: 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Airframe: Skin: Span: Length: Metal Carbon-fibre composite 38 ft 7 in (11.8m) 48 ft 3 in (14.7m)

Right: Dave Eagles, a former Royal Navy pilot, applied a Fly Navy sticker on the aircraft for its first flight. That kind of humour would be frowned upon now. Dave Eagles Below: The Experimental Flight Report from Dave Eagles’ first flight on August 8, 1986, was declassified in January 1992. Dave Eagles

RAF Needs

By the mid 1980s, EFA was being earmarked for several different roles. One was to replace the remaining Phantoms and complement the Tornado F3 force with its agility and ability to engage Russian fighters escorting their bombers. Another was as an air superiority fighter in RAF Germany, with both Beyond Visual Range and close combat essential. The third role was effectively a swing role, or as they were to call it in the early 1990s, dual mission, moving from air-to-air to the air-to-ground role when needed, replacing Jaguars in Germany. Not surprisingly, it would carry a 50% greater weapon load than the Jaguar but would also need a greater self defence capability, with up to four ASRAAMs. A fourth requirement would lay outside NATO’s area of control, deploying to such places as the Falkland Islands, Cyprus, the Middle East and even Belize. All of this meant that there was plenty to keep the designers and RAF’S Operational Requirements Branch busy. Group Captain Ned Frith had served in that office before leaving the RAF for BAE, so he knew all too well what was expected of the new EFA. As critics questioned the need for EFA following the break-up of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact in the early-90s, Frith, who was responsible for BAE’s EFA marketing, made a compelling case to stick with the futuristic fighter. “I am conscious of the current political upheavals in eastern Europe, and that national economies are building up pressures for substantial defence procurement reductions,” he argued, adding, “I feel the uncertainties in the present turmoil support a strong case for a cautious approach and that it’s worth reminding ourselves that even neutral countries need defensive forces and if you have an air force, you need the air superiority fighter.” When West Germany returned to the EFA programme in May 1988 the go-ahead was

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Everyone wanted to be seen with EAP – even the Red Arrows in 1989. BAE Systems/Geoff Lee

given to produce eight flying prototypes, including a pair of two-seaters. The first two would fly at Manching and Warton respectively. At that time the governments of Italy and Spain were yet to approve any investment.

Bidding Wars

The first prototype, scheduled to fly in mid-1991, would be powered by an interim engine, possibly the Turbo Union RB199 or General Electric F404 but, as it turned out, the RB199 was selected, while Rolls Royce and Turbo Union developed their Eurojet EJ 200. Several companies made a bid for the radar contract. Ferranti offered a development of Sea Harrier’s Blue Vixen radar, West Germany’s AEG in partnership with GEC Marconi offered a European version of the Hughes AN/APG-65 and Italy’s FIAR along with Inisel of Spain and Ferranti (which was clearly hedging its bets) offered a brand new radar, the ECR 90. On May 8, 1990, UK Defence Minister

Tom King announced that the ECR 90 had been selected as the EFA radar and with it a lucrative £300 million contract to develop the system. Ferranti (later bought by GEC Marconi and now Selex ES) provided the technology and co-ordinated production, although the work was to be split between the four partners. A third went to the UK, another third to West Germany, 21% to Italy and 12% to Spain. Flight testing of the ECR 90 radar commenced on January 8, 1993, on BAC One-Eleven trials aircraft, ZE433 of DRA Bedford. It later moved to Edinburgh/ Turnhouse Airport for continued flight trials, closer to GEC Marconi’s Edinburgh HQ. In terms of aircraft production, BAE’s workshare of 33% included the production of the front fuselage and half of the right wing, while MBB’s equal share covered the centre fuselage and vertical fin. Italy’s 21% share would see Aeritalia produce the left wing and half the rear fuselage while CASA of Spain with its 13% workshare would build

half the rear fuselage and half the right wing. Eventually CASA would build all the right wing. In the late-80s this arrangement seemed to be the fairest way to split the workshare but as time would prove, it added substantial costs and delays to production of the new jet. Yet without it, there would simply have been no European fighter. It was anticipated that the RAF would buy 250 aircraft, the Luftwaffe 200, Italian Air Force 150-200 and the Spanish Air Force 75-100. EFA was not due to be fully operational until 2000. Just before EFA was given the go ahead, the French Government officially launched Rafale – its rival advanced combat aircraft programme – with Dassault Breguet and SNECMA covering production of two prototypes, Rafale D for Air Force and Rafale M for the Navy. France was expected to require up to 350 production Rafales, a huge number. The French Government soon became concerned even then over the costs of such a programme, with Dassault seeking

Other aircraft played an important role in the development of the Eurofighter including Active Control Technology (ACT) Jaguar XX765. Test pilot Chris Yeo is seen here flying the aircraft, fitted with leading edge strakes. Flight trials were concluded in September 1984, shortly after EAP’s first flight. BAE Systems

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European partners to share development and production of the fighter, making overtures to Belgium, which had assembled Mirage Vs in the 60s. It had been expected Belgium would take a 10% stake in the development costs but cuts to Belgian defence spending in early 1989 put paid to those thoughts. A major step in the EFA programme occurred on November 23, 1988, when the two main development contracts were signed. Signing the agreements were the NATO European Fighter Aircraft Management Agency (NEFMA) and the EFA airframe management company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug Gmbh as well as the propulsion company Eurojet Turbo Gmbh.

Above: On May 8, 1990, the UK’s Defence Minister Tom King announced that Ferranti had won the £300 million contract to develop the new ECR 90 radar for Eurofighter. Key Archive

The contracts effectively transformed the Memorandum of Understanding into the first true phases of the four nation project. The first EFA flight was scheduled to take place at Manching, West Germany, in 1991 with a service entry of 1996. Development costs of £2.19 billion were incurred by the UK Government in 1989/90 as it stepped up its investment into the RAF’s future fighter. The last major sub-system contract came on January 20, 1992, when the EuroDASS consortium led by GEC Marconi was awarded a $200 million deal to develop an electronic warfare suite. It came as no surprise, given they were the only bidders to put forward a comprehensive proposal, but they still had to wait three years before being announced the winners. In addition to GEC Marconi, the EuroDASS consortium comprised Elettronica of Italy and Spain’s Inisel. Most of the work was carried out at GEC Marconi’s Stanmore and Portsmouth sites. The advanced defensive aids support system would include an ESM/ECM pod on each wing tip, although Italy, Spain and the UK confirmed they would fit the EuroDASS system. Germany had announced they were to investigate cheaper alternative equipment. GEC Ferranti subsequently won a £20 million contract in March 1993 for the development of Eurofighter 2000’s laser warning receiver, which alerts the aircraft to being illuminated by an anti-aircraft or missile guidance system laser.

Red Light…Green Light

Above: The new ECR 90 radar, which went on to be named CAPTOR was installed into modified DERA Bedford BAC One-Eleven ZE433 during late 1992 as there was no Eurofighters available then. Key Archive

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in the early 1990s, many began to question the importance of this expensive fighter. The so-called ‘peace dividend’ was causing havoc within the defence ministries of Europe. It came as no real surprise when Germany’s Parliament voted to pull out of the project on June 30, 1992, not because of cost but because German politicians believed “it was the wrong aircraft at the

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wrong time”. In doing so, it suggested that all the EFA partners abandon the project and put any allocated funds into a new light combat aircraft project. At the same time Italy’s commitment to the new fighter began to wobble. Meanwhile, on September 16, 1992, the German State Secretary advised the British Government that Germany intended to withdraw from the development phase in February 1993, the earliest permissible date under the dispute process agreed in 1988 by the participating countries. However, Germany was still obliged contractually to continue paying its share of expenditure or pay for the cost of transferring work until the end of the development phase in 1999. In addition to all this uncertainty, DASA announced on October 7, 1992, that it was to cut 7,500 jobs, 11% of its workforce, mainly in the defence sector, because of a lack of political guidance as to the future needs of the German armed forces. The Spanish and Italian governments then ordered a slowdown followed by a freeze on all development, stating that no EFA contracts were to be signed. Eurofighter Gmbh commissioned a study into cutting costs of the EFA to suit differing national requirements, resulting in a seven volume report issued to participating nations on October 16, 1992. A revised New EFA (NEFA) eventually labelled Eurofighter 2000 could reduce costs by between 12 and 30% while still using the existing airframe but excluding major design changes. The Eurofighter 2000 would be tailored to individual air force needs, the more basic version required by Germany featuring a 4-5% reduction in capabilities compared to the original EFA. Alternative equipment offered at the time included the replacement of GEC Ferranti’s ECR 90 radar with the Hughes AN/APG-65 and a more limited defensive aids sub system. Fears that EFA would be abandoned were allayed on December 10, 1992, by a NATO agreement in which Germany agreed to complete development work with the three partners. The Eurofighter 2000 option was the way ahead and would allow a number of alternatives of varying sophistication to be produced from the same basic airframe and engine. Germany would opt for the least sophisticated, cheapest alternative.
Left: Many of the pioneers who worked on the EAP programme attended the EAP Unveiling. Left to right: Brian Weller (System Design Engineer Flight Control Systems Team), Allan Seabridge (EAP Utility Systems Management System), Leon Skorczewski (Chief Engineer Avionic Systems and Cockpit), Ivan Yates (Chief Executive Aircraft Group), John Lowery (Chief Engineer EAP), Dave Eagles (Director of Flight Operations), Terry Smith (Flight Test engineer), Bob Hartley (Senior Flight Test engineer), Chris Yeo (Chief Test Pilot) and Dave Ward (EAP Flight Test runner). Alan Warnes Below: EAP ZF534 was unveiled at RAF Cosford Museum on February 14, 2014, after spending many years at the Loughborough University of Technology. Alan Warnes

Left: Once ECR 90 trials began in January 1993 the BAC One-Eleven was moved to EdinburghTurnhouse Airport, closer to the Ferranti (now Selex ES) Headquarters. The aircraft’s nose was considerably altered to accommodate the new system. Key Archive

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Prototype Eurofighter, ‘DA1’ wearing serial 98+29 made its first flight on March 27, 1994. DASA’s Chief Test Pilot, Peter Weger, flew the aircraft for 40 minutes checking all systems were functioning correctly. British Aerospace

N 1993, the Eurofighter programme was still stalked by uncertainty. German Defence Minister, Volker Ruhe ruled out any decision on production before 1995 because the German Parliament would have to vote on it, even asking for a two year delay in development. With the UK and Italy looking for their first deliveries in 2000, this would cause a three to five year slippage. More delays were inevitable as Germany and Spain were not looking for their first deliveries until 2002. Of the seven development aircraft (DA1 to DA7) being built, the German prototype DA1 (98+29) was moved from DASA’s production facility at Ottobrunn by road to Manching on May 11, 1992, in readiness for its first flight. The UK ‘s DA2 (ZH588) was undergoing final pre-flight testing. However, technical issues surrounding the aircraft’s digital flight control system (DFCS) obstructed the aircraft’s first flight, initially until the second half of 1993 then to March 1994, leading to the fighter falling two years behind schedule. With technical as well as political delays

Above: After returning to terra firma following the first flight of ZH588 'DA2', on April 6, 1994, Chris Yeo was greeted by a jubilant British Aerospace work force. Left to right: Bill McNaughton, Managing Director, Eurofighter GmbH; Kevin Smith, Managing Director, British Aerospace, Military Aircraft Division; Chris Yeo, Director of Flight Operations, British Aerospace, Military Aircraft Division; John Weston, Chairman and Managing Director, British Aerospace Defence Ltd; David Gardner, Deputy Managing Director and European Programmes Director, British Aerospace, Military Aircraft Division. British Aerospace

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Lift off!
Dogged by political indifference in the early 1990s, the Eurofighter prototype finally made it into the air, and the programme gathered some much needed momentum
these were dark days for Eurofighter. Debates were breaking out across Europe over the cost and necessity of a requirement born in the Cold War days but now apparently facing no real threat from the east. Nevertheless, industry continued with the project and taxi trials of DA1 (98+29) began on July 1, 1993, to assess the nosewheel steering, undercarriage and braking characteristics. While preparations for the Eurofighter’s first flight continued, it became clear in early 1996 that the German Government had still not rubber-stamped any funding for the project, thus delaying procurement plans for another year. German sources were claiming technical issues with the radar and avionics development lay behind the delays.

RAF Eurofighter Basing Plans
In March 1999, the RAF announced the bases that Eurofighter would operate from when it entered service in the 2000s. Supervising the RAF Eurofighter into service was Air Commodore Rick Peacock-Edwards, the RAF’s Director of Eurofighter Assurance Group. He reported RAF Coningsby, Lincs, would be the first to equip with the new fighter when the Operational Evaluation Unit/Operational Conversion Unit was established in 2002. Following this, two frontline squadrons were to equip at Coningsby in 2006, then RAF Leeming,North Yorkshire would re-equip with two squadrons in 2008-10 and finally RAF Leuchars, Fife,

First flight

Finally, after years of anticipation, the big day arrived. With very little pre-publicity, the prototype Eurofighter, DA1/98+29, finally lifted off on March 27, 1994, from the Manching runway. The 40-minute flight saw the aircraft successfully complete airborne

was to gain three squadrons between 2009-10. As we know now, that timetable did not work out, due mainly to the Royal Saudi Air Force deal for 72 Eurofighters, when jets were diverted from the RAF as well as delays to Tranche 2. Of the 232 RAF aircraft, 40 would be two-seaters, thus seeing a fundamental swing from the RAF’s make up of 70% two-seat and 30% single-seaters in 1999 to 30% two-seat and 70% single-seat. An eight-man team working in the Air Warfare Centre at RAF Waddington, Lincs, calling upon experiences that included exchange postings on the F-14 Tomcat. F-15 Eagle and F-117, was tasked with setting up Eurofighter doctrine. Work included the

compilation of tactical manuals, conversion manuals and syllabus for operational squadrons. As a result, most became the first pilots to convert. In a first for British industry, the Eurofighter Operational Evaluation Unit (OEU) ,17 (R) Squadron, was raised at BAE Warton during the initial stages of operations, a logical step allowing maximum use of the site there. The OEU initiative, under the name ‘Case White’ was based out of Hangars Four and Five. Twelve pilots initially converted to the type at Warton to form the OCU at RAF Coningsby, where it was anticipated the first squadron would be declared operational in 2005. (For more see RAF First Ten Years.)

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Above: BAE Systems (or British Aerosapce as it was known then) prototype, ZH588/’DA2’, flew for the first time on April 6, 1994 with BAE's Chris Yeo, Test Pilot and Director of Flight Operations at the controls. British Aerospace Below: German test pilot, Peter Weber steps out of DA1 after the prototype made its first flight on March 27, 1994. Eurofighter GmbH

Development Aircraft
The prototypes were all built on individual jigs, not on a production line and as a result were built with specific tasks in mind. They all had subtle differences which allowed capabilities to be built into them. A/c No DA1 DA2 DA3 DA4 DA5 DA6 DA7 Serial 98+29 ZH588 MMX602 ZH590 98+30 XCE.16-01 MMX603 Partner/Base BAE/Warton, UK Alenia/Turin-Caselle, Italy BAE/Warton, UK Role Envelope expansion Engine, weapons and store ECR 90 radar assessment First Flight 27.03.94 06.04.94 04.06.95 14.03.97 24.02.97 31.08.96 27.01.97 Last Flight 21.12.05 29.1.07 7.2.06 13.12.06 30.10.07 W/o 21.11.02 10.9.07 DASA/Manching, Germany Engine testing/handling

DASA/Manching, Germany ECR 90 radar assessment CASA/Getafe, Spain Alenia/Turin-Caselle, Italy Environmental and handling Weapons and stores trial

system and handling checks in the hands of DASA Chief Test Pilot, Peter Weger, who described the flight as “extremely successful and the handling as superb” before adding “this is the beginning of a new phase in fighter aircraft technology”. On the 20th anniversary of DA1's first flight in 2014, Peter Weger spoke of Eurofighter, "I had little idea when I made that maiden flight from Manching what an amazing story this would become. I knew I was piloting an incredible aircraft and we had something special. It is certainly one of those days that

EFBites

 Lt Colonel Heinz Spolgen was the first German AF pilot to fly a single-seat Eurofighter, 98+29/DA1, during Spring 1996  DA2 was first to achieve Mach 2, on December 23, 1997.

lives with you for the rest of your life." At the time DA1 was set to complete 20 sorties from Manching before transfer to BAE Warton and being re-serialled ZH586 for handling and envelope expansion trials. The idea was later dropped and

the jet stayed in Germany. The second prototype Eurofighter, DA2/ZH588, flew from BAE Warton on a miserable April 6, 1994, with Chris Yeo, Test Pilot and Director of Flight Operations. Not too surprisingly, it was an emotional day for those working at the facility, with most of them leaving their work place to witness the memorable event.

Work share

Industry negotiations between DASA (Germany), British Aerospace (UK), Alenia

Above & right: The front and rear view of the EFA prototype’s centre fuselage manufactured at MBB Augsburg in 1990.

EUROFIGHTeR | 17
(Italy) and CASA (Spain) over production issues were cited for further delays amidst fears Germany only intended to buy 140, thus decreasing its work share from 33% to 23%, while BAe would wrestle extra production from DASA. A compromise came in mid-January 1996, when Germany accepted a 30% work share in production and the UK was allocated 38%. The decision was precipitated by German Defence Minister Ruhe, who requested an additional batch of 40 Eurofighters for air-toground missions, later earmarked as multirole, in addition to the proposed 140 EF 2000s. This, and the fact the UK was looking to reduce its initial forecast for aircraft to replace the Tornado F3 and Jaguar to 232, led to the compromise. The two nations, along with Italy and Spain, could now finalise production investment. Inevitably, on August 8, 1996, another twist came when the UK National Audit Office (NAO) issued a statement showing the UK’s share of the project had escalated by £1.25 billion to a total cost of £15.4 billion, some 43.7% over budget. It forced the Eurofighter issue into the public forum. Restructuring the programme, the aircraft was now costing £38 million each, based on the UK’s acquisition of 232 aircraft. Despite all this, on September 2, 1996 – the first day of the Farnborough Air Show – the UK Ministry of Defence announced it was ready to go ahead with production of the £40 billion Eurofighter. There was light at the end of the tunnel!

Above: The front fuselage of the first European Fighter Aircraft, as Eurofighter was known then, P01 being transferred to the Stage 2 assembly jig at Warton in June 1990. Stage 2 saw the fitting of access panels and systems components. After Stage 2, avionic equipment, cockpit canopies and the ejection seat were to be fitted at Stage 3 before shipment of the complete front fuselage to MBB at Manching in early 1991. Final assembly took place at Manching prior to the roll out in 1992. British Aerospace Below: CASA’s Director of Flight Operations, Alfonso de Miguel, is seen here flying the dual seat prototype from CASA’s Getafe facility on August 31, 1996. The flight, which lasted 55 minutes, meant DA6/XCE.16-01 flew before DA4 and DA5. British Aerospace

Delayed operationally

Many issues had beset the programme, mainly through the German Government’s unwillingness to fund such an expensive project on the back of the country’s costly re-unification. It meant Eurofighter was not expected to become operational until 2003, initially with the UK and Italy, a delay of some six years over the original proposals in the late 1980s. After the Spanish Eurofighter’s inaugural trip on August 31, 1996, when dual-seat prototype DA6/XCE.16-01 carried out its first test flight, came more welcome news. The country’s Government finally agreed to fund participation in the Eurofighter programme, planning to buy 87 fighters at a cost of around £470 million between 1997 and 2010. At the same time, DASA and the German Ministry of Defence were trying to close a £100 million funding gap. DASA required DM350 million in 1997 but the German Ministry in September 1996 was only offering DM100 million. Meanwhile, Italy’s Government was set to cut the Italian Air Force's order from 130 to 90, though the Air Force wanted 121 aircraft. The clearest indication yet that Germany would find the required money to go ahead with Eurofighter came on June 24, 1997, when German Finance Minister Theo Waigel announced the project was “absolutely necessary” for Germany’s defence plans. It coincided with DASA threatening to stop its

Eurofighter Orders
No Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3A Tranche 3B* Total 147 237 112 124 620 Ger 44 68 31 37 180 Italy 28* 47* 21 25 121 Spain 20 33 20 14 87 UK 55 89 40 48 232

investment in the programme if a decision was not reached soon. No final decision was made until the defence budget was set, but a requirement of DM850 million (£300 million) was needed in the 1998 federal budget and it finally came on July 11, 1997.

Political agreement

*Although it was agreed to build 620 aircraft, the four partner nations could not agree over the final 236 jets. Instead it was decided to split Tranche 3, which saw Eurofighter GmbH, Eurojet and NETMA sign a 9 billion Euros ($12.7 billion) Tranche 3a production contract on July 31,2009, for a further 112 Typhoons, plus 241 engines for the four partner nations. In addition, the 12 aircraft ordered by Oman and 48 for Saudi Arabia, sold by BAE Systems, are being treated as part of Tranche 3 production. That means 172 of the 236 Eurofighters have been contracted and will go some way to alleviating pressure on restructuring the work share. * After Italy supplied a Tranche 1 aircraft to Austria during production they took an extra Tranche 2 jet.

On November 26, 1997, the German Parliament committed to a budget for the purchase of 180 aircraft. Could the Eurofighter community dare to believe that, finally, after years of wrangling over production and costs, all four nations might come to an agreement? Meanwhile, the Eurofighter continued to make history. On December 15, 1997, the first ever missile was launched, from Alenia’s DA7. Flown by test pilot Maurizio Chell, it fired an AIM-9L Sidewinder air to air missile over the Decimomannu ranges in Sardinia;

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DA6 is lost
As is often the case in any development phase, misfortune hit the programme on November 21, 2002, when DA6/XCE.16-01 crashed shortly after take-off from Getafe. The dual-seater was undertaking engine relight trails, when one engine flamed out while flying at 40,000ft (12,200m) and Mach 0.7 over Toledo. After descending to 30,000ft (9,150m), the crew attempted to relight the dead engine but at this point the second engine also wound down. As this was a development aircraft, it was not fitted with a ram air turbine that would have provided hydraulic and electrical power following total engine failure. Failure of both engines meant there was no power for the flight control systems, meaning that control would have been lost in seconds. The crew, EADS CASA chief test pilot Colonel Eduardo Cuadrado and Spanish Air Force official test centre test pilot Commander Igancio Lombo, therefore ejected as soon as the second engine failed, both landing safely. The aircraft came down at 1215hrs, 15mins after take-off, in unpopulated countryside on the Poligono de Pruebas de Anchura military test range about 60 miles (100km) south of Madrid, near Belvis de la Jara, Toledo province. This was the first Eurofighter loss and although loss of a prototype during extensive modern military aircraft flight test programmes is not unusual, the timing of this crash, just before the first four production aircraft were to be handed-over to the partner nations in December, was a little unfortunate. DA6 had completed 326 flight hours in 362 test flights. As the aircraft was a prototype, it was fitted with specialised flight test instrumentation and flight data recorders plus telemetry equipment for relaying data in real time on every aircraft system and parameter to the flight test centre at Getafe. Although Eurofighter flight-testing was temporarily suspended for 24 hours after the crash, the type was not officially grounded and testing continued. The loss of both engines was attributed to a problem concerning the particular engine model fitted to DA6 during a certain part of the flight envelope. The problem did not affect other variants of the EJ200 engines.

two days later on December 17 an Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (AMRAAM) was successfully fired. In the UK, BAE Chief Test Pilot Paul Hopkins took DA2 to Mach 2.0 on December 23, 1997, followed by a series of successful air-to-air refuelling trials on January 12, 1998, over the Irish Sea with a VC-10, simultaneously completing its longest flight to date. Also in January, Italy’s DA3 became the first to fly with large external stores – wing mounted fuel tanks. Finally, on January 30, 1998, after years of disagreement, the governments of Germany, Italy, Spain and UK finally signed the first production contracts. The aircraft’s future was secure. Contracts on production tooling and various other elements of preparatory work for 620 Eurofighters, with another 80 on option, were signed. In doing so, it safeguarded some 80,000 jobs in the UK and provided the RAF with an aircraft to replace the Jaguar and Tornado Air Defence Version (ADV). Germany would acquire 180, Italy 121, Spain 87 and the UK 232. However, further disagreements surfaced on March 11, 1998, when the four partners could not come to a conclusion on the name for the Eurofighter. Although widely tipped to be Typhoon,

Above: Prototype 98+29 wearing Joint Production 001 (JP001) build number, sits at Manching in early 1994 after being rolled out. This aircraft and the second prototype, DA2, flew initially with modified RB199 Mk104E engines, allowing rapid expansion of the flight envelope during the early stages of the flight test programme. Rolls Royce Below: An early publicity shot of the Martin Baker Mk 16A ejection seat for EFA. The DA aircraft initially had Mk 10LX ejection seats, replaced later with Mk 16As after they were qualified. Martin Baker

DA3 MMX602 touches down at Alenia’s Turin-Caselle facility on June 4, 1994. The 52 minute flight was carried out by Chief Test Pilot Commandante Napoleone Bragagnolo. Alenia

EUROFIGHTeR | 19
Left: Engineers fit an EJ200 engine into the DA3 at Alenia, Turin, when the aircraft was being assembled in August 1993. The engine installation trials were completed successfully. The first two prototypes were powered by the RB199. Rolls Royce Below: At Warton on April 10, 1992, the front fuselage of DA3 being loaded for shipping to the Alenia facility at Turin-Caselle, Italy. British Aerospace

Germany protested that the name was associated with World War Two, when the aircraft was used to kill German citizens. In August the consortium finally agreed to rename the Eurofighter 2000 and Typhoon was finally adopted on September 2, 1998, although as time has shown only the UK and Italy use the name.

EFBites

 Martin Baker Mk 16A ejection seats were retro-fitted to the DAs after their first flights.  The first successful firing of a Mauser 27mm cannon took place on March 13, 2002, from aircraft DA3.

First Tranche contracted

During September 1998, a week after the Farnborough Airshow, Eurofighter, Eurojet and the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA) converted the production contracts that were signed on January 30 into fixed-price firm orders valued at DM14 billion ($8.2 billion). The deal covered the first batch of 148 Eurofighter/ Typhoon aircraft (Germany 44, Italy 29, Spain 20 and UK 55 aircraft) and 363 EJ 200 engines. Also included in the deal were spare engines and other equipment for this initial batch, as well as funding for long lead items for the second batch of 236 aircraft. Being tasked with overseeing the procurement of weapon systems for the air forces of the four partners, NETMA played a key part in the Eurofighter’s evolution. By early 1999, construction of the first production Eurofighter was underway right across Europe, with all the partners working on the first sub-assemblies and components. Production halls and hangars

were also being built at the facilities of Alenia (Italy) and CASA (Spain). Sub assembly of the front-fuselage commenced at BAE during December 1998, as did the centre-fuselage at DASA, while CASA had commenced sub assembly on its first right wing in January 1999. In a

press briefing on March 3, 1999, it was announced that assembly of the first of five instrumented production aircraft (IPA) was scheduled to occur during late 2000, first flight in 2001 and deliveries to commence in 2002. The first three were two-seaters – IPA1 operated by BAE tasked for defensive aids sub-system integration; IPA2 (Alenia) for air-tosurface weapon integration and sensor fusion; IPA3 (DASA) for air-to-air weapons integration; IPA4 (CASA) the first single-seater, was for air-to-surface weapon integration as well as environmental trials; while IPA5 was the second aircraft for BAE, for air-to-air and airto-surface weapon integration. BAE’s Director of New Eurofighter Business, Mike Rudd, was tasked with finding additional business over the 620 aircraft ordered by the four founder countries. He believed “delays to Eurofighter have found it only now being prepared for production, just as world demand is set to increase, and sees Eurofighter with a potential export sale of up to 1,000 aircraft”. As so often, that now sounds wildly optimistic, because 15 years on the Eurofighter has sold 99, to Austria (15), Saudi Arabia (72) and Oman (12) in addition to the 496 the four partners have agreed to buy so far.

Above: DA7/MM-X603 was the second prototype to be powered by the EJ200 engine (the other was Italian too) and made its first flight from Turin-Caselle on January 27, 1997. Alenia

20 | EUROFIGHTeR

DA3 MMX602 was the first jet to be powered by the EJ200 but as well as engine tests, the aircraft was used for weapons and store testing. Alenia

The four companies known then as Alenia, BAE, CASA and DASA involved within the Eurofighter Gmbh consortium, carved up the world’s export markets between themselves. The company with the strongest regional links was left to market the Eurofighter. BAE was responsible for marketing Eurofighter to Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and UAE. Germany’s DASA was making headway in Greece, which in February 1999 looked set to order up to 80 Eurofighters in a contract worth around $4.54 billion, with deliveries scheduled after 2005. However as Greece headed towards signing up to the European monetary union, the Greek Government looked to keep a tighter grip on its finances…the consequences of its finance management became all too visible some years later. Reality eventually hit home, when on March 29, 2001, the Greek Government postponed the purchase

Above: The sixth prototype to fly was DA5/98+30, the first single-seater to be powered by an EJ 200. Chief Test Pilot, Wolfgang Schirdewahn flew the aircraft for one hour from Manching, Germany, on February 24, 1997. Eurofighter GmbH Below: On March 14, 1997, British Aerospace finally got their second prototype, DA4/ZH590, into the air. Flown by BAe Chief Test Pilot Derek Reeh, it was the last DA to fly and incorporated the ECR 90 radar. It was the only DA to make its maiden flight in primer. British Aerospace

to beyond 2004, in order to finance the Olympic Games, which it was due to host that year. Other export campaigns in the early 2000s were being run in the Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea and Singapore, but Eurofighter failed to capture any of the markets, mainly because the jet was not mature enough at that time to be a real competitor. Even so, Major Frode Evenson, a test pilot from the Royal Norwegian Air Force Material Command, flew Eurofighter DA5 on three evaluation flights in December 1998 and was impressed. “Even for an F-16 pilot, the maximum power of the aircraft is absolutely impressive,” he enthused. Evenson was the 29th pilot from five nations to fly the aircraft at that time. The RSAF failed to down-select the Eurofighter and in a statement issued on April 21, 2005, Singapore’s MINDEF noted ‘the Typhoon is a very capable aircraft but its proposed delivery schedule did not meet RSAF requirements’. The RSAF wanted their Next Fighter Replacement Programme  DA4 spent mid-1998 caged at BAE Warton for lightning strike trials.  DA5 notched the Eurofighter’s 1,000th sortie on May 18, 1999.

EFBites

22 | EUROFIGHTER

Review
DA1
DA1/98+29 first flew on March 27, 1994, but it was more than two years before its first official airshow appearance at ILA 96, held in Berlin from May 13-19, 1996. In doing so it made the type’s first public flying display. This aircraft was also used for arrestor hook trials and by the end of 1997 had its RB 199 engines replaced by the newer EJ 200 powerplant, plus a major cockpit modification, allowing it to rejoin later phases of the flight test programme. The prototype was formally retired following its last sortie on December 21, 2005, at Manching, having accumulated 498 flying hours. It is now on display at the Deutsches Museum, Oberschleissheim.

Prototype

DA2

Ten days after the first flight of DA1, on April 6, 1994, the Warton-built DA2/ZH588 made its maiden flight with Chris Yeo, BAe’s Defence Director of Flight Operations, at the controls. The two aircraft had flown a combined 15 hours of test flying when, by early August 1994, both DA1 and DA2 were grounded for a planned flight control system and avionics upgrade that included cockpit displays, instrumentation and associated systems. DA2/ZH588 eventually got back into the air on May 17, 1995, with Chris Yeo in the hot seat to kick-start a second phase of the

(15,240m) and completed initial engine certification testing. In June 2000 the jet was re-sprayed black overall for more test flights. They included a series of high Mach, high angle of attack and high G manoeuvres at low altitude to examine the effects on the aircraft’s carbon fibre materials. This saw 490 transducers attached to the starboard side with black suction cups; hence the need for a new colour scheme to improve the aircraft’s appearance. The first pressure plotting flight occurred on July 28, to validate flight and ground test equipment as well as obtaining the first data, later used for comparison against wind tunnel tests. The jet deployed to RAF Leuchars, Fife, from flight development programme. September 28-October 12, 2000, for two Accompanied by a Tornado GR1 chase plane, weeks of trials over the North Sea as part of its John Turner (the EF-2000 project pilot, who supersonic handling programme. During the shouldered much of the planned intensive detachment it was flown by BAE flying) flew the jet for 1 hour 22 minutes. Systems Eurofighter test pilot, Keith Hartley Getting DA2 back in the air allowed the and Squadron Leader Graham Archer. DA2 Eurofighter finally to make an became the first to complete 500 test appearance at the Paris Air Show, flights, on January 12, 2003, with albeit in the static. Turner flew it Chief Test Pilot Paul Hopkins from BAE Warton to Paris on on board. The aircraft was its 18th flight on June 9 then “By mid-2000, finally retired on January flew it back to its base 29, 2007, after flying 615 on June 13 to resume DA5 had explored hours, the highest of any flight testing. It also around 90% of the Development Aircraft, It appeared, albeit briefly, jet's envelope and is now displayed at the at the International Air RAF Museum in Hendon. Tattoo at RAF Fairford, achieved regular Gloucestershire, during supercruise without July 1995. DA2 finally DA3 afterburner” made its first official flying DA3/MMX602 made its first appearance, carrying two flight from the Alenia-Caselle ASRAAMs and four AMRAAMs, facility on June 4, 1995, with at Farnborough in September chief test pilot Napoleone 1996. BAe Chief Test Pilot Paul Hopkins Bragagnolo at the controls. DA3 became took DA2 to Mach 2.0 on December 23, 1997. the first to fly with wing mounted fuel tanks in On January 12, 1998, it flew a series of air-toJanuary 1998. It completed engine initial air refuelling trials with a VC-10, simultanecertification testing and flew supersonically ously completing its longest flight to date (see with 220-gallon (1,000 litre) tanks in 1999. page 24). During 1999 DA2 flew to 50,000ft Its last flight occurred on February 7, 2006, having flown 368 hours. It was initially placed in store at Caselle, where it is now being Below: The two British Aerospace Eurofighter DA preserved. aircraft — DA2 and DA4. All photos, Eurofighter GmbH

EUROFIGHTeR | 23

Above: DA6 in action, though it was written off in a crash on November 21, 2002.

DA4

Two-seater DA4/ZH590 was the last of the seven prototypes to fly, on March 14, 1997, although it was actually rolled out on May 4, 1994! Incorporating the ECR 90 radar, the aircraft was flown by BAe Chief Test Pilot, Derek Reeh. It was the first British two-seater as well as the first British-built aircraft with the EJ200 powerplant. Used for two-seat handling, radar development and integration trials, the jet was retired on December 13, 2006, with 395 hours on the clock. Today it is preserved in the AirSpace hangar at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, Cambridgeshire.

DA5

DA5/98+30 became the sixth example to get into the air when it made a one hour flight from Manching on February 24, 1997, in the hands of Chief Test Pilot, Wolfgang Schirdewahn. DA5 was the first Eurofighter to incorporate the ECR 90 radar, in fact it was the

first single-seater with a full avionics fit and as such was the closest to the definitive operational aircraft. The new radar was operational during the first flight, undertaking initial target acquisition and tracking tests against two other aircraft. DA5 went to Rygge AB, Norway, in early-June 1998 for a series of flight demonstrations as part of the Royal Norwegian Air Force’s search for 20 aircraft as an F-5, early F-16 replacement. As it is, the competition against the F-16 Block 50N was never concluded. By mid-2000, DA5 had explored around 90% of the jet’s envelope and achieved regular supercruise without afterburner, demonstrations of high-sortie rates, launching air-to-air missiles and proving aerodynamic agility. In May 2003 the jet began a refit that involved the installation of production standard avionics and it resumed test flying later in the year. As DA5 is a non-production standard airframe, some of the ‘black boxes’ had to be

accommodated in place of the Mauser 27mm cannon magazine of the aircraft. On May 8 2007, the aircraft flew at EADS/ Manching with the new CAESAR (CAPTOR Active Electronically Scanning Array Radar) system. On October 30, 2007, it was withdrawn from use after 463 flying hours. It is now used as a travelling ground exhibit serialled ‘31+30’.

DA6

Spanish Eurofighter dual-seat prototype DA6/ XCE.16-01 carried out its first test flight on August 31, 1996, from CASA’s Getafe facility. Piloting the aircraft was CASA’s Director of Flight Operations, Alfonso de Miguel, who flew the aircraft for 55 minutes with no snags. In March 2000 the jet completed environmental testing trials in the UK at DERA Boscombe Down, Wiltshire and also flew with a Flight Aircrew Liquidation System. The aircraft was written off in a crash on November 21, 2002, from which both pilots escaped (see panel, ‘DA-6 is Lost’ on Page 18).

DA7

Above: DA7, the second Italian prototype, spent a considerable amount of time involved in weapons trials. It was the only DA to be fitted with a working PIRATE passive sensor system. Eurofighter GmbH

DA7/MM-X603 made its first flight from A lenia-Caselle on January 27, 1997 and was the second prototype to be powered by the EJ200 engine. It was used to integrate the navigation and communications systems, and for weapons development. It appeared at the Paris Air Show, held on June 14-21, 1997, alongside DA6/XCE.16-01, with the pair flying together during the latter part of the week. On December 15, 1997, the first ever missile was launched, from the aircraft. Flown by test pilot Maurizio Chell, it fired an AIM-9L Sidewinder over the Decimomannu ranges in Sardinia and on December 17 the jet successfully fired an AMRAAM. The aircraft appeared at the Paris Show in 2003, carrying the code ‘345’. DA7 was retired having been flown 475 hours, and officially withdrawn from use at Cameri on September 10, 2007, where it is now preserved.

24 | EUROFIGHTeR

BAe Chief Test Pilot Paul Hopkins took DA2 on a series of successful air-to-air refuelling trials over the Irish Sea, along with a VC-10 tanker on January 12, 1998. MOD

aircraft in service by 2008 and were concerned Eurofighter would not be ready to fulfil the RSAF’s full requirement by then.

On board systems

As for systems, a rough division of labour made BAE Systems responsible for avionics, EADS Germany (formerly DASA) for flight controls, Alenia for utility controls and EADS Spain (formerly CASA) for structures. On a more detailed level, BAE Systems is responsible for avionics integration, displays and control, integrated monitoring and recording systems, defensive aids, aircrew equipment assembly, electrical and fuel systems, crew EFBites escape (Martin  DA6 was used for Baker Mk 16 ejector high temperature seat) and life trails at Morón, Spain support systems. in summer, 1998. Three production batches, known  DA7 was used as Tranches, were for weapons originally planned integration and was to be delivered as the first to fire follows: Tranche AIM-9L Sidewinder, 1 – 148 aircraft AIM-120B AMRAAM (from 2000-2005), and AIM-132 Tranche 2 – 236 ASRAAM. (2005-2010) and

Above left: This poor photo captures the first time a missile was ever launched from a Eurofighter. Flying Alenia’s DA7, test pilot Maurizio Chell, fired an AIM-9L Sidewinder air to air missile over the Decimomannu ranges in Sardinia on December 15, 1997. Alenia Above: Covered with test symbology, a 1,000 litre external fuel tank was dropped for the first time in December 1997, by DA7. Eurofighter GmbH Above right: Thorn EMI (now part of Thales) was playing a key role in developing the Infra-Red Search and Track IRST syetsm known as PIRATE for the new Eurofighter 2000. The company was a leading member of the Eurofirst consortium comprising Italy’s FIAR (lead contractor), Thorn EMI (system technical authority) and Tecnobit of Spain. Thorn EMI

Above: In March 2000, Spain’s DA6 deployed to DERA Boscombe Down for full environmental test trials, which saw it use the blower tunnel and icing facility to simulate in-flight icing conditions. MOD

EUROFIGHTER | 25
Tranche 3 – 236 (2010-2015). As we know now, delays meant the dates were never met, but the three tranches equate roughly to the three steps in the phased operational capability, which are dependent on software updates. Production Software Package (PSP) 1 related to the basic air defence and training missions from the time of the aircraft’s initial operational capability. It features visual identification (visident) steer, energy cue, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator and ability to fire off-boresight AIM-9L Sidewinders or Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missiles (ASRAAM). In late 2001, PSP-2 was expected to be in the air from the 3,000th flight onwards and related to the full air defence role, featuring the Defensive Aids Sub-System (DASS), MultiFunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) and Direct Voice Input (DVI) to increase survivability, interoperability and enhanced man/machine interface (MMI). The Selex ES DASS is one of many Eurofighter showcase components on the jet. It features integrated jamming against most advanced threats, spherical field of vision, long range detection and identification, phased array technology and co-ordinated radio frequency jamming,

Above: On January 30, 1998, the three major contractors involved in Eurofighter, Eurojet GmbH, NETMA and Eurofighter finally signed a production contract to build the aircraft. Left to right: Ken Greenall (Eurojet GmbH), Jack Gordon (NETMA) and Brian Phillipson (Eurofighter GmbH) after the deal had been done, behind the model of a Eurofighter 2000 as it was called then. PA

expendables such as chaff and flares, plus manoeuvre cues for the pilot to stay out of harm’s way. The system features a rear missile warner, nose mounted laser warner, flare and chaff dispensers, a front missile warner, towed decoy from the starboard wing tip counter-balanced by an ESM/ECM pod on the port.

Above right: Several export campaigns were being run in the early 2000s. Major Frede Evenson, a test pilot of the Royal Norwegian Air Force flew DA5 in August 2000. Above left: Lt Gen Dick Berlijn (left) Commander in Chief Royal Netherlands Air Force, with Eduardo Cuadrado the EADS CASA test pilot and head of the Getafe Flight Unit, after his test fl ight in DA6.

Baseline munitions carried and trialled by IPA5 in the early days included AIM-120C AMRAAM, ASRAAM, 1,000lb (454kg) bombs, BL755 cluster bombs and basic ALARM. In Tranche 2, this was to be expanded to include BVRAAM, precision guided munitions, Paveway II, a laser designator pod, Storm Shadow and Brimstone. The base-line air defence configuration back then was expected to be a pair of ASRAAMs (now four) and four AIM-120C AMRAAMs and now used for Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire; Leuchars, Fife and in the Falklands. The swing-role configuration was covered by PSP-3, which should cover Forward Looking Infra-Red/Infra-Red Search and Track (FLIR/IRST), Helmet Mounted Sighting System (HMSS), full DASS and sensor fusion to enhance survivability, improved situational awareness. Initially PSP-3 was due after 5,000 flights to allow the aircraft to gain its full operational capability, but that was soon to change.

e

In June 2000, DA2/ZH588 was re-sprayed in an overall black paint scheme to hide the 490 pressure transducers on the aircraft as it was prepared for more test flights. The trials were needed to validate work carried out in the wind tunnel. MOD

26 | EUROFIGHTER

IPAs Are Go
As production aircraft came together from their assembly lines around Europe in the first decade of the 21st century, the Eurofighter project stepped up a gear, as potential weapons systems and software suites began to be added to the mix

S

ERIAL PRODUCTION of the Eurofighter was in full swing as the new millennium kicked off, with a centre fuselage section for the first Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) being delivered to DaimlerChrysler Aerospace at Augsburg, Germany. The section was fitted out at the DASA facility in Manching. After production was completed, on September 6, 2000, the centre-section was delivered to BAe Warton, where it was mated to the Alenia built rear fuselage. The Final Assembly Integrated Product Team (IPT) then set about marrying them to the front fuselage, prior to adding the EADS-Spain and Alenia built wings, along with various electrical and mechanical systems, following which power was switched on during December 2001. Production at the BAe Warton site was followed by work commencing at Alenia Aerospazio of Italy, EADS-Germany and

Above: The impressive sight of IPA3/98+03 flying with what was then the heaviest ever Eurofighter load during February 2006. Underneath its wings are four AMRAAMs and two IRIS-T short range missiles, three external fuel tanks and four Paveway IIs. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

EADS-Spain. The first aircraft, IPA1 serialled ZJ699 (Build No PT001), was eventually used by BAE Systems for Defensive Aids SubSystem (DASS) integration work and is still flying today, mainly on Meteor Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM) and Data Air Computer (DAC) work.

A hat-trick

The first of a trio of first flights in Spring 2002, was made by Alenia’s IPA2/MM.X614, at Turin-Caselle, Italy, on April 5, 2002. Flying the aircraft on its 25-minute flight was Alenia test-pilot Maurizio Cheli. Three days later, on April 8, the first German series production aircraft, dual-seater IPA3/98+03, made

its maiden flight from the EADS facility at Manching. Flying it was EADS test pilot Chris Worning, along with Lt Col Robert Hierl of WTD61, Germany’s official flight test centre. After the flight, a happy Chris Worning enthused, “Our experience with EFBites IPA3 is an enormous  Prototype morale boost.” Eurofighter Then, during DA1/98+29, stored the evening of at Manching since April 16, 2002, being retired on the first British December 21, 2005, series production was finally moved Eurofighter, IPA1/ to a good home on ZJ699, achieved the March 15, 2007, third first flight of when it was the month when driven by road to the it took off from Deutsches Museum BAe Warton for 26 at Oberschleissheim minutes. It had for preservation. been expected to

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Above: PT001, which went on to become ZJ699/IPA1, is seen on the final assembly line at BAE Warton on March 1, 2002, just six weeks before it made its first flight. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

Above: Tyhoon Project Pilot Keith Hartley and BAE Systems Chief Test Pilot Paul Hopkins flew the first production aircraft, PT001 serialled ZJ699, which is IPA-1 on April 16, 2002. The aircraft was still in primer. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

fly in mid-2001 but met with delays. Project pilot Keith Hartley flew the aircraft, with BAE Systems chief test pilot Paul Hopkins in the rear seat. All three jets were joined by the last pair of IPAs, plus the first single-seat production aircraft, in 2004. With the seven Eurofighter Development Aircraft (DA), all 12 jets could complete flight-testing and certification. Another significant milestone in the Eurofighter programme had been reached on April 9, 2002, when BAE Systems twinseat development aircraft, DA4, successfully carried out the first ever fully-guided firing of a live Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). Piloted by BAE Systems test pilot Craig Penrice, with WSO Stan Ralph in the rear seat, DA4 flew from BAE Warton to the QinetiQ range at Benbecula in the Hebrides, where it tracked and targeted an unmanned Mirach target before successfully firing

IPAs and ISPAs
Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPAs) are built on the production line designed specifically for developing the Eurofighter, whereas the Development Aircraft (DA) were built in a cradle. There are also several Instrumented Series Production Aircraft (ISPA) that have emerged from the production line for use by one of the four Partner Companies which can then be transferred back into service with the partner nations. the AMRAAM. Describing the flight, Craig Penrice said, “The radar acquired the Mirach at a very long range [believed to be 19 miles (30km)] and continued to track the target all the way through until after the missile actually destroyed the target.” With the four partner nations unable to define a configuration standard for Tranche 2 aircraft, a slowdown in Tranche 1 Eurofighter

deliveries was announced in July 2003. Consequently, Tranche 2 production would also be pushed back “between one and two years and the manufacturing rate reduced” according to the then BAE Systems Chief Operating Officer, Steve Mogford. It soon became evident each nation was developing its own clearance process, tailored to its own requirements, and several more steps had to be taken before the aircraft could officially be delivered to the customer. Problems focused on which weapons would be integrated on to Tranche 2 aircraft, as they had to be balanced against the desire to reduce costs. Nevertheless, the contract was eventually signed by the General Manager of the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Mangement Agency (NETMA) on December 14, 2004, on behalf of the project’s co-ordinating industrial consortia, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeuge Gmbh and Eurojet Turbo GmbH.

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Despite delays by the four partner nations in signing off the contract for 236 Tranche 2 jets, BAE moved ahead with upgrade of early production RAF Tranche 1 aircraft ZJ804 (BT005), which became ISPA1. A third major milestone in the AMRAAM test-firing programme for the Eurofighter Typhoon took place on November 21, 2003, when Alenia’s DA7 aircraft made the first successful launch of an AMRAAM from its outboard under-wing station. Piloting the jet, during a test-flight over the Air Weapons Range at Decimomannu, Sardinia, was Enrico Scarabotto, one of the Alenia test pilots. Launch and separation occurred at 19,600ft (6,000m) at a speed of Mach 1.3, with the aircraft pulling 3g. EADS-CASA assembled the first production single-seat Typhoon (IPA4/PS001), leading to its first flight on February 27, 2004, as C.16-20. IPA4 incorporated the latest level of hardware/software integration and standard EJ200 engine, which was being tested for the

first time in the air. The aircraft joined  The 300th the development Eurofighter Typhoon flight test was delivered on programme, with October 18, 2011, by particular emphasis Cassidian to the on verifying the new Ejercito del Aire communications (Spanish Air Force).  functionalities with audio and MIDS, test-launching of air to surface weapons and environmental flight-testing in extreme temperatures. The communications enhancements on IPA4/C.16-20 included direct voice instrumentation (DVI), navigation and fuel systems oral information (DVO) and a voice recorder system (VOS) which could be configured for use with several types of helmets and radio interoperable between Typhoon and other platforms. The fifth Eurofighter IPA, ZJ700 (IPA5/ PS002), was also the first UK single-seat

EFBites

production aircraft and made its first flight on June 7, 2004, with Chief Test Pilot Mark Bowman in the cockpit. It was joined by ZJ938 (IPA6/BS031) on November 1, 2007 and 98+07 (IPA7/GS029) on January 16, 2008.

Tranche 2 Production starts

Assembly of the first production standard Tranche 2 Typhoon got under way at BAE Salmesbury in Lancashire in November 2005. Following completion, the front fuselage of Typhoon F2 BS037 was delivered to the UK final assembly line at Warton in October 2006. A massive breakthrough for the programme came on December 21, 2005, when an ‘Understanding Document’ was signed by the Saudi Arabian and British governments, paving the way for the purchase of the Eurofighter Typhoon and a contract for 72 Eurofighters to be signed in 2007. A further document of understanding was agreed ‘aimed at developing the Saudi armed

Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) as at February 6, 2014
Test Ac/(Build No) IPA1/ZJ699 IPA2/MM.X614 IPA3/98+03 IPA4/C.16-20 IPA5/ZJ700 IPA6/ZJ938 IPA7/98+07 IPA8 First Flt 15.4.2002 05.04.2002 08.04.2002 27.02.2004 07.06.2004 23.01.2000 16.01.2008 Late 2014 Last Flt 30.01.2014 11.12.2013 15.05.2013 31.01.2014 02.03.2012 29.01.2014 04.02.2014 Tranche T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 E-Scan T1 T1 T3 E-Scan Company BAES/Warton, UK (PT001) Alenia/Turin-Caselle, Italy (PT002) Was ADS/Manching, Germany, now WTD 61 (PT003) ADS/Getafe, Spain (PS001) BAE/Warton, UK (PS002) BAE/Warton, UK (BS031) ADS/Manching, Germany (GS029) ADS/Manching, Germany (GT026) Remarks With latest Tr1 avionics, to support testing of UK Drops. Upgraded to Tr2 with latest P2Ea standard. Tr2 Hybrid Late Tr1 standard. Upgraded to Tr2 with latest P2Ea standard. Tr2 Hybrid Upgraded for E-Scan radar, with Tr2 Hybrid avionics. Upgraded to Tr2 with latest P2Ea standard. Tr2 Hybrid Only true Tr2 built to Block 8 standard Being assembled for E-Scan radar

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Above: Spain’s IPA4 at Vidsel, Sweden in January 2005 where it was enduring three months of cold weather environmental trials from December 9, 2004. Eurofighter Left: While IPA2/MM.X614 was the second production aircraft, PT002 was the first IPA to fly. Alenia test pilot Maurizio Cheli was at the controls on April 5, 2002. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

Flying Hours
The first 5,000 flying hours were achieved in November 2005; 10,000 hours came in August 2006 and 20,000 in May 2007.  By August 2008, the Eurofighter Typhoon fleet had surpassed 50,000 hours and 100,000 flying hours was reached in January 2011.  In the course of these flying hours, Eurofighter has flown in many international deployments including Alaska, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, the USA and India. forces within the close defence relations binding the two countries in mid-2006. Finally, on September 17, 2007, the Saudi MOD announced that a £4.43 billion firm contract had been signed for the purchase of 72 Eurofighter Typhoons (for more on Saudi Typhoons see Page 88-89).

Above: The Tranche 2 contract was finally signed on December 14, 2004, after several years of delay, which gave the go ahead for production of 236 aircraft – Germany (68), Italy (46), Spain (33) and UK (68). Eurofighter

Working on air to ground needs

From February 2006, six industry-operated aircraft in all four partner nations began working towards a suite of initial air-toground weapons clearances. This saw Eurofighter IPA3/98+03 carry the type’s heaviest external stores load to date that month. Its standard fit, of four AMRAAM medium range and two IRIS-T short range missiles, was accompanied by three external fuel tanks and four Paveway II air to surface precision guided munitions (see lead photo). Take-off weight was an impressive 24 metric tons (24,385kg).

Above: At one point it seemed the German IPA3/98+03 would be the first to fly, but delays meant it took off on April 8, 2002, three days after the Italian IPA2. EADS Test Pilot Chris Worning was flying the aircraft with Lt Col Robert Hierl from WTD 61 in the rear seat. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

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Instrumented Series Production Aircraft (ISPA) as at Feb 6, 2014
Test Ac/(Build No) ISPA1/ZJ804 ISPA2/MM7235 ISPA3/CE.16-10 ISPA4/CS.X7305 ISPA5/ZK303 ‘AX’ First Flt 11.05.2004 09.07.2004 28.06.2011 06.05.2011 22.03.2011 Last Flt 08.06.2009 21.12.2004 05.02.2014 20.01.2014 29.01.2014 Tranche T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 BAE Warton, UK (BT005) DASS/Helmet/Litening LDP - Delivered to RAF Alenia/Turin-Caselle, Italy (IS001) Navigation/Microwave Landing System - To Italian Air Force ADS/Getafe, Spain (ST010) Alenia/Turin-Caselle, Italy INS/FLIR development (IS037) BAE Warton,UK/UK MOD (BT017) Replaced ISPA1/ZJ804

100th German Eurofighter
A FORMAL ceremony on February 28, 2013, at Cassidian’s Military Air Systems Centre at Manching saw the company officially hand over the 100th German Air Force Eurofighter, serial number 31+00.  The aircraft later left the base on its delivery flight to Jagdbombergeschwader 31 (Fighter-Bomber Wing 31) ‘Boelke’ at Norvenich. Some real momentum was now being gained and IPA1/ZJ700 flew its first sortie in an air-to-ground weapons configuration, on April 4, 2006, representative of the proposed Tranche 2 configuration. Weapons fit included six Enhanced Paveway IIs on each of the three inner underwing stores stations, two AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles outboard and a standard 264-gal (1,000litre) external fuel tank on the centreline station. The jet appeared in the same configuration at Farnborough in July 2006, and was put through its paces to thousands of onlookers, showing that Eurofighter was going to be more than an air defender. The aircraft had also released the first UK Paveway II bomb a few weeks earlier, on June 29, 2006 and subsequently flew a series of weapons drops. A latest phase of carefree handling trials began in late July 2006 when DA2/ZH588 was asymmetrically loaded with a single 2,000lb (907kg) GBU-10 Paveway III laserguided bomb on the starboard wing centre pylon. Fitted with a spin recovery chute

Above: The first Block 5, ZJ939 'DXI' of 11 (F) Squadron, lands at RAF Coningsby in September 2009. The DXI code on the tail and the OC’s name under the canopy reveal it as a special aircraft. Key-Alan Warnes

100th RAF Eurofighter
The 100th RAF Typhoon to be delivered, ZK329 ‘FH’, was handed over to 1(F) Sqn at RAF Leuchars, Fife, on January 29, 2013.

gantry for the first two of a seven  IPA2/MM.X614 flight programme, was reconfigured to BAE Systems Tranche 2 Block 8 claimed the flights by Alenia and briefly were the most loaned to RSV. demanding test of the Typhoon’s flight control system yet undertaken. According to BAE Systems “the flight test programme would prove the Typhoon’s carefree handling capability in an extreme configuration, and demonstrate the aircraft’s robustness in the air-to-ground role”. The latest plan at that time was for Tranche 1 Typhoons to carry combined weapons loads of 1,000lbs (453kg) and 2,000lbs (907kg) plus the Litening laser designator pod. By early October 2006, IPA1/ ZJ699 was also being used for flight trials carrying the 2000lb (907kg) GBU-10 Paveway III LGB, but unlike DA2 it did not have the added comfort for the aircrew on board of having a spin recovery chute. Meanwhile, on October 26, 2006, the first Tranche 2 standard Eurofighter began final

EFBites

assembly at Manching and Warton. IPA7, which became 98+07, was the 29th singleseater from the German production line and was used for testing Block 8 Typhoon capabilities, together with IPA6/ZJ938 (BS031). The latter was built as a Tranche 1 aircraft but upgraded to receive the Tranche 2 standard avionics and by October 2006 was undergoing initial ground tests at Warton. On November 20, 2006, IPA3/98+03 flew fitted with a Litening LDP for an environmental data-gathering sortie, in which no problems were revealed. The final configuration for Tranche 1, the Block 5 standard, gained Type Acceptance from NETMA. Under a retrofit programme dubbed R2, all earlier production Tranche 1 aircraft were brought up to Block 5 standard, which gives the aircraft full air-to-ground weapons capability with total carefree handling. The aircraft was also cleared for the 9g envelope, with additional features such as sensor fusion, full direct voice input (FDVI), enhanced GPS, DASS countermeasures including automatic chaff and flare dispensers, plus radar air-to-surface modes including general mapping and initial forward-looking infra-red capability. Regarding weapons, Block 5 aircraft are cleared for AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, IRIS-T and AIM-9L Sidewinder airto-air missiles, plus Paveway II and GBU-16 LGBs. External fuel tanks are certified for supersonic flight and air-to-air refuelling is also cleared for all customer specified tanker types. The first

200,000 flying hours
On September 9, 2013, the Eurofighter Typhoon had achieved more than 200,000 flying hours since the entry-into-service of its worldwide fleet, with 719 aircraft on contract, 571 aircraft ordered and 378 aircraft delivered.

Above: EADS-CASA Test Pilot Alfonso de Castro flew the first single seat production aircraft IPA4/C.16-20, for its maiden flight on February 27, 2004. Eurofighter

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Block 5 aircraft was Spanish Air Force singleseater C.16-30 (SS011), which first flew at Getafe on December 21, 2006. The next step planned for Typhoon at this time was the integration of a laser designation pod into Tranche 1 aircraft, of primary importance to the RAF in 2008. On July 13, 2006, the RAF signed a £56 million contract with Ultra Electronics for the supply of 20 Litening EF Generation III pods, equipped with a data-link and a streaming video capability, with an initial 20-year support contract. The pods were assembled in the UK from components and sub-assemblies supplied from Israel, which led Ultra in the UK becoming a centre of expertise for Litening. In June 2007, ISPA1/ZJ804 started flying with Litening and Enhanced Paveway IIs and was passed on to 17 (R) Sqn for development activity, leading to inert drops in the UK and USA by crews from 3(F) and XI Sqns. By now, it was agreed the Mauser 27mm cannon would become part of the Typhoon’s armoury, after operations in Afghanistan and Iraq underlined its usefulness, especially for a ‘show of force’, when a bomb would give disproportionate effect or an unacceptable risk of collateral damage. By early July 2007, the Eurofighter test fleet of aircraft had flown some 5,000 hours. The first Block 5 to come straight off the production line for the RAF was ZJ939 ‘DXI’ which was delivered to XI Squadron on August 6, 2007.

Above: Major Werner Kriebitz undertakes the first flight from Zeltweg by an Austrian Air Force pilot in Eurofighter 7L-WA (AS001) on July 17, 2007. It came just five days after the aircraft arrived there following its delivery flight from the factory at Manching. Austrian MOD

Type acceptance for Block 8

After years of debate, which eventually led to the Tranche 2 contract being signed on December 14, 2004, some three years

Above: Looking every bit like a bomb truck, Warton-based IPA1/ZJ699 is seen here in April 2006 on flight trials with six Paveway IIs, two ASRAAMs and a 1,000 litre external fuel tank. BAE–Chris Ryding Below: IPA5/ZJ700 is the first UK single-seat production aircraft and made its first flight on June 7, 2004, flown by BAE Chief Test Pilot Mark Bowman (inset). This image captures it flying low level on the south side of the Mach Loop near Dinas village on July 19, 2007. Chris Lofting

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later than envisaged, the first Tranche 2 Eurofighter finally flew, from Manching on January 16, 2008. The German single seat IPA IPA7/98+07 (GS029) which should have become 30+44, was flown by test pilot Chris Worning on its PFAT for 64 minutes. Being the first of the type finished to the full Tranche 2 specification, its initial main task was gaining type acceptance for Block 8. Prior to IPA7’s flight, the final German Air Force Tranche 1 aircraft, 30+42 (GT015) had made its maiden flight on January 8, 2008. Deliveries of Tranche 2 aircraft to the four partner nations began in late 2008: the RAF received its first one on October 10. Italy took its first Tranche 2, at Grosseto, on November 14, 2008, while Spain took delivery of its first three Tranche 2 jets on December 11, 2008. Meanwhile, BAE Systems FGR4 IPA6/ZJ938 (BS031) made its first flight at Warton on November 1, 2007,

Top: IPA5/ZJ700 was put through its paces at the Royal International Air Tattoo in 2011 at RAF Fairford, loaded with four Paveway IIs. The extras didn’t appear to have much effect on the aircraft’s performance. Eurofighter-Geoffrey Lee Above: Typhoon T3 ZJ804 spent nearly five years with BAE Systems as ISPA1 from May 2004. During that time it played a significant part in developing the RAF’s air to ground capability while fitted with a Litening II pod. It returned to the RAF in September 2009 and now flies with 29 (R) Sqn. Chris Lofting

20 operational units
The global Eurofighter fleet comprises 20 operating units with locations in Europe, the South Atlantic and the Middle East.   Specifically there are: seven units in the UK (four at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire; two at RAF Leuchars, Fife and one at Mount Pleasant, Falkland Islands); five in Italy (two at Grosseto, two at Gioia del Colle and one at Trapani); three in Germany (one each at Laage, Neuburg and Nörvenich), as well as three in Spain (two at Morón and one at Albacete) and one each in Austria (Zeltweg) and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Taif).

with Mark Bowman, BAE Systems’ Typhoon test pilot, at the controls. While IPA6 is essentially a Tranche 1 standard aircraft, it uses the full Tranche 2 mission computer suite and avionics features. The first Tranche 2 EJ200 engine was flown on September 14, 2007, on IPA2/MM.X614 in Italy. Operated by Alenia, IPA2 took on the task of the evaluation and certification work for this new EJ200 version. The significant Tranche 2 features focused mainly on the new mission computers which would deliver the higher processing and memory capacity required for the integration of future weapons such as Meteor, Storm Shadow and Taurus. Differences in the build standard to Tranche 1 were related to changes in production technology and obsolescence.

Tranche 1 testing winds down

When an AMRAAM fired by IPA2 during a test conducted on February 27, 2008, by Alenia slammed into its target at Decimomannu, it signalled the end of weapons testing for the main development contract. All required weapons for operations with Tranche 1 Typhoons were by now cleared including AIM-9L, ASRAAM,

AMRAAM, and IRIS-T for air-to-air combat plus Paveway II, Enhanced Paveway II, GBU-10 and GBU-16 for air-to-ground tasks. Additionally, IPA3 operated by EADS at Manching, completed flight testing of Tranche 1 flight control system software on February 28, 2008. On March 3, ZJ804/ISPA1, based at Warton, concluded integration work on the laser designator pod for the so called ‘austere capability’ for RAF Tranche 1 aircraft. Another step in Typhoon development came in early November 2008, when it was confirmed that flight refuelling tests with an Italian Air Force KC-130J Hercules tanker and MM.X614/IPA2 had been successfully completed at Decimomannu, Sardinia. During these tests, EFBites which included  IPA3/98+03 was one at night, eight used for weapons ‘wet’ contacts integration trials were made – when and deployed to RAF fuel was actually Kinloss for AIM-120C transferred. Similar AMRAAM evaluation trials had started in on May 11, 2010. It Germany with the was accompanied by A310 MRTT. two German AF Flight testing Eurofighters. was now focusing

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on further improvements and Alenia had completed the first phase of flight tests for Phase 1 enhancements, involving IPA2 flying with Paveway IV GPS/laser guided bombs in various configurations for flutter trials in early 2009. Additional testing was undertaken by IPA1/ZJ699 and IPA4/C.16-20 at EADS CASA with both 500lb (227kg) Paveway IV and the 1,000lb (454kg) dual mode precision guided EGBU-16 Enhanced Paveway II. IPA1 was flying from BAE Warton by late April, 2009, with six Paveway IVs on underwing pylons along with Sidewinders, ASRAAMs and a centre-line fuel tank: a realistic operational configuration. Paveway IV had become one of the RAF’s ‘weapons of choice’ in Afghanistan, where it was being used so effectively by Harriers to reduce collateral damage and allow use close to friendly troops, that getting it operational on Typhoon was a priority. However, problems were to surface: it soon became evident the aircraft’s computers could not interact with Raytheon’s Paveway IV satellite and laser guided bomb’s advanced electronics. The P1Ea software which allowed the aircraft’s cockpit to interface with the Paveway IV was not functioning properly and as a result prevented full exploitation of the new weapon by Typhoon. Eurofighter, Eurojet and NETMA finally signed a 9 billion Euro Tranche 3a production contract on July 31, 2009, for a further 112 Typhoons, plus 241 engines, for the four partner nations. This brought the total of aircraft on order to 559, including 15 for Austria and 72 for Saudi Arabia. There were plans to sign a contract for Tranche 3B at the end of 2011, but this was postponed and is now unlikely to happen. Tranche 3a comprises 40 for the RAF, 31 for Germany, 21 for Italy and 20 for Spain. Of the RAF aircraft, 24 will replace those ordered in 2004 but diverted to the Royal Saudi Air Force. The contract covered the production of new aircraft and their engines (6.5Bn Euros) as well as 2.5Bn euros on previous Tranche aircraft “to

Above: The last IPA is IPA7/98+07, based at Airbus Defence and Space (formerly EADS Cassidian) at Manching, Germany, where it was seen in February 2014 during Taurus flight trials. An eighth IPA (Build No GT026), a two seat aircraft, is expected to join the flight test programme later this year, when modifications have been completed. Key-Alan Warnes

Germans head for India
With Eurofighter being considered by the Indian Air Force, which has a requirement for 126 Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) two German Air Force Typhoon twoseaters were sent to India in February 2010. Rafale was selected as the preferred option but at the time of going to press no contract has been signed. address obsolescence”. Eurofighter GmbH CEO Enzo Casolini confirmed at the press conference the Unit Fly Away cost for Tranche 3a Typhoons will be between 58-59 million Euros (£50-51 million). Trials aimed at extending in-flight refuelling (IFR) capability took place from October to December 2009. Having been cleared to refuel from the RAF VC-10 and Tristar tankers, BAE Systems was keen to expand the Typhoon IFR capability to other NATO tankers, in particular KC-135s and KC-10s. Flight trials over the Irish Sea were flown by both BAE and RAF Typhoon test pilots using ZJ699/‘IPA1’ and ZJ700/‘IPA5’.
Below: Five jets have been taken off the production line and used as Instrumented Series Production Aircraft (ISPA). This basically sees the gun taken out and an avionics box put in its bay. Spanish ISPA3/CE.16-10 was at Getafe for Litening LDP trials during September 2013. Roberto Yanez

P1E finalised

After an intensive test programme of a first batch of enhancements on IPA4 and IPA7, the Eurofighter was confirmed as able to deliver a robust simultaneous multi-/swing-role capability to the nations’ air forces.   Cassidian announced on October 18, 2013, it had successfully finalized flight testing of the Eurofighter Typhoon Phase 1 Enhancements (P1E) programme.  Work had taken place at Cassidian´s Military Air Systems Centres in Manching,Germany and Getafe,Spain, in co-operation with BAE Systems and Alenia Aermacchi.   ”Phase 1 Enhancements provide a significant leap in Eurofighter’s operational capabilities.  Deploying multiple weapons with attack constraints simultaneously in all weather has never been easier,” said Chris Worning, Cassidian's Eurofighter Project pilot. P1E implements full air-to-surface capability on Eurofighter. This includes the laser designator pod, full smart bomb integration, modern secure Identification Friend or Foe (Mode 5), improved radios and direct voice input, air-to-surface Helmet Mounted Sight System, improved air-to-air capabilities. It also adds updated MIDS (Multifunctional Information Distribution System) datalink functionalities for enhanced interoperability with Coalition Forces.

e

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Perfection M
ANUFACTURE AND final put-together of each Eurofighter are complex, bringing together components from all over Europe to end up at four assembly lines. These four lines are located at Warton, UK; Manching, Germany; Turin-Caselle, Italy and Madrid-Getafe, Spain. This set up results in a fairer distribution of the workshare and while it costs more than a single production line, it ensures each nation has the infrastructure for repairs and servicing for the life of the aircraft. All components and sub-assemblies are single-sourced from the four nations, offsetting final build costs with efficiencies and cost effectiveness.

Production
In the UK
The BAE Systems assembly plant at Salmesbury builds the canards, fin, Stage1 aft fuselage, inboard flaperons and the forward fuselage including the cockpit. It supplies all four assembly lines. Final build in the UK is undertaken at BAE Systems’s Warton facility, where subassemblies are ‘married’ in an automated alignment facility, using numerically controlled jacks integrated with laser-tracked measuring equipment. The German-built centre fuselage, port wing from Italy and starboard wing from Spain are all delivered to Warton in what is termed by Eurofighter GmbH as the ‘just in time’ (JIT) method of scheduling components. Dave McCrudden, Head of Typhoon Final Assembly in Hangar 302 since early January 2014, explains

It takes 9,500 hours and 248 days to build one Eurofighter from start to finish, a process with four assembly lines in four countries. To achieve the required finished result, components and subassemblies criss-cross the continent in an efficient, repeating schedule.

Names in the frame
As a supplier, Eurofighter GmbH is responsible for delivering the Eurofighter Typhoon weapon system to the customers – the partner nations’ air forces who are similarly represented by a quadrinational organisation, the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA). Other elements of the programme have been managed by similar quadrinational bodies: with Eurojet Turbo GmbH looking after the four nation EJ200 engine programme, and with Euroradar, Eurodass and Eurofirst consortia responsible for the radar, defensive aids sub-subystem (DASS) and PIRATE infra-red search and track (IRST) system.

“It started getting faster when Tranche 2 got underway”

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Above: The front fuselage built by BAE Systems is attached to the centre fuselage built by ADS Germany in the ‘Cigar’ at ADS Manching. Aircraft GS094 follows on from two-seater GT027 in front of it and GS093 on the production line. It takes 60 days to get it from here to being fully assembled. Left: Two British forward fuselages, BS126 and BS135 sit waiting for German centre-fuselages at BAE Warton. Behind these, Typhoons for the Royal Saudi Air Force and the RAF are in the later stages of production. All photos, Alan Warnes unless stated Below: Single-seat German Strike (GS) Eurofighter, GS092 was almost completely assembled at the front of the ADS Manching production line in early February 2014 and was due to leave the hangar in 5 days.

how the product line works: “We have managed to cut the time of producing one aircraft from 46 weeks to 26 over the past six years. It started getting faster when Tranche 2 aircraft got underway. Smarter working and repetition are the main reasons.” Of those 26 weeks, six are spent marrying all the different parts, eight matching up all the systems and four weeks to put in the DASS and gun. After everything is tested – generating its own systems rather than being attached to external power – it goes to the

Combat Air Hangar. The Combat Air aircrews (see Testing, Testing, p80) will then test fly the jet. There will be three tests over three weeks when the aircraft’s systems are all tested. Once complete, it takes about two weeks to paint the aircraft in the paint shop. The RAF or Royal Saudi Air Force will then want to see the aircraft with pylons and tanks on in a process taking about a week. In total it takes an impressive 40 weeks to go through the final assembly production to delivery. “Every aircraft takes up to 9,500 man hours

to build,” Dave explains, “24 aircraft will be produced in 2014, split 50/50 between UK and Saudi. There are around six deliveries to Saudi a year, the last two were delivered to the Royal Saudi Air Force in late February.” All the Saudi jets are Tranche 2 but the RAF versions are now Tranche 3. This split was caused by the delay in building the second batch as originally they were going to be built by Al Salam Aircraft in Saudi Arabia. Once completed Eurofighter test-pilots then fly the Typhoons to Saudi Arabia.

Above: Manching: The port wing built in Italy and starboard wing from Spain are ready to be fitted to the fuselage of GS094 when work in the ‘Cigar’ at ADS Manching is complete. Left: Centre-fuselages with their wiring almost complete sit in the gantry at ADS Manching. GS099 is for Germany and will wait until the front fuselage arrives from the UK before it is lifted over to the ‘Cigar’ area. Next to it, BS131 will eventually be transported to BAE Warton, where it will be mated with the forward fuselage.

36 | EUROFIGHTeR

Above: A Saudi Air Force trainer, Build No CT018 sits on the production line at BAE Warton. Under Project Salam, Eurofighter are building 72 Typhoons for Saudi Arabia. Production for the 12 Royal Air Force of Oman Eurofighters will commence in 2016/17.

Above: A Eurojet EJ 200 turbofan engine is set to be pushed into a Eurofighter at the BAE Systems Warton facility. With a maximum thrust of 13,500 lbs dry (60kn) and 20,250 lbs (90kn) with reheat, the powerplant, specifically designed for Europe’s leading fighter, gives the jet a real edge over most contemporaries. BAE Systems Left: At ADS Manching, technicians fit cabling into the centre-fuselage of IS071 destined for Italy. This will eventually go to Caselle to meet up with the forward fuselage built in the UK and the starboard wing from Spain, plus of course the port wing built in Italy.

“24 aircraft will be produced in 2014, split 50/50 between UK and Saudi.”
In Germany
Some 1,000 miles (1,600kms) away from Warton, in Manching near Munich, Airbus Defence Systems (ADS) formerly Cassidian, is responsible for building the centre-fuselage. Most of the fuselage barrel is manufactured in Augsburg, with the remaining part built at Bremen-Lemwerder. Once complete, the basic centre fuselage is delivered to Manching. As a visitor entering the main assembly hangar at ADS, it becomes clear the production process is completely different to that of the other three EPCs. Assembling centre fuselages is ADS’ main production priority and your eyes are drawn to the long line of two-storey work stations. Technicians can work on the ground floor underneath them or on the gantry. Many of them are inserting cables before being despatched to the three other EPCs, where they will be assembled with parts and components from all over Europe. At the top of the hall are the centre-fuselages ready for dispatch. However, if they are centre-fuselages for the

Production and Systems Design
BAE Systems (UK) Front fuselage, canards, windscreen and canopy, centre fuselage frames, dorsal spine, tail fin, inboard flaperons and stage 1 rear fuselage. ADS (Germany) Centre fuselage ADS (Spain) Starboard wing, leading edge slats Alenia (Italy) Port wing, outboard flaperons, rear fuselage

Eurofighter workshare. Red = BAE Systems (UK); Blue = Airbus Defence Systems (Germany); Yellow = Alenia Aeronautica (Italy); Green = Airbus Defence Systems (Spain)

EUROFIGHTeR | 37

Production Workshare
UK 37.5% Germany 30% Italy 19.5% Spain 13%

sites) is added. The system is then tested. Every single cable on the aircraft is checked to ensure everything is connected and working okay. Then comes a fuel test, and afterwards the aircraft is cleaned which takes ten days before it enters the spray shop for a week. After that the Martin Baker Mk 16 ejection seats are installed and the aircraft starts up for the first time on its own power. Then there are two test flights – the first by an industry pilot and a second by the customer takes place. Once the customer takes delivery the whole assembly process will have taken 248 days. Ten aircraft leave final assembly for the German Air Force every year, with production expected to finish in June 2017. All the EPCs are running final assembly lines, despatching their specialist pieces of work to the other companies and vice versa. It’s a practice that seems to works even if it is more expensive, but as Dave McCrudden, Head of Typhoon Final Assembly puts it, “If the workshare had not been worked out, there would have been no agreement and no Eurofighter!” German Air Force they will remain. Head of Eurofighter Production at Manching is Nils Michael. “After the fuselage is assembled we equip it with all the cabling, some 40 miles (60 kms) of it! Replacing a cable when it has a problem is not easy, because you have to open everything up again, so testing for faults is very important.” Before the centre-fuselage is mated with the front fuselage it goes through a Fully Automated Sequence Test (FAST) in the A Test facility, where cabling is checked to ensure its all working correctly. This allows the technicians to isolate any issues, should some problems arise later. The hydraulics are checked in the A-Test along with bladder fuel tanks that spreads throughout the wings and fuselage. Once testing is complete, the centre fuselage is moved to the area referred to as the ‘Cigar’ to be joined up with the front fuselage from BAE Systems. This is the beginning of the final assembly line, where production starts to get into full swing. Next stage sees the port wing from Italy and the starboard wing from Spain attached. During the author’s visit there were three German Eurofighters morphing into aircraft, GT027, GS093 with GS092 edging closer to the exit door. “From the ‘Cigar’ area to leaving the hangar is 60 days,” adds Nils. “It takes 20 days to build the cigar, another 20 to put the wings on, 20 days to put rudder and nose section on and then 20 more days are spent at the Fully Automated Cable Tester (FACT) where all the cabling is checked out. Once completed, the full Eurofighter is lifted by crane and placed next to the hangar door, where it is towed out." Leaving the hangar it goes to Station 4 and 7, where all the equipment such as the DASS (one example of assembly common to multi-

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Above: The Automated Alignment Facility at BAE Warton is where lasers ensure the three main pieces of the fuselage including the leading edge slats from Spain are aligned. This is a Saudi example, CS030. Below: Almost complete and third on the ADS Manching final assembly line, is two-seater GT027.

38 | EUROFIGHTER

THE OFFICE
Take a tour of the cockpit to experience a taste of life as a Typhoon pilot. It is comfortable and spacious with a great field of view.
4 2

4a

3a

3c 3b

5

6

D
1

Jamie Hunter

ONNED WITH the full-coverage anti-G suit you only need to start the anti-g straining above 7gs.

You are wearing Helmet Equipment Assembly (HEA)/Helmet Mounted Sighting System (HMSS) and hooked up by hoses to the On Board Oxygen Generating System (OBOGS). The cockpit is configured so the systems can be managed and information processed quickly and effectively.

keys where the pilot enters the targeting and navigation data or controls avionic system functions. Three Multi Function Displays (MFDs) can be configured in any way the pilot wishes but a typical view is: 3a: The radar’s attack format — intuitively displaying fused radar, IFF, data-link, IRST and DASS information;

2 Here are the sub-systems and system

3

3b: Situational awareness display, with a map and tactical overlays from data-link, radar and IRST; 3c: Vertical profile radar display, laser targeting pod image or DASS info dependent on the mission. Additionally, the aircraft stores page, FLIR imagery, waypoint data, radio frequencies and dedicated systems pages for engine, hydraulics or fuel can be demanded by the press of a button or two words of DVI (eg “display fuel”).

EUROFIGHTeR | 39

1

In front of you is an extra wide Head Up Display (HUD) where flight information, radar, data-link and weapons targeting information is displayed. 4a. Immediately below the HUD is the Head Up Panel (HUP) which displays data-link text messages, missile target data and navigation data necessary to accurately release bombs; plus a headline summary of radio selections, fuel totals and engine figures. Being just below the HUD, its in easy view too.

4

The VTAS (Voice, Throttle And Stick) is Typhoon’s innovative development of HOTAS (Hands On Throttle and Stick). The HOTAS alone enables 115 separate switch selections enabling intuitive control of many combat modes — air to air and air to ground. By pressing a switch and talking, the pilot can control many other aircraft systems using Direct Voice Input (DVI), which helps to ease the workload.

5

picture) are controls to ensure the environment is to your liking – heating, lighting etc and a probe switch to extend the air to air refuelling probe when the tanks need a top-up. Further switches down the left and right hand consoles control power to the avionics systems — usually turned on via a joint ‘gang-bar’ as the pilot climbs into the cockpit, then not touched again until after touchdown at the end of the sortie.

6 On the right (and not seen in this

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42 | EUROFIGHTER

Deutsche
Eurofighters
Dietmar Fenners provides an overview of the Eurofighter at Airbus Defence and Space (formerly EADS-Deutschland) and in German Air Force service

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Below: A JG 73 Eurofighter taxies out at Laage for a night sortie. Eurofighter GmbH/Geoff Lee

UROFIGHTER PRODUCTION started in Germany with aircraft build number PT0003/‘IPA3’ (Instrumented Production Aircraft-3), wearing serial 98+03, making its first flight at Manching on April 8, 2002 with EADS-Deutschland test-pilot Chris Worning in the cockpit. The jet flew three times that day. From then on, IPA 3 was used by EADS for flight testing until it was handed over during October 2008 to the German Armed Forces Test Centre (WTD 61) at Manching. Just over a year later, the Luftwaffe’s first production Eurofighter, GT0001 flew for the first time on February 13, 2003 and its second trip on February 17, 2003, a ferryflight, saw it terminate at Kaufbeuren,

home to the German Air Force’s TSLw 1 (Technical School). Ground crews could then start training training before being posted out to operational squadrons. As the GAF Eurofighter programme started building a head of steam in September 2003, WTD 61 pilots and Luftwaffe’s Service Instructor Pilot (SIPT) programme, which new air force pilots joined, commenced their training at Manching with EADS-Deutschland. This culminated in the first training flight taking place on September 4, 2003 on aircraft GT0003, with pilot in command Oberstleutnant (OTL) Georg Pepperl and EADS-D Instructor Chris Worning from EADS. This was Chris’s 286th flight in a Eurofighter, which highlights the work put into the programme before GAF pilot training got underway. After nearly eight months of SIPT work, the first Eurofighter was delivered to Jagdgeschwader (Flying Wing) 73 “S“ at Laage on April 30, 2004. When Germany contracted for a total acquisition of 180 aircraft from the Eurofighter consortium NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA) on October 8, 1997, the order was divided into three tranches.

Tranche 1

A contract for 44 aircraft was signed on September 21, 1998, although nine of these

EUROFIGHTER | 43

Above: The first serial production Eurofighter, IPA3/98+03 (GT001) sits in the EADS Test Hangar during May 2003. Behind it are two dual seaters still in primer, GT002 (left) which went onto become 98+32 and on the right is GT003 which was serialled 98+33 before both were delivered to the GAF’s JG 73 at Laage. They went on to become 30+02 and 30+03 respectively. Eurofighter Gmbh/Geoff Lee

Above: The first two-seater Eurofighter 98+31 GT001 was flown to the GAF’s Technical School 1 (TSLw1) at Kaufbeuren on February 17, 2003, after its one and only flight, to allow ground schooling to commence. The jet, with just one hour and 27 minutes flying hours, was returned to Manching on June 20, 2006 for an R2 upgrade and is expected to fly again in July 2014. Dietmar Fenners

Tranche 1 aircraft were subsequently diverted to Austria - six ex Luftwaffe aircraft and three direct from the production line. All the Tranche 1 Block 1 and 2 aircraft were brought up to the Block 5/SRP4 standard via the R2 upgrade. The last Tranche 1 aircraft GT0015 was delivered to JG 74 at Neuburg on March 26, 2008.

Tranche 2

68 aircraft were contracted on December 14, 2004 plus another nine originally bound for Austria but diverted from the production line to the Luftwaffe as described above. The first Tranche 2 Eurofighter , GS029/‘IPA7’ made its first flight, with Chris Worning in the

FgAusbZLw ( Flight Traning Centre Luftwaffe)
Eurofighter Pilot training will move, in 2017 at the earliest, from Laage to the FgAusbZLw at Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 24 Eurofighters will be based there. With the move of pilot training from Laage to Holloman it may adopt the standards of TakLwG 73 “Steinhoff“. Operation units will then all fly in the multi mission role, switching between air to air and air to ground, at Neuburg, Nörvenich and Wittmund.

Disposition of Eurofighter by 2018
No. 31 31 31 20 24 2-3 3 IPAs 143 Location Laage Neuburg Nörvenich Wittmund Holloman AFB TAusbZ Süd (Technical Training Centre South, ex TSLw 1). Now Kaufbeuren but by 2017 is expected to move to Lechfeld Manching Total

Landing at Manching on October 22, 2004 is the first single-seater to be delivered to the Luftwaffe, 98+39 (GS002). The aircraft eventually traded in its pre-acceptance serial for 30+07. Dietmar Fenners

44 | EUROFIGHTeR

TaktLwG 31 “Boelcke“ (fromer JaboG 31 “Boelcke”)
The first two Eurofighters, 31+14 and 31+16 arrived at Norvenich, the home of JaboG 31 “Boelcke“ on December 16, 2009. Around 31 Eurofighter will be based at Nörvenich, While their main role is air to air, TaktLw G 31 “B“, will in the future re-equip with Tranche 3a and later up-dated Tranche 2 SRP then upgrade to a multi-mission, air to air and air to ground role. In an interesting move, on October 1, 2013 the third squadron of TaktLwG 31 “Boelcke“ was formed at Wittmund under newly renumbered JG 71 “R“ traditions to become the Taktische Luftwaffengruppe “Richthofen“, with around 20 Eurofighters under its control by 2018. The unit will look after QRA for northern Germany. Oberst Andreas Hoppe has been Commander, TaktLwG 31 “Boelcke“ since July 2010. cockpit on January 16, 2008 and the Luftwaffe received its first Tranche 2, AS0008 which was originally bound for Austria on January 8, 2009. It is planned to deliver the last Tranche 2 jet, GT0025 this summer. Tranche 2 aircraft are split in Block 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15 with SRP5 software.

TaktLwG31 at Norvenich took delivery of its first pair of Typhoons in December 2009 although a few years passed until they started accepting more, due to a slowdown in deliveries. The unit will eventually take delivery of the first Tranche 3a aircraft and become the first multi-role Eurofighter wing. Dietmar Fenners

Tranche 3

Tranche 3 has been split into two - 3a and 3b, with 31 aircraft contracted as Tranche 3a on June 17, 2009. The first jet, GS089 is expected to make its first fight in summer 2014. One of the Tranche 3A jets, GT026 is destined to become the eighth Instrument Production Aircraft (IPA8) and set to become the second example, after BAE Systems’ IPA5 to house the Selex ES ‘E-Scan’ Captor-E radar. IPA 5 is currently going through a program to fit the ‘E-Scan’ radar. Tranche 3A is split between Block 20 & 25 in SRP10. The last Tranche 3A Eurofighter is expected to be delivered to the Luftwaffe in early 2018. In October 2011 Germany's Ministry of Defence announced that the Tranche 3B aircraft will be cancelled. Thus the Luftwaffe will have 140 on their inventory while another three IPAs work with EADS-Deutschland and the German Armed Forces Test Centre (WTD 61). By early February, 2014, 112 Eurofighters had been delivered to the Luftwaffe.

Above: The 400th Eurofighter, 31+06 was handed over to the German Air Force on December 4, 2013. It eventually left the snowy Airbus Defence and Space (ADS) facility at Manching on February 6, 2014 bound for TaktLwG 31 (all Eurofighter units are now named Tactical Luftwaffe Groups) at Norvenich. Dietmar Fenners Below: Heading to Alaska. Eight JG 74 Typhoons deployed to Eielson AFB for Red Flag Alaska in June 2012,. For more on this see 'German Stars', p48-49. Eurofighter GmbH

Above: All training was consolidated at Laage from March 1, 2010 for a year because of a lack of deliveries to the other two units at Neuburg and Norvenich, not helped by Austrian pilots taking up training slots. In July 2010, 17 GAF Eurofighters deployed to Deci to carry out High Value Combat Air Training (HVCAT) in the huge Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation (ACMI) Range. For more on this detachment see 'Work Hard, Play Hard' p46-47. Key-Alan Warnes

EUROFIGHTER | 45

Above: A JG 74 pilot runs to his aircraft, which is sitting on Quick Reaction Alert at Neuburg in April 2009. Eurofighter GmbH/Geoff Lee

Eurofighter Disposition
Location Laage Neuburg Norvenich Squadron TakLwG 73 ‘Steinhoff’ TakLwG 71 ‘Richtofen’ TakLwG 31 ‘Boelcke’ Type Eurofighter Eurofighter Eurofighter Eurofighter (in 2017/18) Eurofighter

Holloman AFB, FgAusbZLw USA Manching WTD 61

Training Centralisation

From March 2010, for a year or so, the Luftwaffe centralised their Eurofighter flying operations, which led to JG 74 and JaBoG 31 merging operations with JG 73 ‘S’ at Laage. Slower than expected deliveries meant that pilots were not being trained as quickly as hoped across the Eurofighter units. The problem came about for a number of reasons – the Austrians took nine, the retrofit of Block 1 and 2 aircraft to Block 5 was extended by six months and the delivery

of Block 8s from Tranche 2 were delayed. It was a tricky situation. The 19 Eurofighters based during the time at Laage were not enough for an efficient flying training syllabus, so centralising it was deemed the best way forward. All four bases have a Cockpit-Trainer (CT) and an Full-Mission-Simulator (FMS). Today pilots fly around 40 hours of their 180 NATOStandard hours a year in the simulator. Going forward, the release of Software P1E/SRP10 will coincide with delivery of the first Tranche 3a Eurofighter later this year (GS0089) and up-date Tranche 2 aircraft too. The IPAs at Manching-based Airbus Defence and Space start later this year with flight testing of the P2E software which will included integration of MBDA Meteor, MBDA Storm Shadow and the Taurus KEPD 350. In 2016 IPA 8, the first Tranche 3A aircraft should start operational flight testing with the ‘E-Scan’ Captor-E radar on board.

TakLwG 74 (former JG 74) at Neuburg

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Above: Eurofighter 98+32 comes into land at Manching on April 7, 2004 during a SIPT sortie. Within days this aircraft was delivered to Laage. Dietmar Fenners

The first four Eurofighters arrived at Neuburg’s JG 74 on July 25, 2006. The F-4Fs continued fly alongside the new jets until June 12, 2008 when they were retired. On June 3, 2008 the Eurofighter took over QRA (Quick Reaction Alert) for southern Germany and since January 2012, the unit has been part of the NATO Response Force (NRF). The first main deployment with the Eurofighter saw eight jets deploy to Eielson AFB, Alaska from May to late June 2012 for Exercise Distant Frontier and later Red Flag Alaska. The Eurofighter was refuelled by a Luftwaffe A.310MRTT and made one fuel stop at CFB Goose Bay, Labrador. All eight Alaska aircraft were Block 5 aircraft with latest R2P Radar Software, Have Quick Radios and enhanced Multifunction Information Distribution System (MIDS). Both Squadrons from the JG 74 at Neuburg have taken on the ‘Bavarian Tiger’ traditions, which were handed over on Monday, March 18, 2013 by Lt.Col Jörg Schröder, former CO of the disbanded JaboG 32/ 321 Squadron, the Tiger GAF’s former home. On Friday June 21, 2013, during the NATO Tiger Meet at Orland, Norway the gathering of squadron commanders approved the probationary membership status of JG 74. TaktLw G 74's main task is air-to-air but when the Tranche 3a capability is proven and updated Tranche 2 SRP jets follow, the unit will move to multi-mission, including air to ground. Around 31 Eurofighter will eventually be based at Neuburg. Col. Frank Gräfe has been Commander of TaktLwG 74 since March 2013.

46 | EUROFIGHTER

Play Hard
B
What happens when Eurofighters from two air forces get together for summer camp? One of the first regular German Air Force (GAF) Eurofighter deployments to Deci took place in 2010, when training was being consolidated at JG 73. Here’s a guide to what happened.
ACK IN June and early July 2010, GAF Eurofighters were seen blasting out of Decimommanu Air Base in Sardinia, Italy. The facility’s big long ramp with its metal mobile fuel bowsers hosted 17 German jets in addition to two Italian Typhoons. Witnesses were able to feast their eyes on the longest flight-line of Eurofighters yet seen. The previous year just eight German Eurofighters had deployed to the idyllic Mediterranean island but four months after the GAF had consolidated all its Eurofighter training at Laage, more pilots needed training.

Work Hard
replace the F-4F Phantom and Tornado in Germany. Until then, Laage-based JG 73 along with JG 74 at Neuburg and JbG 31 at Norvenich were all transitioning to the Eurofighter, using their own assets. However, training Austrian Eurofighter pilots for 18 months meant the GAF’s training pipeline was blocked, and with large number of aircraft being sent to EADS (now Airbus ADS) for upgrade to Block 5, the situation was getting worse. In 2010, similarly to 2014, JG 73 was training Instructor Pilots, Transition (TX) pilots transferring from other GAF fighters or ‘rookie’ pilots coming straight from basic training with the Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training (ENJJPT) program at Sheppard AFB, Texas.

Training the Austrian pilots undoubtedly impacted the GAF. The Austrian Air Force received its first Eurofighters on July 12, 2007 which formally entered service in July 2008 with the last of 15 aircraft arriving on September 24, 2009. With every Austrian pilot trained over an 18 month period at Laage, it deprived the GAF of a training slot for one of its own pilots.

The Team

Training Blockage

Urgent action was needed to boost the numbers qualifying to fly an aircraft that would

The JG 73 detachment included over 300 personnel supporting one of the biggest GAF detachments in recent years. The Detachment Commander, Lt Col Gerd Estenderfer, was a former F-4F pilot who had flown around 420 hours in Eurofighters since converting to the type in June 2007. “We flew four 4-ship formations to Deci via Switzerland but during the second week two aircraft went back to Laage for scheduled maintenance which were replaced by three

GAF Training
Course I- Course Austria Course TX Course B Course Number of Missions 45 Flying Missions 24 flying missions 24 flying missions 45 flying missions Number Sim Missions 48 sim missions 29 sim missions 29 sim missions 48 sim missions Number of Training Days 50 training days 70 training days 70 training days 130 training days Solo Solo after 7 flights Solo after 4 flights Solo after 4 flights Solo after 7 flights

Top: The GAF Detachment Commander, Lt Col Gerd Estenderfer had flown around 420 hours on Eurofighters in the summer of 2010. Above: The new medium range IRIS-T missile will replace the AIM-9L Sidewinder in Germany. Left: A JG 73 Eurofighter fitted with an IRIS-T medium range missile departs the Deci runway for another clash with Italian Typhoons in the ACMI Range. All photos, Key-Alan Warnes

EUROFIGHTeR | 47

Above: One of the five two-seat Eurofighters taxies out. There were six students at Deci, four Tornado pilots, a former F-16 pilot and a newly qualified pilot. DACT with the Italians also provided the more experienced pilots with a chance to brush up their air combat skills.

further examples,” he explained at the time. “We are here to carry out High Value Combat Air Training (HVCAT) in the huge Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation (ACMI) range along with the Italian Air Force. This will see us flying against their Typhoons to find out how they do things. “There are 19 pilots here in total, eight of them are Instructor Pilots, five qualified pilots (four from JG 74 at Neuburg) to help us out and six students. Four of the students are on the Transition Course (TX), one is an Instructor Pilot who has returned to Germany after flying F-16 in the USA as an exchange pilot and a B Course (ab-initio) student who came direct from Shepherd AFB, Texas - aged 22, he is now living the dream!”

Fighting the Italians

As well as training, the Germans were in town to work with the Italians, to standardise work procedures and learn from each other. Every morning, the GAF ops team discussed plans for the day over the phone with 4˚ Stormo personnel at Grossetto. Eurofighters would depart their respective bases and head for the massive ACMI range in the Tyrrhenian Sea, situated between Sardinia and the Italian

mainland. In the restricted area, a variety of air-to-air encounters took place, including Beyond Visual Range (BVR), medium range, right up to close range when the Eurofighter’s 27mm Mauser cannon would come in handy! The large Range area measures some 100 miles (160 kms) long and 80 miles (130 kms) wide. As Germany does not offer such a large block of airspace to practise this kind of work, it was ideal for the team, and, stressed the DetCo, “not just for the flying but for great food, hospitality and weather!” After the Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) missions, both sides returned to Deci for a mission debrief and lunch, before organising another sortie culminating with the Italians heading home to Grossetto. For the first two weeks, 4˚ Stormo sent over four Typhoons but as it entered a night flying phase, the number was reduced to two. Although the GAF use the Diehl-BGT ACMI Range, their jets did not carry ACMI pods. This meant no one could watch the air war unfolding on a big screen back at base, as they do at the Spanish ACMI used by the Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) at Albacete, near Valencia. Instead the GAF used a classified debrief system integrated into the Eurofighter’s

avionics. As a result, they do not have an ‘airwar’ scenario to assess how each side fared. The GAF recorded the air wars on a USB stick allowing each pilot to go through the battle on a computer. The GAF also train on the Eurofighter’s sophisticated Defensive Aids Subs System (DASS) on this range, so it’s likely that this is one of the reasons why the Germans didn’t want to use ACMI pods. They were also simulating the use of the IRIS-T medium range weapon, which was seen being carried under the wings of several aircraft at Deci. On the medium range IRIS-T missile, the DetCo said: “This missile has changed the way we can do our fighting. The seeker head is much better, has a better pick up range, a larger modem and has a longer range. Furthermore, the seeker can be slewed at 90˚ where as the AIM-9L Sidewinder [used on the Phantom] was only capable of 40˚. That makes a big difference.” The Eurofighter detachment to Sardinia figures highly on the GAF’s agenda as a place where crews and aircraft are seldom affected by poor weather and where there is freedom to roam and fight within such a big area. Plus the hospitality, of course!

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German Air Force Eurofighter Training

Laage has been used as the main training hub for GAF Eurofighter training since March 1, 2010. All operational GAF Eurofighters had been consolidated at Laage on March 1, 2010 for a year. The only exceptions were five aircraft Southern Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) with JG 74 at and another two jets with JbG 31. The Northern QRA was being manned by JG 71 F-4Fs at Wittmund but that has now been taken over by aircraft from TakLwG 31 at Norvenich. In 2010, JG 73 had trained one Instructor Pilot for JbG 31, as well as the Wing’s Commander while five pilots were in the training pipeline, with two of them at Deci.
Right: A technician climbs out of the air intake of his aircraft wearing a white anti-magnetic suit having checked the EJ 200 engine is not suffering from any issues.

48 | EUROFIGHTeR

German Stars
One of the biggest fillips achieved to date by the German Air Force Typhoon Force was its deployment to Red Flag Alaska 12-2 in June 2012.

I

T WAS a mammoth logistical task to get the eight JG 74 ‘R’ Eurofighters to Alaska in the first place. After departing Norvenich on May 15, the two flights of four jets, each accompanied by a A330 MRTT flew on an eight-hour flight over the Atlantic to Goose Bay, Labrador where they night stopped

(Deutsche Eurofighters, p44). The next day, all the Eurofighters flew for an epic eight and a half hours to Eielson AFB, their home for nearly a month. Colonel Andreas Pfeiffer, the Wing Commander of JG 74 and Detachment Commander, would have a busy month ahead of him. “If you participate in such an exercise for the first time with a new jet, there are a lot of challenges, you have to cope with,” he explained before the start. “In terms of resources, training and personnel issues, this will be a huge endeavour and we are excited about it.”

Although the RFA 12-2 didn’t start until June 11, the Germans wanted to participate in Exercise Distant Frontier over May 21-June 1. It allowed themselves and the Polish Air Force F-16s present to familiarise pilots with the ranges. At the same time they flew some Mixed Fighter Force Operation (MFFO) sorties with other fighters present. These included JASDF F-15s and USAF F-22, F-16s and A-10s. While all this provided the pilots and the other personnel with some great experiences, the Germans were there

Distant Frontier

EFBites

 Prior to the exercise, the GAF upgraded their Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation (ACMI) pods to P5 status, to ensure compatibility on Alaska’s Cubic ACMI system. This was the first time German Eurofighters had contact with F-22 Raptors in the USA.
Left: Colonel Andreas Pfeiffer discusses Red Flag. Being the JG 74 Commander, based at Neubergin June 2012, he was also responsible for ensuring the wing was ready for its NATO Response Force responsibilities on November 1, 2012. All photos, Key-Alan Warnes unless stated Right: Oberstleutnant Marco ‘Turbo’ Gruene was the Co of 742 Sqn in June 2012.

EUROFIGHTER | 49

Drops
Initially only used by the UK, a Drop was originally a nationally cleared upgrade for Tranche 1 aircraft that is not given four nation clearance, only done in a single partner company and cleared on to that nation’s aircraft through a service engineer modification (SEM). A change to an aircraft cleared by a single nation through national auspices can only be changed by that nation’s EPC. Although recent Drops have been done nationally changes are not now just by BAE Systems, but by national support centres in Germany, too.  

Andy Lumb, BAE’s Head of Typhoon architecture Engineering, explained in 2014, “Drop 1 started in 2009, then came Drop 2 which went out to UK fleet but the Germans took the radar standard to Alaska; Drop 3 is a 24 month programme being rolled out to all four nations and should be released by end of the year and then there is Drop 4.” Some of the Drop 2 improvements on the German aircraft could not be tested until getting to Eielson AFB – another reason for pushing the aircraft into Distant Frontier.

Such was the rush to get the work done, the two seaterEurofighter had its software upgrade just two days into the exercise after gaining the necessary authority from German High Command just hours before. Four Drops 1. Small displays and controls, symbology colour etc 2. Integration updates to radar 3. Tr1 Evolutionary Package 1 (Tr1EP1) which goes right across all core programmes 4. MIDS, attack and identification radar and Tranche 1 developments

Above: One of the German Air Force Eurofighters taxies past the Red Flag building at Eielson AFB while the rain lashes down. Below: Eurofighter 30+30 returned to Germany with 50 'kill markings' indicating the no of succesful GAF sorties during the Red Flag detachment. 30+30 was dubbed the 'Sortie King (Sortie Konig) after completing 38 flights. Andreas Zeitler

to measure recent improvements to the Eurofighter’s tactical mission software. As Red Flag progessed it became increasingly clear they were working wonders, just as they had for the RAF Typhoons over Libya a few months earlier. Red Flag boasts some of the most complex air wars devised and with the world-beating F-22 Raptor participating, the Germans were keen to impress. JG 74’s 742 Sqn Cdr, Oberstleutnant Marco ‘Turbo’ Gruene was one of the Eurofighter pilots fighting in the air wars. “We wanted to take the German aircraft to a higher level, so we adjusted the systems in line with what the RAF had done. For example, we implemented new radar software (Version P2P) as well as new Have Quick radios, new chaff and flare systems and other secret stuff. We had to get it all optimised for combat so that if we went to war, purely in the air to air role, we could do the job. This upgrade has given us a big step in capabilities. It is clear the RAF concentrated their efforts on certain areas – which was down to usage, mentality, mission data and money. “We came to Red Flag wanting to see if the Eurofighter is capable of everything we think it is – and it is! It is definitely more capable.” He went on, “Today the PACAF Commander

stood up and commented that he didn’t realise we were so far ahead in capabilities. The truth is that we started to put a lot of focus, intensity and energy into setting the aircraft up and getting people into the right mindset.” All the improvements were software related, taken from one of the UK’s Drop enhancements, primarily focussed on developing Tranche 1 capabilities. The older Tranche 1s are not governed by the new P1/ P2/P3 software enhancements, because they have the older computer processing systems. Instead they have been upgraded with discrete capabilities, referred to as ‘drops’ over the past six years, ensuring they don’t become obsolete.

De-brief

Colonel Andreas Pfeiffer, keen to expand on how well his pilots and the jets had performed at RF-A, summed up the jet’s performance, “The F-22 Raptor has unbeatable qualities but if you can get it into the merge, there could be a different outcome!” Some leading GAF players at the exercise claimed two F-22 Raptors had been ‘killed in visual combat’ …that’s how much the Typhoon had improved.
Below: A German Eurofighter taxies back past two based KC-135Rs at Eielson AFB, while equipped with a Cubic ACMI pod under its wing.

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Forza Italia
Riccardo Niccoli looks at the evolution of the EF.2000 in the Italian Air Force

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T

WO SEATER MM55092/‘IT001’ was the first Eurofighter EF.2000 to be delivered to the Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI – Italian Air Force), on February 19, 2004. It was the first of 28 Tranche 1 aircraft which initially remained at Alenia’s Turin Caselle facility for ground training. The Italian Tranche 1 contract included 18 single seaters (designated F-2000A by the Italian Mission Design Series terminology), plus ten twin-seaters, known as TF-2000A.
Left: An F-2000A from 4°Stormo over Iceland during Exercise Northern Viking 2011, which was aimed at testing the island’s air defences. Troupe Azzura/AMI via author Right: A two-seat F-2000B Typhoons takes on fuel from an Italian Air Force C-130H tanker, while three single-seaters sit alongside on January 10, 2012. The aircraft were en-route to Nellis AFB, Nevada for a Red Flag exercise. Eurofighter GmbH

All aircraft were included in different Blocks, 1 to 5, which in 2007 started to undergo the Retrofit 2 (R2) programme, intended to bring all to a common Block 5 configuration, designated Full Operational Capability (FOC). Work on all the R2 phase aircraft was completed by September 2012. Deliveries of all Tranche 1 aircraft to the AMI was completed on February 14, 2008. By this time, production was already switching to Tranche 2, comprising 47 aircraft in this specification – 45 F-2000A and a pair of TF-2000As. The first of this batch (a EFBites Block 8 aircraft, MM7287/‘IS-019’), was delivered in November 2008, while the last, MM7331/‘IS063’, (in Block 15 standard), was due for delivery in early May 2014. With

six F-35A JSFs serialled MM7332-7337, the first Tranche 3a jet is MM7338/'IS064' (see Page 54). That gives the AMI a fleet of 75 Typhoons. None have been lost to date, although a single major accident was recorded, on March 1, 2013, when aircraft MM7308/‘422’) from 4° Stormo was forced to use its underwing tanks as a cushion after encountering an undercarriage problem while landing at Decimomannu, Sardinia. Fortunately the aircraft itself only incurred minor damage.

Structuring the AMI

Italy’s Typhoon fleet is divided into five Gruppos (squadrons) in three Stormos (wings). The first to be re-equipped was Grosseto-based 4° Stormo, which was still flying the venerable F-104 Starfighter. According to the AMI maintenance system, the aircraft are no longer assigned to flying squadrons, but to the GEA (Gruppo Efficienza Aeromobili – maintenance

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Right: Three F-2000As from 4° Stormo with a Turkish Air Force F-16C in formation over Konya in June 2008, during Exercise Anatolian Eagle 20082. 4° Stormo via author Below: Two Italian Air Force Typhoon pioneers in July 2004. Colonel Alberto Rosso, Commander of 4° Stormo (left) and Lt Col Daniele Picco (right), Commander of 9° Gruppo, the first Typhoon Squadron Commander. Author

Operations/Exercises
Operational commitments started in February 2006, when the F-2000s were called to provide CAP missions during Operation Jupiter, the air defence of Turin’s Winter Olympic Games followed by

Spring Flag 2006, the international exercise at Decimomannu . Since then, Typhoons have participated in all major exercises in Italy, as well as abroad, including the NATO

TLP, Anatolian Eagle in Turkey, the Typhoon Meet in Spain, Northern Viking in Iceland, Vega/Desert Dusk in Israel, Advanced Tactical Leadership Course (ATLC) in the UAE and several others.

squadron) of the wing. So jets are effectively pooled. The first squadron to convert formally onto the new type was 9° Gruppo, while 20° Gruppo continued with the Starfighter until its retirement. However, in practice, pilots assigned to the F-2000 were a mix from both squadrons. A second unit, 20° Gruppo, was the Operational Conversion Unit for the F-104 line, and continued that tradition to become

EFBites

 During first three years of Italian operations, until December 31, 2008, the QRA was manned by Grosseto F-2000s and Cervia F-16s in the North. Grosseto would have two F-2000s on 15 minutes alert (peacetime readiness), while Cervia kept two F-16s on stand-by (2 hours readiness) and vice-versa. On January 1, 2009 4° Stormo took over.

Above: A 4° Stormo Typhoon touches down at Trapani, Sicily in March 2011 during Operation Unified Protector. Loaded with four AIM-120C-5 AMRAAM, four IRIS-T missiles and two 1,500lb underwing fuel tanks the aircraft was returning from another CAP over Libya. Troupe Azzurra/AMI via author Below: Lifting off from Deci in July 2010, Typhoon MM7299/‘4-20’ sports special markings to celebrate 10,000 flying hours in the Italian Air Force, achieved in September 2009. Key-Alan Warnes

the Typhoon OCU. The third unit to receive Typhoon was 12° Gruppo of 36° Stormo, at Gioia del Colle. It took delivery of its first four aircraft (re-assigned from the 4° Stormo) on July 1, 2007. No 10° Gruppo was the fourth squadron, which left Trapani-based 37° Stormo and its F-16A/ADFs on July 1, 2010, for 36° Stormo. According to the plan, this now completed the standing up of units to operate the Typhoon fleet, divided between four squadrons of two wings. However, the events of the war over Libya in 2011, Operation Unified Protector, changed things and the Italian government opted to maintain an air defence unit in Sicily: the heart of the Mediterranean and Europe’s southern gateway. As a result, the last F-16A/ADF were retired from 37° Stormo in June 2012 and returned to the USAF, but instead of being disbanded as intended, the wing’s 18° Gruppo converted to the Typhoon. This led to 18° Gruppo receiving its first F-2000 on September 19, 2012, and in a few weeks it had completely re-equipped. In theory, an Italian Typhoon squadron should have 16 aircraft (to be precise, the GEA of a two-squadrons wing should have 32 aircraft), but 18° Gruppo has a reduced number because, in order to save money

Eurofighter Units
Base Grosseto Wing 4° Stormo Squadrons 9° Gruppo 20° Gruppo (OCU) Gioia del Colle 36° Stormo 10° Gruppo 12° Gruppo Trapani 37° Stormo 18° Gruppo Pratica di Mare RSV Variants F-2000A TF/F-2000A F-2000A F-2000A F-2000A TF/F-2000A

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Two early Italian Air Force Eurofighters jink low level in Italy’s Alpine region in September 2006. Eurofighter GmbH

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The Future

Italy’s first Tranche 2 Eurofighter Typhoon, MM7288/‘IS020’ taxies back to the parking area at TurinCaselle on November 14, 2008 when it was unveiled to the media. Eurofighter GmbH

and allow a fifth squadron to operate, this Gruppo is dedicated mainly to providing 24-hour Quick Reaction Alert (QRA). Trapani is effectively a Forward Operating Base run by Gioia del Colle; and as 37° Stormo does not have its own GEA, secondary level maintenance is the responsibility of the Gioia del Colle GEA, or 1° Reparto Manutenzione Velivoli (1° RMV) at Cameri, the AMI depot for its main fighters. One other unit flying F-2000s is the Reparto Sperimentale Volo (RSV - test flying wing) which has always operated Typhoons on loan from the front line units, but since 2012 has its own aircraft assigned. Italian Typhoons have always operated in pure air defence and air superiority roles, and gained their initial operational capabilities very quickly. No 4° Stormo was the first EF.2000 units of the four partner nations to start QRA alert duties, from Grosseto airbase, as early as December 16, 2005. The main armament was formed by air-to-air missiles, AIM-120B AMRAAM, and AIM-9L; later the AIM-120C-5 and the IRIS-T missiles were introduced, which today are first choice, while units await entry into service of the Meteor missile later in the decade.
Below: Typhoon MM7279/‘36-21’ of 36° Stormo was one of several from the unit that deployed to Trapani during Exercise Star Vega in May 2013. Eurofighter GmbH

EFBites

 Serial number MM7283/‘IS015’ was not used by the Italian Air Force, because the components were diverted to the Austrian Air Force, even though ‘IS014’ was MM7282 and ‘IS016’ was MM7284.

In May 2014 Alenia Aermacchi is expected to deliver the first F-2000A of the Tranche 3a batch, aircraft MM7334/‘IS064’, in standard Block 20 configuration. Only Tranche 3a has so far been funded and signed (see ‘Lift Off’ p14), but it is likely Tranche 3b will never be approved. Rumours emanating from Rome have suggested there is interest in buying Tranche 3b aircraft, and slashing F-35 procurement for a second time. Tranche 3a for Italy includes 21 aircraft, 19 single-seaters and two two-seaters. The Tranche 3 aircraft will be, loaded with P1E software, followed by P2E, and by future enhancement software, allowing improvements in the air-to-air and airto-ground missions. The E-Scan radar is expected to be available towards the end of the decade along with the Meteor missile and other new capabilities, although it will not have a provision for conformal fuel tanks, unlike the UK aircraft.

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Above: The only Typhoon believed to be operational with the RSV for Italian Air Force testing is this MM7306/‘RS-21’. Author Below: A 37° Stormo Typhoon MM7307/‘37-01’ sits on the ramp in May 2013 at Trapani, where the aircraft is based. It is the latest unit to stand up with Typhoons and is seen wearing the unit’s traditional chequered markings on the tail. Author

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Above: With airbrakes up, EF-2000 C.16-27/’11-07’ prepares to touch down at Getafe during a pre-delivery fl ight in October 2007. The Tranche 1 aircraft was eventually delivered to Ala 11’s 113 Escuadron at Morón. Author

HEN THE Spanish Air Force, the Ejército del Aire (EA) officially received its first EF-2000 Tifón (‘Typhoon’ in Spanish) on October 9, 2003, it meant the pilots and mechanics could finally start training at the manufacturer’s facilities in Getafe, Madrid. Some eight months later, on 4 May 2004 they moved into Morón de la Frontera Air Base near Seville along with their first two dual-seater aircraft destined for Grupo 11, which was based there. These two aircraft led the way for the first operational Spanish Eurofighter squadron, 111 Escuadrón. After nearly ten years of service the C16 Tifón (or CE16, the two seat version) has shown itself to be the best, most complex weapons system ever operated by EA combat units. It is exceeding all expectations and is set to become the backbone of the country’s air power for the next four or five

decades. Spain contracted  The home of a total acquisition Ala 11, Morón de la of 87 aircraft from Frontera was also Eurofighter Gmbh a reserve landing for an initial cost strip for the Space of 9,200 million Shuttle. Euros, dividing the purchase into three phases or ‘Tranches’: 20 aircraft making up the first Tranche (T1), 33 the second (T2) and 34 more in the third and final batch (which was itself divided, 20 aircraft in Tranche T3a and the remaining 14 in T3b). The last aircraft of the first Tranche (two seater ST008 [ST – Spain Trainer]) was handed over in August 2007 and subsequent deliveries of the T2 aircraft began on October 24, 2008, with the delivery of single seater SS012 [SS Single Seater]. As of January 2014, 41 aircraft have officially

EFBites

been delivered to the Spanish Air Force. Of these, 18 are in the T1 configuration comprising 10 single seaters and 8 two seaters, all having been brought up to date with the latest software configure of this Tranche (Block 5/SRP4). As well as these, a single seat Spanish Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA-4) is in use by Airbus Defence & Space (formerly EADS-CASA) for flight tests, while an additional single seater was delivered by Eurofighter Gmbh in T2 configuration, in place of a T1 example diverted from the Spanish production line for Austria. Another 23 aircraft in the T2 configuration (20 single seaters and 3 two seaters) have also been handed over. The last 10 aircraft to complete T2 have already been built and are ready for delivery, although this will not be for another year, as specified in the contract signed with Eurofighter in July, 2012.

Tifón
Due to Spanish government budget cuts, aircraft planned for delivery in 2012-2014 have been flown into store at Albacete Air Base, until 2015. In May 2013 Secretary of State for Defence Pedro Morenés stated that “Spain did not see a necessity in the undertaking of Tranche 3b”, in essence meaning that the last 14 aircraft initially contracted by the Spanish Government as part of the T3b would now be cancelled. However, this should not pose any problems to the operational capabilities of the EA, since with 72 aircraft remaining there was enough to equip four squadrons as initially planned. It is likely that the 14 aircraft will still be built though, as the the total number is due under the work share contract. Airbus Defence & Space will therefore work hard to find a customer for 14 aircraft. At the time of going to press, Peru was reportedly a potential customer.

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Spain is a major player in the story of the Eurofighter Typhoon. Roberto Yáñez & Alex Rodríguez offer a detailed account of the Spanish Air Force’s development and operations with the aircraft known as ‘Tifón’.

on Track

Above: Eurofighter pilots spend more time in the cockpit trainer, at Albacete and Morón, than their compatriots flying other aircraft. Like all Eurofighter nations, Aircrew Synthetic Training Aids (ASTA) are used for training in missions which don’t necessarily require live flying. Eurofighter-Geoffrey Lee

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Moron’s Ala 11 paves way

The first of the two EA units to equip with the EF-2000 Tifón was Grupo 11 of Ala 11 (‘Ala’ = Wing) based at Morón de la Frontera, which until then was equipped with the F/A18A and CASA C-101. After preparing the necessary base infrastructures, Grupo 11 received its first aircraft during May 2004, allowing pilot training to start. At the same time the construction and service entry of the C16 Training Centre for pilots and mechanics got under way. Original plans called for the delivery of all aircraft to Morón Air Base in order to form two operational squadrons (111 and 112 Escuadrón) plus one more unit (113 Escuadrón) dedicated to training. 113 Escuadrón, the Operational Conversion Unit, was the first to activate on October 16, 2003. Currently equipped with 11 two seat aircraft, its mission is the conversion training of all EA pilots destined to fly the Tifón in Spain. This includes pilots recently graduated from the Fighter and Attack School in Talavera as well as pilots converting from other weapons systems, usually the Mirage F-1 and F-18. The EA decided to centralize all training at this squadron in order to optimize economic

Above: Recovering to Albacete at the Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) during early February 2014 is single seat EF 2000 C.16-46/’11-26’. Chris Lofting

resources and available materials,  The last Tranche creating a modern 1 aircraft was new built training delivered in August centre at Morón 2007. It was also that houses the the first Block 5 ASTA system. This standard twin seat is made up of the aircraft delivered to CT/IPS (Cockpit the partner nations. Trainer/Interactive Pilot Station) simulator, FMS (Full Mission simulator) and GTA’s (Ground Training Aids) for maintenance personnel. To achieve the best returns on the large

EFBites

Above: A second operational Spanish EF-2000 unit has now stood up at Albacete, from where C.1641/’11-21’ departs in September 2013. All the Ala 14 aircraft continue to use Ala 11 codes. Author Below: CC16-24/’11-04’ departs Torrejon during October 2012 to participate in a military parade over Madrid. Author

investment in the centre, the installations services are available to any other Eurofighter operator requesting it; in 2010 at least two Royal Saudi Air Force pilots undertook a specific six-to-ten month long training programme before handover of the first Saudi Typhoons built in the United Kingdom. Sadly, one of the pilots was killed in a fatal Tifón accident on August 24, 2010 when a dual seat aircraft, CE.16-08/ ‘11-77’ crashed on take off at Morón. Of the 11 aircraft in 113 Escuadrón, one is used for development testing by the manufacturer. This aircraft, designated ISPA 3, is an instrumented production standard aircraft, with serial number CE16-10. It forms part of the Eurofighter test fleet along with 7 IPAs and 4 ISPAs. ISPA 3 is built to a similar specification as the rest of the EA aircraft but also has special instrumentation and a data recording system used to develop and integrate future systems as well as post flight analysis. 111 Escuadrón is Grupo 11’s first combat squadron. Officially activated in October 2003, it began undertaking quick reaction alert (QRA) missions integrated into the Spanish air defence system and NATO's southern flank in July 2008. This squadron is being charged with developing the operational techniques and tactics for all EA units equipped with the new fighter, therefore it is the leader with regard to all aspects of the implementation and use of the new aircraft. Currently it is equipped

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with around 20 single seaters that have undergone a retrofit programme designed to give aircraft from Tranches 1 and 2 the same capabilities. This maturity in Tifón operations was highlighted on March 28, 2012 when the first operations launch of a Paveway II air to ground weapon took place from one of its C16 deployed to Zaragoza during Exercise Tormenta. From then on, 111 Escuadrón was assigned a secondary air to ground mission capability and developed a training plan for its pilots. Meanwhile, 112 Escuadrón should have been activated before the service entry of the Tifón with Ala 14 in Albacete. However retirement of the Mirage F-1M during the middle of 2013 saw a reorganization in the deliveries of new aircraft, resulting in the new Tifóns delivered to Albacete before formation of a second squadron with Grupo 11.

Tifón: Pilot’s Plan of Instruction
The process followed by the new pilots after they leave Talavera is similar to pilots coming from other EA weapons systems to the Tifón. First they are assigned to the operational conversion unit, 113 Escuadrón at Morón, where they follow a much more extensive Plan of Instruction (PoI) than a pilot converting from another type. The PoI consists of an initial theoretical phase where pilots attend classes to learn the various aircraft systems and emergency procedures. After completing this phase with an exam the pilots can begin the flying phase. The PoI is divided into two plans. P-1 is basic aircraft

Keeping Spanish Typhoons capable

The Test and Armament Logistic Centre (Centro Logístico de Armamento y Experimentación CLAEX) based at Torrejón de Ardoz is the unit charged with providing support to new software and the integration of new weapons to the EA fighter aircraft. As happened with the Mirage F-1 and then the F-18, the CLAEX has worked in parallel and in collaboration with the aircraft manufacturers to achieve a level of self sufficiency in managing the Tifón’s systems. Since January 2011 the CLAEX has been working on Tifón Tranche 1 software integration. This allows the EA to write and maintain its own software code for 14 on-board avionics computers. Thanks to this capability the first successful development flights of the OFP-01E (Operational Flight Programme) took place in June 2012 – the first completely national OFP to incorporate software changes requested by the units operating the Tifón in Spain. With eyes focused on future capability, Tranches 2 and 3 are expected to arrive soon, so the development and integration of nationally developed software can continue to offer the aircraft new capabilities. During the middle of July 2013 the CLAEX officially received the EA’s first instrumented aircraft (ISPA 3), which is now being used to conduct test flights, checking the integration of armaments as well as evaluating, verifying and validating software developed by the CLAEX or the T2/T3 configurations. CLAEX personnel continue to qualify the software and development of the Tifón’s computers. At the same time the personnel of the Test Group are preparing to operate the aircraft, which is usually based at Getafe, from its facilities at Torrejón Air Base whenever required. Another milestone recently reached by the CLAEX has been the successful ground and air test of the first software modification totally designed by the Centre for the code to the MIU (MIDS Interface Unit) in the Tranche-1 configuration. These modifications had been solicited by pilots from the UK, Germany, and Spain as

handling while P-2 is more specific and is divided into P-2 air to air and P-2 air to ground. A recently graduated Lieutenant from the school at Talavera usually starts the course at Morón AB in September and takes around seven months (including P-1 and P-2). This is approximate, since the length of a course depends on the number of students attending; the average number of students is around six pilots. At the end of this phase of training they graduate with the Limited Combat Ready (LCR) qualification. Once qualified as LCR, the pilot is posted to their operation squadron, either 142 at Albacete or 111 at

Morón. Once at the unit the new pilot begins the Basic Training Plan (PAB). The PAB is divided into semesters and as each phase is accomplished the pilot achieves a higher qualification until they reach the highest at CR-3. Moving from one level of qualification to another implies higher levels of skill for a pilot. A LCR pilot has a series of missions assigned that are the basic role of the unit. In order to increase the level of qualification the pilot has to progress from being a two ship leader to four aircraft formation to mission commander, and progress through the qualifications for CR-1 to CR-3 during the process.

Above: Two Escuadron 113 pilots discuss their next sortie in the briefing room at Morón. Eurofighter-Geoffrey Lee Below: A Spanish Air Force pilot of 111 Escuadron wearing the Helmet Mounted Sighting System (HMSS) in April 2013. The helmet has lots of imbedded sensors to provide the pilots with excellent situational awareness in the air and the ability to steer weapons onto the target. Author

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part of the international Drop 3 programme. This programme serves to implement software solutions to operational problems detected by users during the first years of Tranche 1s.

Albacete works up

Ala 14, based at Albacete, is the most recent Tifón operator in Spain, the aircraft having taken over from the veteran Mirage F-1M. The first squadron to equip with the Tifón in Albacete is 142 Escuadrón, which received its first Tifóns from Morón on 30 April 2012. Its sister unit, 141 Escuadrón flew all the remaining Mirage F-1Ms until they were withdrawn from use in June 2013 and is not currently operational. Just as at Morón, the process of bringing the Tifón to Albacete began with modernising the infrastructure, while ground crews and pilots underwent training at Morón in order to make the transition from the Mirage F-1M as fluid as possible. There was also a need to modify the engine test facility since the existing anchor points for the Snecma ATAR 9K-50 of the Mirage F-1M were also inadequate for the Tifón’s more powerful Eurojet EJ200s. Almost all pilots in 142 Escuadrón transferred from the Mirage F-1M, although it is also starting to receive new pilots from the Fighter and Attack School at Talavera la Real. Due to the level of development of the Tifón, training plans have to be constantly adapted and modified to keep up with the new capabilities added by the manufacturer. For this reason the major percentage of missions are air to air rather than air to ground, although the EA plans its Tifón units to be multi-role. This means the three operational EA Tifón squadrons will divide their missions 50/50 between air to air and air to ground. In the case of the Ala 14 and 142 Escuadrón this started during early 2013, going from purely air to air to a growing secondary air to ground mission.

Above: This Typhoon CE.16-08/’11-77’ was written off in a crash at Morón on August 24, 2010. The Spanish Air Force pilot survived the ejection, while the aircraft was taking off, but the Royal Saudi Air Force Lieutenant Colonel pilot on board was killed. The aircraft was being used by 113 Escuadron, the Spanish Air Force’s Eurofighter Operational Conversion Unit. Roberto Yanez Right: The sleek majestic lines of dual seater EF-2000B CE.16-02’11-91’ over southern Spain in 2004. Eurofighter-Geoffrey Lee Below: This Eurofighter EF-2000B is seen arriving at Albacete for storage in September 2013, wearing the serial as it will be worn in service. The new system applies to all aircraft purchased since August 2012. Roberto Yanez

Armaments

As for air to air armament, the Spanish Tifones can launch most of the armament currently in the EA inventory, including the infrared guided Sidewinder and IRIS-T missiles or the radar guided AIM-120C AMRAAM. In the future there will be Meteor, currently in the integration phase. As for air to ground armament, apart from 150-500kg freefall bombs the Tifón can use the GBU-10 and GBU-16 Paveway II laser guided bombs. Integration of the EGBU-16 bomb as well as the capability to self designate via the use of the Litening pod is also under

Spanish Air Force EF 2000 Eurofighter Units
Wing Location Units Status Ala 11 Morón 111 Escuadron Operational 112 Escuadron Not yet Operational 113 Escuadron Ala 14 Albacete Operational Conversion Unit

141 Escuadron Not yet operational 142 Escuadron Operational

way, as is the future integration of the  The first six Taurus KEPD 350 Eurofighters for stand-off missile Ala 14 at Albacete currently in the arrived on April 30, inventory of the 2012, followed by EF-18Ms. two more on May To train personnel 14, 2012. They have in the use of the been borrowed cannon and air to from Ala 11 and still surface armament wear ’11-‘ codes. MACOM periodically puts together various gunnery campaigns at the Bardenas range in Zaragoza. For air to air training the El Arenosillo range in Huelva is used. At the end of 2013, 142 Escuadrón undertook its first air to air gunnery campaign there – called DARDO 2013 by the EA – against towed aerial targets, for which the unit operated from Morón AB, Seville together with F-18 Hornets and the local Tifón squadrons. Despite its short time with the Tifón, 142 Escuadrón has rapidly mastered the new aircraft. Proof of this came on February 1, 2012 when it entered into the normal rotation along with the Alas 11, 12 and 15 as part of the recently created Air Operations and Defence Command to provide QRA duty for the Iberian Peninsula, in accordance with NATO policies. To achieve this high level of readiness the squadron participates in large scale national exercise in which fighter aircraft took part, such as the SIRIO air defence exercise and the DACT dissimilar air combat training. Along with 111 Escuadrón, 142 Escuadrón has participated at international level in mini squadron exchanges of several days’ length

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with other European Typhoon operators as part of the EUROFIGHT programme. This programme, an initiative of European Air Group (EAG) has as its mission to promote the cooperation, coordination and standardization of the air defence forces of participating nations through air combat and air intercept training. Also as part of the international training programmes 142 Escuadrón participated in the Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) last September for the first time. Two pilots and aircraft were part of the Blue Force. Also taking advantage of the presence of F-15Cs from the 48th FW/493rd FS at Albacete in January 2014, both Ala 11 and 14 Tifón squadrons trained in dissimilar manoeuvres together with other EA fighters. Tifón reached an important milestone on 11 April 2013 when after nearly a year of operations in Albacete, the Tifón reached its first 1,000 flight hours with Ala 14, during a DACT 2013 mission at Gando, Canary Islands. Nearly a year on, the unit has now surpassed 2,000 flight hours with Tifón. Currently Ala 14 is operating 14 airframes, with this number progressively increasing to the 18 required to make up the complete squadron as soon as deliveries of new aircraft resume and additional pilots are assigned to the unit. As stated earlier, since 2013 the last Tranche 2 aircraft have been stored at Albacete, as their official delivery to the Ejercito del Aire has been postponed until 2015 due to budgetary issues. During this period the aircraft will undergo specific maintenance to keep them up to date – there are seven single-seaters and three twoseaters in this state at Albacete AB.

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10 YEARS OF
It's been an exciting first decade for the Eurofighter in RAF service, from the first selection of pilots for the Operational Evaluation Unit to the move to Coningsby, the stand-up of squadrons, QRA, Libya, the London Olympics and the transition to true multi-role status

THE RAF
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HEN THE Typhoon, with its new and unfamiliar technologies, was introduced to the RAF’s Typhoon Operational Evaluation Unit (OEU), 17 (R) Squadron, in mid-2003, it represented a step into the unknown. T he priority was to ensure aircrews destined to fly Eurofighter – drawn from those piloting the likes of Jaguar and Tornado – were well prepared. were formally delivered to 17 (R) Sqn on December 18, 2003 and the unit flew its first sortie the following day, with the OC and Archie Neill, BAE Systems’ Typhoon Entry into Service Manager and Lead Instructor, making history. With delays dogging the acceptance process, conversion training finally got under way in January 2004. The aircraft, all from the first production batch, had a very limited ‘training only’ clearance, with no operational capability. Training began, as did the many ‘firsts’: on February 11, 2004, the OC carried out the first solo flight by an RAF pilot, in ZJ803. A week later, on February 19, the first known pairs departure took place when ZJ802/‘AB’ and ZJ803/‘AA’ left Warton in close formation on a dry take off. Later that month the unit received its third jet, ZJ800/‘AC’ (Build No: BT001) on February 29, 2004, followed by ZJ805/‘AD’ on March 12, 2004. Speaking at the time, Archie Neill said, “My main responsibility as the ‘owner’ of ‘Case White’ is not to deliver an aircraft but to deliver trained aircrew, engineers and a support system that’s bedded in. Right now [in March 2004] we are contracted to achieve 1,300 flying hours under Case White, which is 1,040 sorties, but we are here to do as much flying as the customer wants, and we will continue to do it.” One of the first deployments saw No 17 (R) Squadron fly two Typhoon T1s, ZJ805/‘AD’ and ZJ807/‘BF’ to Tengah, Singapore, in late June 2004, as part of the Republic of Singapore Air Force’s (RSAF) evaluation process for 20 new fighters. Flying the jets were Gp Capt Mark Swann, Wg Cdr ‘Charlie’ Chan, Sqn Ldr Rob Colligan and Flt Lt Matt Elliot. Unfortunately the RSAF order never materialised because their preferred deadline could not be met. Delays also prevented Gp Capt Swann from seeing Typhoons at RAF Coningsby while Station Commander.

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TYPHOON
Case White
Pilots were selected for the OEU with a background of exchange tours on the F-16 and F/A-18, with air defence and offensive support role experience. Thus the first six pilots, Wg Cdr David ‘Charlie’ Chan (Officer Commading, OC) , Sqn Ldr Will Hockenhull, Sqn Ldr Rob Colligan, Flt Lt Nick Felgate, Flt Lt Matt Thornton and Flt Lt Matt Elliott (who went on to become 2005 Typhoon Display Pilot) all had great pedigree. Four had experienced exchange postings, with the CO having flown US Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornets, while five of the six were Qualified Weapons Instructors (QWIs). No 17 (R) Squadron had stood up at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire, but moved to BAE Warton in September 2002 where, with its Typhoons, it got stuck into ‘Case White’, the name given to the programme overseeing the Eurofighter’s introduction into RAF service. This was the joint effort between the RAF and BAE Systems designed to ‘bed down’ the aircraft. The RAF formally accepted its first Typhoon T1, serialled ZJ803/‘AA’ in full 17 (R) Squadron marks, at Warton on June 30, 2003. It marked the successful completion of the Typhoon’s type acceptance process. Two Typhoon T1s, ZJ803/‘AA’ and ZJ802/‘AB’,
Left: No 1 (F) Sqn and 6 Sqn, based at RAF Leuchars, operate the newest Tranche 2 Typhoon FGR4s and both have been heavily involved in bringing the new P1Ea and P1Eb software into the Typhoon Force. This will allow the jets a true multiple capability allowing them to switch roles in the air. Geoff Lee

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Moving to RAF Coningsby

In December 2004, Wg Cdr John Hitchcock, responsible for forming the Typhoon Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) at BAe Warton, took over from Wg Cdr Chan as OC of 17 (R) Squadron, effectively combining the two roles. Six months earlier, on May 20, 2004, the first Typhoon T1 for the RAF’s OCU, 29 (R) Squadron, ZJ806/‘BE’, had been seen sporting the unit markings with the Wg Cdr J J Hitchcock pennant under the cockpit. All eleven Typhoon T1s were delivered by March, 2005 but one, ZJ804, was loaned back to BAE Systems as the Tranche 2 development aircraft. In February 2005 the jet was being used by the RAF Fast Jet and Weapons Operational Evaluation Unit (FJ&WOEU) for their annual Exercise Highrider at NAWC China Lake, California. Wg Cdr Jon Hitchcock, along with the rest of 17 (R) Sqn, continued with the Typhoon operational test and evaluation at Coningsby, where the unit stood up on May 19, 2005. Speaking at the time, Wg Cdr Hitchcock commented, “It was felt more appropriate to wait until we were at home on ‘RAF soil’ so to speak, before we officially reformed and had the squadron standard presented.” Weapons carriage and firing clearances leading to the employment of AMRAAM (Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile) and ASRAAM (Advanced Short Range Air to Air Missile) was a priority. No 29 (R) Squadron worked up with ten Typhoon T1s under the Case White programme before the new CO, Wg Cdr Al Mackay, took the unit to RAF Coningsby on July 1, 2005. Their departure officially ended the Case White programme. The partnered programme between the RAF and BAE Systems, to ease the aircraft’s entry into service, was declared a resounding

Above: Case White saw the Typhoon OEU, 17 (R) Sqn, work up at BAE Warton for nearly two years, enabling the RAF to work out operational procedures alongside BAE Systems before the move to RAF Coningsby. By the end of 2003, 17 (R) Sqn was operating Typhoon T1s ZJ803/‘AA’ (BT004), ZJ802/ ‘AB’ (BT003) and ZJ800/‘AC’ (BT001). Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

Above: Archie Neill, BAE Systems Typhoon Entry into Service Manager and Lead Instructor, checks out the Typhoon cockpit during Case White. Eurofighter-Geoff Lee

Above: One of the first overseas deployments was to Singapore in June 2004. Two jets, ZJ805/‘AD’ 17 (R) Sqn and ZJ807/‘BF’ 29 Sqn were flown to Tengah for evaluation by the Republic of Singapore Air Force. En-route at Cyprus, left to right: RAF Coningsby Station Cdr, Gp Capt Mark Swann, Sqn Ldr Rob Colligan (17(R) Sqn), Wg Cdr David ‘Charlie’ Chan (OC 17 (R) Sqn) and Flr Lt Matt Elliott (17(R) Sqn). Eurofighter – Geoff Lee Right: While Wg Cdr John Hitchcock was responsible for forming the Typhoon OCU at BAE Warton in December 2003, he later took command of 17 (R) Sqn on December 1, 2004. Gary Parsons

success. It achieved the contracted 1,040 sorties and training of 16 pilots along with 166 ground crew during May 2005, eight weeks ahead of schedule. Meanwhile, over the coming years, the Lincolnshire base was set to transition from the Tornado F3 to the RAF Typhoon Force and become the RAF’s premier and most modern air facility. Modernisation at the RAF’s main operating bases was minimal as the aircraft was designed to make use of the infrastructure already in place. Operational conversion of RAF pilots was now into full swing. Deliveries of Tranche 1 jets, 37 F2s and 18 T1s, was well underway and Tranche 2, 83 F2s and six T1As, was due to begin delivery in early 2008. Three more pilots joined the five instructor pilots (IPs) already qualified on Typhoon with 29 (R) Squadron in April 2005, and by the end of the year this number had swelled to 14. When the unit officially stood up operationally, at RAF Coningsby on

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November 4, 2005, with seven IPs assigned and another seven more in the final stages of their training, all of whom were qualified to stage the next course in January 2006. This paved the way for the first class of pilots to start their Typhoon conversion on February 1, 2006. The initial cadre came from front-line fast jets, RAF staff officer appointments, or pilots returning from NATO exchange postings. Ab-initio pilots from RAF Valley would not come on line for a while. The operational conversion unit did not reach its full training capacity until June 2006. At first, personnel focussed on consolidating and growing the unit as well as the base.

Above: The changing face of the RAF in June 2005. A Typhoon F2, ZJ914/‘AC’ of 17 (R) Sqn, now with 41 (R) Sqn, flies alongside two Tornado GR4s of 13 Sqn, which is now operating Reapers, and two Tornado F3s from 11 Sqn, now flying Typhoons. Chris Lofting

First operational unit

Several of the new Typhoon pilots were posted to No 3 (F) Squadron, including executives Sqn Ldr Jez Attridge (Executive Officer-XO), Sqn Ldr Paul Godfrey and Sqn

Ldr Paul Smith, commanded by Wg Cdr Lawrence ‘Lol’ Bennett. As part of 3 (F) Squadron’s build up, the first Typhoon F2, ZJ922/‘QO-C’ was delivered to RAF Coningsby on February 2, 2006 and was followed by ZJ918/‘QO-L’ the next day. The codes were originally worn by Hawker Typhoon 1Bs of the squadron during World War Two between February 1943 and April 1944. No 3(F) Sqn transitioned from the Harrier GR7 to become the first operational Typhoon squadron on April 1, 2006. The day before, at RAF Cottesmore, a Harrier GR7 in 3’s insignia sat next to a similarly marked Typhoon F2, ZJ918 ‘QO-L’, as a back drop in the No 3 (F)

Squadron Hand-Over Parade. The first Typhoon seen wearing XI (F) Sqn markings was F2, ZJ931/‘DA’, when it flew from Warton to its new home at Coningsby on October 9, 2006. The aircraft, carrying the name of Sqn Ldr Jim Haskins, the designated XO for the new unit, was piloted by the RAF Coningsby Station Commander, Gp Capt Bob Judson. Significantly ZJ931 was also the 100th Eurofighter to be delivered to the air forces of the four partner nations. On November 3, 2006, pilots from 3(F) Sqn, 17 (R) Sqn and 29 (R) Sqn undertook the first Diamond-Nine formation. Gp Capt Bob Judson led the formation and explained, “We had never undertaken a Diamond-Nine formation with Typhoon and were looking for an opportunity to ratify standard operating procedures for formation flying for future flypasts.” Wg Cdr Toby Craig was by now OC of 17 (R) Sqn and returned the unit to Coningsby in November 2006 after a 15 month deployment at NAWS China Lake, California, where two Typhoons ZJ913/‘AA’ and ZJ914/‘AC’, were used for trials work. The two Typhoons, along with 25 support personnel, had been involved in continuous testing activity since August 2005 at various airfields in the USA as part of Linear Lever, an RAF Air Warfare Centre exercise. During the final couple of months, 17 (R) Sqn carried out tests of the Typhoon’s Defensive Aids Sub System (DASS) flying compatibility and interoperability missions with US Navy F/A18E and F/A-18F Super Hornets assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 9 (VX-9) based at China Lake.

EFBites
The RAF’s 55 Tranche 1 aircraft comprise two Instrument Production Aircraft (IPA), ZJ699 and ZJ700, 11 Batch 1 two-seat Typhoon T1s (with original fuel system), while Batch 2 comprises six Typhoon T1As and 36 single-seat F2s.

Above: Both 29 (R) Sqn and 17 (R) Sqn worked up at Warton with their Typhoon T1s in 2004. EurofighterGeoff Lee

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With the Quick Readiness Alert (QRA) playing a big part of future Typhoon operations, two 17 (R) Sqn Typhoons ZJ927/‘AG’ and ZJ928/‘AF’ carried out a groundbased QRA trial at RAF Coningsby in early December 2006. It was the first time the Typhoons had been seen equipped in a Q-Fit (a weapon load when the aircraft is standing alert) comprising four AIM-120 AMRAAM and four AIM-132 ASRAAM. Scrambles were practised from the QRA sheds and fast taxied to the runway where the pilots awaited departure clearance. No aircraft launched. The trial was undertaken in order to simulate the procedures used for live alerts and verify the suitability of the QRA sheds for Typhoon at Coningsby. Between February 26 and March 2, 2007, 3(F) Sqn pilots successfully launched four AIM-132 ASRAAMs in the Aberporth weapons range at Cardigan Bay, Wales. These were the first ASRAAM launches made by the unit. Missile designers and manufacturers MBDA confirmed the example launched on March 2, 2007, was the 100th ASRAAM fired. No XI (F) Sqn finally stood up on March 29, 2007, under the command of Wg Cdr Gav Parker, to become the first multi-role Typhoon squadron, scheduled to become fully operational by July 1, 2008. Minutes before the stand-up parade took place, the XI Sqn OC confirmed the Typhoon F2 was expected to deploy to Afghanistan in 2008, to replace the Harriers at Kandahar. However there was soon a realisation that it was too early for the Typhoon Force (TF). There would have been enough Block 5s for Afghanistan in July 2008 – but only just. With the TF being so small it could have  Tranche 2 involves 83 F2s and six T1s and deliveries started in 2009. 24 aircraft were diverted to the Royal Saudi Air Force. 

EFBites

QRA

Above: Wg Cdr ‘Lol’ Bennett the OC (at front) of No 3 (F) Sqn took over the unit standards at RAF Cottesmore on March 31, 2006 when 3 (F) Sqn converted from Harrier to Typhoon. Key-Alan Warnes

Above: Typhoon F2 ZJ918/‘QO-L’ sits alongside Harrier GR9A ZD465/‘55A’ at the 3 (F) Sqn hand-over parade. Key-Alan Warnes

been ‘broken’ by such an early deployment. Instead it opted to grow the force, especially pilot and ground crew manning and the Tornado took over from the Harrier instead. By mid-2007 XI (F) Sqn had received its first multi-role aircraft. A major milestone for the RAF Typhoon came on June 29, 2007, when No 3 (F) Sqn declared two aircraft on QRA at RAF Coningsby. It meant Typhoon was close to taking over completely the southern QRA commitment from the Tornado F3s at RAF Leeming and RAF Leuchars. The Typhoon force shared the QRA commitment with the Tornado F3 on a month-on/month-off basis before standing alert full time. Reaching QRA declaration was accomplished by the entire

Typhoon Force based at Coningsby and pilots with all four squadrons, 3, XI, 17 and 29, manning the Typhoon QRA. No 3 (F) Sqn OC Wg Cdr ‘Lol’ Bennett commented at the time, “We get airborne without the use of reheat, in a significantly shorter distance than the previous aircraft I have flown [Tornado GR4, F/A18 Hornet] using full reheat. The Typhoon handles magnificently throughout the full flight envelope up to 55,000ft and the performance drop in the QRA fit is marginal.” It was not too long before the first live scramble took place, on August 17, 2007. Two Typhoon F2s, ZJ932/‘DB’ of XI Sqn and ZJ936/‘QO-S’ of 3 (F) Sqn, were launched to intercept an unidentified aircraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Their target turned out to be a Russian Tu-95 Bear, Bort No ‘Red 18’ ,which departed Russian air space with 14 other strategic bombers, as the Russians started probing NATO air defences. Earlier that day, Russian President Vladimir Putin had announced that the Russian Air Force was resuming long range strategic bomber patrols after a 15 year suspension. It was admitted later by NATO that the Bear was not flying provocatively like those flown by the Soviets during the Cold War. Evidence suggests the event was a useful marketing opportunity for the long overdue Typhoon... and it worked. The two aircraft were airborne for about two hours.

Striving for Air to Ground

Above: Six weeks after standing up on QRA, this XI (F) Sqn Typhoon, believed to be piloted by its OC, Wg Cdr Gav Parker, intercepts a Russian Air Force Tu-95 Bear. Crown Copyright

All 53 RAF Tranche 1 aircraft were by now being brought up to Block 5 standard (see IPAs are Go!) via the R1 and R2 upgrades, thus providing the jet an austere air to ground capability. A notable feature of the Block 5 aircraft is the Passive Infra-Red Airborne Tracking Equipment (PIRATE) sensor on the

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These two Typhoon FGR4s of No 3 (F) Sqn based at RAF Coningsby illustrate the manoeuvrability of the jet even though they are both carrying 1,000 litre fuel tanks. The nearest is also armed with two ASRAAMs, which compliment the AMRAAM during air defence/QRA duties. Jamie Hunter

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forward fuselage just below the cockpit. The first Block 5, Typhoon F2, ZJ930/‘AA’, was delivered to 17 (R) Sqn at RAF Coningsby on June 8, 2007, after making its first Production Flight Acceptance Testing (PFAT) flight from BAE Warton on June 8, 2007. Nearly three months after arriving at the Lincolnshire base to join No 17 (R) Sqn, ZJ930/‘AA’ flew a test sortie loaded with four inert Paveway II LGBs. Three such missions were flown under a temporary clearance for the carriage of heavy weapons on Typhoons, prior to a full release. Positions of the six LGB test articles were alternated on each sortie to measure stresses and vibrations throughout the aircraft’s flight envelope in various flight profiles. The OEU conducted the trial in order to gather data, enabling the UK MOD to clear carriage of heavy weapons on Typhoon. During October and November 2007, Litening III EF targeting pod integration trials were underway at Warton, where 17 (R) Sqn evaluated the system with Typhoon ZJ804/ ISPA1 (BT005). Part of the trial included the first self-designated laser guided Paveway II release by an RAF Typhoon pilot, 17 (R) Sqn’s Flt Lt Dave Bowlzer, on October 17, 2007, at Aberporth Range. The first production built Block 5, FGR4 ZJ939/‘DXI’, had been delivered to XI Sqn at RAF Coningsby on August 6, 2007. BAE Systems reported the jet achieved 90% of the planned PFAT during its maiden flight on June 29. Another major RAF Typhoon milestone was reached on November 14, 2007, after the RAF received a release-to-service for laser guided bombs. XI Sqn, which led the multi-role work up and thus held most of the Block 5s, was deployed to RAF Kinloss at the time for a Combined Qualified Weapons Instructor (CQWI) course when the instruction was released.

Above: Wg Cdr Toby Craig, OC of 17 (R) Sqn, sits inside the first Block 5 jet, ZJ930/‘AA’ after arriving at RAF Waddington Air Show in June 2008 with six inert Enhanced Paveway II test weapons. Under a temporary clearance, the unit was evaluating heavy weapons carriage. Key-Alan Warnes

Squadron personnel fitted weapons pylons on ZJ939/‘DXI’, and the armourers assembled and loaded the bombs on November 15. Then the Block 5 jet, loaded with two 1,000 lb (454kg) Paveway II LGBs and a centreline fuel tank, left RAF Kinloss for Aberporth Range in south Wales. Designating the target for the XI Sqn Typhoon was ZJ804/ISPA1 again. The pilot of ZJ939/‘DXI’ climbed to 39,000ft (11,890m) and cruised to Aberporth at Mach 0.85, well within the cleared flight envelope and

EFBites

 Tranche 3a comprises 40 RAF aircraft with 24 replacing those ordered in 2004 but diverted to the Royal Saudi Air Force.

Above: A 3 (F) Sqn Typhoon shows off its Q-Fit – four short range ASRAAMs under the wings and four AMRAAMs on the side stations. When the Meteor BVRAAM is introduced later this decade, the Typhoon will pack an even more powerful punch. Eurofighter GmbH

aircraft configuration. Final preparations were undertaken during a 20 minute loiter period before releasing the bomb from 5,000ft (1,525m) as part of a high-low-high attack profile, scoring a direct hit. A blow to the RAF’s attempts to ramp up the Typhoon force to a multi-role capability came on April 23, 2008, when ZJ943/‘DK’, was involved in a landing accident at NAWS China Lake, California. The aircraft, now stored at RAF Coningsby, was one of four deployed by 17 (R) Sqn on March 31, 2008, for Trial Daystar, which was designed to assess air-tosurface capability and to certify live weapons clearance. The crash came just two days after seven Typhoons left RAF Coningsby as part of Project Gordian, the RAF’s plan to achieve Typhoon multi-role operational deployment by July 1, 2008. After leaving the UK on April 21, the seven jets stopped off at Davis Monthan AFB, Arizona, for Torpedo Focus – the RAF’s annual three-week heavy weapons exercise. During XI (F) Sqn’s deployment, led by Wg Cdr Gav Parker, the unit dropped a mixture of inert Paveway II, Enhanced Paveway II and 1,000lb (454kg) kinetic free fall bombs on the Barry M Goldwater Range. This led to eight experienced Typhoon pilots being cleared by the Air Warfare Centre to use the Litening III targeting pod during the manoeuvres, enabling them to designate their own LGBs and ‘spike’ for other pilots without the clearance. Pilots from No 3 (F) Sqn also worked alongside XI (F) Sqn during the detachment, which headed to Nellis AFB, Nevada, on May 19 to participate in Exercise Green Flag, a joint live close air support exercise. It would provide the means of demonstrating a robust deployable capability to the RAF’s senior commanders. Over the North American deployment, Typhoon Force, led by XI (F) Squadron, dropped 151 weapons (76 by 3/XI Sqns and

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Above: XI (F) Sqn was lead unit for the multi role work-up and deployed to the USA for a heavy weapons exercise from April-June 2008. FGR4 ZJ935/‘DJ’ is seen over Nevada fitted with Litening LDP and six Enhanced Paveway IIs. Eurofighter GmbH

75 by 17 (R) Sqn) on Trial Daystar at NAWS China Lake. These comprised 52 Paveway II, 16 Enhanced Paveway II and 83 1,000lb (454kg) freefall bombs – with 65% scoring direct hits. The success of the inert weapons was sufficient for the RAF leadership to conclude enough work had been completed to meet the July 1, 2008, Multi Role – Operational Employment Date (MR-OED) declaration. Typhoon was combat ready.

Above: The RAF took delivery of its first Tranche 2 Typhoons FGR4s in October 2008, and launched the RAF into a new world of capabilities with its vastly improved computer system on board. Most early Tranche 2 jets are flown by 6 Sqn, which has been working up the air to ground role. Alan Warnes

Tranche 3 cut

The RAF took delivery of its first Tranche 2 aircraft, ZJ947 (BS040), on October 10, 2008, which, together with a second jet, ZJ946 (BS039), was delivered to RAF Coningsby on October 21. The primary difference between Tranche 1 and Tranche 2 is that the latter includes a new suite of computers with more processing power, enabling the introduction

of enhanced air-to-ground capabilities for the future. Until the introduction of P1Ea software in March 2014, none of the four nations had Tranche 2 aircraft with air-toground capabilities. With Typhoon’s operational tempo now ratcheted up, on March 4, 2009, the UK Government announced the award of a £450 million, five-year contract to BAE Systems for maintenance and support of the RAF

Above: Four Typhoon FGR4s were sent to the Falklands from RAF Coningsby on September 12, 2009. ZK301 is seen taxing out with three 1,000 litre fuel tanks for its long (and what turned out to be eventful) trip south. Key-Alan Warnes

Typhoon fleet. There were some real issues on spares availability at this time; highlighted a year later, in mid-March 2010, when the MOD confirmed six Typhoons had been cannibalised because of a lack of spares, although the MOD noted, “this is a routine measure to ensure the maximum number of aircraft is available for front-line duty.” In response to a Freedom of Information Act 2000 request in early March 2010 it was confirmed six Typhoons had suffered this indignity. There were three Tranche 1s - one (ZJ915) since November 2007; one between November 2007 and May 2009, and another from September 2007 to January 2010 (believed to be ZJ940). The other three were all Tranche 2 Typhoons, one from April to July 2009, another since May 2009 and the third since September 2009 (believed to be ZJ945). It is unclear at the time of going to press if this policy of robbing spares is ongoing. A nine-billion Euro Tranche 3a production contract was signed by Eurofighter, Eurojet and NETMA on July 31, 2009, for a further 112 Typhoons, plus 241 engines for the four partner nations. As part of Tranche 3a, the

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New designations
Following the November 14, 2007, release-toservice for RAF Block 5 jets to carry LGBs, the RAF Typhoons were given a new designation. On November 23, the RAF announced that all Typhoons built or upgraded to the multi-role Block 5 configurations or higher were now known as Typhoon T3 for the two-seat version and Typhoon FGR4s for the single-seat aircraft. Initial production aircraft, currently in service solely in the air defence role, were called T1 (two-seat) and Typhoon F2 (single seat) variants. RAF is set to receive 40 RAF aircraft, with 24 of these replacing those ordered in 2004 as part of Tranche 2, but since diverted to the Royal Saudi Air Force. The UK was originally going to take 88 of the 236 aircraft in Tranche 3 at an estimated cost of £7 billion, clearly unaffordable in the austere economic climate. The UK MoD looked at withdrawing from Tranche 3 and upgrading its existing Tranche 1 aircraft at an estimated cost of £5.9 billion (£2bn liabilities, £3bn for upgrade and £900 million loss of support savings). However, a compromise came when it was agreed to split Tranche 3 into two parts to meet affordability constraints. To support the seven squadron force originally planned, the RAF hoped to acquire 232 Typhoons to support a 137 aircraft forward fleet, with 15 aircraft per squadron, 24 for the Operational Conversion Unit, plus four each for the OEU and Falklands. According to the outgoing RAF Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy (now Senior Advisor to BAE Systems) the current buy will support a forward fleet of 120-123 aircraft, which could even allow the formation of a sixth frontline squadron, above and beyond the five squadrons currently expected.
Above: To commemorate its 100th anniversary in 2012, 3 (F) Sqn painted FGR4 ZJ936/'QO-C' in arguably the best markings worn by any RAF Typhoon. Alan Warnes Left: The first two pilots to arrive at RAF Mount Pleasant flying FGR4s ZJ944 and ZJ950 were Sqn Ldr Rich Wells (left) and Sqn Ldr James Bolton. Key-Dave Allport

Increasing responsibilities

With Tornado F3 edging closer to retirement, the RAF opted to send four new Typhoon FGR4s to the Falklands on September 12, 2009. This epic 8,000 mile (13,000km) journey, undoubtedly the biggest tasking to face the Typhoon Force, saw five jets stopping in the Canaries and on Ascension Island before arriving at RAF Mount Pleasant.

Above: A Typhoon sits on the ramp at RAF Mount Pleasant wearing 1435 Flt colours and the ‘F’ (for Faith) tail code. Crown Copyright

The aircraft stayed for a couple of days at Gando in the Canaries, along with a VC-10, before flying around 3,500 miles (5,600km) south to Ascension Island. An RAF Nimrod provided SAR coverage. On September 16, four days after leaving RAF Coningsby two aircraft, ZJ944 and ZJ950 flown respectively by Sqn Ldr James Bolton and Sqn Ldr Rich Wells, finally touched down at RAF Mount Pleasant after an epic journey. The other two Typhoons, ZJ949 and ZK301, were still in the Ascension Islands then, although they made it to their destination on September 18. Meanwhile, the air spare, ZJ945, diverted into Santiago de Compostela-Lavacolia Airport in north western Spain along with the Tristar on September 21. The Typhoon had broken the tanker’s refuelling basket and it could not take any fuel on board. It never rains but it pours – it then transpired that there were difficulties finding an auxiliary power unit to start the engines! Eventually the air spare arrived back at RAF Coningsby on September 22 after ten days on the road. The Typhoon took over the Falklands QRA duties on September 23, 2009, with the aircraft all wearing 1435 Flt insignia and codes – ZJ944/‘Faith’, ZJ949/‘Hope’, ZJ950/‘Charity’ (named after the Gladiators that fought over Malta in World War Two) and ZK301/‘Desperation’ (a typical RAF pun carrying on the F3 tradition). The unit is manned by a Squadron Leader and four Flight Lieutenants from each of the four operational squadrons. This provides the Sqn Ldr with a great opportunity to run the detachment without a Wing Commander or ‘Boss’, as the OC is termed in the RAF, looking over him. As operational capabilities mounted, No 6 Squadron re-formed under the command of Wg Cdr Roddy Dennis at RAF Leuchars, Fife, on September 6, 2010. Typhoons had started to appear with the unit’s tail codes at RAF Coningsby, where the unit started working up, as far back as January 25, 2010. The first pair, ZK304/‘EB’ and ZK305/‘EC’ had been delivered to the Lincolnshire base on

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November 21 and December 1 respectively, but neither wore unit insignia. Having worked up an almost full complement of aircraft, the unit left for RAF Leuchars in early September 2010. Typhoon operations during 2011 concentrated primarily on Operation Ellamy over Libya. Six aircraft were deployed to Gioia del Colle, Italy for some six months from March 20, 2011. Four of these aircraft, it was announced on April 6, 2011, moved from air defence to the air-to-ground role, leading to the first Typhoon strike taking place on April 12, 2011. Patrolling with a Tornado aircraft (buddy-lasing for it) over western Libya, the jet was able to positively identify regime main battle tanks to the south of Misratah.   The two aircraft attacked and the Typhoon successfully engaged two tanks with Enhanced Paveway II precision guided bombs while the Tornado hit another tank with a Paveway IV bomb. The Typhoon squadrons clocked up over 3,000 flying hours during their detachment to southern Italy.

Above: Three RAF Typhoons were painted in special markings during late 2010 to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain. T3 ZJ805 of 29 (R) Sqn wore the 'S-RO' code along with the names of two World War Two pilots, Pilot Officer RA Rhodes and Sgt WJ Gregory. They were the aircrew who flew one of the unit’s Blenheim Mk1Fs with the same code (albeit 'RO-S') and shot down a Heinkel 111 on August 18, 1940. Key-Alan Warnes

London Olympics

With airborne security paramount during the 2012 Olympics in London, four Typhoons were deployed to RAF Northolt, Middlesex, on July 9 of that year.  The additional measures were built on the RAF’s existing

Above: No 6 Sqn reformed with the Typhoon under the command of Wg Cdr Roderick Dennis at RAF Leuchars on September 6, 2011. It came four years after the unit disbanded as a Jaguar squadron at RAF Coningsby on May 31, 2007. Crown Copyright Below: Typhoons regularly deploy to Al Dhafra, UAE for the Advanced Tactical Leadership Course (ATLC) which provides all participants with a chance to test their tactical nous in the air. A 3(F) Sqn FGR4 flies over the desert in November 2009. Eurofighter-Katsu Katunaga

air security arrangements, with Typhoons available 24/7 to be scrambled from their bases at Coningsby and Leuchars to intercept unidentified aircraft. Squadron Leader Gordon Lovett led the detachment of four aircraft whilst at their temporary home at Northolt. Air Commodore Gary Waterfall, Deputy Commander for Olympics Air Security, said at the time, “This deployment to an airfield with an historic role in defending London is a reminder that our air security preparations build on the decades of Royal Air Force experience in controlling the air to protect the UK.  There is no specific threat to the Games, but we have to be ready for all eventualities.” Typhoons are known to have scrambled at least twice during the games, on July 25 and August 3, when radio contact was lost with two civil aircraft, a Thomas Cook flight and a US Boeing 737 business jet, respectively. After making visual contact both aircraft were allowed to continue their journeys. It took the Typhoon on the second intercept

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Left: XI (F) Sqn Typhoon FGR4 ZJ932/ ‘DB’ touches down at RAF Coningsby on November 23, 2012, marked with four QRA intercepts on the nose just behind the PIRATE sensor. The symbols depict two Tu-95 Bears and two Tu-160 Blackjacks. Chris Lofting Right: Several Typhoons returned from Operation Ellamy operations with mission markings. The 3(F) Sqn jet, ZJ927/‘QO-M’ wore the largest number, depicting 56 Paveway II drops. The warfighting Tranche 1 jets had more air to ground capability than the Tranche 2 until March 2014. Alan Warnes

Above: Four Typhoons deployed to RAF Northolt during the London Olympics in 2012 where they stood QRA, primarily focused against any possible airborne terrorist attack. Crown Copyright

RAF TYPHOON SQUaDrON COMMaNDErs
1 Sqn Wg Cdr Mark Flewin 3 Sqn Wg Cdr Lol Bennett Wg Cdr Jez Milne DFC Wg Cdr Dicky Patounas Wg Cdr Ian Townsend 6 Sqn Wg Cdr Roddy Dennis Wg Cdr Mike Baulkwill 11 (F) Sqn Wg Cdr Gav Parker Wg Cdr Jez Attridge Wg Cdr Rich Wells Wg Cdr Chris Layden 29 Sqn Wg Cdr John Hitchcock Sqn Ldr Ian Hargreaves Wg Cdr Al Mackay (Sqn stood up at CON in Jun 2005) Sqn Ldr Anthony Gregory Wg Cdr John Stringer Wg Cdr Al Seymour Wg Cdr Graeme Pemberton Wg Cdr James Heald DFC 17 & 41 Sqn Wg Cdr Charlie Chan Wg Cdr John Hitchcock (Sqn stood up at CON in May 2005) Wg Cdr Toby Craig Wg Cdr Mark Chappell Wg Cdr Stephen Williams 41 Sqn Wg Cdr Mark Rodden Apr 2013 Feb 2003 Nov 2004 Jul 2006 Aug 2008 Feb 2011 Dec 2003 Nov 2004 Apr 2005 Jun 2007 Sep 2007 Oct 2009 Dec 2011 Dec 2013 Mar 2007 Apr 2009 Aug 2011 Sep 13 Sep 2010 Nov 2012 Mar 2006 Mar 2008 Sep 2010 Sep 2012 Aug 2012

just 3.5 seconds from departure to pulling alongside the Boeing 737! One of the main responsibilities of 6 Sqn, to develop the multi-role capability, came to fruition on April 10, 2013, when it dropped several inert Paveway II bombs for the first time from a Tranche 2 version. Pilots had embarked on a series of training sorties over the Cape Wrath Range in Scotland in late March to deliver this air to surface capability as part of ‘Combat Ready’ work up sorties.  Officer Commanding 6 Squadron, Wing Commander Mike Baulkwill said, “The successful delivery of Paveway II from a Tranche 2 Typhoon is another step forward in the development of the platform’s multi-role combat capability.” Flight Lieutenant Oli Fleming, who as an ex-Tornado GR4 pilot has operational air-toground experience, was the first 6 Squadron pilot to drop a Paveway II.   After ten years of Typhoon operations, No 17 (Reserve) Test and Evaluation Squadron – the original Typhoon operational evaluation – flew its last Typhoon sortie on April 5, 2013, with the outgoing OC, Wg Cdr Steve Williams, at the controls. A formal parade held at RAF Coningsby on April 12, 2013, marked the formal end of 17 (R) Squadron’s association with the RAF’s premier fighter. The unit is now destined to become the UK’s Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II TES.  No 17 (R) will re-form at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to bring the F-35B into RAF and Fleet Air Arm service. The Typhoon TES role was transferred to 41 (Reserve) Test and Evaluation Squadron, also based at RAF Coningsby,

Above: An RAF Typhoon lifts off the Gioia del Colle runway in southern Italy bound for Libya during Operation Ellamy. Although weighed down by four Enhanced Paveway II laser guided bombs, they would have had little impact on the aircraft’s performance. Crown Copyright

which was undertaking a similar mission for the Tornado.  The Typhoons flying with 17(R) Squadron were transferred to 41(R) Squadron and unveiled on April 22, 2013, at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, newly repainted in 41 (Reserve) Test and Evaluation Squadron (TES) markings.  The four were: ZJ914 ‘DS’ (still with its previous 11 Sqn code that had been retained when transferred to 17 (R) Sqn), ZJ930 ‘EB-R’ (ex ‘AA’ 17 (R) Sqn), ZJ947 ‘EB-L’ (ex ‘AH’ 17 (R) Sqn) and ZK332 ‘EB-J’ (ex ‘AI’ 17 (R) Sqn). The squadron OC, Wing Commander Mark Rodden, saw the unit now responsible for testing and evaluating Tornado GR4s and Typhoon FGR4s, together with their equipment and operating practices for the RAF front-line squadrons equipped with these types. 

Skills for the future

During the summer of 2013, the Typhoon Force carried out its largest ever training exercise. Exercise Android Preference concluded at RAF Coningsby on July 5, after two weeks of action.  The exercise formed part of the Qualified Weapons Instructor (QWI) course, regarded as the pinnacle qualification for RAF aircrew, as RAF Coningsby Station Commander, Gp Capt Johnny Stringer, explained, “The QWI courses are where we fuse the physical, moral and conceptual components of air fighting power at the tactical level.  We’re taking our brightest and best and making them the most capable and aware tactical operators they can be.  What Android

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Preference allows us to do is not only to prepare them for the QWI operational phase, but also to expose them to some of the wider and higher-level considerations and consequences of their tactical appreciation, planning and subsequent execution.” By the end of the following month, six Typhoon FGR4s from 11 Squadron deployed to RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus, on August 29, 2013, as part of the UK response to the Syria crisis. The aircraft formed part of 121 Expeditionary Air Wing (EAW), which had been sent to the region as a contingency measure, purely to protect the two Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, which are home to more than 6,000 British service personnel and their families.  Also deployed were RAF Regiment Force Protection personnel and fighter controllers. The six jets comprised ZJ939 ‘DXI’, ZJ942 ‘DH’, ZJ926 ‘QO-Y’ (loaned from 3 Squadron), ZJ924 ‘DD’, ZJ913 ‘QO-M’ (loaned from 3 Squadron) and ZJ919 ‘DC’. The aircraft returned to RAF Coningsby on November 13, 2013. The Commanding Officer of 121 EAW, Wing Commander Blythe Crawford, said, “While our primary objective was to deter aggression and protect UK assets in the eastern Mediterranean, I cannot understate the value of this deployment at an operational and strategic level.” No 1 (F) Squadron, under the command of Wg Cdr Mark Flewin, was re-formed at RAF Leuchars with the stand-up parade taking place during the airshow there on September 7, 2013. The Air Officer Scotland, Air Cdre Gavin

Above: 41 (R) TES took over from 17 (R) TES as the RAF Typhoon OEU in April 2013. Key-Alan Warnes

Parker, who commanded XI  The RAF’s 53 Squadron from Tranche 1 aircraft 2007-09, handed are due to retire the 1 (F) Squadron over the period standard to the 2015-18, which will RAF CAS, Air Chief leave 107 Typhoon Marshal Sir Stephen aircraft in RAF Dalton. The CAS service until 2030. commented at the parade, “Our Typhoon Force will continue to grow, ultimately to five squadrons, and when combined with the Tornado Force and, in due course, the Lightning II Force, the RAF will be well placed to face challenges of the future.” On December 13, 2013 the MOD announced that II (AC) Squadron was to re-equip with the Typhoon.  As part of the RAF’s combat air capability transformation, the battle-proven Tornado GR4 will be replaced by the Typhoon and

EFBites

Above: No 1 (F) Sqn reformed at RAF Leuchars on September 15, 2012, to become the second Typhoon unit there. This FGR4 was the 100th Typhoon to be delivered to the RAF when it was handed over in January 2013. Both squadrons will move to RAF Lossiemouth when RAF Leuchars closes. Eurofighter GmbH

Above: No 1 (F) and 6 Sqn deployed to Exercise Red Flag during late January 2014 where the HMSS was evaluated in some of the toughest hostile environments acted out during a peace time exercise. Lifting off the Nellis runway is 6 Sqn FGR4 ZK314/‘EO’. Eurofighter – Geoff Lee

Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II fighters.  Based at RAF Marham, Norfolk, No II (AC) Squadron celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2012 and after completing its tour in Afghanistan in 2014 the unit is now beginning preparations for the transition to Typhoon and transfer to RAF Lossiemouth, Moray. The change was part of a planned realignment of the RAF’s long-serving Tornado Force, according to the Armed Forces Minister, Mark Francois, under which all GR4s will leave the service by 2019.  Mr Francois said, “No II (AC) Sqn will formally disband as a Tornado squadron on March 31, 2015 and re-equip to form a new Typhoon squadron based at RAF Lossiemouth the next day, on April 1, 2015.” It will be the fifth front line RAF Typhoon unit. As the year drew to a close, Typhoon FGR4 ZK355 (BS116), the first Tranche 3 aircraft, made its first flight on December 2, 2013.  The enhanced aircraft will become a multirole fighter, capable of shifting between air-to-air and air-to-ground attacks without having to stop to reconfigure its weapons.  Visibility will eventually be enhanced with the new E-scan radar. The year 2014 has seen similar deployment patterns to previous years, with Leucharsbased 1 (F) and 6 Squadrons at Nellis AFB, Nevada, for Exercise Red Flag in late January. Being a Tier 1 exercise, with US, UK and Australian participation, the exercise was one of the more difficult ones – with coms jamming, radar jamming and double digit SAMs all playing their part in ensuring it was an uncomfortable ride for the aviators. According to one source, it went ‘fairly well’ for the Typhoon pilots evaluating their new Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS). Around the same time, XI (F) Sqn had flown to Oman for Exercise Magic Carpet, an exercise primarily focussing on Close Air Support, where the jet’s 27mm Mauser was put to use for the first time in this role. RAF Coningsby saw the last Tranche 2 jet arrive on March 27, 2014, when ZK354 was delivered to the Typhoon Maintenace Facility before being passed to a squadron. The first 10 years have seen the Eurofighter Typhoon evolve from a training aircraft to air defender to bomber. Ensuring it becomes truly multirole, rather than 'switch role' as Eurofighter's Laurie Hilditch calls it, is the RAF’s main priority. It means the next decade is sure to be as exciting as the last.

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“It is an incredible aircraft! Across a whole range of altitudes and speeds it's eye watering”

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Flying Typhoon
OC 3 (F) Squadron, Wg Cdr ‘Cab’ Townsend gives an inside view of life as a Typhoon pilot
QRA

T

O LIVE the dream and fly Typhoon with the RAF, you don’t necessarily have to graduate through training school – legacy jet pilots can have a crack, too. One who has taken this route is Wg Cdr Ian ‘Cab’ Townsend, a former Harrier GR7 pilot and now the Officer Commanding (OC) 3 (F) Squadron based at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire. Back in 2010, ‘Cab’ had just been designated the next OC of 1 (F) Squadron when in October of that year, the British Government opted to ground the Harrier fleet. Naturally, this was not great news for ‘Cab’. However, if you flew Harriers, that meant you were a pilot honed in flying a single-seat fast jet in the air to ground scenario. So ‘Cab’ found himself a new jet – the Typhoon.

Left: RAF Typhoon pilot Sqn Ldr Toby McMeeking, lives the dream. Key-Alan Warnes Below: Wg Cdr Ian ‘Cab’ Townsend has been OC of 3 (F) Sqn since September 2012. RAF

Cab takes up the story. “I took over 3 (F) Squadron in Sept 2012, but prior to that did a four month operational conversion course with 29 (R) Squadron, the Typhoon Operational Conversion Unit (OCU), in April 2012. Everyone does the same length of time on OCU, even ab-initio pilots. The role of OCU is to get pilots to a productive Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) readiness, so they focus on skill sets required to be on Q [as QRA is called]. “Then there is an introduction to some of the air-surface capabilities of the aircraft. Rightly so, but the focus is on trying to get the pilots qualified and able to fly the Typhoon in a fairly curtailed role,” he adds. Typhoons look after the air defences of the UK. The air space is divided between UK-North, which comes under the responsibility of RAF Leuchars, Fife where 1 (F) and 6 Sqn are based, and UK-South, under the watch of RAF Coningsby and 3 (F), 11 (F)

‘Cab’ on Typhoon performance:
“It is an incredible aircraft! The performance is the great take-away. Across a whole range of altitudes and speeds it’s eye watering. Not just the fact it can pull 9G, but the acceleration and the performance of the [EJ 200] engines is simply astounding. The other thing that makes it unique is the carefree handling, the fact that the flight control system will protect you from yourself. It will only allow you to do what the aircraft is capable of doing at the time, while with other aircraft there will be limits in terms of alpha/g. You name it, there will be limits you can adhere to. Typhoon doesn’t have that. It either lets you do it or doesn’t. The beauty of it is, she will let you do anything that you like, pretty much; that’s the unique selling point of Typhoon. The only thing I have to remember in the cockpit is the speed limits, because if you don’t she will go so fast so quickly that if you don’t honour them she will run away from you. “You can sit this aircraft at 10,000 feet and put in the afterburners and if you are not careful she will just accelerate and accelerate and as she does your turn circle gets bigger and bigger and bigger. So power management ,or power modulation as we refer to it in the cockpit, is really important and whilst the Harrier even with big engine was a capable beast it’s nothing like this. The obvious thing for me when transferring from Harrier to Typhoon was the air to air environment, which I love. It is incredibly challenging. No two scenarios are the same.”

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and 29 (R) Squadrons. The jets are usually sitting on high readiness, armed with four AMRAAMs and four ASRAAMS, not forgetting the 27mm Mauser gun, too. Each of the front line squadrons at RAF Coningsby takes QRA responsibility for about six weeks at a time. The OCs ensure there are enough serviceable aircraft with the right weapons fits to deliver the mission. The three squadrons at RAF Coningsby jointly supply the pilots on a day to day basis, so pilots from one squadron will sit in the QRA ‘shed’ together with aircrew from another squadron. While pilot manning is shared, ground crew manning – providing serviceable aircraft – is a single squadron’s burden for a six week period. For obvious security reasons, ‘Cab’ will not be drawn on the types of interceptions, but he does admit the concept has not changed: “QRA is our most important mission; protection of the UK Mainland. We are ready to be called upon, whatever the situation that is presented to us.” One potential scenario might be a loss of radio contact due to a malfunction or an aircraft on the wrong frequency. On January 27, 2014 two Typhoons were scrambled from RAF Coningsby and headed south-west to intercept an aircraft routing from MadridBirmingham which was not talking to ATC. As the two Typhoons pulled up alongside, the pilots were surprised – and no doubt a little perturbed – to see that the aircraft was camouflaged! In fact, this was no foreign invader: it was a Bulgarian-registered Air Bright An-26 used in the ‘Expendables 2’ movie, and had suffered a radio failure. Intercepts happen on a regular basis but seldom is heard about the role the Typhoon plays in defending the UK’s skies. Most of the wider training for the pilots’ evolution, in teaching them to fly the aircraft across the whole range of missions, is left to squadron commanders. Pilots go through

Above: Sqn Ldr Paul Smith taxies out his 3 (F) Sqn Typhoon from the Q-Shed at RAF Coningsby in June 2007, when Typhoon took over southern QRA. It is armed with four ASRAAMs and four AMRAAMs. Key-Alan Warnes

an OCU course which then allows squadron commanders to employ them in the QRA. The OC then has the wider task of developing the rookie Typhoon pilot as his experience grows, because they don’t fly many hours in four months at the OCU.

Hawk T2s – lead in fighter training

Training is definitely the name of the game. ‘Cab’ explains, “As experience grows he will get more confident with the Typhoon as a platform, as an operational platform and then I can then use him in different roles introducing him to different mission types. “Training never stops for any of us and the more experience you have the easier you will
Below: Introducing the newer digital Hawk T2 into service at RAF Valley for advanced flying training has allowed ab-initio pilots a smoother transition to the Typhoon’s cockpit. Paul Heasman

find different skills. But for ab-initio pilots coming through, my challenge is to give them extra bits of training in a staged and phased approach for them to become initially able to do a broader set of skills as an air defence pilot. But ultimately, it is really to be a multirole pilot, switching from air to air to air to surface seamlessly.” The first four ab-initio pilots graduated from advanced flying training on Hawk T2s destined for the Typhoon Force in June 2013. No IV (R) Squadron at RAF Valley, Gwynedd has revolutionized UK fast jet pilot training with the new Hawk T2s. ‘Cab’ himself did some flying on the Hawk T2s before joining the Typhoon Force: “I wanted to try and get a little of the insight into the product (ab-initio pilots) I will eventually receive. It was fascinating. I think T2 is a great platform for guys and girls to train on

"Training never stops for any of us and the more experience you have the easier you will find different skills"

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Above: After the Harrier was retired abruptly from service in December 2010, many RAF pilots with the single-cockpit mindset migrated to the Typhoon. Flt Lt Steve Kenworthy, now a Sqn Ldr with 3 (F) Sqn, was one of them. Key-Alan Warnes

before they come to Typhoon. With its glass cockpit it is much, much better than the old Hawk T1. The guys on Hawk T2 are trained in the tactical procedures, which we fly in the Typhoon Force but the performance of the Typhoon is a step-change.” While the concepts may be the same, the ab-initio pilots will not have the conceptmatch for the aircraft or the weapons system they will be using on Typhoon. There will however be familiarity with a HUD, glass cockpit, as well as a range of avionics systems expected in a modern fast jet. “It’s a far cry from the Hawk T1s and their ‘map and stop-watch’ type of flying. It is a huge transition but in the past that was the transition for all pilots going on to modern fighters. The Tornado GR4/F3, Harrier and Jaguar are a world away from the Typhoon, and the Typhoon is not a fifth generation fighter, but it is still a massive step forward from the legacy aircraft of a previous generation,” explains the OC.

"I have actively sought out ex Tornado pilots to join the unit, to have a good bedrock of air to air experience"
a multi-role capability. It is clear that the RAF focus is on Typhoon being multi-role; everyone talks from the same hymn-sheet. “It has proved itself as a multi role fighter. OK, it doesn’t have the range of weapons that other multi role fighters may have but in terms of mind-set, and this is the important thing, the people have to have a multirole mind-set and not think of themselves as ‘air defenders’. We can’t afford to sit in the air defence stovepipe.

Multi role

In the RAF, the Typhoon is a multirole aircraft and by the end of 2014 it should be able to switch from air to air role while in the air to air-ground and vice versa. It is set to be a game changer. As the squadron OC, ‘Cab’ doesn’t consider the new guys to be combat ready until they are multi role qualified because the aircraft has already contributed and been declared

“So I have actively sought out ex Tornado pilots recently to join the unit – the reason being I have a good bedrock of air to air experience on the squadron and again, just in terms of engendering this multirole mindset, the GR4 guys I have brought across have given that mindset instinctively. “The challenge is, we don’t want to focus solely on air to surface because then we just go the other way; my challenge, and I think the challenge for the Typhoon Force, is finding its feet in terms of setting a tempo through its annual training programme that delivers both air-air and air-surface, to allow us to be competent in both skills sets.”

Physical demands

Above: Increasing number of Tornado pilots are moving across to the Typhoon because of their air to ground experience. With Tornado squadrons now declining there are also more available. Key-Alan Warnes

There are huge physiological demands on a pilot, which means they have to keep fit. No 3 (F) Squadron regularly calls upon the services of a physiotherapist, and recently a flight lieutenant spent three and half months with the unit while deployed to the Middle East in 2013. “The physiotherapist puts us back together when we are broken, which is really easy to do in this aircraft. Trying to turn your neck at 9G is a fool’s game because you will hurt yourself. So an aircrew training programme has been put together. There is a skill to training that has been introduced to us…

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"I took a young squadron technician for a sortie. I told the lad 'I'm going to take you to 7G — and we are going to have a conversation'"

not to go on long runs but rather to undertake plenty of strength training or short bursts of high intensity exercise that replicates what we would be facing in the cockpit. “We have neck strength exercises, again because it’s a core part of the body we don’t normally exercise – no one ever does. I think the way the RAF is approaching aircrew training and conditioning is a ‘cradle to grave approach’ whereas before it was ‘we would put them back together when they are bruised and broken’. Education with regards to the physiological effects of flying a high performance fighter is critical and is now a part of all flying training. “As we come to the merge, you are looking at the front of the window: that’s great, but as soon as you go beyond each other you have got to try and see the other guy. There is only way to move your head easily at 9g – and

that’s ‘back off, move your head and pull again’. And they teach you that skill at OCU which is a different approach to aviation because the aircraft previously didn’t demand it.”

Above: A dual seat Typhoon T3 of 3 (F) Sqn flies low level in the Mach loop. The dual seaters are used to hone the skills of pilots with a more experienced colleague in the rear seat. Chris Lofting Left: The Typhoon’s modern anti-G suit allows the pilot to pull up to 9G without too much discomfort. However it doesn’t protect the neck, so pilots have to ensure there are no sudden head movements, particularly in air to air combat scenarios. Jamie Hunter

G is the main issue while flying Typhoon in combat. If pilots are doing this regularly, even with anti-g kit, a certain level of fitness is needed. There are huge physiological demands so they must train in the right way to make sure they understand the kit and how it works. ‘Cab’ explains, “Pulling 5-6g in an a legacy aircraft like the Harrier you did an anti-g straining manoeuvre yourself. If you try doing that in Typhoon, you are fighting the kit and it won’t be so effective so you have to relax and let the suit do the work for you.

Pulling G

“I recently took a young squadron technician for a sortie. I told the lad ‘I’m going to take you to 7G – and we are going to have a conversation’. That forced pressure into his lungs, which is all part of beating the G forces – and he held at 7G sustained without any issues. He had never flown in a fast jet before and that’s the best testament I can give to the aircraft’s anti-g system. “It’s a whole-body system, completely different from legacy aircraft. Its tailor made – we wear anti-g trousers, but with slightly different style. The life jacket is compressed into the chest in the same way the overpressurised air system is geared to increasing pressure in your chest ensuring blood stays in your head. "We have anti-g booty socks, so we can have anti-g all way from big toe to your chest. They teach you that at the OCU – a very good training approach to the high performance side of aircraft.”

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TESTING, TESTING
1, 2, 3...and 4
The testing and evaluation process is coordinated across all four partners, with a great team spirit.

I

T’S AN easy and plausible mistake to assume that the four Eurofighter Partner Companies (EPCs) only work on their own national programmes, that each EPC Flight Test Centre uses its development aircraft for national interests. In fact, all four work on both national and foreign national programmes. At the time of going to press (spring 2014), there are no national programmes as all parties are harnessing their efforts for one common cause. “It works very well and there is a great team spirit. Even if there are four flight test units we all work as one team. With my direct colleagues we can discuss how we get this work share so each of us has all our capabilities trained, so we need to train in all areas where the companies have no interest. It’s a constant process of cross fertilisation,” explains Thomas Grohs, Manager Eurofighter Testing, Manching. “That’s not to say there is no competition between the teams,” he says smiling. “When a new product comes out (for the aircraft) everyone wants to get bids in, they all want to fly the aircraft first. Whoever leads on the

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Above: Typhoon IPSA1/ZJ804 Build No BT 005 landing at Warton on October 4, 2007 during Litening laser designator pod integration trials. As well as fuel tanks it is also fitted with an instrumentation pod and AIM-9 Sidewinders on the outer pylons. ZJ804 is now back serving 29 (R) Sqn. Neville Beckitt

IPA1/ZJ699 at the end of the Warton runway on December 4, 2012 for MBDA Meteor trials. The two armourers are indicating that they have pulled the ‘remove before flight’ tags from the BVRAAM missiles and they are now live before the jet heads to Aberporth Range. Mark Saunders Above: Alenia’s IPA2/MM.X614 carrying two Storm Shadow stand off weapons for ‘flutter trials’ which commenced in November 2013. Flying the aircraft is Enrico Scarabetto, Alenia Aermacchi’s Chief Test Pilot. Eurofighter - L Caliaro

work, everyone else will support them.” Colleagues from all four EPCs regularly visit each other’s facilities. For example, with ADS Spain leading on Direct Voice Input (DVI) testing, two test pilots from each EPC are going to Getafe to assist in the voice recognition trials. Meanwhile, ADS Germany assist whenever required to help out with the delivery of Typhoons to Saudi Arabia.

to record testing. In fact, the jets are invaded with the orange stuff which means in some areas they are not totally representable, particularly when it comes to electro magnetic compatibility,” says Laurie Hilditch, Eurofighter Future Cabilities Manager. “They are very capable but sometimes for quite a lot of work we do they are too capable for the flying we want.”

Instrumented Serial Production Aircraft

Instrumented Production Aircraft

There are seven IPAs, always destined to be test aircraft, allowing different types of equipment to be installed while built on the production line. All have real time data link telemetry systems on board for engineers on the ground to record. Miles of orange wiring all over the aircraft can be hooked up to very comprehensive instrumentation while the aircraft is being put together. “It allows sensors, transducers – everything

Above: ADS’ Chief Test Pilot Chris Worning (left) and BAE Systems Chief Test Pilot, John Turner in their Eurofighter Typhoon flying suits at Farnborough 1998. They had just flown DA5, the first Eurofighter powered by EJ 200 engines in the flying display. Neville Beckitt

When Eurofighter came out of the Main Development Contract (MDC) and into Phase 1 enhancements, there were detailed discussions about building more IPAs. It was soon recognised another type of test aircraft , known as the Instrumented Serial Production Aircraft (ISPA) was the solution. This is a normal production aircraft fitted with a specially designed avionics tray (known as the Flight Test Instrumentation tray) to fit into the gun bay. The tray is hooked up to the avionic buses that takes all the data. “This means the wiring is a lot less invasive. The ISPA is a simplified test aircraft

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focussing exclusively on the avionics trials and we can tell if it’s working from what is being recorded,” Laurie emphasises. All seven IPAs are owned by the NATO Eurofighter Management Organisation (NEFMO). As such they are owned equally by all four nations although they wear individual national roundels and contribute to national and foreign national programmes. The ISPAs are only borrowed by industry, which modifies and then demodifies them; when the job is finished they are handed back to the Air Force. For example, Typhoon T2 ZJ804/BT005 became ISPA1 and was used by BAE Systems for laser designator pod integration work for the air to surface role. It was handed back to the RAF after five years as an ISPA in June 2009. This aircraft has been replaced by T3 ZK303/BT017 which is unofficially known as ISPA5 and jointly owned by RAF and BAE Warton, but it will eventually be returned. Coded ‘AX’ it flies in marks of 41 (R) Sqn, the Typhoon OEU, acting as the development aircraft for P1E, providing Typhoon with a multi role capability. BAE is working closely with the RAF on the software’s operational evaluation.

Above: After being laid up for 18 months, IPA5/ ZJ700 taxies out for its first flight on February 28, 2014. This aircraft will be used for E-Scan AESA radar trials and was emerging from the workshop after modification. It still wears the Steedman Sword emblem on its tail, after Nat Makepeace won the award for an outstanding display at RIAT in 2011. Neville Beckitt Left: A close up of IPA5’s new nose as it lifts off the Warton runway. Mark Saunders

The ISPAs have to be kept to the latest standard; while the IPAs continue to do a good job their airframe standard is older. IPA7/98+07 at Manching is the only Tranche 2 test aircraft airframe, the others IPAs are Tranche 1s (see IPAs are Go, page 26). “In terms of avionics they are all hybrids – Tranche 1 aircraft with Tranche 2 avionics systems grafted in to them. This is a one off procedure because it takes a year to take the old stuff out and put the new equipment in, which is too long. But in terms of EFBites avionics they are  IPAs have almost all hybrids,” adds reached the flying Laurie Hilditch, a hour levels of the former Tornado F3 DAs before they pilot. retired. A very late,

two seat Tranche 2 Eurofighter, Build No GT026 was taken off the production line at Manching a couple of years back to become IPA8. At the time of going to press, it is being wired up and modified as the E Scan test aircraft and is expected to make its first flight towards the end of 2014. A second jet, IPA5/ZJ700, one of the BAE Warton test aircraft has just completed modification as the single seat E Scan test aircraft. As it was a Tranche 1 airframe it underwent a huge engineering job to prepare for its new role. It made its first flight for nearly two years in February 2014. Lessons will have been learned from the process, in the possible but unlikely event that customers want to retrofit E Scan into a Tranche 1.

Storm Shadow cooperation

Above: IPA6/ZJ938 holds at the end of the runway carrying four 500lb Paveway IV GPS/Laser Guided Bombs on December 4, 2013 as part of P1E trials. Mark Saunders

ADS (formerly Cassidian) at Manching is a European Partner Company (EPC), like the other three test teams working in co-ordination with Eurofighter GmbH. When new contracts are established, the four EPCs discuss the necessary flying and individual EPCs flight test lead responsibilities. When a contract is awarded the work is often split to suit the best practices of the individual FPC Flight test centres. In early 2014, IPA7 was heavily involved in flying with two Taurus stand off weapon Aero Dynamic Gathering (ADG) vehicles. Ostensibly it’s being used as a Storm Shadow lookalike to provide Eurofighter a more efficient flight test programme. “Both weapons have been in the wind tunnel, testing their similar aerodynamics and characteristics – weights identical, ‘boxy’ in shape. So flutter is being done on

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EPC Flight Test Centres

Airbus Defence and Space, Germany at Manching, Germany Airbus Defence and Space, Spain at Getafe, Spain Alenia Aermacchi, Caselle, Italy BAE Systems, Warton, UK pure Storm Shadow in Italy on IPA2 but for aerodynamic data gathering we can equally use Taurus for its effect on the aircraft,” explains Laurie Hilditch. To speed up the Storm Shadow testing and integration process – which is a Saudi requirement – two aircraft are being used. Alenia’s IPA2 in Italy is taking on the flutter trials before moving to environmental data gathering, checking vibration effects and temperature on aircraft. It flew six times with Storm Shadow in 2013. Meanwhile IPA7 flies with Taurus, avoiding political sensitivities that may arise from Storm Shadow being used in Germany, a nation which will probably buy Taurus anyway. The bonus is that if (or when) Taurus is ordered by Germany, or another customer, much of the exploratory work will have been done. By February 4, 2014 the Taurus had flown three of 18 ‘flutter flights’ planned for symmetric tests in Germany and 6-8 assymetric flights at Getafe with their Spanish ADS colleagues on single seater IPA4. Taurus ADG flying was completed by end of March and the Spanish part by early April. After the first phase has been completed, a second, known as the Extended Weapon Integration Flexibility will commence with IPA2 in the second quarter of 2014. Some 12 flights are expected in the second quarter of 2014 for air vehicle tasking, while 19 are planned for the avionics testing by the end of 2014 when Storm Shadow weapons integration will be completed. BAE Systems are expected to carry out the actual weapons drop later this year. The Storm Shadow

Above: Typhoon T3 IPSA5/ZK303/‘AX’, usually referred to by its Build No BT017, carrying a Thales Damocles laser designator pod on its centre line during trials under the Salam (RSAF) contract on June 25, 2013. Neville Beckitt

integration is a great example  IPA 1 and 3 are in of co-operation Tranche 1 standard between all four and are used for partner companies. testing for Tranche Data from the 1; IPA 2 and 4 have ADG tests will be been upgraded to fed into the P2E Tranche 2 avionics baseline design. standard software, The flight control P2/P1E. IPA5 is a law software suite hybrid Tranche for P2E Increment 1/2/3. 1 is expected to be flying in autumn this year. Early air vehicle testing for P2EA should be completed by end of 2015. BAE Systems Chief Test Pilot - Combat Air, Mark Bowman comments, “We end up doing the weapons system testing. While the Germans and Italians will look at the aerodynamic performance perspective of Storm Shadow, when it comes to dropping the weapon BAE Systems will use its expertise. The trials are all integrated it’s not just a case of bolting the weapon on. “There is a fundamental difference between putting a new weapon on the Tornado or Harrier that are stable aircraft and the

EFBites

Typhoon, which is aerodynamically unstable. As a result it is very sensitive to different masses and shapes being loaded, affecting the overall ability of the aircraft’s flight control system to maintain stability.” After testing with Taurus it is possible ADS Manching will receive a Storm Shadow for handling tests on the final flight control software. There were hopes to use the Taurus ADG again but there is a limited lifetime on the test vehicle, which will probably expire before testing starts again. In the event of an issue with export licensing it will be done on a British Typhoon IPA/ISPA.

Strakes

Other major projects ADS Manching is working on in 2014 include strake-testing. This has been done in Germany before but this time it is a more extended strake. “We are planning to extend not just the apex strakes but also add two above the canards, to counter the pitching movement generated by the bigger surfaces; and the flaps will be extended as well, on IPA7,” Thomas Grohs explains. The main priority with strakes is to test the maximum lift available in certain regions

Above: BT017 lifts off the Warton runway during the P1Eb operational evaluation, which 41 (R) Sqn is running in co-ordination with BAE. Note both of the aircrew on board are wearing the new Helmet Mounted Sighting System (HMSS). Once completed this new standard of software will allow the RAF Typhoons a very impressive air to ground capability. Mark Saunders

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of the flying envelopes for better turn performance. Strake mods could be rolled out so can be easily adapted/modified for a series production model. Certain export customers have certain requirements that can be more easily achieved with the use of strakes. For example, CFTs (conformal fuel tanks) can have quite a severe impact on the stability margins of the aircraft so strakes are seen as an essential enabler. This work is being taken on by industry because it is likely CFTs will be used on customer aircraft. Some observers wonder why the Germans are keen to pursue the strakes option, because the aircraft’s IRST and Helmet Mounted Sighting System eliminate the need for extra manoeuvrability. ADS’ Eurofighter Test Pilot Chris Worning disagrees: “Strakes are extremely important. We have to stay ‘up front’, we have to increase the jet’s manoeuvrability. Sometimes the aircraft is so successful in its layout that it hurts itself!  We need to keep growing the aircraft and there is a small shortfall in our relatively conservative maximum angle of attack. With strakes we can rectify that. “Maybe we can explore the angle of attack beyond the maximum lift of the aircraft like the F/A-18’s ‘point and shoot’ capability. Strakes will allow us to get there and increase manoeuvrability within the envelope we already have because we can roll faster.” Meanwhile IPA7 will stay in its initial configuration until Taurus testing is completed, and there will be early testing with E Scan for dynamic landing loads. This has seen the fully instrumented landing gear on IPA3 being transferred to IPA7. It will check that the increased weight of the new E-Scan radar will have no detrimental effect on the landing gear, that everything is within the tolerances and that there is no need to alter the sink rates. Another Eurofighter, build No GT026 will become IPA8, and is currently being built with test equipment at Manching; it should have its PFAT later this year. This differs from the other 7 IPAs as it is a Tranche 3 on a

Above: The BAE Warton Flight Ops, Combat Aircraft Test Team in mid March 2014.  From left to right: Paul Stone, Nat Makepeace, Arnie Arnold, Andy Blythe, Steve Formoso, Mark Bowman (Chief Test Pilot).  All are engaged in Combat Air products, primarily Hawk, Tornado and Typhoon. BAE

IPA/IPSA Allocations

national contract but it will be loaned  IPA3 is being to the E-Scan used by WTD 61 for foreign national Tranche 1 evolution programme. It will as well as the four work alongside BAE DROPs. Drop 4 Systems’ IPA5 which increment 1 is has had its front being done by BAE fuselage structure but ADS Germany beefed up for the hopes to have Drop E-Scan programme 4 Increment 2 in and P2E standard in autumn. particular, Tranche 2 Evolution Package 2 (T2EP2), which will take priority over strakes. The original flying trials will be done with an E-scan dummy set, fully representative of the real thing but with no functionality. When the radar becomes available it will be fitted. The first E Scan radar is expected to arrive in Germany in January/February 2015 and first live radar flights are expected to start in June 2015. Both aircraft will have P1Eb standard SRP 12 software.

EFBites

years before he went on to fly F-16As. He qualified as a test pilot at Empire Test School, Boscombe Down (ETPS) in preparation for working with the F-16A MLU. He left the RDAF in 1991, after 15 years and joined Deutsche Aerospace where he was involved in several programmes including the Do 328 in Oberpfaffenhofen, before leaving for Eurofighter GmbH in 1995. The following year he converted to the F-4F Phantom, and the Tornado before making his first flight in Eurofighter, DA1 on February 27, 1997. One of his memorable moments flying Eurofighter took place at Farnborough Air Show on July 23, 2002. “It was a lousy day and DA5 had to come from Jever Air Base in northern Germany with three fuel tanks, two aircraft (DA4 and IPA1) came from Warton and one (DA2) which I flew, from Farnborough. We joined up over London, formated and headed to Farnborough for the first ever Eurofighter 4-ship flypast. DA5

ADS Germany, Manching, Germany IPA7/98+07 (single-seater) ADS Spain, Getafe, Spain IPA4/C.16-20 (single-seater), ISPA3/CE.16-10 (two seater) Alenia Aermacchi, Turin-Caselle, Italy IPA2/MM.X614 (two-seater), ISPA4/CS.X7305 (single seater) BAE Systems, Warton, Lancs, UK IPA1/ZJ699 (two-seater), IPA5/ZJ700 (singleseater), IPA6/ZJ938 (single-seater), ISPA5/ ZK303/’AX (single-seater known as BT017 in 41 (R) Sqn marks), plus single-seat FGR4s ZK315, ZK350, ZK351 on loan from RAF Note: ADS Germany did until 2008 also fly IPA3/98+03 which is now operated by the co-located WTD 61, the German Air Force’s test unit although ADS can borrow when required.

The Test Pilots

Test Pilot, Eurofighter Project Chris Worning, who leads the German Flight Test Department, made his first flight in DA1 on February 27, 1997 and 17 years on is about to complete his 800th flight. That would make him the longest serving Eurofighter pilot and with over 1000 flying hours, one of the highest houred Eurofighter pilots too. Working alongside him is Geri Krahenbuhl, a Swiss national. While three pilots, Italian Raffaele Beltrame and ex German AF Tornado pilots Stephan Lauthner and Thomas Braun recently joined they should be operationally ready by midyear. Raffaele used to fly Italian Air Force Typhoons and Tornados. Danish born Chris Worning flew Royal Danish Air Force F-100s for some three

"The BAE Test Pilots also deliver Typhoons to the Royal Saudi Air Force, along with foreign pilots from other EPCs when required"
then went back to Jever. “There was terrific pressure with all the ministers from all the countries and leading military aircraft on the ground waiting for us. So it had to happen. “ At Warton, Mark Bowman is BAE Systems Chief Test Pilot - Combat Air. Having served with both 1 (F) and 4 (AC) Sqn flying Harriers, Mark went to ETPS where he qualified as a test pilot in 1990. Quite uniquely, he was then posted back to operations and joined 3(F) Sqn, serving in the Balkans, Northern Iraq and elsewhere before leaving the RAF in 1995. He started flying Typhoon in 2002.

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In October 2010, he was the last pilot to re qualify on the Harrier before the aircraft was chopped from the RAF three days later. Mark has many firsts (see IPAs Are Go! page 26) but one of his most eventful sorties was when he took ZJ804/BT005 to China Lake for the Highrider I trial in 2005. With Sqn Ldr Nick Felgate in the dual seater with him, the aircraft had an eventful journey across the Atlantic Ocean which saw them staying plugged into the Tristar tanker most of the time due to a fuel valve issue. The BAE Test Pilots also deliver Typhoons to the Royal Saudi Air Force when required, with foreign pilots from other FPCs when required. This will last for another four years until the second batch of 48 is delivered. Other key aviators with Mark in the Flight Test Air Combat team are: Nat Makepeace, Typhoon Project Pilot; Steve Formosa, Typhoon Project Aircrew and Andy Blythe, Tornado Project Pilot but current on Typhoon. All liaise closely with the Flight Test Manager, Typhoon, Andy Pegg at Warton and his team of 25 flight test engineers working and reporting on flight trials allocated to UK aircraft.  “We have four trials aircraft, three are NEFMO owned aircraft and a fourth UK production aircraft,” Andy Pegg explains. “IPA1/ZJ699 will in 2014 continue with evolution of software packages and is currently flying Drop 3 and will move onto Drop 4 later in year (for more on Drops see page 49) , which include MIDS and HMSS improvements for Tranche 1 aircraft.  The jet is also going to be used for continuation of Meteor BVRAAM firings. “IPA 5/ZJ700  has been laid up for some 18 months having structural and systems modifications for E-Scan and had its first shake down flight in mid February. We are now waiting for the radar. There is ballast in the back of IPA5 to counter the additional weight in the nose where there have been alterations to accommodate extra cooling

Above: The ADS Eurofighter, IPA7/98+07 has been working on Taurus KEPD 350 flutter trial work at Manching. Essentially it is being used to speed up the Storm Shadow integration for 2015 although with the German Air Force having many Taurus stand off weapons in stock it’s likely they will eventually be flown on Eurofighter. Eurofighter Above: A close up of the Taurus air vehicle on the port wing of IPA7. Alan Warnes

and power generation. The aircraft also went from Tranche 1 to Tranche 2 avionics too and we are now getting the aircraft back up to a test standard.” “IPA 6/ZJ938 has a been our main Tranche 2 workhorse. It has been very busy over the last three years taking the brunt of P1E development.  So this year has been used for target support duties, for the prime aircraft in the other two main programmes.  During second half of this year it will be upgraded with P2E and progress that programme. Details of the fourth jet, ZK303/’AX’ known as ‘BT017’ and an IPSA is covered covered on page 82 in this feature. BAE is working with three other Typhoon FGR4s. ZK315/’BS74’

Above: IPA8 Build No GT0026 on the production line at Airbus Defence and Space (ADS) before being moved out to have its new test equipment and orange wires inserted. It is to be used as a two seater to test the E-Scan radar in 2015. Eurofighter

is a Tranche 2 jet used for Electro Magnetic (EMC) testing, primarily against failures and upgraded with P1Ea software but has not flown for 18 months; ZK350/’BS111’ is also being used for EMC testing and is regularly towed out to ‘Sunset Strip,’ a big concrete strip close to the estuary. ZK351/’BS112’ is undergoing testing for the characterisation of the antennae and just before Christmas 2013 was strung up under a crane as if it were flying, allowing checks to get underway. “Each test centre has specific skills, at BAE we deal primarily in weapons system performance and DASS.  Having the Spadeadam EW Range so close is a bonus for developing for the system,” Andy Pegg concludes. Alenia’s Chief Test Pilot is Enrico Scarabotto who works with seven experimental test pilots, one production test pilot and one experimental test navigator while Marco Venanzetti is Senior Vice President, Flight Operations and Training Systems. As well as T2EP2, Alenia is also involved in the Drop internationalisation: there have been four Drops which are additional/ enhanced functions developed by the nations for Tranche 1. There will be four flights on that and ten for new radar software development. Tranche 3 Common Obsolescence Removal Programme CORP is also being undertaken which will test Tranche 3 equipment loaded with newly developed software like P1Ea and P1Eb. Clearly there is plenty of work to be done on developing the Typhoon over the next four to five years and everyone is playing their part to ensure its done in a timely, efficient and professional manner.

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Red Flag
Mixing with the heavies

A 6 Sqn jet blasts off the runway heading into an air war, where 40 v 40 fights will break out all over the huge range Nellis ranges. At the same time the pilot will be trying to evade double-digit SAMs and varying kinds of electronic warfare tricks. All photos, Jamie Hunter

F

The RAF Tranche 2s enjoyed great success at the first 2014 Nevada exercise, as some participants revealed to Jamie Hunter

OLLOWING LAST year’s budget-related grounding orders, exercise ‘Red Flag’ returned to a full schedule of events in 2014. The first of three slated ‘Red Flags’ at Nellis AFB, Nevada took place from January 27-February 14. As usual, the exercise attracted a wide range of participants, with the strong bond between British and American combat air forces affording the RAF the ability to join this top-end exercise as the ultimate test for its Eurofighter Typhoons.

its Eurofighter Typhoons, which punch at the same weight as these American heavyweights. The appearance of RAF Eurofighters at this year’s first ‘Red Flag’ exercise in February may not have come as a noteworthy event for some observers. The coverage of the type’s debut at Nellis for the March 2013 event drew huge coverage and universal praise. However, this year it was different. It marked

the first ‘blooding’ of the all-new Tranche 2 standard aircraft. Led by No 6 Squadron from RAF Leuchars, plus support from sister unit No 1(F) Squadron, Tranche 2 standard Typhoons played a major role in this exercise on the successful ‘Red Flag’ participation last year. This year the Tranche 2 jets pushed the boundaries further, operating purely in the air-to-air role but as part of their proving ground and progress to becoming the RAF’s main ‘warfighting’ aircraft. Flt Lt Si Revell is the operations officer on No 1(F) Squadron, and was heavily involved in both the build-up and the execution of this year’s event. Flying two waves of six jets twice a day usually takes its toll on fighter squadrons. For the RAF Eurofighters, it was an interesting story. “We have done well with serviceability,” Revell commented in week three. “As the exercise has gone on, serviceability has actually got better. In week

All-new Tranche 2s

For a relative outsider to come to Nellis, to stand alongside the USAF’s undisputed ‘heavyweight champ’ the F-22 Raptor, not to mention B-2s, F-16CJs, EA-18G Prowlers and F-15E Strike Eagles, is a daunting prospect. However, for the RAF, it is today a reality for

Above: This pilot gives the thumb to the groundcrew as he prepares to taxi off the huge ramp. He is wearing the HEA with its many sensors that provide aircrews with an increased situational awareness to make life easier in the cockpit.

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three of the exercise, we’ve not dropped a single sortie.” As is usual with an exercise of this magnitude, the aircraft on the line each day are of the highest standard available. “The aircraft we brought out here feature the latest enhancements to the DASS, the radar, the mission data, and they are Tranche 2 Drop 1 standard, which has effectively bought these aircraft up to the same broad standard as the current Tranche 1 jets. When we marry all of this up with P1E we will see the Tranche 2 Typhoons becoming the RAF’s main warfighters.”

Tranche 2 Typhoon FGR4s from both 1 (F) Sqn and 6 Sqn sit on the ramp at Nellis AFB, Nevada for Exercise Red Flag. This marked the first venture of Tranche 2 jets to the busiest and most complex exercises in the world.

Talking About The Helmet

Wg Cdr Mike Baulkwill, Officer Commanding No 6 Squadron, says, “It’s been great for us exercising the Tranche 2 Typhoons for the first time on ‘Red Flag’. All aspects of the aircraft; from secure radios to our Link-16 have been great — and we have been able to explore the full capabilities of the jet. Our HEA (Helmet Equipment Assembly, also known as HMSS (Helmet Mounted Sighting System) has made a massive difference. When you lock a target with the radar and then need to find it visually you just look out of the cockpit and there it is — the HEA allows you to get your eyes on it very quickly. So you’re seeing aircraft at twice the range you would normally. This really helps with the intercept, because you can set yourself up, put yourself in a better position to complete the intercept. “All of our work here at ‘Red Flag’ will translate across to P1E. Most of the guys on the squadron are already multi-role combat ready, they’ve flown the Tranche 1 jets and we’ve all dropped bombs. The big difference we will see with P1EA will be the introduction of the Paveway IV precision-guided bomb and slightly different modes for the targeting pod. Paveway IV allows us to do so much more with the weapon, and next year we will return here as a multi-role Tranche 2 standard squadron, so this exercise has served us well as an important stepping stone towards that. “The force is beginning to exercise on

EFBites
 The commander of the RAF Detachment, Group Captain Mark Jeffery, was also the Vice Commander for the exercise, As well as the Typhoons, RAF participation at Red Flag 2014-1 included an E-3D Sentry of 8 Sqn, based at RAF Waddington and Tornado GR4s from IX(B) Sqn, RAF Marham. ‘Red Flag’, and will continue to do so, and thiis exactly what Typhoon needs,” he summarised. Squadron XO (Exec) Sqn Ldr Sam Cowan gave further details. “We are becoming more practised at working with fifth-generation platforms, ensuring we are using these and our Typhoons to their strengths; the lessons will prove invaluable to the RAF as the future F-35B comes online later this decade.” He continued: “I hadn’t used the HEA a whole lot before this exercise and the benefit for SA (situational awareness) is fantastic. If you have a ‘Red Air’ aggressor at long range you can select it with the radar, and if it’s not in your HUD field-of-view, you can simply look at it and see a square or triangle where it is.”

40 x 40 Air Battle

The RAF has always been keen to expose its most junior fighter pilots to the rigours of exercises like ‘Red Flag’. Flt Lt Scott Holliday-Stevens is a 25-year old pilot on No 6 Squadron. “The first thing that struck me was the sheer scale of the thing. When you see 150 fast jets lined up on the huge piece of tarmac in Nevada it’s almost overwhelming. Then off the back of that you go into your first mission brief and realize there’s a 40 v. 40 air battle about to happen — with everyone ready to have a monumental scrap in this piece of airspace — that’s amazing. The level and realism of training you get out here is second to none. It is something I’ve never seen in terms of the intensity, with the aggressor threat in the air and on the ground, a full contested degraded environment to conduct operations in.” With the successes of ‘Red Flag’ behind it, Tranche 2 jets will progressively work up with the multi-role P1E upgrade, which broadly involves the addition of capability with the Litening III targeting pod and Paveway IV Precision-Guided Bomb. The wing will also relocate to RAF Lossiemouth during 2014.

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Right: Las Vegas keeps a watchful eye over Nellis AFB.

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SAUDIS
Royal Saudi Air Force Typhoons deployed to the UK in late August 2013 for Exercise Saudi-British Green Flag.
Below: For two weeks in September, Saudi Typhoons and Tornados flew with their RAF counterparts in Exercise Saudi-British Green Flag (SBGF). RAF/Geoff Lee

SIZZLING

I

N AUTUMN 2013 the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) spent three weeks on exercise at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire. Some 300 personnel accompanied the four Typhoons and four Tornados that flew some 3,000 miles (4825kms), swapping the dusty hot climate at Taif for flat Lincolnshire, which for the first week of manoeuvres was unseasonally warm. By the second week it had defaulted to the more usual autumnal clouds and rain, a world away from the hazy blue skies that the visiting pilots and crews were accustomed to. Preparations for what was to be a massive logistical operation had begun in late 2012, but did not start to unfold until August 23, 2013 when four RSAF C-130Hs touched down at RAF Coningsby. Within a week they had been followed by a further 11 Hercules sorties to the UK. Down at RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire, home to the RAF’s tanker fleet, two RSAF A330 MRTTs from 24 Squadron, which provided air-air tanker support, arrived on

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Above: RAF Coningsby Station Commander, Group Captain Johnny Stringer (sixth from right) and, on his right, the RSAF Detachment Commander, Brigadier General Al-Shahrani stand with other RAF and RSAF personnel on August 27, after six of the RSAF fighters had arrived. RAF

August 27. This was the first time the newly delivered Saudi Airbus had tanked fighters on deployment overseas.

Arrivals Day

Unfortunately, only six of the eight fighters touched down at RAF Coningsby during arrivals day on August 27. Two Tornados, 7512 and 8312 dropped out the eight-ship formation over Italy due to technical issues. This left two Tornados, 7507 and 8306 to soldier on alongside Typhoons 310, 312, 313 and two-seater 322. The missing pair of jets arrived two days later on August 29. What all the crews thought as they arrived when they saw masses of photographers and spotters at the end of the Coningsby runway was anyone’s guess. However, with hundreds of people gathered outside the base most days, many on step ladders pointing their cameras at them, they soon become familiar. Although the Typhoons were marked as 3 Squadron and the dual-seater 322 was even adorned with a 3 Squadron emblem on the tail, a RSAF Typhoon pilot confirmed they were 10 Squadron aircraft flown by a mix of aircrew from both units at Taif. The Tornados were all flown by crews from 75 Squadron based at Dhahran.

Above: A RSAF Typhoon and 3 (F) Sqn FGR4 line up on Runway 25 for an afternoon sortie as a RSAF Tornado taxies by. All photos, Alan Warnes unless stated

Above: A three ship formation flies over the base before breaking. The Saudi Typhoons always flew with three fuel tanks, a big disadvantage for any air-to-air combat, if any had taken place. Below: A Saudi Typhoon turns off the end of Runway 25 after the end of a sortie on September 5.

The RSAF Detachment Commander, Brigadier General Mohammed Al-Shahrani, one of the most experienced aviators serving the Arab state, having flown Tornado, F-15 and now the Typhoon, told journalists at a media gathering on September 6: “My current job in the RSAF is Deputy Commander of the 2nd Flying Group at Taif and finishing my flying career on the Typhoon is a great way to go out.” Stressing the importance of Exercise SaudiBritish Green Flag he added, “I want to emphasise that the most important objective [of this exercise] is to ensure RSAF personnel, from aircrew, to engineers, to staff, to fighter controllers all get the opportunity to work side by side with the RAF.” Forging closer relations with the RAF is paramount to the development of the Saudi Typhoon and Tornado force at a time of increasing international threats. “We need closer co-operation because we never know what the future may hold. Interoperability is key,” the BG added. The RSAF Det Co continued: “I think for us it is the first time we have deployed Typhoons outside our Kingdom for a long time. We are reaching out some 3,000 miles, so it is very important we test our logistical support capabilities.

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“It is also the first time we are using the Airbus MRTT (Multi Role Tanker Transport) on a trail from Saudi Arabia. These are two areas which are important and so far everything has gone well. “The Typhoons made one stop before arriving at Coningsby. We refuelled [air to air] about three times and that was good enough for us to test the system and test the trail. All our logistic support was delivered by C-130s and we used the MRTT to tank and ferry our main party of personnel to the UK. That is a big test for the aircraft and is proving its worth.” Saudi aircrews of varying experiences flew during British Green Flag, with most clocking up about seven missions. “For this first Typhoon deployment I picked high and medium experienced crews to make sure we get it right. For the Tornado Force, this was their second time in the UK so we brought a broad cross section of experience.

One of the main objectives is to make sure whatever knowledge we get we share it back in Saudi Arabia,” the Saudi Det Co explained. Hosting the Saudi deployment was the resident No 3 (F) Squadron which provided the intelligence scenario, created the missions and ensured the exercise met its objectives. Even so, 11 (F) Squadron also participated as did the Typhoon Operational Evaluation Unit, 41 (R) Squadron — although

“I think for us it is the first time we have deployed Typhoons outside our Kingdom for a long time. We are reaching out some 3,000 miles, so it is very important we test our logistical support capabilities"

their role was more from a technical perspective. Several Tornados from 9 Squadron based at RAF Marham, Norfolk flew to RAF Coningsby on August 30 to ensure the briefings and debriefings brought everyone together throughout the exercise period. BG Mohammad again: “We are flying the Tornado in the same role the RAF does, in air-to-ground missions. The Typhoon, just like the RAF aircraft, was flying in the airto-air role. That way we are combining the two platforms to make sure they operate together. “We are using the ranges, like the Electronic Warfare one [at Spadeadam]. While the RAF aircraft and crews have the opportunity to test their skills in this environment all the time, we don’t have that capability yet, although we are planning something similar soon in Saudi Arabia.”

Into Action

Above: A Typhoon crew prepare for a mission. The pilot on the right was being supervised by the senior Typhoon pilot on the left and the khaki uniformed officer in the middle is the aircraft’s engineering officer.

Flying over the first two days of the exercise (September 2/3) concentrated on familiarising all pilots with the ranges, routes and weather conditions. Quickly a pattern began to emerge of two sorties a day, at 10am and 2pm. The first real tactical mission got underway on September 4 and the crews were no doubt surprised to be flying in perfect conditions with blue skies and scorching temperatures all over the UK. Like Saudi but without the haze! With the RSAF now beginning to find their feet, the pilot of Tornado 7507 opted for a spectacular departure. After his ‘lead’, Tornado GR4 ZD842 ‘105’ had gone, he blasted off the runway in full reheat, then kept low all the way to the perimeter fence before climbing away. It provided many of the photographers outside the base with some great footage.

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Above: The two-seater Typhoon 322 taxies off the flightline. This was the only RSAF aircraft carrying a squadron badge, that of No 3 Squadron. Left: All Saudi fighters had the ‘God Bless You’ message on the nose and the Arabic inscription above Far left: The Saudi flight-line, at RAF Coningsby, on a cloudy September 12. Below: A Saudi Typhoon comes in to land after a sortie.

The pair headed to the Holbeach Range in Lincolnshire for a low-level bombing sortie, with blue practice bombs packed underneath their fuselages. They were followed by ZG705 ‘118’ and RSAF 7512, then Typhoon FGR 4 ZK328 ‘BS’ and RSAF 322 followed by a three ship Typhoon formation comprising RSAF 313, RSAF 312 and ZK309 ‘QO-P’ before the the last two Tornados ZA371 ‘005’ and RSAF 8312 headed out. All three RSAF Tornados departed with the new Thales Damocles targeting pod, now integrated onto the RSAF Typhoons. Later during that afternoon of September 4, Cobham Falcon 20 G-FRAW, which was based throughout the exercise, departed to do its bit. The biz-jet’s role was to train Typhoon and Tornado crews on aspects of electronic warfare they would not have experienced with ground based systems at Spadeadam range. Cobham regularly works in this

specialist area overseas with the RSAF and many other foreign air forces. The Saudi aircraft flew a variety of mission profiles during their stay, which became more complex as the exercise went on. The flying eventually came to a halt on the morning of Friday, September 13.

Departure and lessons learned

The RAF’s No 3 (F) Squadron OC, Wg Cdr Ian ‘Cab’ Townsend was enthusiastic about Saudi-British Green Flag . “It was an incredible exercise," he enthused. "Going from someone’s idea of getting the Saudis here, to actually flying as wingman to a Saudi pilot was impressive. We had a few missions where there would be one of us each [flying in a two-ship formation], but more often than not it was as a four ship — two of them and two of us. “The Saudi pilots and crews were impressive because they use their aircraft in the same

way we use it — their tactics, techniques and procedures are similar to ours. Their Tornado techniques were the same, too and as we do not train often with our own Tornados, getting everyone here for the full plan to de-brief cycle was brilliant.” All eight fighters departed RAF Coningsby on a bright but blustery Monday, September 16 and were subsequently followed by more RSAF C-130 flights over the next three days, while the A330 MRTTs returned to RAF Brize Norton for the trail back. After nearly three weeks of intense flying, Saudi aircrews acknowledged they had worked with one of the most professional air forces in the world. The RSAF left British shores knowing their objectives were met and successfully concluded, with all the boxes ticked. Within a month, Saudi Arabia was on standby for a military strike against Syrian chemical weapons. Who knows whether RSAF Typhoons would have played any part but they were definitely on red alert and ready if the call had come. Their lessons from their stay in the UK would have been put to good use.

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Going Digital...
The next-stage options for the aircraft include exciting ground-breaking developments in swingrole capability, weaponry, defensive aid systems and radar

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INCE COMING of age with ops over Libya in 2011, it is only now the full potential of the Eurofighter is starting to be realized. By the end of this decade, digital Typhoon – as it will surely be then – will have evolved into the combat aircraft the pioneers of the 1980s could only dream about. It is set to become a phenomenal multi-role fighter, courtesy of the many

software upgrades and enhancements over the intervening years that allow for a new generation of systems and weapons. In the UK, RAF Typhoon Commander, Air Commodore Gary Waterfall has a Future Force 2020 requirement but an Interim Force 2015 need, in which the RAF Typhoon will be truly multi-role (see page 94). Today Eurofighter GmbH and BAE Systems are working towards the 2015 goal by increasing the fighter’s air-to-surface role.

One Typhoon for Six Tornados

After the Main Development Contract (MDC) was completed, Eurofighter GmbH pushed on with Phase 1 Enhancements (known as P1E) to bring the aircraft into the proper swing role, combining air-to-air and air-tosurface configurations. Laurie Hilditch, Eurofighter Future Capabilities Manager explains, “We knew the RAF wanted a proper swing role aircraft that could move between air-to-surface and airto-air in seconds. “We knew the aircraft wanted its radar operating, where the target was and to fire
Above: MBDA’s Storm Shadow is expected to be integrated on the Eurofighter by the end of 2015. Saudi Arabia has a requirement under Project Salam that will lead to the stealthy stand off weapon aimed at striking high value targets being ordered by the RAF and Italian Air Force. Alan Warnes Below: Future Typhoon. While no customer has yet ordered Conformal Fuel Tanks, the RAF has provisions for them on Tranche 3 aircraft. The UAEAF would have ordered CFTs as part of its requirement but Eurofighter was dropped again from the competition in December 2013. This full scale replica was seen at the Dubai Air Show in November 2013. Alan Warnes

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missiles. On a bombing run, the Tranche 1 aircraft needed to detect with its electronic countermeasures (ECM) any possible fighter threats. However as soon as you detected the enemy aircraft, selected the AMRAAM to shoot, fired it and turned, then went back into the air-to-surface mode the jet’s system didn’t let you. Basically, once you switched out you couldn’t switch in, I call it ‘switch role’. So for the guys who had flown Tranche 1 [in Libya] they wouldn’t have seen Typhoon doing a proper swing role.” Hilditch continues, “We couldn’t do that in a Tranche 1, but we could on the Tranche 2s because of their greater computing capacity. Under the Phase 1 Enhancement (P1E) we had to make significant changes to the computer language. We adapted the aircraft’s capability – one of the true benefits of a ‘software controlled aircraft’. So we now have a proper swing role aircraft and it can flip between the two almost on a second by second basis.” The P1E integration is split into two. P1Ea, released in 2013, provides the first part of weapons integration and first part of all laser designator pod functional enhancements. P1Ea gives a real swing role attack aircraft with a genuine weapon capability; but not with all the weapon’s potential. The bombs being put on the Eurofighter under P1E, the 2,000lb EGBU 16 Paveway II and 500lb Paveway IVs are very clever because they can detect the target, angle of attack, elevation of attack and change fuse-settings on the aircraft. This is where P1Eb comes in.

Above: The E-Scan is an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar that will operate almost instantaneously in both air-to-air and air-to-ground modes. Trials on Typhoon are expected later this year. Also known as Captor-E AESA radar (CAESAR), the radar will enhance the aircraft’s effective air-to-air missile range, enable faster and more accurate detection as well as track multiple aircraft. Selex ES

“We couldn’t do all that in one go, so we phased it,” says Hilditch. “P1Ea gave the basic bomb capabilities and P1Eb gave all the exciting options.” He goes on. “For example, the customer might want six Paveway IVs to hit a bomb dump, air traffic control, hangars and vehicles in one pass and then, in the cockpit, the pilot will be given a ‘launch acceptable region’. “He can say ‘I want to hit the bomb dump with a bomb straight down the chimney, I want to attack the control tower with a bomb at certain angle and I want to take that radar out with an air burst.’ This can be

programmed so the system works out the LAR, which gives the bomb enough energy to come in from right, energy from top and/or to do an air burst. Basically, what it wants to do. “We couldn’t do all that so we gave the beginnings of swing role aircraft in P1Ea and then we gave all the really clever stuff in P1Eb. In the Gulf War we needed six Tornados to do that to an airfield. With a Typhoon you can do it with one aircraft, one pilot and one pass. With an LDP the system automatically drop them in GPS or lases automatically as you pass through, knowing where the first bomb goes, laser moves, hits the next; laser moves, hits next; laser moves, hits the next!”

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The RAF’s Typhoon will have a very impressive airto-ground capability when P2Eb is rolled out by the RAF later in 2014, allowing Paveway II or Paveway IVs to hit up to six targets on one run. Jamie Hunter

Interview

RAF TYPHOON FORCE COMMANDER
Air Commodore Gary Waterfall explains how the RAF Typhoon Force is growing its versatility

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uring January and February 2014 the RAF’s Typhoon Force deployed to various regions in the world as it bid to ramp up its operational readiness. No 11 Sqn visited Oman for Exercise Magic Carpet where the Typhoon carried out its first operational strafing sorties while 1 (F) and 6 Squadron deployed to Nellis AFB for Exercise Red Flag. With the RAF Tornado in the twilight of its impressive career, Typhoon Force is pushing on to reach a suitable multi-role capability by 2020. Typhoon Force Commander, Air Cdre Gary Waterfall – a man who has faced many difficult situations in his recent career, as the last Joint Force Harrier Commander and UK Air Component Commander for Operation Ellamy over Libya – is up for the task. “The biggest challenge is getting the Typhoon and crews ready and prepared for a comparable multi-role capability. We have enormous shoes to fill from a Tornado perspective, which has been on operations since 1990 and will finish Operation Herrick within the next 12 months,” Air Cdre Waterfall says, speaking in his office at RAF Coningsby, Lincs, the RAF’s premier fighter base. “When the Tornado goes out of service the Typhoon has to be in a position to replace it as a credible and comparable air-surface option, while at the same time contribute to the air-air scenario.” Development of the Phase 1 Enhancement b (P1Eb) software by BAE Systems will see the first Typhoon with this new configuration being delivered in mid-2014. Air Cdre Waterfall elaborates, “P1EB on Tranche 2 gives Typhoon the true multi-role capability, allowing Paveway IV to integrate with its Litening pod. Enabling us to drop at the moment of our choosing, on targets of our choosing with a multitude of fuse settings, impact angles and

arrivals we learnt during Harrier and Tornado ops, is our objective.” The aircrews and P1Eb aircraft will be prepared to conduct multi-role operations from April 1, 2015 with either 1 or 6 (F) Squadron at RAF Lossiemouth, and then “incrementally grow the aircraft’s capabilities, so we have the confidence to retire the Tornado.” Training Typhoon crews for this mission is being addressed, too. “I want to train in the right place, and training in the air might not be the right place for some of the disciplines,” he explains. Having Typhoon simulators is allowing the pilots to spend more time on the ground. The former Harrier pilot says, “I’m working daily to get the optimised livesynthetic blend. For some events it might be 100 % flying in the air and others it could be 100% synthetics.” With the first Tranche 3 now flying, the RAF will soon receive a fighter with newer capabilities and Air Cdre Waterfall is keen to make optimal use of this asset. “These aircraft will take ‘relevant’ Typhoon to its out of service date (OSD), presently around 2030. It comes with provisions for everything we might need to take it there – such as E-Scan radar and conformal fuel tanks. “These might not be requirements now, but it is ‘future-proofed’. So although they might be coming off the production line, I’m in no rush to take delivery of them, as they are aircraft I want to protect to reach OSD. With Tranche 1s retired by end of the decade, it makes sense to get as much use out of those airframes to save and harbour Tranche 3 because those aircraft have a finite life and need to be protected. “We expect to be flying Tranche 3s in mid2014 but there is no intent to stand up a dedicated Tranche 3 squadron. Whereas Tranche 1 and Tranche 2 are fundamentally different aircraft, with spare parts commonality, they have differing software, contrasting standards of radar and disparity

clearances ie multi-role and air-air roles. Tranche 2 and Tranche 3 are effectively different in build standard but in terms of software and commonality are transparent. So pilots will fly either Tranche 2 or 3 on the same units.” While the Tranche 1 jet can spike Enhanced Paveway IIs (GPS or Laser guidance) with its own Litening pod if needed, Tranche 2 Typhoons will require off board lasing until the advent of P1Eb. “That’s simply because we have invested the time working on P1Eb so Tranche 2s can cross on to Paveway IVs” Air Cdre Waterfall explains. “Dropping air to surface ordnance is no longer new for Typhoon pilots; 6 Squadron with Tranche 2 jets released Paveway IIs last year for the first time and 11 Squadron deployed on January 20 to Exercise Magic Carpet, taking Paveway II and also, for the first time conducted air to surface gunnery.” The Typhoon Force Commander sums up: “Typhoon is a phenomenal aircraft and carries a big stick with significant reach, an abundance of thrust and everything going for it to be a great and credible fighter right up to OSD. We just need to incrementally pack it with new systems and weapons to keep it relevant as we go through the decades.”

RAF Typhoon Force Commander, Air Commodore Gary Waterfall. RAF Coningsby

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The Praetorian Defensive Aids Sub-System (DASS) installed on the Eurofighter Typhoon provides protection against air-to-air and surface-to-air threats, through monitoring and responding to the operational environment. It contains Electronic Support Measures, missile warning, on-board electronic countermeasures and towed decoys to detect and evaluate threats at maximum range. It will be continuously updated through Drops and programme enhancements. Selex ES

These are the fabulous capabilities of P1E on the Eurofighter. While none are using it yet, the RAF is carrying out its operational evaluation with BAE at Warton on ISPA5, with roll out to the RAF expected in July 2014. The enhancement programme rolling forward will apply to the latter end of Tranche 2 and roll forward into Tranche 3a. Increased capabilities will be applied to Tranche 2 and eventually Tranche 3 airframes, through P1E, P2E next and P3E in the future. Tranche 3 aircraft are exactly the same in terms of capability except there are several physical differences, with a provision in the nose for future E Scan radar and conformal fuel tanks attached either side of the fuselage. In terms of avionics, there will be a programme of common obsolescence removal programmes (CORPs) for some avionics boxes, whereby some will come out and new ones go in.

New Teeth

Under Phase 2 Enhancement (P2E), the MBDA Meteor Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM) and Storm Shadow stand-off weapon should be integrated by 2017. P2Ea is the next in service delivery point for 2015 and P2Eb in 2017. P3E should be contracted for delivery in the 2019/20 time frame – the latter is in a state of flux as priorities change. The Meteor is the newer generation ‘big stick’ that the operators are desperate to have. With threats getting more powerful and more sophisticated, it was an urgent requirement. So far it has been ordered by six European nations – UK, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden and Spain, which all have invested in the programme. Development is now complete but integration is ongoing with Saab Gripen,

Typhoon and Dassault Rafale. According to MBDA, which will not reveal its range, Meteor has a No Escape Zone three times greater than AMRAAM it is designed to replace, so is definitely a ‘big stick’. The missile accelerates to over Mach 1 above launch speed, so on Eurofighter it is not unreasonable to see it reach speeds of over Mach 2, when the rocket motor burns out. Once the rocket fuel is burnt, the missile's air-intakes open and ram air blows into the now empty chambers. The solid sustain fuel particles are pushed through a valve to meet the ram air creating an energetic burn, giving it acceleration. With its next generation seeker head, the missile makes its own decisions – how fast to fly, how much fuel to burn depending upon its engagement point. The aircraft can tell the missile ‘that’s your target, flying at this speed, distance and angle’ while the missile can select how fast it wants to fly. Should the target manoeuvre, the launch platform will datalink the alteration in course. “As the Meteor range capability is well outside the current AMRAAM systems deployed, there is no reason for ‘Red Air’ to suspect you have taken a shot. The launch platform will fire Meteor and fly benignly, but if the pilot wants to turn away there will be no loss of datalink, as there is with some missiles,” explains Harry

Thompson, MBDA’s UK Airborne, Technical Executive and a rocket scientist. “The missile flight geometry isn’t selected for a flight path simply to intercept somewhere it is now, but predict an intercept port somewhere between the target being well behaved and being very evasive. Levels of sophistication are amazing. Remember this is all happening at many times the speed of sound!” Harry adds. Meteor is an impressive BVRAAM set to make AMRAAM look pedestrian. Integration of the MBDA Storm Shadow stand-off weapon on Typhoon is being led by Saudi Arabia under Salam, although MBDA were unable to confirm this. It is a requirement the RAF and Italy are looking at while Germany and Spain are opting for Taurus. Storm Shadow is renowned for its precision, low stealthy vulnerability and autonomous target recognition. “The mission planning of this weapon is the key, allowing you to engage

Dual Mode Brimstone, worked from an Urgent Operational Requirement for Afghanistan, while it won't make it on Typhoon, its successor, Brimstone II will under the Ministry of Defence’s Spear Capability 2 Block 1 programme. It is believed a decision on bringing Typhoon integration forward is imminent given the likelihood that Tornado will be retired before its official out of service date of 2021. MBDA

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A test aircraft departs BAE Warton with two Meteor BVRAAMs. Eurofighter-Bryan Walsh

targets, like high value SAM sites, airfield bunkers and tunnels,” says Rob Thornley, MBDA Sales and Business Development Executive who has been in the weapons industry some 30 years. MBDA’s Brimstone 2 (also known as Spear Capability 2 Block 1) is expected to be integrated on Typhoon by 2019. However, with the likelihood of Tornado, the only RAF fighter to use the Dual Mode Brimstone (DMB), being withdrawn from use by the UK MOD’s bean-counters possibly as early as 2015 rather than 2021, a serious

shortfall in capability could arise. DMB is the RAF’s ‘weapon of choice’ in Afghanistan but Brimstone 2 should be in service on the RAF Tornado by November 2015 and Typhoon in 2019, the Tornado’s official out of service date (OSD). According to the UK National Audit Office (NAO) in its Major Projects Report, Brimstone 2 experienced reliability problems with its Roxel-developed rocket motor during testing in January 2012; although MBDA stated recently that the programme has been back on track since May 2012. DMB has a dual seeker head –

millimetric wave (mmW) radar and semiactive laser (SAL) which was not on the legacy Brimstone. The combined mmW/SAL designator seeker is ideal for striking moving manoeuvring vehicles while the SAL mode can be used for targets with a limited radar cross section that can be lased by the Litening LDP and Damocles as well as Sniper in future development plans. The mmW radar enables the platform to fire salvos, with each weapon made up of a 90kg launcher and three 50kg missiles. The Typhoon, capable of carrying six missiles would have an impressive capability when attacking large collections of military vehicles, where it was known there are no civilians in the vicinity.

The Armour

The mounts on the Tranche 3 aircraft ensure you will be able to identify them from Tranche 1 and 2s. Alan Warnes

Typhoon might be equipped with the best technologies and weapons in the world, but it is all a bit pointless without a good selfprotection system. Up against adversaries in the air-to-air environment or from big ‘double-digit’ SAMs on the ground, Typhoon is protected by the Praetorian Defensive Aids Sub System (DASS), to provide the pilot with confidence he can emerge from the battlefield unscathed. Back on March 13, 1992, EuroDASS, a consortium made up of Selex ES in the UK and Elettronica of Italy signed a contract with Eurofighter to do just that. Spain's Indra and then Germany's Airbus Defence and Space joined in the 1990s. Selex ES is contracted by BAE Systems to work on all the Eurofighter's electronic warfare systems. DASS detects threats with a

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A Meteor BVRAAM will provide Typhoon with a much larger no-escape-zone than AMRAAM when combined with the E-Scan radar. MBDA

explains, “DASS detects the direction of any missile and manoeuvres from the flight control system guiding the pilot with the right evasive action.” DASS is also programmable. Knowing what threat area you are going into and how and when you are likely to encounter something, you programme up a set of data that includes some form of receiver/search strategy which tells you how long to wait on each frequency to detect and jam it if necessary. In the UK personnel from the Air Warfare Centre work on RAF Typhoons building up a threat library while Selex ES with its Operational Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) work on the search strategy. Detections can be identified to the pilot or system and offers pre-programmed countermeasures and evasive actions. DASS continuous be upgraded through different Typhoon Blocks, for export requirements or national programmes.

electronic support measures system, much more sophisticated and providing more information than a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR). “Countermeasures include on-board jamming, front and back, along with two towed decoys packed in the starboard wing mounted pod. There are two, so if the first is unsuccessful, a second can be called upon. The towed decoy is deployed far enough away to attract any incoming missiles from the Typhoon. There are jammers in the port Praetorian pod and it has missile warners in the front and aft, too,” Selex ES’s Phil Liddiard, Vice President, Praetorian

Eurofighter will eventually be equipped with a new generation Active Electronically Scanning Array (AESA) radar. The new CAESAR (CAPTOR Active Electronically Scanning Array Radar) is based on the current CAPTOR radar on Eurofighter. This new technology replaces mechanically steered antennas and high-power transmitters with an electronically steered array. It is made up of more than 1,000 transmit/receive modules, providing the radar a much improved versatility and reliability. This enables new mission capabilities such as simultaneous radar functionalities, air surveillance, air-to-ground and weapon

New Radar

control. With successful test flights of E-Scan radar on IPA5 and eventually on IPA8, new capabilities will become readily available. There are a number of export options. Andy Flynn, head of BAE Systems Typhoon Capability Delivery, says “The provision for CFTs, Meteor BVRAAM, Captor E E-Scan radar are being aimed at export markets, too. The UK wants a more advanced variant of E-Scan in a later time scale. “Having different LDPs provides greater customer flexibility: updating the electronic warfare system, geo-locations within weapons while long range recce options are being considered, with DB110 and AREOS two contenders. Definitely in the mix for export is DM Brimstone. A lot of customers and potential customers want littoral defence against small attack craft attacking oil and gas rigs, which is where Brimstone excels as well as in its land moving target capability. " Deep water anti-ship weapons are also under consideration, Harpoon, Slam-ER or Joint Stand Off Weapon (JSOW) being the options. Anti-radiation missiles could be another option, although there is now no European solution, with the Air Launched Anti Radiation Missile (ALARM) out of service, but SPEAR 3 does have potential of antiradiation as part of its development path. Undoubtedly the Eurofighter will migrate to a pure digital environment sometime in the future. Beyond that, there is likely to be a progressive transition with more and more capable sensors and infrastructure to support ever changing military threats.

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The RAF’s new Tranche 3 Typhoon made its first flight on December 2, 2013. Loaded with the new P1Eb software this will be the most capable Typhoon, with a provision for CFTs and E-Scan radar. Eurofighter

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Milestones
August 2, 1985: Agreement signed between Italy, the UK and West Germany to go ahead with the Eurofighter programme. France and Spain have opted out of the project, although Spain decides to rejoin a month later. August 6, 1986: Maiden flight of the British Aerospace Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP) demonstrator, from which much of the technology goes on to be used in the Eurofighter. June 1, 1986: Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH established to manage the project, following which, on September 1, 1986, Eurojet Turbo GmbH is also formed for development of Eurofighter’s EJ200 engine. November 23, 1988: Contracts signed for production of prototype demonstrator airframes and engines. March 27, 1994: Maiden flight of Eurofighter prototype, 98+29 (DA1), from Manching, Germany, flown by DASA chief test pilot Peter Weger. January 30, 1998: First production contract finally signed between Eurofighter GmbH, Eurojet and the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA). Planned procurement totals are 232 for the UK, 180 for Germany, 121 for Italy and 87 for Spain. December 18, 1998: Contracts signed for production of 148 Tranche 1 aircraft (Germany 44, Italy 29, Spain 20 and UK 55 aircraft) and 363 EJ200 engines, plus procurement of long-lead items for Tranche 2. April 5, 2002: The first Instrumented Production Aircraft to fly, IPA2, makes its maiden flight from Turin, Italy. February 13, 2003: First series production aircraft, 98+31 (GT001, to be 30+01), makes its maiden flight from Manching, Germany. This is the first of 180 for the German Air Force. July 1, 2003: Austria signs contract for the purchase of 18 Typhoons, having already reduced its planned purchase from 24, although this is later cut still further to 15 on June 26, 2007. August 4, 2003: Entry into operational service, when Germany accepts the first series production Eurofighter, GT003. December 18, 2003: First RAF production aircraft, twin-seater ZJ803 (BT004), officially accepted into service. December 14, 2004: Tranche 2 production contract signed, total value £106 billion. May 19, 2005: No 17 (Reserve) Squadron formed at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, as Typhoon Operational Evaluation Unit. October 3, 2006: 100th production aircraft delivered. October 16, 2006: ZJ930 (BS021) becomes first RAF Typhoon to be inducted into R2 retrofit programme to bring aircraft to Block 5 standard. July 12, 2007: First Austrian Air Force

Dave Allport looks at dates that shaped the Eurofighter story.

Key military and civil players in the Eurofighter programme at the signing of the Tranche 3a contract on July 31, 20009. Eurofighter GmbH

The first RAF Tranche 3a Typhoon FGR4 ZK355 flew on December 2, 2013. Eurofighter-Eleanor Silcock

Typhoon, AS001, officially entered into service. July 22, 2007: ZJ930 (BS021) becomes first aircraft to be accepted under R2 upgrade programme, now designated Typhoon FGR4. September 17, 2007: Saudi Arabia signs a contract with the UK Government worth £4.43 billion for 72 Typhoons. January 16, 2008: Maiden flight of first Tranche 2 Typhoon. March 20, 2008: Final Tranche 1 aircraft, two-seater 30+42 (GT015) for the German Air Force, delivered. October 21, 2008: First two of 91 Tranche 2 aircraft ordered delivered to RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire: ZJ946 (BS039) and ZJ940 (BS040). October 22, 2008: First Royal Saudi Air Force Typhoon makes its maiden flight. June 11, 2009: First Royal Saudi Air Force Typhoon officially handed over at Warton. First delivery flight follows on June 23, 2009. November 25, 2009: 200th Typhoon delivered. May 25, 2011: 100th UK-built production aircraft rolls off the assembly line at Warton. October 18, 2011: 300th Typhoon delivered. Aircraft is a Spanish Air Force example, C.16-48 ‘11-28’, which joins Ala 11 at Moron. September 9, 2013: Worldwide Typhoon fleet reaches 200,000 flying hours. December 21, 2012: Order for 12 Typhoons for the Royal Air Force of Oman officially announced. December 2, 2013: Maiden flight of first Tranche 3 Typhoon, FGR4 ZK355 (BS116) at Warton. December 4, 2013: 400th Typhoon, 31+06 (GS082), officially handed over in Manching. February 6, 2014: 400th Typhoon, 31+06 (GS082), delivered from Manching to join the German Air Force’s Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 31 (TaktLwG 31 – Tactical Air Force Squadron 31) at Nörvenich. March 4, 2014: Eurofighter announces completion of the first Italian-built Tranche 3 aircraft, C.S.X7338 (IS064), the 64th single-seater for the Italian Air Force.

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