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Introduction to NC machine

EIA(Electronic Industries Association) A system in which
actions are controlled by direct insertion of Numerical
Data at some point. The system must automatically
interpret latest some portion of this data

The control of a machine tool by means of
recorded information on punched tape or card is
known as Numerical Control
Numerical control is defined as a form of software
controlled automation, in which the process is
controlled by alphanumeric characters or symbols.
Introduction to DNC machine

Direct numerical control can be
defined as a manufacturing system in which a
number of machine are controlled by a computer
through direct connection in real time
The tape reader is omitted in DNC, thus relieving the
system as its latest reliable component
Instead of using tape reader, the part programming is
transmitted to the machine tool directly from the computer
In principle one large computer can be used to control
more then 100 separate machine.
The DNC computer is designed to provide instruction to
each machine tool on demand.
When machine tool need control commands, they are
communicated to it immediately.
DNC also involves data collection and processing from
the machine tool back to the computer.
Components of DNC System
Central Computer
Bulk memory
Machine Tools
Bulk memory
Types of DNC machine
There are two types of DNC machines

1. Behind the tape reader (BTR) system
2. Special Machine control unit
Types of DNC machine
Behind the tape reader system

In this arrangement computer is linked directly to the
regular NC controller unit.
DNC Computer
Bulk memory
NC programs
NC Controller
Tape reader replaced by
Telecommunication lines

The replacement of the tape reader by
telecommunication lines to the DNC computer is what
gives the BTR configuration its name.
The connection with the computer is made between
the tape reader and the controller unit behind the
tape reader.
Except for the source of the command instructions, the
operation of the system is very similar to conventional
The controller unit use to temporary storage buffer to
receive block of instructions from the DNC computer
and convert them in to machine actions.
While one buffer is receiving a block of data, the other
is providing control instructions to the machine tool.
Special Machine Control Unit

The other strategy in DNC is to eliminate the regular
NC controller all together and replace it with special
machine control unit.
DNC Computer
Bulk memory
NC programs
Special MCU
Conventional NC controller
Replaced by special MCU

The special MCU is device that is specifically
designed to facilitates communication between the
machine tool and the computer.
The special MCU configuration achieve a superior
balance between accuracy of the interpolation and fast
metal removal rates then is generally possible with
BTR system.
The special MCU is soft wired, while the conventional
NC controller is hard wired.
The advantage of soft wired is its flexibility
Its control function can be altered with relative ease to
make improvements.
Function of DNC

NC with out punched tape
NC part program storage
Data collection, processing and reporting
Advantages of DNC

Elimination of punched tapes and tape
Grater computational capability and flexibility.
Convenient storage of NC part program in
computer files.
Program stored as CLFILE.
Reporting of shop performance.
Establishes the framework for the evolution of
the future computer automated factory.
Introduction to CNC machine
CNC is a self-contained NC system for a
single machine tool which uses a dedicated mini
computer, controlled by the instruction stored in its
memory, to perform all the basic numerical control
As per EIA The numerical control system
where a dedicated stored program computer is used to
perform some or all basic functions in accordance with
control programs stored in Random Access Memory of
the computer
The control unit and panel is somewhat similar to
NC controls. Only difference being that is works
in on-line mode and NC in batch processing
It can be mounted or stand alone type as in NCs.
A typical CNC may need only the drawing
specifications of a part to be manufactured and
the computer automatically generates part
program for loaded parts.
CNC offers flexibility and computational capacity
along with option.
Computerized Numerical Control
Tape Reader
for Initial
Minicomputer or
Software Functions
Part program
Functions of CNC

The Principle Functions of CNC are:
Machine Tool Control
In-process Compensation
Improved programming and Operating feature.

Advantages of CNC

The advantages of CNC over NC machines are:
More flexibility
Reduce data reading error
Online editing of program
Conversion of units
Integration with DNC systems

Disadvantages of CNC

The disadvantages of CNC over NC machines are:
High initial cost
Higher maintenance cost
Skilled CNC personal
Not suitable for long run applications
Machine have to be installed in air-
conditioned places