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1hls paper, wrlLLen by Cervasonl, PunLer, 8lckenell and SexLon (2012), dellvers Lo lLs reader
an overvlew of maLhemaLlcs learnlng and Leachlng ln Lodays classrooms, wlLh parLlcular
emphasls on Lhe creaLlon of powerful maLhemaLlcs learnlng envlronmenLs, Lhe selecLlon of
approprlaLe Lasks, models and resources Lo promoLe deep learnlng for all chlldren, and Lhe
knowledge and use of pedagoglcal conLenL knowledge. unblased ln lLs approach, lL dellvers
a neuLral revlew of whaL research says abouL maLhemaLlcs ln Lhe classroom.
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8elonglng, belng valued and sLaylng moLlvaLed Lo engage ln learnlng are whaL Cervasonl, eL
al. (2012) clalm Lo be Lhree key challenges when creaLlng a powerful maLhemaLlcs learnlng
envlronmenL.
8elaLlonshlps esLabllshed by Leachers wlLh Lhe chlldren and Lhelr famllles, have Lhe ablllLy Lo
engage sLudenLs wlLh Lhe maLhemaLlcs learnlng. lnvolvlng chlldren's personal conLexLs
wlLhln Lhelr dally learnlng envlronmenL, such as Lhe lncluslon of powerful culLurally
responslve pedagoglcal pracLlces, helghLen sLudenL engagemenL and undersLandlng.
CulLurally-llnked models lllusLraLe Lhe Leachers' senslLlvlLy Lowards lndlvlduallLy wlLhln Lhe
classroom and provlde a sense of belonglng (ueparLmenL of LducaLlon and Larly Chlldhood
uevelopmenL (uLLCu), 2009). rovldlng sLudenLs wlLh currlcula LhaL has sLrong llnks Lo real
llfe slLuaLlons encourages deeper engagemenL wlLh, and undersLandlng of, Lhe
maLhemaLlcal conLenL, and ln Lurn keeps chlldren moLlvaLed (Cervasonl, eL al., 2012).
Cervasonl eL al.'s research lnLo Leacher's employmenL of meLhods Lo carefully consLrucL
sLudenLs' knowledge found LhaL scaffoldlng Lhelr learnlng wlLhln groups of varylng
maLhemaLlcal degrees lncreases Lhelr awareness and undersLandlng of maLhemaLlcal
conLenL (2012).
rovldlng Lhe chlldren, especlally Lhose wlLh Lngllsh as Lhelr second language (LSL sLudenLs),
wlLh Lhe approprlaLe amounL of Llme ls essenLlal Lo Lhelr undersLandlng and confldence (van
de Walle, karp, 8ay-Wllllams, 2013). Allowlng sLudenLs Lo engage wlLh, marlnaLe wlLhln, and
reflecL upon Lhe maLhemaLlcal concepLs Lhey are learnlng ls lmporLanL for Lhelr
undersLandlng. lurLhermore, uslng correcL maLhemaLlcal language lnLroduced gradually and
wlLh sufflclenL Llme encourages sLudenL engagemenL (Cervasonl, eL al., 2012).
Focus Area: 1.1 Physical, social and intellectual
development and characteristics of students
Focus Area: 1.2 Understand how students learn
Focus Area: 1.3 Students with diverse linguistic,
cultural, religious and socioeconomic
backgrounds
1eachers' use of problng quesLlons Lo encourage sLudenLs' explanaLlons and [usLlflcaLlons
was anoLher concern of Cervasonl eL al (2012). 1hey relLeraLed Lhe lmporLance of quesLlons
and prompLlng Lo lncrease chlldren's maLhemaLlcal explanaLlons, [usLlflcaLlons and
generallsaLlons.
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Cervasonl, eL al. (2012) clalm LhaL one of Lhe challenges Leachers face wlLhln Lhe classroom,
and by assoclaLlon Lhls greaLly affecLs Lhe sLudenLs, ls Lhe selecLlon of Lasks, models and
resources LhaL promoLe deep learnlng for all sLudenLs.
Cervasonl, eL al., (2012) clalm LhaL lmplemenLlng rlch maLhemaLlcal Lasks wlll encourage
problem solvlng, maLhemaLlcal quesLlonlng and reasonlng. Powever, Lhe careful selecLlon of
auLhenLlc Lasks ls cruclal Lo a chlld's undersLandlng of Lhe concepLs (ALLard, 2011). lf a chlld
can relaLe Lo Lhe problem, and puL lL lnLo real world experlences Lhen Lhey are more llkely Lo
grasp Lhe concepLs (van de Walle, karp, 8ay-Wllllams, 2013).
Scaffoldlng on Lhe sLudenLs' prlor knowledge can help Lhem relaLe Lo Lhe problem aL hand
and fosLer deep learnlng. lf Lhe Leacher can provlde Lhe sLudenLs wlLh mulLlple examples
and models Lo caLer Lo Lhelr dlfferlng enLry polnLs, Lhe sLudenLs' undersLandlng and
knowledge base wlll be sLrengLhened. lmplemenLlng approprlaLe open-ended Lasks LhaL
supporL exLended lnvesLlgaLlon and dlalogue wlll encourage hlgher levels of Lhlnklng
(Cervasonl, eL al., 2012).
AnoLher key aspecL of Lask selecLlon LhaL Cervasonl, eL al. ( 2012) polnL ouL ls correcLly
represenLlng Lhe maLhemaLlcal aLLrlbuLes of Lhe concepLs. 1eachers requlre a deep
undersLandlng of Lhe dlfferenL models so Lhey can choose Lhe correcL model for Lhelr
sLudenLs.
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WlLhln Lhls chapLer of Cervasonl, eL al.'s (2012) reporL, Lhey summarlse research lnLo a
Leachers' pedagoglcal conLenL knowledge (Ck) and welgh up Lhe beneflLs of havlng, and/or
Lhe dlsadvanLages of noL havlng a deep undersLandlng ln Lhls area. 1hey do noL dlsmlss Lhe
lmporLance of dlsclpllned conLenL knowledge, buL agree LhaL a deep undersLandlng of Ck ls
equally lmporLanL.
A key componenL of Ck ls Lhe ablllLy of Lhe Leacher Lo deLermlne Lhe sLudenLs'
maLhemaLlcal knowledge. When a Leacher ls roamlng Lhe classroom whlle Lhe sLudenLs are
ln Lhelr learnlng groups, lL ls lmporLanL LhaL Lhey respond approprlaLely Lo 'Leachable
momenLs.' WhllsL noL wanLlng Lo lnLerrupL Lhe flow of Lhe lesson, lL ls useful for Lhe Leacher
Lo llsLen Lo Lhe sLudenLs' maLhemaLlcal conversaLlons Lo plck up on erroneous dlalogues
whlch could be deLrlmenLal Lo Lhelr currenL undersLandlngs and fuLure learnlng.
1he role of Lechnology ln learnlng wlLhln Loday's classrooms was anoLher Loplc dlscussed by
Cervasonl, eL al. (2012). 1eacher compeLence wlLh Lhe lnformaLlon and communlcaLlon
Lechnology (lC1) used ln our classrooms can lnfluence chlldren's use of and
experlmenLaLlons wlLh lL (AnLhony & Walshaw, 2009). lurLher research needs Lo be done Lo
come Lo a concluslon abouL Lhls lnfluence, however web-based maLhemaLlcal lnLeracLlve
exerclses provlde a moLlvaLlng alLeraLlve pedagogy for sLudenLs.
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van de Walle, karp & 8ay-Wllllams (2013) deflne measuremenL as lnvolvlng a comparlson
of an aLLrlbuLe of an lLem or slLuaLlon wlLh a unlL LhaL has Lhe same aLLrlbuLe" (p.373).
lorms of measuremenL lnclude nonsLandard (le: uslng smarLles Lo measure Lhe lengLh of a
Lable) and sLandard unlLs (le: cm's, m, mm's) of measuremenL, each of whlch ls as lmporLanL
as Lhe oLher Lo learn for chlldren's undersLandlng. 1he naLlonal Councll of 1eachers of
MaLhemaLlcs (nC1M) (2013) have sLandards Lo be meL for Lhe Leachlng of maLhemaLlcs,
such as for sLudenLs Lo undersLand measurable aLLrlbuLes of ob[ecLs and Lhe unlLs, sysLems,
and processes of measuremenL" and apply approprlaLe Lechnlques, Lools, and formulas Lo
deLermlne measuremenLs" LhaL dlffer per year level.
resLon & 1hompson (2004) belleve LhaL, llke all maLhemaLlcs, provldlng chlldren wlLh
sufflclenL Llme Lo con[ure up Lhelr LhoughLs and make maLhemaLlcal argumenLs Lo [usLlfy
Lhelr flndlngs ls hlghly lmporLanL ln measuremenL. lL has been sald LhaL Lhe Leachlng of
maLhemaLlcs can be lnLroduced wlLh Lhe use of chlldren's books (AusLln, 1hompson, &
8eckmann, 2003), such as Who Sank Lhe 8oaL by amela Allen. ln Lhls parLlcular book
chlldren's aLLenLlon ls drawn Lo Lhe welghL of anlmals, encouraglng Lhem Lo lnvesLlgaLe
whlch anlmal ls Lhe heavlesL and [usLlfy Lhelr answers - sLrengLhenlng Lhelr maLhemaLlcal
language, quesLlonlng and [usLlflcaLlon skllls. 1hls ls [usL one meLhod of Leachlng
measuremenL Lo sLudenLs, whlch van de Walle, karp & 8ay-Wllllams (2013) agree wlLh,
conLlnulng LhaL maklng Lhe concepLs relaLable Lo sLudenLs ls a key aspecL of learnlng any
maLhemaLlcs sLrand. C'1oole, 8ublno, arker, & llLzpaLrlck, (1998) researched Lhe
maLhemaLlcal Lhlnklng of sLudenLs wlLh a parLlcular focus on measuremenL. 1helr flndlngs
concluded LhaL a deep relaLlonal undersLandlng was lmporLanL Lo grasp Lhe concepLs LaughL
ln Loday's schools.
van de Walle, karp & 8ay-Wllllams (2013) & resLon & 1hompson (2004) belleve LhaL
nonsLandard unlLs of measuremenL should be lnLroduced Lo chlldren early on, and relayed
LhroughouL Lhelr learnlng. 1hey conLlnue LhaL sLandard unlLs of measuremenL are used ln
our dally llves, so should be LaughL alongslde nonsLandard unlLs of measuremenL Lo lay
down Lhe foundaLlons for why we use parLlcular unlLs of measuremenL ln parLlcular
clrcumsLances. 1hls also helps sLudenLs ldenLlfy LhaL sLandard unlLs of measuremenL provlde
greaLer accuracy and are more ofLen used Lhan Lhelr nonsLandard counLerparLs (Malda &
Malda, 2003), and Lherefore can selecL Lhe approprlaLe unlL of measuremenL for Lhelr
requlred Lask (AnLhony, & Walshaw, 2009). A ma[or dlfflculLy wlLh sLudenLs undersLandlng
of measuremenL has been Lhelr undersLandlng of whlch unlL of measuremenL Lo use, and
how Lo use lL.
When undersLandlng measureable aLLrlbuLes, lL ls common among all year levels for
sLudenLs Lo undersLand Lhe relaLlonshlps measuremenL has wlLh oLher aspecLs of
maLhemaLlcs (nC1M, 2013). AlLhough lL ls LaughL as an lndlvldual conLenL sLrand, much of
Lhe llLeraLure, such as Lhe vlcLorlan Currlculum & AssessmenL AuLhorlLy (2013) and nC1M
(2013) recognlse Lhe lmporLance of amalgamaLlng all sLrands LogeLher.
Mulllgan, rescoLL, MlLchelmore, & CuLhred, (2003) demonsLraLe ln Lhelr arLlcle 1aklng a
closer look aL young sLudenLs' lmages of area measuremenL" LhaL chlldren flnd lL dlfflculL Lo
recognlse Lhe paLLerns ln measuremenL, and Lherefore when represenLlng Lhelr
measuremenLs, Lhe deplcLlons ofLen do noL demonsLraLe equal unlLs. 1he vCAA (2013)
belleve LhaL provldlng chlldren wlLh a varleLy of meLhods and Lools Lo use and dlscover wlll
develop Lhelr deeper undersLandlng of measuremenL, and help Lhem Lo choose Lhe
approprlaLe Lool for Lhe Lask.
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lmpllcaLlons for Leachers when educaLlng sLudenLs on measuremenL lnclude provldlng
sLudenLs wlLh real world examples Lo form relaLlonal undersLandlng, Lhe dlverslLy among
growLh polnLs and enLry polnLs, Lhe Ck a Leacher holds, and Lhe assessmenL meLhods
lmplemenLed Lo measure ones undersLandlng.
MeasuremenL has been documenLed ln many sLudles as one of, lf noL Lhe weakesL conLenL
sLrand for sLudenLs Lo grasp (resLon & 1hompson, 2004). A posslble soluLlon Lo all Lhls
mlsundersLandlng of measuremenL ls Lo relLeraLe lLs lmporLance across Lhe currlculum and
lnLegraLe lL lnLo every conLenL sLrand, noL [usL maLhemaLlcs (AusLln, 1hompson, &
8eckmann, 2003). Much of Lhe research polnLs Lo creaLlng an envlronmenL rlch wlLh
maLhemaLlcs (van de Walle, karp & 8ay-Wllllams, 2013, & Cervasonl, eL al., 2012), and Lo do
Lhls Leachers musL lnherlL a deep undersLandlng of Lhe maLhemaLlcs ln real world
experlences and be able Lo adapL Lhls knowledge Lo approprlaLe Lasks for chlldren (AusLln,
1hompson, & 8eckmann, 2003).
Mcuonough, Clarke, & Clarke, (2002) documenL anoLher lmpllcaLlon for preservlce Leachers
ln Lhelr fuLure pracLlce belng Lhelr lack of confldence when lL comes Lo conLenL knowledge
of maLhemaLlcs. CaLerlng Lo chlldren's varylng enLry polnLs means LhaL Leachers requlre an
undersLandlng of Lhe conLenL and of chlldren's growLh polnLs (Mcuonough, Clarke, & Clarke,
2002). uslng sulLable assessmenL meLhods, such as lndlvldual lnLervlews, Lo measure a
sLudenL's undersLandlng has been seen as very lmporLanL (Cervasonl, eL al., 2012). lL ls
beneflclal for a Leacher Lo use Lhelr Ck alongslde prevlous assessmenL flndlngs Lo lnform
Lhelr lessons and Lo caLer Lo Lhe varleLy of sLudenLs ln Lhelr class (uLLCu, 2009, & nC1M,
2013, & vCAA, 2013).
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1o enhance chlldren's undersLandlng Lhe research shows LhaL engulflng chlldren ln an
envlronmenL rlch wlLh maLhemaLlcal learnlng Lhey can relaLe Lo ls mosL beneflclal when
accompanled wlLh enqulry based learnlng. Scaffoldlng on chlldren's learnlng by fosLerlng
relaLlonshlps beLween chlldren and Lhe concepLs, models and Lasks ln real-llfe experlences
encourages deeper engagemenL wlLh, and undersLandlng of, Lhe maLhemaLlcal conLenL
(AnLhong & Walshaw, 2009, & ALLard, 2011, & uLLCu, 2009, & nC1M, 2013, & vCAA, 2013).
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AnLhony. C., & Walshaw, M. (2009). ffectlve peJoqoqy lo motbemotlcs. 8elley, lrance:
lnLernaLlonal Academy of LducaLlon (lAL).
ALLard, C. (2011). 1be lofloeoce of teocbets oo stoJeot eoqoqemeot wltb motbemotlcs
Jotloq tbe mlJJle yeots. ln !. Clark, 8. klssane, !. Mousley, 1. Spencer, & S. 1hornLon
(Lds.), Motbemotlcs. 1toJltloos ooJ joew] ptoctlces (roceedlngs of Lhe 34
Lh

annual conference of Lhe MaLhemaLlcs LducaLlon 8esearch Croup of AusLralasla and
Lhe 23rd blennlal conference of Lhe AusLrallan AssoclaLlon of MaLhemaLlcs 1eachers,
Allce Sprlngs, pp. 68-74). Adelalde, SA: AAM1 & ML8CA.
AusLln, 8., 1hompson, u. & 8eckmann, C. (2003). xplotloq meosotemeot coocepts tbtooqb
lltetotote. Nototol lloks octoss Jlsclplloes. MaLhemaLlcs 1eachlng ln Lhe Mlddle
School, 10(3), 218-224.
Cheeseman, k., Mcuonough, A., & Clarke, u. (2011). lovestlqotloq cbllJteos ooJetstooJloq
of tbe meosotemeot of moss. ln !. Clark, 8. klssane, !. Mousley, 1. Spencer, & S.
1hornLon (Lds.), Motbemotlcs. 1toJltloos ooJ joew] ptoctlces (roceedlngs of Lhe
34Lh annual conference of Lhe MaLhemaLlcs LducaLlon 8esearch Croup of
AusLralasla and Lhe 23rd blennlal conference of Lhe AusLrallan AssoclaLlon of
MaLhemaLlcs 1eachers, Allce Sprlngs, pp. 174-182). Adelalde, SA:AAM1 & ML8CA.
Mcuonough, A., Clarke, 8., & Clarke, u. M. (2002). undersLandlng, assesslng and developlng
chlldren's maLhemaLlcal Lhlnklng: Lhe power of a one-Lo-one lnLervlew for preservlce
Leachers ln provldlng lnslghLs lnLo approprlaLe pedagoglcal pracLlces. lotetootloool
Iootool of Jocotloool keseotcb, J7(2), 211-226.
uLLCu (2009) vlctotloo otly eots leotoloq ooJ uevelopmeot ltomewotk fot oll
cbllJteo ftom 8lttb to lqbt eots, (vlul) (2009). Melbourne:
ueparLmenL of LducaLlon and Larly Chlldhood uevelopmenL.
Cervasonl, A., PunLer, 8., 8lcknell, 8., & SexLon, M. (2012). lowetfol leJoqoqlcol Actloos lo
Motbemotlcs Jocotloo. 8esearch ln MaLhemaLlcs LducaLlon ln AusLralasla 2008-
2011, 193-218.
Malda, ., & Malda, M. (2003). now Joes yoot Jooqboot meosote op? MaLhemaLlcs
1eachlng ln Lhe Mlddle School, 11 (3), 212 -219.
Mulllgan, !., rescoLL, A., MlLchelmore, M., & CuLhred, L. (2003). 1okloq o closet look ot
yoooq stoJeots' lmoqes of oteo meosotemeot. AusLrallan rlmary MaLhemaLlcs
Classroom, 10(2), 4-8.
naLlonal Councll of 1eachers of MaLhemaLlcs (2013). Meosotemeot 5tooJotJ. 8eLrleved
March 24, 2013, from hLLp://www.ncLm.org/sLandards/conLenL.aspx?ld=316
C'1oole, 1., 8ublno, v., arker, C., & llLzpaLrlck, S. (1998). lloooloq fot stoJeots
motbemotlcol tblokloq. Meosotemeot k-8. Adelalde: CaLhollc LducaLlon Cfflce.
resLon, 8., & 1hompson, 1. (2004). loteqtotloq meosotemeot octoss tbe cottlcolom.

Motbemotlcs 1eocbloq lo tbe MlJJle 5cbool, 19 (8), 4J6-441.

van de Walle, !., karp, k., 8ay-Wllllams, !., (2013). lemeototy ooJ mlJJle scbool
motbemotlcs: 1eocbloq uevelopmeotolly (8Lh ed.). 8osLon, MA: earson.
vlcLorlan Currlculum and AssessmenL AuLhorlLy, (2013, March 24). Aosvl5. Motbemotlcs.
8eLrleved March 24, 2013, from hLLp://ausvels.vcaa.vlc.edu.au/MaLhemaLlcs/
Cvervlew/ConLenL-sLrucLure