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OPEN-ENDED QUESTION PART 1 QUESTION 1 : Flakiness index This method describes the procedure for the determination of the

Flakiness Index of aggregate that has not more than 5% retained on a 26.5mm AS Test Sieve and no more than 5% passing a 4.75mm AS Test Sieve. The Flakiness Index is the percentage, by mass, of the particles whose least dimension is less than three-fifths of the mean dimension. The Mean Dimension is the arithmetic mean of the smallest sieve aperture size through which the particle passes and the next smallest sieve aperture size on which the particle is retained. The sample is obtain using the Test Method WA 200.1. Determine the particle size distribution of a test portion in accordance with Test Method WA 210.1 and after sieving keep the 26.5-19.0mm, 19.0-13.2mm (Note a), 13.2-9.50mm, 9.50 - 6.70mm and 6.70-4.75mm sieve fractions separate. Discard any sieve fractions which constitute 5 percent or less of the test portion mass, any material retained on a 26.5mm aperture sieve and any material passing a 4.75mm aperture sieve. Then record the mass to at least the nearest 1g, of each of the individual sieve fractions retained for testing. Test each sieve fraction (or test increment) separately by attempting to pass each stone manually through the appropriate slot as defined in Table 1. Record the mass, to at least the nearest 1g, of the particles passing the appropriate slot for each of the sieve fractions (or test increments) tested.

Calculations: 1. If the sieve fractions have been reduced, calculate the mass of the particles will pass the appropriate slot for each sieve fraction using the formula:

where E = mass of particles in sieve fraction that would pass the appropriate slot 2. Calculate the Flakiness Index using the formula:

Elongation index test The test is the determination of the elongation of the elongation index of aggregates. The elongation index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than 1 4/5 times their mean dimension. The procedure to do this test is first three samples of aggregates weighing 2.5 kg each are prepared- the aggregates of the first sample passing 50mm BS sieve and retained on 37.5mm BS sieve, those of the second sample passing 37.5mm BS sieve and retained on the 20mm BS sieve. Secondly Each sample is gauged in the turn for length on the metal gauge. Finally The retained material of each sample is weighed. The calculation is conducted using the following equation: Elongation Index = [ Nos. retained/total Nos. Aggregates ] *Take average for the Flakiness Index Calculation

Reason for choosing the value no exceeding 30% and 25% for elongation index and flakiness index : The effect of particle shape is significant in the quarrying industry since it affects the quality of construction aggregates. The increasing need and requirement for high strength and quality concrete also drives the quarrying industry to produce high quality aggregates with improvement in its characteristics. Accordingly, excerpts from Hamer (1990 & 1991) shows that aggregate production are changing towards production of aggregates with improved qualities such as more cubical and equidimentional in shape, better graded size and textural characteristics. As aggregates occupy bulk of the volume of concrete, aggregate properties such as size grading, shape and surface texture have significant influence on the properties of concrete in both fresh and hardened state and also the bulk density of the matrix (Jamkar & Rao, 2004; Anon, 2001a). Reports and data from Kaplan (1959) also showed that the compressive strength, flexural strength and elastic properties of concrete are among the important concrete properties influenced by aggregate characteristics. In terms of particle orientation, the largest particles would pack down first and smaller particles would fill the voids between the larger particles. This process is repeated until the voids are so small that can only be filled by the water or cement paste. The success of this process is governed primarily by the particle gradation. The shape of the particles has a great effect on this process, in which elongated or flaky particles does not allow the particles to achieve their optimum packing configuration. This results in larger voids in between the particles. Optimum packing of aggregates ensures that the maximum strength is being achieved by the concrete (Anon, 2001a; Neville, 1995). Aggregate characteristics such as shape and textural features also influence the concretes workability. If compared to cubical shape aggregates, aggregates which are rough textured, angular and elongated in shape requires higher amount of cement to produce a workable concrete. This is due to much higher amount of cement required to fill up the voids which failed to be occupied by these rough textured, angular and elongated particles (Hudson, 1997).

Clay,slit and dust This test helps in determining the of a granular material. The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in use. A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sands, crushed rock, clays, granite, feldspars, coal and soil, a wide range of manufactured powders, grain and seeds, down to a minimum size depending on the exact method. Being such a simple technique of particle sizing, it is probably the most common. Organic impurities This test helps in determining the rapid assessment of organic impurities by indicates their presence. Comparison is made between compressive strengths of mortar made with washed and unwashed fine aggregate. Samples are shaken in a special graduated bottle with a 3% sodium hydroxide solution, then allowed to stand for 24 hours. If the resulting colour of the liquid above the test sample is darker than a reference standard colour, organic compounds may be present and further testing should be done before approval. HM-137 Organic Impurities Test Set or individual set components include six HM-817 graduated 8oz (237ml) colourless glass Impurities Test Bottles, a lb (454g) bottle of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Pellets (HM816), and an HM-815 Colour Reference Chart. Water absorption For this test a sample not less than 2000g should be used. The apparatus used for this test are wire basket perforated, electroplated or plastic coated with wire hangers for suspending it from the balance, water-tight container for suspending the basket, dry soft absorbent cloth 75cm x 45cm, shallow tray of minimum 650 area, air-tight container of a capacity similar to the basket and oven. The sample should be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust, drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22 and 32oC. After immersion, the entrapped air should be removed by lifting the basket and allowing it to drop 25 times in 25 seconds. The basket and sample should remain immersed for a period of 24 + hrs afterwards. The basket and aggregates should then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for a few minutes, after which the aggregates should be gently emptied from the basket on to one of the dry clothes and gently surface-dried with the cloth, transferring it to a second dry cloth when the first would remove no further moisture. The aggregates should be spread on the second cloth and exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight till it appears to be completely surface-dry. The aggregates should be weighed. The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to 110oC for 24hrs. It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and weighed.

Aggregate Crushing Value The principal mechanical properties required in stones are satisfactory resistance to crushing under the roller during construction and adequate resistance to surface abrasion under traffic. Procedure The aggregate passing 12.5mm IS sieve and retained on 10mm IS sieve is selected for standard test. The aggregate should be in surface dry condition before testing. The aggregate may be dried by heating at a temperature 100c to 110c for a period of 4 hours and is tested after being cooled to room temperature. The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of aggregate in three layers of approximately equal depth, each layer being tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod. After the third layer is tamped using the tamping rod as a straight edge levels off the aggregate at the top of the cylindrical measure. About 6.5kg of aggregate is required for preparing two test samples. The test sample thus taken is then weighed. The same weight of the sample is take in the repeat test. The cylinder of the test apparatus is placed in position on the base plate: one third of the test sample is placed in this cylinder and tamped 25 times by the tamping rod. Similarly, the other two parts of the test specimen are added, each layer being subjected to 25 blows. The total depth of the material in the cylinder after tamping shall however be 100mm. The surface of the aggregates is levelled and the plunger inserted so that it rests on this surface in level position. The cylinder with the test sample and the plunger in position is placed on compression testing machine. Load is then applied through the plunger at a uniform rate of 4 tonnes per minute until the total load is 40 tonnes, and then the load is released. Aggregates including the crushed portion are removed from the cylinder and sieved on a 2.36mm IS sieve. The material, which passes this sieve, is collected. Calculation The aggregate crushing value is defined, as a ratio of the weight of fines passing the specified IS sieve to the total weight of the sample expressed as a percentage. 100 W2 Aggregate crushing value= ---------W1 Where, W1=Total weight of dry sample. W2=Weight of the portion of crushed material passing 2.36mm Is sieve.

Reason for choosing the value not exceeding 20% Aggregates used in road construction, should be strong enough to resist crushing under traffic wheel loads. If the aggregates are weak, the stability of the pavement structure is likely to be adversely affected. The strength of coarse aggregates is assessed by aggregates crushing test. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregate possessing low aggregate crushing value should be preferred. Soundness test (Sodium Sulphate) This method covers the procedure to be followed in testing aggregates to determine their resistance to disintegration by saturated solutions of sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate. This is accomplished by repeated immersion in saturated solutions of sodium or magnesium sulphate followed by oven drying to partially or completely dehydrate the salt precipitated in permeable pore spaces. The internal expansive force, derived from the rehydration of the salt upon re-immersion, simulates the expansion of water on freezing. This test method furnishes information helpful in judging the soundness of aggregates subject to weathering action, particularly when adequate information is not available from service records of the material exposed to actual weathering conditions. Attention is called to the fact that test results by the use of the two salts differ considerably and care must be exercised in fixing proper limits in any specifications that may include requirements for these tests. Chloride Content The amount of chlorides present in reinforced concrete can greatly affect its performance, chloride-ion content evaluation is an important testing method. Separating cast-in chlorides from chlorides that have entered the structure from the surface can be done by comparing the chloride content at various levels in the suspect member. The total chloride content of concrete containing steel reinforcement is usually designed to be as low as possible to avoid early onset of corrosion of the reinforcement. The test can be conducted in a variety of chemical means, from approximate dipstick measures through to potentiometer methods. The usual method is by titration. The test is used to determine the depth to which chloride ions can ingress into concrete over a period of time in standard conditions. It can be used to access a concrete for its resistance to chloride attack and thus protection of the reinforcement from corrosion. Samples cast in a standard manner have one face continually in contact with a chloride saturated solution for ninety days .After this time, specimens are extracted in increasing depth from the face and the chloride content of each specimen is measured. The generally accepted method of test for chloride in hardened concrete is described in BS 1881 pt 124. The test involves crushing a sample of the concrete to a fine dust, extracting the chloride with hot dilute

nitric acid and then adding silver nitrate solution to precipitate any chloride present, Ammonium thiocyanate solution is then titrated against the remaining silver and the amount of chloride determined from the difference between the added silver nitrate and that remaining after precipitating the chloride. Sulphate content Measuring the sulphate content is often used to check that cast-in sulphate levels are low enough to avoid any later problems with deterioration of the concrete. This test can be used at concrete mix design stage to ensure low sulphate levels have been achieved, or on older concrete structures to measure the level of ingress of sulphate. The test can be conducted in a variety of chemical means. Sulphate is usually determined by the method given in BS 1881 pt 124:1988. This involves an acid extraction and precipitation of the sulphate as barium sulphate with barium chloride solution. The resulting barium sulphate is filtered and weighed to determine sulphate gravimetrically.