You are on page 1of 13

8 Sep 2009

Lohit Bakore Fourth Year (Textile Technology) SVITS, Indore

[In the past 50 years much advancement have taken place in weaving technology giving birth to the shuttleless weaving machines. This assignment provides a comparison between the modern and the conventional machines.]

Submitted To: Mr. Tanveer Malik

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Comparison of Shuttle looms and Shuttleless looms
The weaving is a process of formation of fabric with interlacement of two or more sets of yarns using a stable machine called loom. It is still not certain when the weaving process was introduced to human society. Except few activities elsewhere, the major developments in textile took place in England. In England the major shift from agriculture to woolen industry came in the 14th century. During all these years and a few hundred years after 14th century, the cloth was produced on hand-looms which were not equipped with fly shuttle. In 1733, John Kay invented the fly shuttle which enabled weft to be inserted more rapidly. Edmund Cart Wright, an English clergy man, invented a so called powerloom which could be operated from a single point by two strong man. Fortunately steam power was available by 1765. Soon powerlooms were driven by steam and most of the wooden parts were replaced with iron. These looms then were stopped every few minutes in order to replace the empty weft pirns or cop in the shuttle and this limited the number of looms, a weaver could operate to about four. James Northrop, an English man invented an automatic weft transfer system which replaced the weft pirn in the shuttle without slowing or stopping the loom in 1889. Similar developments took place elsewhere also, Ruti, a major loom maker of Switzerland manufactured automatic bobbin changing Northrop loom in 1898. After World War II, more productivity and efficiency were essential to overcome increasing labour costs in Western countries.

Limitations of Shuttle Looms
Despite the relatively high speed and efficiencies in loom with conventional picking, productivity of these machines will continue to be limited as long as their fundamental constructions involved the use of shuttle propulsion. It is known that the power required for picking is proportional to the cube of the loom speed. If the loom speed is increased from 200 to 300 picks per minute, the power requirement would increase by a factor of (3/2)3 i.e. 3.4 times approximately. This results in following disadvantages 1. Greater strain imposed on the picking mechanism, thus rendering it liable to frequent failure. 2. Greater amount of noise and vibration. 3. Because of superior energy in shuttle, greater strain is again imposed on the checking mechanism. 2

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing 4. The movement of shuttle will be more difficult to control and there will be a greater possibility of its ejection from the loom. The dynamic problems created by the picking and checking mechanism and the inherent process of pirn winding for shuttle looms had encouraged the loom makers to develop alternative means of weft insertion in which heavy shuttle is not projected forwards and backwards across the width of the loom. It is customary to refer these looms as shuttleless looms.

The various shuttleless looms that have been developed over a period of about 50 years can be classified into various groups. * Projectile Looms * Rapier Looms * Fluid Jet Looms * Multiphase Looms

Advantages of Shuttleless Weaving Technology
The Shuttleless weaving is becoming more and more popular due to the following advantages compared to conventional looms. High labour and machine productivity due to high speed and wider width of looms. Reduced labour cost due to higher allocation of looms and productivity. Defect free cloth for longer length. Better environment due to low noise level. Pirn winding process is eliminated Less value loss of fabrics. Low consumption of stores and spares. Less space requirement per metre of cloth. More colours in weft direction (upto 12) by Pick and Pick method. Wider width fabrics and multi width fabrics can be woven, High degree of flexibiligy to suit a wide range of fibres and counts. Easily adaptable for market trends. Bigger flanges can accommodate 3 times more yarn. Due to less beam changes lower down-time and lesser wastages. Less dependency on labour skill. Higher design capabilities dut to microprocessor and electronic controls. Easy maintenance and less work load for Jobbers. Lesser accidents.

Advances in Weaving Technology

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing The emphasis on productivity and quality has developed the weaving technology very much and as a result the working hours required to weave fabric from loom have been reduced from about 20 to 0.25 during the last 125 years, and in the last 50 years there has been a reduction of 95% in operative hours per standard unit produced. Majority of the developments are taking place on the shuttleless looms in the following directions : 1. To increase productivity of the loom. 2. To make the looms more flexible for different kinds of fabric. 3. To reduce the down time for changing style, etc. 4. Application of electronic control mechanisms to increase automation 5. Development of accessories such as dobby, jacquards, etc. In addition to these, the newer looms are simple in design, the motions are more reliable, consumes less energy and have lower maintenance cost.

The production rates of the various types of looms are presented for comparison in following Table

Table -1
Loom Type Conventional Powerloom Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Sulzer Ruti 165-410 160-380 110-280 550 510 325 1300 1300 1200

Available width in cm 180

Weft insertion Speed in Rate(meters per rpm minute) 180 300 - 400

190-540 190-540 180-330 150 150-400 230

320 430 300 550 460 330

1100-1200 1500 750 1100 1000 1200

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet Sulzer Ruti Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti Dornier Linear Multiphase Elitex Drum type Multiphase Sulzer M8300

220-420 230 150-210 150-210 upto 300 190-380 190 150-330 150-340 190 430

440 1000 1000 1000 750 800 1100 850 1000 500 600

1000 1600 2000 2000 1600 1800 2000 2000 2200 1200 2520

About 190



190 170

3230 2430

6088(Plain) 4118(Twill)

Out of these single phase looms, Air jet loom is having maximum speed and maximum weft insertion rate. Because of the very high quality of yarn required, the yarn must be of very high standard, otherwise the loom stoppages due to warp breaks and weft breaks will be high. The efficiency achieved will be in the order of 93 to 95%. Other looms like projectile and rapier will give an efficiency of about 90 to 95%. The cover of the fabric in air jet will not be as good as projectile and rapier looms. Efficiency in multiphase loom is in the order of 90 to 95% These are the speeds obtained by the weavers at commercial level. The main reason for targeting higher productivity is to reduce the cost of production, especially labour cost. The increase in speed is being achieved the improvement in all major functional parts of the modern looms. The variety of fabrics that can be woven in the shuttleless looms can be summarized in the following table. 5

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Table-2 Variety of Fabrics Woven on Specific Looms Loom Type Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Sulzer Ruti Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet Sulzer Ruti up to 3 Light gauge & sheeting,spun & filament fabric

Weft selection

Field of application

4 colours 4 colours 4 colours

Sheeting dress material filament weaving

up to 4 colours up to 16 colours up to 6 colours

Yarn dyed fancy fabric manufactured such as Suiting,shirting smaller batch production

up to 8 colours up to 8 colours up to 8 colours up to 8 colours Single colour Weft mix,1*1,2*2 Weft mix,1*1,2*2

spun & filament dress material

Weaving of filament,twisted & texturised filament sarees,dress materials

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

colours Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti 6 colours 2 colours 6 colours 6 colours 2 colours


Weft Insertion Rates of Different Type of Looms
Weft insertion rate, defining the speed of the loom is given in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison of Different Types of Looms Loom Conventional Powerloom High Speed Automatic Loom Rapier Loom Projectile Loom Air Jet Loom Multiphase Loom Weft Insertion Rate 200 Mts / Min 300 - 400 Mts / Min 1000 - 1400 Mts / Min 1200 - 1500 Mts / Min 1500 - 2000 Mts / Min 5000 Mts / Min

Today the market particularly demands wide variety as much as possible at the lowest possible cost. These machines provide the feature such as : - The possibility of weaving more difficult products in terms of yarn employed and also in combinations. - Application potential in all weaving sectors. (Sulzer Ruti 6300 rapier loom will weave not only fashion, fabrics with us many as 8 weft colours but also furnishing fabrics, simple print base fabrics and denims as efficiently as light to heavy weight industrial fabrics.) The terry plus airjet terry weaving machines of Gunne not only permit greater pile height and heavier fabrics, it also offers greater flexibility in operation with the ability to change the fabric width and pile height. On the machine the drawing width can be changed using the same reed, simply by shifting the weft stop motion and the weft cutter. The pile height is programmable within the same fabric. Special fabric constructions with different pile heights on front and back are also possible. For Sulzer P7300 projectile looms a variety of back rest roller and cloth take up systems are available to suit the density and the type of fabric woven. 7

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Minimum down time
Many of the weaving machine manufacturers offer quick style change (QSC) system. The basic idea of these developments is to prepare module outside the weave room and keep them ready for a switch over with empty module in the weaving machine. Dornier demonstrated quick style changes from a fine worsted fabric to pure cashmere fabrics in less than 30 minutes. Similarly, almost all major weaving machine makers offer their own version of QSC. Dornier offers Fast Dobby Change (FDC) which allows a mill exchange a dobby shedding for a cam drive when a basic style is being woven and higher shedding machine speeds are possible. The exchange time is not more than 1.5 hours per occurrence. The saving in time with QSC in Picanol is illustrated with an example in Table-3

Table-4 Average Loom Stoppage Time (in minutes)
Stop factor Waiting time Loom unloading Loom loading Reed,hardness locking New style setting Loom restart Interference loss Total With QSC system 5 10 8 6 15 5 4 74 Without QSC system 5 40 40 25 60 15 25 12 203

Trolley waiting time 10

The down time is getting reduced to about one third with Quick Style Change (QSC) system. Electronic Control Mechanism : The use of central microprocessor control system and automatic functional with bidirection communication and diagnostic features are the common features of most of these latest weaving machines. Sulzer Ruti P7100 with central microprocessor control, electronically controls progressive weft break, automatic weft feed backup which switches over to a feeder head with intact weft intact weft thread in the event of weft break, at the same time informing the weaver an optical automatic weft break repair and package handling system. In repair machines electronic control weft tensioner reduces the yarn tension specially during insertion. The opening and closing time can be selected according 8

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing to the material usually at yarn pick up. Automatic package switching device prevents the machine from being stopped in the event of a weft break between the package and the weft feeder. The microprocessor switches over immediately to a reduced number of packages in the circle, so that the machine continues to run. Electronically controlled warp let off and cloth take up units ensure high degree of fabric regularity and prevent all kinds of start and stop marks. Electronic monitoring control system have simplified the communication with the machine and facilitate its easy handling by any one concerned with the operation of the machine e.g. weaver, technical, maintenance, personnel, etc. In airjet weaving machine electronic let-off maintains consistent warp tension from full beam to empty beam. Electronic cloth take up generates a pick density resolution of 0.1 picks/cm and holds it constant, under all operating conditions. In terry plus airjet terry weaving machine of Gunne Web Machinen Fabric GMBH & Co. The microprocessor monitors the entire insertion cycle and keeps all the different elements perfectly synchronized.

Other Developments
(a) Tuck-in-Devices Some of the important development are new tuck in motions based on pneumatic. The principle of pneumatic trucking in is the use of air to hold the filling end and then forcing the filling end to be tucked in, in the next shed, by air. In airjet weaving the automatic weft repairer which repairs the weft break and starts the machine automatically is made simple by using mechano pneumatic device. It is a positive factor in higher weaver allocation and increased efficiency. Dornier exhibited their pneumatic tucker on two airjet weaving machines (LTN F8/J and LWV2/E). Tsudokama demonstrated their ZNT needleless tuck-in on two airjet weaving machine. Somet showed its patented tucking motion on a clipper airjet machine. Elimination of tuck in needle by pneumatic tuck in motion enables the loom run much faster as compared to mechanical devices. (b) Electronic Jacquard Head Grosse has introduced its patented UniShed positive electronic jacquard head. The shed formation in the UniShed is achieved by leaf spring. Each leaf spring is connected to a heddle that controls one warp end. The leaf springs which are controlled by actuators control the bottom shed as well as the top shed (positive shed type). The dimensions of the jacquard head and the individual control of each heddle (warp end) allow the heddles to be set vertically. These settings permit the elimination of harness cords, hooks, magnets, pulleys, pull down springs and more significantly, the gantry. The jacquard head is mounted directly on the side frame of the weaving machine, thus allowing quick style changes. (c) Jacquard Shedding Mechanism Staubli's Unival 100 electronic jacquard shedding mechanism offers a new concept. The shed formation is achieved by controlling each individual warp end with a stepping motor. The harness cord / warp end selection is performed electronically 9

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing and hence fabric design is achieved in the same way as any electronic jacquard system. The design of the Unival 100 permits the elimination of hook and the gantry. (d) Weft Package Handling Complete automatic weft package handling, loading the package frame and package changing can be incorporated on Sulzer Ruti projectile weaving machines and Tsudakoma Airjet weaving machines. These include automation equipment for detecting the broken picks with drawing it from the open shed, correcting the cloth fell position and restarting the machine. The entire cycle is completed in about 12 seconds.

Economics After understanding the need for modernization and the technical merits of new weaving technologies, the economics of different types of looms has to be considered. Many people feel that fastest running machines will give better profitability. But in many cases the fastest running machine is not the most economic and cheapest one. The reasons are certain products have physical limitations, which do not allow full utilization of the maximum speed. Furthermore, in the case of fashion fabrics, other values have priority, quality, and design, running properties of the machine independent of the different yarn structures. So, the decisive factor is only efficiency. 14 minutes stoppage per 24 hours working day reduces the efficiency by 1% and the weaving costs are increased by more than 1.5%. For arriving at the relative economics of different types of looms, two comparisons have been illustrated. Table 5 is for mass production fabric. 40s Warp 40s Weft, 136 EPI, 72 PPI, 63" Width. Table 6 is for fashion fabric Shirting of 2/40s Warp, 20s Weft, 60 EPI, 52 PPI, 63" Width. The weaving conversion costs per metre of cloth and the profit per year per loom before paying the interest on capital and after paying the interest have been worked out. The economic comparisons made here are based on many factors and assumptions. In these illustrations, higher price realization per metre of cloth produced in shuttleless looms has not been considered. Only the selling price of powerloom cloth after adding a profit of Rs. 0.70 per mtr. for plain sheeting and Rs. 1.50 per mtr. for yarn dyed shirting has been considered. But in real practice there will be higher selling price and the profitability will be much more than shown in the illustration. Comparison of Plain, Mass Fabric Production in Different Types of Looms

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Table no 5
Comparison for Fashion Fabric Production in Diffrent Types of Looms

RAPIER RAPIER 190.00 180.00 72.00 85.00 66.07 190.00 250.00 72.00 85.00 91.76 190 450 72 85 165.16 190 700 72 85 256.92 190 300 72 85 146.81 190 400 72 85 220.22


PROD/YEAR MTRS/M C 11959.50 21763.00 0.68 3.72 2.41 1.50 1.20 0.34 9.85 5.00 2.00

23122.75 32116.00 57806.00 89922.00 51383.50 77077 0.68 3.50 1.29 1.50 2.40 0.32 9.69 1.00 0.40 0.49 4.59 0.93 1.50 2.40 0.23 10.14 1.00 0.40 0.22 5.03 0.51 1.50 2.4 0.13 9.79 1.00 0.4 0.18 2.91 0.33 1.50 2.4 0.08 7.40 1.00 0.4 0.31 3.44 0.58 1.50 1.2 0.15 7.18 1.00 0.4 0.2 2.76 0.39 1.50 1.2 0.10 6.15 1.00 0.4









0.21 0.04 6.00 0.060 0.600 -0.540

1.97 0.45 3.00 0.450 0.300 0.150

1.52 0.49 4.50 0.490 0.450 0.040

1.87 1.08 17 1.080 1.700 -0.620

4.26 3.83 16 3.830 1.600 2.230

4.48 2.30 5 2.300 0.500 1.800

5.51 4.25 8 4.250 0.800 3.450


INT ON CAPIT LAKHS 0.075 0.005


Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Table no. 6
Comparison for Fashion Fabric Production in Diffrent Types of Looms
YARN DYED FABRIC REED 56,PICK52,63"WIDTH 2/40S * 20S COTTON SHIRTING DROP BOX INDEG ITEM REED SPACE CM RPM AVG PPI EFFICIENCY % PROD/DAY MTRS/MC PROD/YEAR MTRS/MC EXPENS/MTR(RS) WAGES POWER MAINTENANCE INT ON WORKING CAPITAL WEFT YARN WASTE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES TOTAL EXPECTED VALUE LOSS % VALUE LOSS / MTR RS. 60/- PER MTR. TOTAL WVG. COST CONSIDERING NET PROFIT DUE TO WEAVING OF RS 1.50/- MTR FOR S A L PROFIT PER MTR PROFIT PER YEAR LAKHS LOOM COST RS LAKHS LOOM COST RS LAKHS PROFIT PER MTR INT ON CAPT RS LAKHS PRO AFTER CAP INT RS LAKHS 1.20 2.10 2.19 1.65 0.00 1.00 8.14 10.00 6.00 14.14 1.50 0.19 1.00 1.00 0.19 0.10 0.09 0.52 2.69 0.99 1.65 2.64 0.25 8.74 1.00 0.60 9.34 6.30 1.90 3.00 3.00 1.90 0.30 1.60 0.48 4.23 0.93 1.65 2.64 0.18 10.11 1.00 0.60 10.71 4.93 2.06 4.50 4.50 2.16 0.45 1.71 0.22 5.03 0.51 1.65 2.64 0.10 10.15 1.00 0.60 10.75 4.89 3.68 17.00 17.00 3.86 1.70 2.16 (SEMI AUTO) 190.00 90.00 52.00 70.00 35.45 12407.50 USED IMPOR. NEW RAPIER

RAPIER RAPIER 190.00 180.00 52.00 80.00 86.10 190.00 250.00 52.00 80.00 119.57 190.00 450.00 52.00 80.00 215.24 75334.00

30135.00 41849.50


Net profit is one of the major considerations to keep any organisation running. Analysis of the results shows that shuttleless looms are more economical than shuttle looms due to the following reasons.

Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing

Mr. Tanveer Malik Signature ________________ Grade ________________