Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

# OPEN-ENDED QUESTION PART 1 QUESTION 1 : Flakiness index This method describes the procedure for the determination of the

Flakiness Index of aggregate that has not more than 5% retained on a 26.5mm AS Test Sieve and no more than 5% passing a 4.75mm AS Test Sieve. The Flakiness Index is the percentage, by mass, of the particles whose least dimension is less than three-fifths of the mean dimension. The Mean Dimension is the arithmetic mean of the smallest sieve aperture size through which the particle passes and the next smallest sieve aperture size on which the particle is retained. The sample is obtain using the Test Method WA 200.1. Determine the particle size distribution of a test portion in accordance with Test Method WA 210.1 and after sieving keep the 26.5-19.0mm, 19.0-13.2mm (Note a), 13.2-9.50mm, 9.50 - 6.70mm and 6.70-4.75mm sieve fractions separate. Discard any sieve fractions which constitute 5 percent or less of the test portion mass, any material retained on a 26.5mm aperture sieve and any material passing a 4.75mm aperture sieve. Then record the mass to at least the nearest 1g, of each of the individual sieve fractions retained for testing. Test each sieve fraction (or test increment) separately by attempting to pass each stone manually through the appropriate slot as defined in Table 1. Record the mass, to at least the nearest 1g, of the particles passing the appropriate slot for each of the sieve fractions (or test increments) tested.

Calculations: 1. If the sieve fractions have been reduced, calculate the mass of the particles will pass the appropriate slot for each sieve fraction using the formula:

where E = mass of particles in sieve fraction that would pass the appropriate slot 2. Calculate the Flakiness Index using the formula:

Elongation index test The test is the determination of the elongation of the elongation index of aggregates. The elongation index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than 1 4/5 times their mean dimension. The procedure to do this test is first three samples of aggregates weighing 2.5 kg each are prepared- the aggregates of the first sample passing 50mm BS sieve and retained on 37.5mm BS sieve, those of the second sample passing 37.5mm BS sieve and retained on the 20mm BS sieve. Secondly Each sample is gauged in the turn for length on the metal gauge. Finally The retained material of each sample is weighed. The calculation is conducted using the following equation: Elongation Index = [ Nos. retained/total Nos. Aggregates ] *Take average for the Flakiness Index Calculation

Reason for choosing the value no exceeding 30% and 25% for elongation index and flakiness index : The effect of particle shape is significant in the quarrying industry since it affects the quality of construction aggregates. The increasing need and requirement for high strength and quality concrete also drives the quarrying industry to produce high quality aggregates with improvement in its characteristics. Accordingly, excerpts from Hamer (1990 & 1991) shows that aggregate production are changing towards production of aggregates with improved qualities such as more cubical and equidimentional in shape, better graded size and textural characteristics. As aggregates occupy bulk of the volume of concrete, aggregate properties such as size grading, shape and surface texture have significant influence on the properties of concrete in both fresh and hardened state and also the bulk density of the matrix (Jamkar & Rao, 2004; Anon, 2001a). Reports and data from Kaplan (1959) also showed that the compressive strength, flexural strength and elastic properties of concrete are among the important concrete properties influenced by aggregate characteristics. In terms of particle orientation, the largest particles would pack down first and smaller particles would fill the voids between the larger particles. This process is repeated until the voids are so small that can only be filled by the water or cement paste. The success of this process is governed primarily by the particle gradation. The shape of the particles has a great effect on this process, in which elongated or flaky particles does not allow the particles to achieve their optimum packing configuration. This results in larger voids in between the particles. Optimum packing of aggregates ensures that the maximum strength is being achieved by the concrete (Anon, 2001a; Neville, 1995). Aggregate characteristics such as shape and textural features also influence the concretes workability. If compared to cubical shape aggregates, aggregates which are rough textured, angular and elongated in shape requires higher amount of cement to produce a workable concrete. This is due to much higher amount of cement required to fill up the voids which failed to be occupied by these rough textured, angular and elongated particles (Hudson, 1997).