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Chapter 4: Reproduction and Growth

4.1 Gamete Formation

1. Why need to reproduce?


➢ to replace those that die
offspring identical to parents
➢ continuation of species

2. Types of reproduction
➢ Asexual reproduction
 microorganisms dividing into two
 invertebrates binary fission, budding, fragmentation
➢ Sexual reproduction
 various inherited traits
 better survival chances

3. Necessity for the formation of gametes- to preserve number of


chromosomes in offspring

Gamete Formation

Male Gonads Female

Testes Ovaries

Sperm Ovum
(23 chromosomes) (23 chromosomes)

Zygote
(46 chromosomes)

4. Formation of sperm (Spermatogenesis)


➢ takes place in testis (made up of many small seminiferous tubules)
➢ from puberty onwards, mature diploid cells at the outer layer of the
seminiferous tubules divide by meiosis
Stages of sperm formation

Sertoli cell helps to nurture sperm cell

Section through part of a


seminiferous tubule
The structure of a human sperm

5. Formation of ovum (Oogenesis)


➢ occurs in ovary
➢ from foetus to before puberty
-Primordial germ cell divides mitoticallyto form oogonium. It then
grows into primary oocytes. Each primary oocyte is surrounded by
follicle cell. This structure forms primary follicle.
➢ After puberty
- A few primary follicles develop but only one completes its
development, while others degenerate. Primary oocyte undergoes
first meiotic division to form secondary oocyte and polar body.
Secondary oocyte surrounded by follicle cell is known as secondary
follicle. Secondary follicle matures and forms Graafian follicle, while
polar body degenerate.
➢ Ovulation
- Graafian follicle which contains secondary oocyte bursts and
releases secondary oocyte
➢ After ovulation
-Follicle cells left form corpus luteum
-Secondary oocyte enters Fallopian tube where it may be fertilised
by a sperm
-If egg is not fertilised, corpus luteum degenerates
➢ Fertilisation
-secondary oocyte completes second mitotic division to form
another polar body and ovum
6. Cycle of formation of Graafian follicle, ovulation and corpus luteum is
called ovarian cycle
Stages of ovum formation

Stages of the ovarian


cycle in ovary

7. Comparison between sperm and ovum formation


➢ Similarities
 occur in reproductive organs
 involve meiosis
 produce haploid gametes
➢ Differences
Spermatogenesis Oogenesis

Produces sperm Produces ovum

diploid cell divide equally cytoplasm does not divide


equally in meiosis

Takes place continuously from Begins in the ovary of a foetus


puberty onwards

Forms 4 haploid cell (sperm) Forms one large ovum and 3


polar bodies

Produces two spermatocytes Produces the secondary


of same size in meiosis I oocyte that is big and polar
body that is small in meiosis I

Meiosis II occurs continuously Meiosis II occurs only if the


secondary oocyte is
penetrated by the sperm cell

4.2 Role of Hormones in the Menstrual Cycle

1. What is menstruation?
➢ Process of excess blood and tissue of the endometrium leave the
uterus through the vagina

2. What is menstrual cycle?


➢ Monthly cycle of ovulation and menstruation in the human female
(mostly 28 days)

3. What are the events of menstrual cycle?


Time (days) In the ovary In the uterus

1-5 Primary follicle Menstruation occurs


develops

6-13 Graafian follicle Endometrium is


matures repaired and thickens
to prepare for the
implantation of a
zygote

14 Ovulation occurs Endometrium


(secondary oocyte is continues to thicken
released)

15-24 Corpus luteum Endometrium


develops becomes thicker.
Many blood vessels
develop in it.

25-28 Corpus luteum Endometrium that is


degenerates if fully thickened begins
fertilisation does not to break down
occur

4. What are the hormones involved in the menstrual cycle?


➢ Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
 causes a Graafian follicle to develop in the ovary
 stimulates follicle cells and the tissues of the ovary to secrete
oestrogen
➢ Luteinising hormone (LH)
 causes ovulation and formation of corpus luteum from the follicle
cell
➢ Oestrogen
 to heal and repair the uterine wall
 causes the endometrium to thicken in preparation for
implantation
 when its level reaches certain point, it stops pituitary gland from
producing FSH and stimulates it to produce LH
➢ Progesterone
 released by corpus luteum
 stimulates the growth and development of blood vessels in the
endometrium and further thickens the endometrium
Hormone levels and the menstrual cycle

5. Levels of reproductive hormones are controlled by negative feedback


mechanism
➢ FSH stimulates production of oestrogen
➢ Oestrogen inhibits production of FSH
➢ Lack of FSH causes level of oestrogen to fall
➢ Progesteron inhibits production of FSH, thus inhibiting development
of another Graafian follicle

6. What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?


➢ a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle
➢ occurs in the week or two weeks before the menstruation
➢ usually goes away after menstruation starts
➢ some women are more sensitive than others towards the changes in
hormones
➢ can affect menstruating women of any age
➢ Physical symptoms
 headaches, fatigue, feel bloated, breast tenderness, abdominal
pain, sleep disturbances, and appetite changes including food
cravings
➢ Emotional symtoms
 irritability, tension, depression, confusion, anxiety, crying,
oversensitivity, and mood swings with alternating anger and
sadness and lack of concentration
7. What is menopause?
➢ normal change in a woman’s life when he r menstruation stops
➢ A woman’s body slowly produces less oestrogen and progesteron
➢ often happens between the ages of 45 and 55
➢ a woman has reached menopause when she has not had
menstruation for 12 months in a row
➢ may experience symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats,
sleeping problems, osteoporosis, mood changes, weight gain and
hair loss

4.3 Early Development of a Zygote in Humans

1. What is fertilisation?
➢ The union of two nuclei producing a zygote
➢ Occurs inside the Fallopian tubes of a woman

2. Development of zygote

➢ The zygote travels down the Fallopian tubes and enters the uterus.
While in the Fallopian tubes, the zygote undergoes a series of cell
divisions. The single cell forms two cells, then four cells, and so on
to produce a solid ball of cells called morula. Eventually, the
growing mass of hundred of cells forms a hollow ball called
blastocyst. The blastocyst attaches to the endometrium of the
uterus. This process is known as implantation. For the next eight
weeks or so, the developing human is called an embryo. The young
embryo is nourished at first by nutrients absorbed directly from the
mother’s endometrium, but as further development takes place the
placenta is formed. From the ninth week of development until birth,
the embryo is called a foetus. After about 9 months of development
inside the uterus, the baby is ready to be born.

3. Formation of twins

4. Role of placenta in foetal development


➢ forms selective barrier between the mother’s blood and the foetal
blood
➢ allows oxygen and nutrients to pass from the mother to the foetus
➢ allows carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste materials to pass from
the foetus to the mother
➢ can give protection to the foetus by passing antibodies which gives
temporary immunity to the foetus
➢ prevent mixing of the blood of the mother and the foetus
➢ secretes hormones that are essential in pregnancy
 after third month, it takes over the function of corpus luteum and
secretes progesterone and oestrogen

5. Advantages of having a separate circulatory system from that of the


mother
➢ prevents the exchange of some substances such as blood cells and
pathogens
➢ to prevent the higher blood pressure of the mother’s blood from
damaging the delicate foetal blood vessels
➢ Prevents agglutination if the foetus is of a different blood group from
the mother

4.4 Contributions of Science and Technology to Human


Reproduction

1. Infertility- inability to have any children


➢ happens due to damage in the female Fallopian tubes, uterus or
cervix, or due to low sperm count or impotence in the male
➢ Technology that is associated with reproduction
 Artificial Insemnation
 In Vitro Fertilisation
 Sperm bank
 Frosen embryos
 Cloning
 Surrogate mother
2. Family planning
➢ allows spacing and timing of the birth of children

3. Birth control techniques


➢ Natural methods used
 the calendar technique
 the temperature technique
 the mucous technique
 the withdrawal technique
➢ Physical barrier methods used
 the condom
 the diaphragm
 the intrauterine device (IUD)
➢ Chemical preventive methods used
 the contraceptive pills
 spermicides
➢ Sterilisation methods used
 Tubal ligation (female)
 Vasectomy (male)
➢ Abortion

4. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)


➢ diseases that are spread from one person to anther during sexual
contact
➢ are caused either by bacteria or viruses
➢ Bacterial STDs
 chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea
 can be treated with antibiotics
➢ Viral STDs
 hepatitis B, genital herpes, genital warts, AIDS
 cannot be treated with antibiotics
➢ can be avoided by
 avoiding sexual contact before marriage
 both partners in a marriage to remain faithful