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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Background of the Study

Social Studies is one of the most useful and important

subjects taught in school. It has been on existence since

the beginning of time as people of certain ancient

civilizations make use of studying and putting into account

the events of the past to help keep them on track and move

forward through different innovations. History serves as

the base to create certain advanced technologies or

instruments to promote and prosper a better way of living.

One example is the pyramids of Egypt. As historians study

the Egyptians past, culture and techniques in creating such

indestructible structures of the pyramid, they have proven

the great importance contributed by history through similar

infrastructures we see today which adopts the way the

pyramids were built. Generally speaking, social studies, be

it named “History” or “Araling Panlipunan” in more basic

terms, feeds the curiosity of every individual, resulting

in our present generations better way of living, with each

one owning their personal sense of the “how’s” and “whys”

of every event. An effective or successful learning of

Social Studies therefore leaves a community knowledgeable.


As to how important Social Studies is as subject,

teachers create an impact as to whether or not the students

have captured the concepts of the said subject every time

they deliver certain topics. The interest felt by the

students for the subject is generated by the teacher. If a

subject such as the Social Studies is interesting or

inviting, it is of great certainty that the students will

gain at least enough interest to listen and learn from the

lessons discussed.

Enclosed in this positive-teacher-student interaction

are different factors which may be the primary root of the

student’s interest or boredom on their studies. However,

these factors depend on the type of students being taught.

For instance, if the student finds interest on a subject

full of games, he may be bored with long lectures or

writings on the board, and vice versa. Aside from the

teaching technique used by the teacher, skills and values

may also be considered as factors. Ideal teachers may be

difficult to define because the type of students must be

considered. The teacher’s flexibility most probably is one

of the best qualities a classroom must have in order to

attain educational success in Social Studies. Generally,

this learning success must be attained by both teachers and

students through the teachers and students. It might not be


enough for the subject Social Studies to gain success

through the teacher’s ability to educate only to attentive

students. Once again, the value flexibility is enclosed.

The performance of the students in Social Studies and

the tactic brought by teacher to teach is as important as

Social Studies effect on the world today. Inside the

classroom, all these factors depend upon the kind of

teacher-student interaction where supervision and

flexibility become necessary in order to bring about

academic accomplishment in Social Studies.

Review of Related Literature

Teaching is one of those things that nearly everybody

thinks he or she can do better than the experts. Everybody

has taught something to somebody at one time or another,

after all. We begin our amateur teaching careers as

children by imposing our superior knowledge on our younger

siblings or playmates. As students, we pass judgment among

our peers on this or those teachers capabilities. As

adults, those of us who do not teach professionally stand

ever ready to criticize those who do (Evans, 1989). The

teacher and his teaching approach play a great role in the

learning of the student. It depends upon the kind of

teaching for students to feel free and comfortable with the


kind of strategy a teacher portrays within the classroom.

Many types of teaching strategies are being adapted by

teachers worldwide. A good teaching strategy greatly

affects a student psychologically making him invigorated

with the lesson thus making him pay more attention in class.

Group Learning is the mainly approach to organize

collaborative learning. There are many collaborative

learning methods, which also can be considered as group

learning methods and popularly used in classroom-based

environment. If they can be utilized into web-based

environment, modeling and stimulating work should be

finished first. One of the purposes is to find a common

approach, which can be used to stimulate small learning

group based on different collaborative learning methods, on

the other hand, the optimal solution is to model any small

group learning method, but it is quite difficult to

realize. Some experiences can be got and can be applied to

model common group learning process (Zhao, et al., 2002).

Students’ working in groups is another way a teacher can

enforce a lesson plan. Collaborating allows students to

talk among each other and listen to all view points of

discussion or assignment. It helps students think in an

unbiased way. When this lesson plan is carried out, the

teacher may be trying to assess the lesson of working as a


team, leadership skills or presenting with roles

(Lardizbal, et al., 1997).

Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical

strategy that encourages small groups of students to work

together for the achievement of a common goal. The term

collaborative learning is often used as a synonym for

cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate

strategy that encompasses a broader range of group

interactions such as developing learning communities,

stimulating student/faculty discussions , and encouraging

electronic exchanges (Bruffee, 1993). Both approaches

stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in

the learning process.

Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity in

learning new exploration and visual learning tasks from a

different perspective. Demonstrations can be exercised in

several ways. Here teacher will be also a participant. He

will do the work with his/her student for their help

(Lardizabal, et al., 1997). Use the demonstration or

“doing” method to teach skills. Demonstrate, step-by-step,

the procedures in a job task, using the exact physical

procedures if possible. While demonstrating, explain the

reason for and the significance of each step. To be

effective, plan the demonstration so that you will be sure


to show the steps in the proper sequence and to include all

steps. If you must give the demonstration before a large

group or if the trainees might have trouble seeing because

of the size of the equipment involved, use enlarged devices

or training aids. When practical, allow trainees to repeat

the procedure in a “hands on” practice session to reinforce

the learning process. By immediately correcting the

trainees mistakes and reinforcing proper procedures, you

can help them learn the task more quickly. The direct

demonstration approach is a very effective method of

instruction, especially when trainees have the opportunity

to repeat the procedures

(http:/www.tpub.com/content/advancement/14504/css/14504_27.

htm).

Service Learning is a method of teaching through which

students apply their academic skills and knowledge to

address real-life needs in their own communities. Service

learning provides a compelling reason to learn, teaches the

skills of civic participation and develops an ethic of

service and civic responsibility. Service learning

increases motivation and retention of academic skills as

specific learning goals are tied to community needs. By

solving real problems and addressing real needs, students

learn to apply classroom learning to a real word context.


At the same time, students provide valuable services to

schools and communities. Service learning projects

emphasize both the service and the learning. Service

learning is a way to provide more authenticity and purpose

for classroom learning (McPherson, 2001).

Lecturing is one of the most strategies in classrooms

especially in Math, Science, English and Social Studies.

According to Cashin (1990), 80% of all college-classroom

students in the late 1970s in the United States use the

lecture method. Although a variety of teaching strategies

are available, the lecture method remains an important way

to relay information to students. The lecture in its many

forms is the most commonly used method for transferring

information in education. There are, however, serious

questions regarding the effectiveness of the traditional

lecture approach. Arredondo, et al. (1994) point out that,

although the lecture method is used extensively in medical

education, academic physicians often are not trained in

giving effective lectures. There presently are many calls

to move away from the traditional lecture to interactive

computer learning systems that allow students access to

information when and where they need it (Edlich, 1993;

McIntosh, 1996; Twigg, 1994). While this shift to “just in

time” information provided by computer is accruing, there


is, and will continue to be, a need for educators who are

prepared to deliver lectures. According to Swanson and

Torraco (1995), the lecture was established formally

centuries ago as a teaching process that began with a

literal reading of important passages from the text by the

master, followed by the master’s interpretation of the

text. Students were expected to sit, listen and take notes.

In writing about lecture method in education, Vella (1992)

defines the lecture as the formal presentation of content

by the educator for the subsequent learning and recall in

examinations by students. Ruyle (1995) describes the

lecture simply as an oral presentation of instructional

material.

A good ideal of experimentation with discussion as a

technique for the classroom and as a tool for implementing

the democratic process has been done recently. The use of

discussion is an attempt to get away from the traditional

classroom procedure of the question-and-answer and

recitation style. Discussion is used to designate group

classroom activities in which teacher and students

cooperatively consider certain topics or problems. It is a

thoughtful consideration of the relationships involved in

the topic or problem under study (Lardizabal, et al.,

1997). There are two ways to stimulate discussion: one is


to recall on the past lesson to refresh memories of

students and the other is to list down critical point or

emerging issues. Discussion depends on the planning of the

instructor and the preparedness of the students to respond.

Problem-based learning (PBL) is focused, experiential

learning (minds-on, hands-on) organized around the

investigation and resolution of messy, real-world problems.

PBL curriculum provides authentic experiences that faster

active learning, support knowledge construction, and

naturally integrates school learning and real life; this

curriculum approach also addresses state and national

standards and integrates disciplines. Students are engaged

problem solvers, identifying the root problem and the

conditions needed for a good solution, pursuing meaning and

understanding, and becoming self-directed learners.

Teachers are problem-solving colleagues who model interest

and enthusiasm for learning and are also cognitive coaches

who nurture an environment that supports open inquiry

(Torp, et al., 2002).

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what

they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has

proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and

integrating knowledge. The case method is an instructional

strategy that engages students in active discussion about


issues and problems inherent in practical application. It

can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and

provide format for role playing ambiguous or controversial

scenarios. Course content cases can come from a variety of

sources. Many faculties have transformed current events or

problems reported through print or broadcast media into

critical learning experiences that illuminate the

complexity of finding solutions to critical social

problems. The case study approach works well in cooperative

learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical

thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives

(http://www.gmu.edu/facstaff/part-time./strategy.html)

The National Council for Social Studies defines Social

Studies as “the integrated study of the social sciences and

humanities to promote civic competence.” It involves the

study of social interaction and human behavior. Some fields

include: sociology, history, political science, economics,

religion, geography and anthropology.

According to Rodney M. White on his article, “An

Alternative Approach to Teaching History”, the debates

about the purposes, goals and uses of school history

exacerbates by the problem of choosing what constitutes

historically significant events worth tracing…”

Furthermore, he stated that “The issue of historical


significance has been further exacerbated by the

multiculturization of many western societies, rendering

questions about “whose” history to teach as important as to

“which” history.

The importance of Social Studies is to learn more

about the culture, geography and tradition of a race or

country; it is also important to know the wars,

contribution of civilizations and the history of the

universe on how it began and the life forms that rose

during these eras.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Subjects being thought within the four corners of a

classroom serve as the framework of the next generations

success. Therefore, in order for development to take place

and continually grow, a particular subject must bring about

sense and knowledge to the students, knowing the importance

it will bring. Each subject has its own field to cover in

our daily lives. Social Studies, for instance, has its own

ideas and principles, stating the reason why it is being

taught. The teachers play an important role as the bearers

of the concepts of Social Studies. These concepts are fully

obtained in the teacher’s approach meet the interests of

the students. Since the teachers have been entrusted with


such responsibilities, they are to promote the quality of

education among individuals. An ideal teacher’s approach

includes the skills and capacity he/she has been trained to

activate while teaching. This will help the students

understand better. Another ideal approach encloses a

teacher’s interpersonal relationship with students. These

help them gain comfort while studying in a particular

environment. In turn, the teacher gains the students trust.

Students, as the leaders of tomorrow’s innovations, need

the principles of Social Studies which must be delivered

with strength and proper approach by the teacher.


A. Socio-Demographic Profile of
the Respondents
o Sex
o Age
o Civil Status
o Educational Background
B. Teaching Approaches:
o Group Learning Method
1. Teamwork
2. Cooperative Learning
o Demonstration Method Evaluation
1. Videotapes of Ideal
2. Games Teaching
o Fieldwork Method Approach
1. Hands-on
2. Service Learning
o Lecture Method
1. Discussion
2. Discussion with Quiz
o Problem-Based Learning
Method
1. Cases
2. Guided Design

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study

Statement of the Problem


This study comes to determine the Ideal Teaching

Approach which benefits both the teacher and students.

Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following

questions:

1. What is the profile of students and teachers

respondents in terms of:

a. Gender

b. Age

c. Civil Status

d. Educational Background

2. What are the Ideal Teaching Approaches in Social

Studies as perceived by the students and teachers?

3. Is there a significant difference on the

perceptions of the student and teachers on the

teaching approaches in Social Studies?

Statement of Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant difference on the

perceptions of the student and teachers on the

teaching approaches in Social Studies.

Ha: There is no significant difference on the

perceptions of the student and teachers on the

teaching approaches in Social Studies.


Significance of the Study

The following group of individuals may benefit from

the countless information obtained from the study, be it in

a small or large way.

DepEd Administrators/Authorities. The result of this

study will provide them important and reliable information

regarding the most effective approach of teachers and

students for easy learning. They will be able to share

these results to many more communities for them to apply.

School Administrators. Due to a possible significant

change in teaching strategies and performance of students,

they, too, will experience or benefit from the result of

these positive changes. They might continue in consulting

the student body regularly about the teaching strategies

they find most comforting. They will now realize the

importance of such simple factors.

Teachers. They may be more open to different teaching

strategies they are welcomed to adopt. This will give them

a chance to discover teaching strategies of their choice

and likeness for better application and performance as to

teacher.

Students. They will be able to appreciate the lessons

taught by the teachers and may even receive an opportunity

to experience the teaching strategy they prefer most. This


will then help their performance in schools, especially in

academics.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focuses mainly on the ideal teaching

approach or teaching strategy of teachers in Agusan

National High School. This study shall mention numerous

teaching approaches which students and teachers may find

most effective in terms of providing the best strategies

for easy learning. The respondents in this study include

1.) the social studies teachers and their choice of which

teaching approach they think is the most effective and 2.)

the students in the third year level, to choose which

teaching strategy brings them the best comfort and ease

while learning.

The personal factors- sex, age, civil status, and

educational background are needed to make a fairly accurate

study. The currently generated or applied teaching

approaches are compared for different groups of people to

be knowledgeable of the most effective teaching approach

there is.

Definition of Terms
Common knowledge and understanding of this study are

needed, thus these terms were defined.

Role Playing. The term refers to a method in teaching

social studies wherein the problem is to introduce

dramatically. It is also used to provide opportunity to

practice skills.

Lecture. The term refers to a teaching method wherein

the teacher presents factual material like maps/globes.

This contains experience which inspires and stimulates to

open a discussion.

Lecture with Discussion. The term refers to a method

involving the teacher and student to question, clarify and

challenge related to the topic.

Brainstorming. The term refers to a method which is

used to encourage full participation because all ideas are

equally recorded. Usually done in groups or pairs.

Videotapes. The term refers to an entertaining way of

teaching content and raising issues related to the topic.

Class Discussion. The term refers to a method wherein

everyone is allowed to participate in an active process.

Small Group Discussion. The term refers to a method

wherein a discussion can reach group consensus.


Report-back Sessions. The term refers to a large group

discussion of role plays, case studies and small group

exercise.

Index Card Exercise. The term refers to a method used

in social studies to explore the difficulties and complex

issues.

Various Clarification Exercise. The term refers to a

method given to explore values and beliefs, usually used in

some religions in the world discussion.

Questioning. The term refers to a teaching method that

involves question similar to testing.

Explaining. The term refers to another teaching method

which is similar to lecturing.

Demonstrating. The term refers to a teaching method of

social studies used to provide an opportunity in learning

new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different

perspective.

Collaborating. The term refers to students working in

groups so that the teacher can enforce a lesson plan. It

has less used in social studies.

Social Studies. The term refers to an academic subject

devoted to the study of society and including geography,

economics and history.


History. The term refers to events that happened in

the past.

Student. The term refers to an individual who is

studying in school.

Teacher. The term refers to an individual who teaches

students a certain subject.