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Poetry Analysis: Refugee Blues-W. H. Auden.

17JAN
The following analysis has been done in answer to a request sent by
Amanthi. I hope you find it satisfactory and that this helps with
preparing for your exams.
Audens Refugee Blues laments the plight of the Jews who were forced
to flee Europe when the Holocaust started and they were rounded up and
killed or imprisoned under the cruel regime of Hitler.
The poem starts with a narrator, who is later revealed to be a German
Jew, describing a large city which is home to ten million people some of
whom are well off and live in luxurious large houses while others make
do in slums and shabby houses. Yet, the narrator tells the person with
him, presumably a woman, that there is no place for them there. He
remembers that they once had a country long ago, speaking of Palestine,
and they thought the world of it. But now their own country is so distant
to them that to see it they have to browse through an atlas and he knows
that they cant go there either.
The narrator then remarks on how every spring the flowers grow anew on
the old tree that grows in the village churchyard, and mourns to his
companion that old passports cant renew themselves, remembering how
the country where they wanted to go had rejected them saying that they
were as good as dead if they didnt have updated passports. It seems that
it is their misfortune that they are still among the living, considering his
dejected tone as he addresses his companion. He remembers how when
he had gone to the people who had been made responsible for providing
the war refugees homes, they had been polite to him, yet hadnt been
able to help him, having their hands tied because of the politics and had
told him to return next year. Recalling a public meeting that he had
attended, he remembers that a person had accused them of trying to
steal away the livelihood of the occupants of the city by barging in, and
informs his companion that that man had been talking of them.
He thinks that he heard the rumbling of an imminent storm, but it
turned out to be Hitler sentencing them all to death. He sees a dog
securely wrapped in a warm jacket, and a cat get inside a car, the door of
which had been held open for it and thinks that they are lucky that they
arent German Jews. He notices the fish swimming freely in the water at
the harbor and the birds flying wherever they want in the skies when he
goes to the woods and marvels at them not having any politicians and
wars as they were not human beings.
He then tells his companion that he had had a dream in which he saw a
magnificent building which could accommodate a thousand people yet
there was no place for them in it anywhere. He remembers how when he
stood on the plains and looked through the falling snow, he could see a
thousand soldiers marching towards them, looking for them, to put them
away, to kill them.
The language used in the poem is as simple as the message behind it is
complex. Auden uses the refrain at the end of each stanza, customary for
a blues song, each a dejected realization in its own by the narrator of his
and every other refugee sorry plight. Hitlers command for all Jews to be
killed is personified as the rumbling of thunder which can be heard just
before lightning strikes and the world descends into the chaos of a
political storm. Simple analogies have been used such as that of the
birds and fish flying and swimming freely and pets being treated better
than the Jews have been used to convey the low position these rejected
people, in terms that they understand.
Conveying the utter lost and pathetic state of the German Jewish
refugees who had been forced to leave their homes and find sanctuary in
other countries. For a few years these people had been welcomed into
other countries and given meager yet sustainable jobs and
accommodations. But then as war threatened to break out and Hitlers
word became law in Germany, these people were no longer allowed entry
into other countries, and were persecuted in their own. They were called
sub-humans, a term which Auden explores by making the narrator
realize that the animals he sees are treated better than them because
they arent German Jews. The sense of being hunted, of being sought
out, persecuted is apparent throughout the poem, as one by one all the
doors to a better future are shut on the narrators face and it reaches its
climax in the last stanza when the narrator witnesses the thousands of
people who are raging war against his people, imprisoning them and
killing them. The inhumanity with which Jews were treated during those
times and the Holocaust and its terrible tales which few lived to tell are
already well known today, but this poem highlights what these people
must have felt, when they had no place to call home, nowhere to go and
no one to turn to.
It is a chilling and depressing poem which reminds one of the extents to
which humanity can fall, becoming beasts, thirsty for each others blood
and lives. Many poets have tried to capture the anguish and cruelty of
war, some have succeeded, but only a handful have mastered it to the
extent that there words are forever reminders to mankind; reminders
which, with the increasing religious intolerance and biased prejudices
have become all the more important in todays world.
________________________________________________________________________
Refugee Blues by WH Auden, is a ballad and, as such, has a sense of
musicality that is created by both its structure and the repetition of
certain phrases. The poem contains twelve stanzas of three lines each.
The first and second line of each stanza rhyme. The two rhyming lines of
each stanza tell the story, while the third line contains a repeated phrase
(like a chorus) that develops the theme of the poem. For example, the
first stanza ends: yet theres no place for us, my dear, yet theres no
place for us.

The poems sense of musicality is also evident in its title. The blues is a
musical style that is today considered to be a sub-genre of jazz, but that
was born in the slave communities of the American deep south. Blues
songs tell a melancholic story using regular chants or refrains. Blues
hold an emotional intensity within it and are very critical of society, as
seen throughout Refugee Blues. This song, which was written in 1938
shortly before the outbreak of World War II, is about a pair of refugees
who have fled Germany to escape Nazism and Adolf Hitlers twisted
master plan to safeguard the purity of the Aryan race. The refugees,
however, have nowhere to escape to.

Refugee Blues is narrated by one of the pair of refugees, who is
bemoaning their fate to the other. The repeated use of my dear suggests
that the couple are married, but doesnt give a clue as to whether it is the
husband or wife speaking. In the first two stanzas, the refugee sets the
context for the poem. The first stanza notes that the city they have fled to
is full of people, both rich and poor, yet there is no space for them. With
the use of word such as souls it suggest something valuable or holy
about each and every one of the people within the city, it also implies
that they are all the same. This idea of souls being the same is
juxtaposed with the line some are living in mansions, some are living in
holes: Yet theres no place for us this suggests that the... As the title
suggest, this is a poem about political refuges and is in the form of a
blues song.
Its subject is the Jews who in 1939 had to flee from Germany to the U.S.
and other European country, because of Nazi persecution.
Auden uses the blues tradition, which developed among the black people
of the United States and has its origins in slave songs. Though composed
under improvisation, the blues has a rigid pattern concerning the use of
repetitions and a simple rhyme scheme.
The poem is divided into tercet whose first two lines rhyme while the
third present a repetition.
Through the whole song there is a refrain as the author always repeat
the words My dear.
Almost every stanza starts with a verb and this device helps to convey in
the text the idea of improvisation and common speech.
The structure of the text is carried on through the use of contrasting
images: the mansions and the holes, expressing the gap between normal
rich people and Jews, the Jews' condition, hanging between legal death
and biological death, the treatment of the Jews, who can't partecipate
anymore to social life.
The language used is common, colloquial, informal, while the tone is sad,
resigned and melanchonic.
.The hypotetical speaker, a German Jew, is concerned about Jews'
conditions, reguarding in particular homeless people, burocracy, social
differences and emargination.

There's an analogy of the Jews with all suffering and persecuted races in
history, though here there are no cotton fields or whips, but rather
passports, committees and public meetings
Those make the song no less ominous. Death is present throughout and
the poem ends with the image of the soldiers looking for the Jews. At the
moment when the poem was written, in 1939, this was becoming a
common situation in Europe.
_______________________________________________________________________

Refugee Blues By W.h Auden
Refugee blues is 1 of the poems written by W H Auden. It is about a sad
and terrible plight of being a Jew in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Obviously, as a refugee, the couple has lost their home, their country
and their identity. The melancholy feeling comes through strongly in the
blues - a sad song.
Though the poem is about 2 people at a particular time in the past the
thoughts and feelings of the poems narrator might be similar to
situations in any part of the world 2day.this poem is set in Germany in
1930s when the Jewish ppl were being persecuted by the Nazi regime.
The poem begins by introducing a city with 10 million people in it. Some
have the luxury of living in a mansion; this is directly contrasted with the
rest who are living in most disgusting conditions, 'holes'. There is not
even a 'hole' for this couple - they are beneath the usual poverty line, the
repetition of the sentiment, of having no room for 'us', makes it sadder.
Yet theres no place for us, my dear,
yet theres no place for us
The next stanza shows how they are exiled from their own country and
cannot return. They can see it in a map, can look at it in an atlas - but
cannot return. They are resigned to this fate when they say 'We cannot
go there now'.
The tree is an interesting symbol in the next stanza. The tree can go
through nature's cycle and seem dead at certain times of the year but
can be re-born, can grow again. It's natural for things to be given a new
chance every year in nature, to bloom again. However, this is contrasted
with man-made documents that, once lost, can never be recovered: 'Old
passports can't do that, my dear'.
They then go to three places where they need help. The consul,
presumably at an Embassy, treats them badly and violently bangs
the table and makes a ridiculous statement: 'If you have no passport
you're officially dead!' Can't he see that they are there in front of him,
alive, looking at him? The speaker's calm and controlled response of...
Refugee Blues is a poem by W. H. Auden, written in 1939, one of a
number of poems Auden wrote in the mid- to late-1930s in blues and
other popular metres, for example the meter he used in hislove poem
"Calypso," written around the same time. The poem dramatizes the
condition of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany in the years before

World War II, especially the indifference and antagonism they faced when
seeking asylum in the democracies of the period.
[1]

'Refugee': a person who flees to another country to escape being
persecuted for their religion or politics, or to escape war.
'Blues': a slow, sad song, traditionally with 3-line stanzas with 4 beats to
each line. The music features 'blue notes': mainly flattened thirds and
sevenths. The Blues were first sung by African Americans working on
slave plantations in the southern states of the USA; these melancholy
ballads expressed the unhappiness of the slaves' lives. Later, Blues
became part of the development of popular song and jazz. WH Auden's
poem uses many of the characteristics of a blues lyric.
'souls': individual people
'consul': an official appointed by a country to represent its citizens in
another
HISTORY
Jews have lived in Europe for nearly 2,000 years. Throughout that time
they have frequently experienced racist hostility and persecution. In the
1920s, German Jews began to face such anti-Semitism from the Nazi
(Nationalist) political party, led by Adolf Hitler. When he came to power in
1933, he introduced laws which, step by step, deprived German Jews of
their human rights; after 1939 the Nazis organised a systematic
programme to deprive them of their lives as well. This included forming
death squads who, under cover of the Second World War, hunted down
Jews (especially in Poland and Russia) in order to kill them.

In the 1930s many German Jews looked for refuge - became refugees -
abroad. At first they were received kindly, but as war approached many
countries became reluctant to take them, at least in large numbers, and
made immigration more difficult.
IDEAS WH Auden does what a blues writer would do: takes a single main
theme and makes variations on it, leading to a particularly powerful
finale. The theme of this 'song' is the abuse of human rights experienced
not only by German Jews but by other Jews and by refugees anywhere.

'Some in mansions, some in holes' - but no home at all for the refugee.

'Once we had a country': now, not only no home, but no country either.
In the Jews' case, since the exodus from Palestine in the 1st century,
many had, where and when they could, taken the nationality of
whichever country they grew up in. From the end of the 19th century
many Jews hoped to emigrate to Palestine, but this was not easy: the
country was also the home of Arab Palestinians, and Palestine itself had
long been run by foreigners. (From 1922 till 1948, the administration of

Palestine was British.) 'Old passports': out of date and officially invalid
and non-renewable for Jews.

'The consul': representing a country to which the refugees wanted to
travel.

'a committee': officially set up to try to help refugees, but with its hands
tied politically.
'
a public meeting': one of a number of such meetings held in countries
receiving Jewish immigrants - there was resistance to strangers 'stealing
our jobs'.

'they must die': it is generally agreed that Hitler gave an order to
exterminate Jews, for whom he held a lifetime's hatred.

'poodle in a jacket': the Jews were treated as lower than animals - and
later the Nazi officials would speak of them as sub-human.

'fish swimming as if they were free': even animals seem to have more
freedom than the Jewish refugees.

'no politicians': the decision to destroy the Jews was a political decision;
a decision to go to war is a political decision.

'a building with a thousand floors': copious accommodation? A vast
ghetto? An image of Babel, and the many races of the world? None has
room for the Jews.









'Old passports': out of date and officially invalid and non-renewable for
Jews.

'The consul': representing a country to which the refugees wanted to
travel.

'a committee': officially set up to try to help refugees, but with its hands
tied politically.
'
a public meeting': one of a number of such meetings held in countries
receiving Jewish immigrants - there was resistance to strangers 'stealing
our jobs'.

'they must die': it is generally agreed that Hitler gave an order to
exterminate Jews, for whom he held a lifetime's hatred.

'poodle in a jacket': the Jews were treated as lower than animals - and
later the Nazi officials would speak of them as sub-human.

'fish swimming as if they were free': even animals seem to have more
freedom than the Jewish refugees.

'no politicians': the decision to destroy the Jews was a political decision;
a decision to go to war is a political decision.

'a building with a thousand floors': copious accommodation? A vast
ghetto? An image of Babel, and the many races of the world? None has
room for the Jews.

'ten thousand soldiers': troops looking for Jews to send them to labour
camps, from which few emerged? Or, later, the death squads sent to find
Jews and kill them? Either way, this 'song' arrives at its terrifying
ending: the refugees are being deliberately hunted down, and, as the
preceding tension-building stanzas have made clear, they have nowhere
at all to go.
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Language
The speaker is talking to someone My dear (perhaps his wife), The
language and tone is very conversational. Each stanza intensifies the
situation in the poem. The first stanza brings out that the refugees are
homeless. Though there are millions in the city all of whom have some
kind of home but the refugees have nowhere to go.
In stanza 2,the couple cannot stay in their country. It compares two
living people with the old yew tree. officially dead means you cannot
make passport. This section tells us how the refugees are trying to get
help. The refugees cannot leave the country due to lack of passport and
hence they are described as officially dead, though they are indeed alive.
The refugees are treated coldly by the committee and council. They are
politely pushed aside but no real help is offered.
At the public meeting the speaker demonises the refugees as thieves.
This is made to incite ordinary people to hate Jews. A metaphorical
storm breaks over the whole of Europe continent as Hitler sentences
them to death.The tone of the final stanza is very bitter. The comparison
that the poet uses are testimony to these; Pet animals are treated better
then Jews.eg: saw a Door opened and a cat let in;
Fish are free and Birds are free, Poet blames Nazi regime for creating a
environment in which natural things act far more better than humans.
The poet further uses cruel contrast. For eg: he has a dream of a huge
building with many room for everybody except Jews.
In the final stanza the poet enlightens a brightening future for the Jews
but now Jews are hunted down by 1000s of people. That practically
means that even though that the Jews are killed right now however this
killing of Jews will somewhat end in the Future.






The Setting of the poem
The Refugees are in a vast city which still has
no accommodation for the Jews. eg: not one of them was ours
The freedom and comfort of animals is contrasted unfavourably
with the Jews situation. eg: saw fish swimming as if they were
free
Jews are presented as isolated in a vast winter landscape.stood at
a great plain in the falling snow
The use of Language
1. The Poet has used direct conversational language. eg say this city
,my dear.
2. Use of contrasts. eg: Ten million souls,Ten thousand soldiers
3. Repetition of some lines in each stanza for emphasis we cannot go
there now, my dear, we cannot go there now
4. symbolism for example of storms. eg: thunder rumbling in the
sky
5. Use of ironic natural images. eg: The birds in the trees sang at
their ease
6. Language with religious connotations. eg: Ten thousand soldiers
marched to and fro;














































Climate Change: The Facts by Kate Ravilious
What is Global Warming? and How it comes about?
Extra CO2 in the atmosphere intensifies the Greenhouse effect. The
greenhouse gases such as CO2 and water vapour absorb the heat and
release it slowly. However increase in population has increased the
amount of greenhouse gases. Gases are also increasing in proportion by
burning fossil fuels (Remains of dead plants and animals). This results in
higher levels of greenhouse gases which make earth warmed up.
How the temperature would be pushed to unmanageable levels?
At present time oceans and trees are helping absorb some of the heat by
taking in carbon dioxide, eventually they will reach their full capacity,
that means they cannot take any more CO2.
What could trigger a dramatic change in the earths climate?
This could be triggered by tipping point or thresholds. The release of
methane compounds buried under the sea floor. The large volume of
these compounds may cause glaciers to melt away and raise sea levels
across the globe.
Who is the audience for this type of writing?
It is for scientific people and writer has used scientific language which is
specialised eg: clathrate compounds
It is also for a general audience eg: 2nd column, 2nd paragraph








Language and Style
The writer has used very formal tone.
Estimate , suggest, this gives writer a sense of superiority and makes
him a little distanced from the reader.
use of dashes to emphasize the point. eg: Twenty years ago global
warming was a fringe subject-it seemed absurd that we could be having
an effect on the earths climate.
use of technical or specialist vocabulary to convince the reader that the
writer has an upper hand of the subject.However the language is not
specialist throughout because reader may loose the interest of the
reader.
use of persuasive language. when he mixes facts and opinions to
convince the reader about the effects of climate change. eg: most people
now agree that our actions are having an effect
use of compressed language used in one word sentences or in answers.
This makes the argument more convincing and exclusive.
use of personification. it has a nasty sting in its tail The effect of it is
to compare it to a stinging insect and show how poisonous it is.
Personification of oceans burping vast quantities of methane into the
atmosphere This compares the oceans to Human beings.
Metaphors are used to bring out various comparisons for eg:
Todays global warming has become a political hot potato It gives the
issue importance and by giving it political dimension it is to sway public
opinion.
The writer has used expert witnesses to support the points made
scientists at the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii.
use of charts and statistics to give authenticity to the topic and
arguments.
The structure is compared to a familiar format know as FAQ.
The scientific questions that readers might ask and then the answers are
provided by the writer. eg: Is it just CO2 we need to worry about?







Electricity Comes to Cocoa Bottom by Marcia Douglas
Introduction
This Poem is about Electricity coming to a Caribbean Village, which does
not have modern amenities. The adults, the children, the birds, the
animals are drawn to Mr. Samuels House.
Where he is preparing to turn on Electric lights for the First Time. Sadly
there is no one to record this Historic moment.
Stanza one
The First word Then takes the reader straight into the action as though
it was a story. The names that are used makes us feel as if it is a real
scenario. E.g: Cocoa Bottom is a small Village which may or may not
exist. But the word Cocoa Bottom sounds convincing. The language
used gives a sense of importance and suspense.
Nature and Human Beings are united in their interest, like the children
are prepared for a long stay. E.g: They camped on the
grass bank outside his house,their lamps filled with oil,. The Birds
swooped incongregating in and the Breeze held its breath. The
writer is using all these to give the natural creatures,Trees and nature
the ability to anticipate and feel the same way as Humans. This makes
the Poem more Dramatic.
Power and Light are emphasized by description the sky turn yellow,
orange. Light is referred in the poem through, Childrens oil Lamps,
the natural light of sunset, The Potential Light of fireflies.
The day fades into night. This softness is emphasized by the comparison
for E.g:evening came as soft as chiffon curtains.
Ends with a Repetition. E.g:Closing. Closing.
Stanza Two
There is a contrast between the beginning of the stanza and end of the
last one. The single exclaimed word Light conveys the way light burst
into brightness when current was switched on.
The starkness of the light shown by Mr.Samuels appearing in silhouette
(A portrait shortly standing out against the background light)
After the Dramatic shortening of lines they let them again gathering
momentum. The writer has used words imaginatively. Some words
suggest movement, For E.g:fluttering,swaying. Some suggest sound
that suggest onomatopoeia, E.g:gasp,Whispered. some words are
repeated for emphasis, such as swing.
The respond of nature here, also indicates that this is an awesome
moment. E.g:the long grass bent forward. The writer has made this
moment very special. This is undercut by mysterious voice.(Which could
be of God). This brings the question; If there is such an important
moment. why isnt there anyone to record this.
This Stanza ends on a sad note perhaps because no one can write, or
they have no material to record it. It has taken the poet sometime after
the event to commemorate on what had happened.
Stanza Three
This stanza begins negatively with the statement no one yet this voice
is heard by some warm rocks. This part is also an anticlimax that the
children had to go home in the dark using their oil lamps. The
concluding moment is the opportunity to celebrate and record this event
has gone..
An Unknown Girl by Moniza Alvi
Moniza Alvi was born in Pakistan (Her father was a Pakistani and her
mother was British.). She left Pakistan when she was a few months old
and she moved on to live in England.
The poet has used this poem as a tool to explore her cultural identity.
The poem is apparently set in India and it is autobiographical in tone .
The narrator feels her cultural roots and traditions have been re-affirmed
and re-awakened in the bazaar by the unknown girls simple act of
hennaing hands.
This new lease of life filters through into her descriptions of the market
as she brings it alive with her new found energy and confidence.

Structure and Form It is a free verse, which suits the narrators
exploration of thought. As one long verse it flows like astream, like
consciousness as she describes what is happening in and around her.
The poem is visually pleasing and is centered layout is reminiscent of her
newly decorated henna hand.
Language
The Poems vocabulary places it into the poems exotic, foreign location.
Which are brought to life in several ways by the narrator. Eg:
bazaar,rupees,henna,Kameez although the girl herself unknown She
nevertheless shows great skill and precision in her work and is therefore
greatly respected. Eg: she steadies with her,Very deftly.
Textures are often described appealing to the sense of touch. Eg: wet
brown line,satin peach knee many others
Sounds are contrasted for Eg: now the furious streets are hushed
Colourful images come alive Eg: peacock,brown line,the amber bird
beneath
The narrator initially applies her existing cultural references to the girls
Artwork.She is icing my hand. Her traditional cultural roots seem to be
established.I have new brown veins,I am Clinging to these firm
peacock lines as if she now has a new force flowing through veins.
The personal inner conflict between cultures that the narrator
experiences is also demonstrated publicly by the shop dummies. Whose
sport western perms and other likewise posters for Miss India. A
competition for western origin perhaps require a modern or less modest
presentation. Then the Indian culture traditionally advocates
The simple act of hennaing the hand has initiated a powerful sense of
yearning by the narrator of her roots.This is communicated by the
repetition of what clinging and the subsequent of longing. Although the
henna might physically attract, we feel certain and convinced that the
feelings have been reawakened by this experience and this experience
will continue to flourish.

Your Guide to Beach Safety: From RNLI leaflet On the Beach
This leaflet is divided into 4 section. it is produced by
Royal National Lifeboat Institution ( A charitable institution) with the aim
of informing the public, beach goers, swimmers on how to stay safe along
the beaches of UK.
Here is the table describing the feature and its effect:
Feature Effect
Use of colour To attract the attention of the reader
Large fonts and bold print Holds the attention of the reader
Heading with subtitle
Gives main topic and subtitle explains
further
Lifeguards
The effect is to clarify the leaflet is produced
by charitable organisation
Lifeguard in a jet ski (picture)
It assures the public their safety on the
beach
Advise given to public in a text box
with contrasting colours
Gives the public Dos and Donts and
further source of help. It reassures the
public that their lives are saved
Phrase like First is repeated
It shows the importance RNLI are codes to
saving lives
The slogans Life boats, Life
Guards,Life First

Contacts
The effect of this is to communicate their
feedback and enquire more.
The picture of the 2 children having
fun in the water.
This makes it clear in the mind that there is
maximum enjoyment and adequate safety
measures.
One piece of emotive language
It persuades the reader that lifeguards do
indeed save lives.
Quotation by which witnesses
Increase the confidence in the work of
lifeguards
Writing (RIPS) It gives information on how to tackle mishap
The language used are set of
imperatives/commands
It makes the reader confident in the
methods outlined.
Definition of RIP
It gives real definition so that the swimmer
tackle task intelligently.
Bullet points It helps the reader focus on the given points
Artistic Impression on how to tackle
RIP
It increases the confidence. It helps the
swimmer to remember how to save himself
from RIPS
Picture of mother and son reunited
Swimmers safety guaranteed. It makes the
writer Authentic.
Language used
It is simple, straight forward and formal. It
gets information across general Audience
The Background colour is two tone
colour It attracts the attention of the reader.









Veronica by Adewale Maja-Pearce
Plot Summary
The Story takes place in a rural village in Nigeria.
The main characters are Okeke and Veronica. The two are childhood
friends.
Veronica is the poorer and the more unfortunate one. She had to bring
up her brothers and sisters because she had a brittle and drunk father
and a weak mother.
Okeke lives in the village for school. Eventually going to university to
become a doctor. Out of compassion he urges Veronica to leave but she
refuses, to cite family ties. Dont talk like that. They are my family, that
is enough
Ten years passed before Okekes job bring him back to the poverty of the
village. Veronica is in the old hut, her parents dead as her siblings gone.
She has a baby and husband who has escaped the war from the North,
but still she refuses to leave.
After another 3 years her remainings family is dead she is close to
death Okeke longs to help her but she prefers to die. Her final wish to
see Okeke is granted. When she dies on his arms, he buries her near
the stream where they frequent met in their childhood.
Characters
Veronica
She is the eldest child of brutal and careless father.
She helped in bringing up the other children and was beaten up, when
she is young. The responsibility for bringing up the other children had
fallen on her.
She was semi-illiterate had no qualification.

She is driven ,more by traditional values, family values and therefore she
remains loyal to the family. For Eg: I cant just leave my family. she also
resists changes in her life.
She is assigned to her fate this is called fatalism. For Eg: I leave that to
others, my own place is here
Veronica is lost all her hope in staying alive, she had no reason to leave.
She had very low expectations in life. She had no ambition or goals to
live for, therefore she becomes unpleasent.
Okeke
Okeke lived in the same village as Veronica. His family is sligthly well off.
He proceeded to school when he did well and became a doctor.
He is very helpfull to Veronica. He encourages her to leave the village but
she declines. He also came to see her when he was posted back to the
village as a doctor. He finally came to see her when she was sick and
dieing.
He is ambitious as he had very high expectations in life. He was
dissatisfied with the village and wanted to go to the city and make a good
living. Quiet by chance, after many years he was allocated to the same
village.
He is disillusioned with veronicas attitude of self destruction. He pitties
of and by extension of the entire village.
Okeke belived that he would grow through the path of education and
that he would have a good career after university. He believed in himself
and he also believed in working hard to change his status.







The Last Night (from Charlotte Gray)
by Sebastian Faulks

Sebastian Faulks
This extract comes from a much larger novel known as Charlotte Gray. It
is set in France which was occupied and controlled by the Germans
during the
2nd world war. Jewish people including two small children are waiting to
be taken to a concentrated camp. The two children are Andrew and
Jacob. At the concentration camp they will face death, however they may
not be fully be aware of this. The atmosphere in the text is filled with
tension. Each detail helps to build the picture of one shot sequence of
time in a period of war. For eg: which the deportees might write a final
message. The word Final could mean last message before they die.
The phrase camp orders forbade access to the post. means the Jews
were discriminated against living in the atmosphere of fear.
A woman came with a sandwich for each child to take on the journey.
In this phrase a woman is introduced who is unknown. She is
sympathetic with the children.
Andr was lying on the straw,Jacobs limbs were intertwined with
his for warmth. This phrase shows Andre depends on Jacob.

Characters
Andre is the elder of the two children. He looks after his brother Jacob
very carefully.
Jacob is the younger brother of Andre.
Jewish Orderly: A person employed by Germans to supervise Jews. He
is a Jew himself and he can be treated as a traitor to the German Nazis
because he helps the deportees.
Commandant/Policemen: They seem to be going about their Jobs with
a lot of efficiency.
Gendarme(s): A Policeman who seems to be actively involved in whats
going on.
The unknown Woman: She is an ordinary French wife who is trying to
help by throwing food to the deportees, even though they never reach
them . [I am talking about that women used in the phrase.. "He saw
a womans face in which the eyes were fixed with terrible ferocity on a
child beside him"]
Bus Driver: He is transporting deportees to the station/concentration
camp. His is a difficult Job which makes him wrestle with his
conscience.
The Language
The writer doesnt emphasize over details. The tone used is a matter of
fact and the description is ordinary. The grimness of the condition is
shown by phrase Andr was lying on the straw, the soft bloom of his
cheek laid, uncaring, in the dung.


The writer uses contrasts. Some contrast is implied for instance Five
white-and-green municipal buses are ordinary in their use but their
purpose is to take the deportees on their final journey.
In the phrase Five white-and-green municipal buses had come in
through the main entrance, and now stood trembling in the wired-off
corner of the yard. Single words carry huge importance, Trembling also
ironically applies to the deportees. More complex language is used for
special effect eg: the use of words terrible ferocity in the phrase he saw a
womans face in which the eyes were fixed with terrible ferocity on a child
beside him.
Words and phrases that suggest sound and movement makes the
passage more dramatic eg: sudden ripple,homely thudding of a
Parisian bus,quickening of muscle etc












A Hero by R. K. Narayan
The Plot
The success of the story is dependent on its pace. A variety of methods is
used to hold the interest of the reader. It begins with a newspaper report
then dialogue is used to explain the characters motivation then there is a
long piece of dramatic description which gives an inside into swamis
thoughts and feelings. The tension suddenly falls after swami bites the
burglar. When the devil he fears turns out to be an easily
deterred burglar, the tension is dissolved. There is a final twist in the
irony at the end when he returns to sleep in the same room with his
grandmother. We are back to things at the
start. Swami has won.
Pictorial Representation

Click to enlarge



Characters
1. Swamis father
Swamis father is overbearing
he is cruel eg: If you do it, mind you, I will make you the laughing-stock
of your school.
He sounds pompous and feels he is self important.
2. Swamis Mother
She blames granny for spoiling swami
she responds positively to swamis pleading look
in the end she loses temper with her husband
3. Burglar
He adds to the comedy of the story
He is described as one of the most notorious housebreakersof the district
His defeat in the hands of a small boy is humiliating
4. Swami
He is a coward and feared boy. (he was terrified when he slept alone in
the office.
He doubts his as well as others bravery. like when he doubted a boy had
fought a tiger.
He is a sly boy. eg: From the first of next month Ill sleep alone, Father.
He is superstitious because he thinks and believes in ghosts and
shadowy figures.
He is decisive because he bites the burglar in no time.
Finally he shows humility when glory showers on him.
He is extremely relieved at the end when his father gives up on him.
Use of language
The writer uses language that creates a sense of indian setting eg:We
are going to admit even elders in our cricket club hereafter.
Dialog is used in many instances to bring out the feelings of the
characters and to increase tension. eg: How can it be, Father?
The writer uses questions to show how swami tests the fathers logic and
his limits. eg Will you at least leave the door open?
The writer has used images associated with supernatural powers.
Exaggeration(hyperbole) for eg: If I dont sleep at once I shall
perhaps die and there may be scorpions behind your law books..
use of onamatopoea eg:the ticking of the clock, rustle of trees, snoring
sounds,


The opening is quiet dramatic. it puts the reader right in the middle of
the act eg: For Swami events took an unexpected turn.
use of Suspence eg:After reading it through, Father looked at Swami
fixedly this is done to increase the pace of the story.and to create
interest.
use of short simple sentences to build tension. eg:Swami felt cut off from
humanity. and Swami groaned in despair.
Use of ellipses to build suspense and to show what swami thinks.
use of rhetorical questions to give the reader a clear insight into swamis
mind eg:so why should he wait?




King Schahriar and his brother (From
The Arabian Nights)
This is the first story in the collection The Arabian nights or The
thousand and one nights The story originated from
persian,(iran)(india)(egypt).
Although they can be dismissed as children tales Many of them appeal to
a wider audience and the theme used are mostly adult.
The setting is established in the first paragraph The geographical area
is middle east India and china.
Charactarisation
1)Scheherazade
She is a device for telling stories.
She is extra ordinarily beautiful and academicall brilliant
she outshines her younger sister Dinarzade.
She is her fathers favorite

She single handedly divices and carries out a plan designed to stop
sultans barbarious practice.
She is motivated by the wish to save women from sultans tyranical
behaviour and desire to save her country.
Sometimes she behaves unpredicatbly and surprices the reader.
she askes her father to allo

Disabled by Wilfred Owen
Introduction
The poem is about a soldier who comes home from World War Iwith missing limbs and how
this disability changes life. The poet (Wilfred Owen) was in military hospital being treated for
shell shock.
Soldiers at that time would return home with missing body parts or severely wounded. There
wasnt much to be done for many soldiers that were in the front-line, due to lack of medical
care.
Stanza 1
The sentence waiting for the dark shows that the soldier has nothing positive to look
forward to-only the arrival of the end of the world. The word shivered in line 2 shows that he
is outside and this is backed up by the line through the park. This soldier appears to have
lost his legs and forearms eg: legless, sewn short at elbow. and also the line also describes
that the sleeves of his suit have had to be cut short because of the loss of his arms.
Voices of boys made him feel sad and it reminded him of his childhood, Not long ago he was
with these boys Now it seems like a distant memory. eg: Voices of boys ranga hymn That
shows that the soldier was robbed of his innocence and naivety. He is also jealous of the
boys he left behind as their innocence hasnt been destroyed.
Stanza 2
This Stanza 2 is about the narrator reminiscing about how things were used to be before he
was injured. This time he used to go to town and party with his friends.Girls glanced at him
because he was football hero.If he had not signed/joined the army girls would still have
admired him. Heroes are not supposed to be injured. It would appear as if the soldier has
given up on life as much as life has given up on him. He wallows in self pity. He has
unfortunately believed that he is not a real man anymore. He feels pity on himself and he
keeps others away from him.He is projecting his own feelings of disgust on others
happiness.
Stanza 3
Line 14 describes the boy (an artist) who was smitten Now, he is old; his back will never
brace;.The addition last year suggest that he did not look like that anymore. His face had
lost the boyhood charm and has been replaced by a face hard and worn by the ravages of
war. Despite being young he describes himself as old, he is old,Hes lost his colour very
far from here, This implies that he has lost a lot of his blood. The injuries are causing him to
realize the reality of war that is that war is not something to consider as glorious.
Stanza 4
At one time the sign of blood in ones body was considered good and honorable thing. In this
stanza the poet is reminiscing about when he was listed to join the army. It was after a
football game when he was drunk that he signed to join the army which he wonder why. he
is trying to ask himself now whether he joined because he was generally interested or is it
the influence of girls pleading and effect of alcohol. He did not need to prove his worth to the
recruitment officers.
Stanza 5
They didnt question him of his age. He was just 19 year lad.smiling they wrote his lie: aged
nineteen years.. He never knew about war politics. The only thing that worried him was what
people thought about him. This may include promotion in rank, pay arrears and honorable
future promotions. when men left for war they were sent off with drums and cheers and a big
parade.
Stanza 6
There were few people who welcomed him back home. but not as crowds cheer goal. No
one wanted to see negative aspects of the war. There was only one man who thanked him
for defending in war for his country. The man maybe a former soldier.
Stanza 7
The soldier will now spend a few years in war hospital. where they will probably experiment
with different treatment on him until they decide that there is nothing they can do for him. He
will then be discharged from hospital and begin to receive monthly disability checks from the
government. Now women didnt look at him as they used to.Tonight he noticed how the
womens eyes passed from him. He seems depressed by the fat that he will never be a
whole man again and he will probably never express a love for women..
Here are some questions for you to try:
1. Describe the atmosphere the poet creates in the second stanza?
2. How does the poet describe the changes that the soldier underwent? QUOTE points from
the poem.
3. How does the poet bring out the naivety and innocence of young soldier? QUOTE points
from the poem.
4. The ending is very depressing. How does the poet achieve this? QUOTE points from the
poem.
A good website on World War I

TOUCHING THE VOID by Joe Simpson

Joe and his climbing partner Simon were nearing the end of the climbing in Siula Grande in
Peru, when a terrible accidentoccurs.
This passage provides a focus on an extreme sport at a life or death moment.
It raises many issues:
What makes people participate in sport like this?
What should one do when faced with a moral dilemma like Simon?
This extract consists of 2 faces of autobiographical narratives (monologues) giving different
perspectives of different viewpoint of the same event.
Language use
Both accounts use the first person narrative
Both use narrative structure.
Evaluation and Analysis of the significance o what is happening is integrated in the story
telling.
Both account use direct speech to convey the immediacy of thought. eg: I have broken my
leg
Joes Account
It conveys pain and other feelings by powerful metaphor for E.g. pain flooded;a fierce
burning fire. The extract uses varied sentence structure varying the pace and reflecting the
impact of the moment.
Short sentences are used to highlight the drama My leg! My leg!
Strong direct words (often verbs) to convey moment. E.g.
catapulted,screamed,raised,ripped off
Sometimes the writer is very direct in order to intensify the sense of reality. we were above
19000 feet and very much alone,The impact had driven my lower leg up through the knee
joint.
Words and images that convey thoughts and feeling vividly and frankly, sometimes in a
sequence to convey the changes in mood. For E.g. A wave of nausea surged over me.
Sometimes the abstract and vague suggest he was traumatized. something terrible,
something dark with dread occurred to me,
Simons Account
It has more straight forward language especially at the beginning to convey a sequence
through word and adjectives for E.g. glad,tiredetc. There is sudden change of pace/speed
in paragraph 3 by the use of dynamic words. sharp tug as the rope lashed out
There are words that relate to logic which is a contrast to Joes emotive account. Its totally
rational and dispassionate in a way.
How the writer help the reader to appreciate the physical impact?
The language is used to emphasize the pain and destructive force of the accident E.g.
shattering blow, ruptured
The use of first person pronoun emphasizes the persona nature of the accident.
The repetition of some word E.g. my leg!my leg!
The writer has used short sentences for effect for E.g. Im dead
The vocabulary is emotive rather than technical for E.g. My knee exploded.
Psychological impact of the accident
The use of ellipsis (a series of dots) help to minor the fractured thought processes and so
creates tension for E.g. If its brokenIf
Panic is represented through the repetition and use of direct speech as the writer tries to
calm himself E.g.maybe Ive just ripped something

The writer creates a sense of anticipated loneliness through the use of rhetorical question.
The writer uses modal verbs to speculate about a possible bleak feature. For E.g. I will
never get over it,I could feel myself teetering to the edge of it
Joes Account Simons Account
He is almost solely concerned with himself
Almost half of simons account is about dilemma that the two of them
are in
Joe doesnt refer to simon until last five
lines Simon refers to joe from the beginning of the line till the end
Joes account is very emotive Simons account is very rational.

Climate Change: The Facts by Kate Ravilious
What is Global Warming? and How
it comes about?
Extra CO2 in the atmosphere intensifies the Greenhouse effect. The greenhouse gases such
as CO2 and water vapour absorb the heat and release it slowly. However increase in
population has increased the amount of greenhouse gases. Gases are also increasing in
proportion by burning fossil fuels (Remains of dead plants and animals). This results in
higher levels of greenhouse gases which make earth warmed up.
How the temperature would be pushed to unmanageable levels?
At present time oceans and trees are helping absorb some of the heat by taking in carbon
dioxide, eventually they will reach their full capacity, that means they cannot take any more
CO2.

What could trigger a dramatic change in the earths climate?
This could be triggered by tipping point or thresholds. The release of methane compounds
buried under the sea floor. The large volume of these compounds may cause glaciers to melt
away and raise sea levels across the globe.
Who is the audience for this type of writing?
It is for scientific people and writer has used scientific language which is specialised eg:
clathrate compounds
It is also for a general audience eg: 2nd column, 2nd paragraph
Language and Style
The writer has used very formal tone.
Estimate , suggest, this gives writer a sense of superiority and makes him a little distanced
from the reader.
use of dashes to emphasize the point. eg: Twenty years ago global warming was a fringe
subject-it seemed absurd that we could be having an effect on the earths climate.
use of technical or specialist vocabulary to convince the reader that the writer has an upper
hand of the subject.However the language is not specialist throughout because reader may
loose the interest of the reader.
use of persuasive language. when he mixes facts and opinions to convince the reader about
the effects of climate change. eg: most people now agree that our actions are having an
effect
use of compressed language used in one word sentences or in answers. This makes the
argument more convincing and exclusive.
use of personification. it has a nasty sting in its tail The effect of it is to compare it to a
stinging insect and show how poisonous it is.
Personification of oceans burping vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere This
compares the oceans to Human beings.
Metaphors are used to bring out various comparisons for eg: Todays global warming has
become a political hot potato It gives the issue importance and by giving it political
dimension it is to sway public opinion.
The writer has used expert witnesses to support the points made scientists at the Mauna
Loa observatory in Hawaii.
use of charts and statistics to give authenticity to the topic and arguments.
The structure is compared to a familiar format know as FAQ.
The scientific questions that readers might ask and then the answers are provided by the
writer. eg: Is it just CO2 we need to worry about?



A Game of Polo with a Headless Goat by Emma Levine
Emma Levine loves researching and filming on unusual
sports. This extract is about a donkey race in Pakistan in Asia. Its from a book
A Game of Polo with a Headless Goat.
Polo is a Game similar to Hockey played on Horse back. The Phrase Headless Goat suggest
the chaos, anarchy associated with these unusual sports.
The writer being British presents us with different view points, being from a developed
economy, She may be trying to ridicule the forms of entertainment from the 3rd world. She
may be implying that these sports are backwards or outdated.
She may also be informing the first world the simple forms of entertainment elsewhere. She
may be provoking them to appreciate other cultures.
Language
Descriptive language plunges the reader directly into the heart of the action. eg: we drove
off to find the best viewing spot
use of first person singular and plural eg: we drove,our young driver
Informal tone is used. eg: I asked the lads if we could join in
use of dialogue and direct speech to give the immediacy and urgency or authenticity.
The writer builds up excitement by building up a tempo.
Use of hyperbole. eg: we waited for eternity This phrase also creates suspense.
use of long sentences. eg: Nearly one hour later I was beginning..
The writer brings out the thoughts and feelings and frustrations felt by the writer.
Use of Phrase like wobbly bicycleprovides comic relief. It is a sideshow that helps to
heighten tension.
Use of present tense create a sense of urgency and anxiety and uncertainty eg:
coming,coming.
Use of maximum survival of the fittest shows us the fear of the competition.
use of humour shows how dramatic the event was This was Formula one without Rules
The words Race was over creates an anticlimax.
A Passage to Africa by George Alagiah
Introduction
Somalia is a small state in Africa . It has no functional government since 1990, As a result
war, disease, Piracy and Famine have ravaged or broke out. George Alagiah a BBC
TVreporter writes about his experience in Somalia .
How does the writer describe the village of Gufgaduud?
It is a small village.
He compares it to a Ghost Village using a simile like a ghost village To suggest it was
abundant.
No Foreign aid is available A place where the aid agencies had yet to reach.
women were searching for wild edible roots. shows how backward the situation was.
There was sweetness and death in the village and death was accepted as inevitable. E.g:
only one daughter had died
Language use
The account is mainly in the first person because hes describing a personal experience.
This gives authenticity to the writing. eg: I saw a thousand hungry, lean, scared and
betrayed faces as I crisscrossed Somalia.
use of powerful simile like a ghost village to compare Gufgaduud to an abandoned village.
The effect of this is to hint the reader the suffering, abandonment and loneliness. The writer
also foreshadows the outcome of the story and creates anxiety of the village.
The writer tries to use dashes in his description,forty-five minutes-.and many more. This
is done to stress and emphasize the hopeless condition of the hamlet. Line 49 is used to
stress that it was not a joyful smile, it was a shy uttered by him.
The writer has used a lot of emotive words in his description. which answers WH questions.
This brings out loneliness, suffering, neglect and degradation. eg of emotive words: hungry,
lean, a ghost village, quiet, suffering, lonely death, shattered leg etc
use of rhetorical questions brings out the suffering difficulties and deprivation. eg: how could
it be?,what was it about that smile?
sensory appeal is used very powerfully specifically appeal to senses of sight, smell, taste.
eg: craving for a drug, smell of decaying flesh,yellow eyes
use of metaphor. eg: the shattered leg This implies the wounds and suffering.
Use of sharp effective sentences to grab readers attention. eg: then there was a face i
would never forget.
use of dampened tone, brings out pity and sympathy and creates an atmosphere of gloom
andpain.




The Explorers Daughter by Kari Herbert
How The author makes the setting
Interesting?
Through visual appeal
Planes of spray
spectral play of colour
glittering
light turning butter gold
long narrow inlet of the sea (fjord)
by description of how the narrator breaking interest he took sharp intake of breath
by description of how whales circled the fjord. The hunters were dotted all around the fjord
The description of the closed proximity of the hunters to the whales. close enough to tough
the narwhal with their bare hands
The description of the illusions of distances in the Arctic Distances are always deceptive
The habits of Narwal
They rarely stray from high Arctic waters.
They go to more temperature waters towards the Arctic circle in the dead of winter.
They never enter warm southern seas.
Every summer they return to the Northwest Greenland.
How are the whales useful to these eskimos?
1. The meat of the narwhal is rich in necessary minerals and vitamins especially vitamin C.
which prevents scurvy.
2. The blubber of the whales are used as food and heat insulation.
3. The dark red meat is valuable as diet for both men and dogs.
4. The single ivory tusk is used for harpoon tips and handles for other hunting implements.
5. The tusks are used as a beam for their ancient houses.
How does she defend the hunting of seals and whales?
1. The Eskimos do not kill the whales for sports. They use every part of the animal they kill.
This constitutes a greater part of the food supply.
Language and Techniques
The writer takes the reader directly into the action of the matter eg: Two hours after
Use of sensory appeal plums of spray,spectral play of colours,The evening light was
turning butter gold
Use of ellipsis. eg: The narwhal to focus on individual concerns and interest.
Use of Dash. for eg: it was crucial to her that her husband catch a narwhal-it was part
This is done to explain in the same sentence structure why it was necessary for the husband.
Use of similes. For eg: hunters spread like a net around the sound hunters position are
being compared.
Use of first person. eg: I understand the harshness This use of language makes the
account authentic/realistic.

Explorers, or boys messing about? by Steven Morris
Introduction
This is a newspaper article that happened in January 2003. The Key to understanding this
Article to decide whether the writer wants us to see the 2 men as experienced explorers or
criticizing them for being irresponsible, immature and amateurish. This article also raises the
issue of expecting other people to rescue the characters and pay for the rescue.
How does the writer present the two men?
Immature and Irresponsible
Mr. Smith has a nickname known as Q. The James Bond reference just makes the
men appear to be overgrown children pretending to be in an adventure.
Their earlier expedition is described as Farce. Several experts question the judgment
of 2 men emphasizing the hostility of the surrounding and the fact that the helicopter
was of single engine.
Their flying ability is understated. They experience difficulties when conditions have
been excellent
The final quote from the lady confirms them to be silly children who will be punished
by their elders.
How does the writer suggest the boys are not really experts?
In the first line the writer describes the expedition as a Farce. The effect of this word is to
portray the men as childish and immature. After listing their experience, the writer undercuts
by beginning the next paragraph with the words despite their experience.
The writer uses some expert views to criticize the men, for example,experts questioned on
the use of a small helicopter by the men.
How does the writer present the two men as genuine and experienced
explorers?
The writer says both men are experienced adventurers. Mr. Brook has a whole profile of
experience which is explained on line 110 . Mr. Smith also is very experienced. E.g.: He
has twice flown a helicopter around the globe and won
How does the writer bring out other characters in the story?
The rescuers appear to be very professional. The signals from the helicopter were captured
by the rescue crew. This shows that rescuers were professional.
The reaction of others is always negative. For E.g.The British tax payers, The mens
adventure had cost the tax payers thousands of pounds.
Mr. smiths wife: Her role seems to be is to stay at home and wait for the distress call.

Taking on the World by Ellen MacArthur
Introduction
This is an extract from Ellen MacArthur Autobiography. It deals with an emergency she faced
on the 44th day Vend solo globe world yacht race , when she had to replace an essential
sail. This passage highlights the enormous physical and psychological challenges in sailing
alone in heavy seas.
The fact that it is Christmas, and she is female and small, that makes it extraordinary.
Though she faces physical challenge alone, she has the means to keep in contact with the
rest of the world.
Language and Style
Most of the text is in the first person because it is an autobiography. eg: I laid out the new
halyard on deck
There is occasional use of technical language which gives a sense of reality to the situation
and also gives the writer authority of the same. Halyard,reef
Use of words, Phrases and clauses that suggest struggle, effort and challenge. eg: The
hardest climb to date,There would be no second climb on this one
Use of many conversational features. eg: Id
Use of repetition words. This features add immediacy to the writing, and there is a loss of
refinement.
Syntax begins to breakdown as the passage reaches its climax. She breaks into direct
speech as she is talking to herself not far now, kiddo, come on, just keep movingThis
adds the sense of urgency and drama.
Occasionally she uses more elaborate phrases including phrases but most of the writing is
literal eg: This is what it must look like to the albatross,I felt like a million dollars.
The writer focuses on worlds that convey details in order to give a strong sense of reality. eg:
The height of the mast
She uses strong phrases with complex words in moments of danger to show panic. A world
of which I had no control,you are a passive observer,The frustration was unreal
There is humorous lightening of the tone with reference to Santa clause.
How the writer helps us understand the danger she is facing?
She emphasizes the physical danger of the task. eg: It would not be difficult to break bones
up there
She emphasizes the potential danger of being thrown off by saying the difficulties of the
climbing.. clinging on
She compares the landscape to a Moonscape. for eg: The mast is an alien landscape, A
world of which I had no control
She emphasizes on the cold weather condition. I couldnt feel my fingers,I climbed down
getting soaked
The fact that she needs protective clothing shows that there is a potential danger. I would be
wearing protective helmet
She recognises at the top of the mast that she is not in control of the ship. I hanged on
tightshows there is danger.
You are a passive observer looking down The danger is emphasized by the fact that she
gets more tired as she gets further up the mast It got harder and harder
By Line 48 we realise that the danger is increasing as the moment of the board The motion
was worse than ever.
Use of Ellipsis also shows the danger as the reader is left wondering what happens Far from
over
Having climbed the mast we were taken back to realise the descent ride is even more
dangerous. This was by far the most dangerous part This is emphasized by the fact that
Her Heart was in her Mouth

We were made to appreciate the potential danger by the amount of injury that has been
sustained of a successful mission eg: My limb were bruised and my head was paining
Consistent use of emotive language is done to emphasize speed and danger. for eg:
Smacking back into the rig,The mast slices erratically
Characters Play role
She requires a lot of effort to climb up and down the mast. She is emotionally strong because
she shows resilience and courage eg: It is not difficult to break bones up there
She has a sense of determination to win the race. for eg: I had agonised for hours
She takes sensible precautions. eg: I should prepare the halyard
She is prepared to achieve her goals. She has singular determination to be the winner of the
race. For eg: I tugged and tugged on the rope,I rallied once more

Chinese Cinderella by Adeline Yen Mah
Introduction
It is an autobiography written by Adeline Yen Mah. In this extract she relates the only
moment when she was ever praised by her father for winning a play writing competition. Her
father recognizes that she has talent and agrees to let her study in England.
How the writer helps to understand a life in china?
The writers family is a wealthy family.May i go to England,stopped at an elegant villa at
mid-level
Her physical wealth is contrasted with emotions because nobody shows regard for her.Dont
you know anything,where is everyone,My heart is full of dread..
She feels out of place because of the number of questions she asks.where is everyone
She is unhappy in her present surroundings.in my case perhaps end of school forever,my
heart was full of dread
Her Relationships with her Father
She has a poor relationship with her father because she was overwhelmed at being
summoned. She suspects that he is playing some sort of trick on her expression as her
father tells her not to look so scared.
She has never been in her fathers room. Being a stepchild she used to be isolated/sidelined.
Her father is old fashioned, gender prejudice, for e.g. When he says: women patients prefer
women doctors
She is differential to her father and she is dismissive of her own talents as a mark of respect.
Eg: well, the rules and regulations LINE 64.
The order to return home is represented as a NIGHTMARE .Eg: Adeline heart was full of
dread, The chauffeur is described as defensive.
How she presents herself with her father?
She is modestly putting down her success being the only entrant in the competition.
Perhaps I was the only one determined
She is clearly educated. She wins an international competition. She also quotes Wordsworth
Poem when she expresses her joy. Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive
Her father is very unkind. He dismisses her desire to study literature. He mocks her and
dictates her on what she will study. Eg: Writer!he scoffed.You are going to starve!
Language
The writer uses the present tense to emphasize the strength and immediacy of her worry.
Eg: Then why are you taking me home
Use of Rhetorical questions for eg: see me in his room? ,Is it possible? and many more.

The question How come you won? shows the readers disbelief and confusion.
Use of clichs, eg: reach for the stars,now or never shows the youthful inexperience of
the writer.
The use of numbers rather than names by the father suggests that there is a distant
approach towards the children. Eg: You will go to England with third brother this summer
Use of repetition to show impatience and vigour. Sit down! Sit down!,Thank you very very
much etc.
Use of short sentences to develop readers understanding of the characters. Ill be a writer.
It shows intelligence because she doesnt want to raffle (create problems) father. She
doesnt want to contradict him.