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2014

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54(075.8)
24.173
151
64
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64

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2014. 319, [2] . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-22839-5

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ISBN 978-5-222-22839-5

54(075.8)
24.173
. ., 2014
: , 2014

2
- www.phoenixbooks.ru


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m (X )
() =
,
m-
() =

m ( X ) 100%
m-

5
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,

()

M (X ) =

(),
m (X )
n=
M (X )

(X) =
=

m(X)
n(X)

n (X )
V -

m (X )

M ( X ) V -

/3, /
m
n 1000 ,
=
M
m , /;

, /;
n ,
;
n = 1;
1000


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6
- www.phoenixbooks.ru

(
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1 -
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1
f = 1/z,
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z - , - 1

-

n(1/zX),
,

(1/zX) =
1

= fM(X), /
(1/zX),

(1/zX)=
m (X )
f (X) M (X) V -

/3, /

n (X )
=
(X ) =
m -

m (X )
=
, /
M ( X ) m -

7
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,

n (X )
N (X) =
ni
T (X) =

m (X )

P (X) =

P (X) =

=
+

, /

m (X )
V

m (X )

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, 1

n M (X) ,
,
V
V
100
/100
=

m(Ca 2 + )
+
M (1/2Ca 2 + ) V

m(Mg 2 + )
,
M (1/2Mg2 + ) V

, /, /3

,
2+ Mg2+.
()

2+ Mg2+
1

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,

8
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c(X) M (X) c(1/zX) M (1/zX)


=
=
10
10
T (X) 100
=

(X) 10
= c(1 / zX) f =
M (X)
T (X) 1000
=
M (X)

c(X) =

c(1 / zX) =

(X) 10 c(X) T (X) 1000


=
=
M (1 / zX)
f
M (1 / zX)

(X) c(X) M (X)


=
=
100
1000
c(1 / zX) M (1 / zX)
=
1000
(X) 1000
(X) =
(100 (X)) M (X)

T (X) =

() = ()()


,
,
. + b = + dD

:
1) n(1/zA)= n(1/zB) = n(1/zC) = n(1/zD);
2)

m (A )

f (A ) M (A )

m (B )

f (B ) M (B )

m (C )

f (C ) M ( C )

m (D)

f (D) M (D)

9
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3) c(1/zA) V(A) = c(1/zB) V(B);


m(A)
m(B)
4) f (A) M (A) = f (B) M (B) ;
m(A)
5) f (A) M (A) = c(1 / zB) V (B);

6) m(A) =

c(1 / zB) V (B)


M (1 / zA) V 10 3.
V(A)

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10
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( ) 
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1. , :
) 53 ; ) 24,5 ; ) 15
?
.
m(X)
, 
M (X)
, :

n(X) =

53 (Na 2CO3 )

) n(Na2CO3) = 106 / (Na CO ) = 0,5 ;


2
3
) n(2SO4) =

24,5 (H 2SO4 )
= 0,25 ;
98 / (H 2SO4 )
15 (C6H 6 )

) n(C66) = 78 / (C H ) = 0,192 .
6
6
: ) 0,5 ; ) 0,25 ; ) 0,192 .

2. , 
: ) 2,5 HCl; ) 0,1 AgNO3.
.

m(X)
, 
M (X)
, :
m(X) = n(X) M(X);
) m(HCl) = 2,5 36,5 / = 91,25 ;
) m(AgNO3) = 0,1 170 / = 17,0 .

n(X) =

: m(HCl) = 91,25 ; m(AgNO3) = 17,0 .

11
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3. , 
:
) H3PO4 + 2KOH = K2HPO4 + 2H2O;
) Na2CO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O;
) KMnO4 + Na2SO3 + H2SO4 MnSO4 + Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + 2.
.
( ),
,  
1  , 
 1 .
, , (
, , ) ,
.

:
) f(H3PO4) = 1/2,
;
) f(Na2CO3) = 1/2, ,
;
) f(KMnO4) = 1/5, MnO4 + 5e + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O,
5 .
: f(H3PO4) = 1/2, f(Na2CO3) = 1/2, f(KMnO4) = 1/5.

4. : ) 2;
) SO3; ) 25.
.

, .
) 2 + 2 = 2, ,
2 , .. 2 
, , 2 1/2;
) SO3 + 2 = 2SO4,
1 , 2 , ,
SO3 1/2;

12
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) 25 + 32 = 23O4, 1 2
, 6 , , 
2O5 1/6.
: ) 1/2; ) 1/2; ) 1/6.

5. 
, , ,
f(H2SO4) 1/2.
.
1 
/. 
:
(X) = f (X) M(X);
(H2SO4) = 1/2 98 = 49 /.

1, :
(NaOH) = (NaOH) = 40 /;
(3OH) = (3OH) = 60 /.
: (H2SO4) = 49 /; (NaOH) = 40 /;
(3OH) = 60 /.

6. 
.
.
()2
: ()2 + HCl = HCl + 2.
, f(()2) = 1 ( 
).

: (()2) = 1 74 / = 74 /.
: (()2) = 74 /.

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