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A

Seminar REPORT
ON
(satellite communication)
Academic Session 2013-14
Submitted in artial !ul!ilment o! t"e re#uirements o! t"e de$ree o!
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
%n
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
LOGO
Submitted to: Submitted by:
NAME NAME Mukes kum!"
Semi#!" Coo"di#!to" He!d o$ %e&!"tme#t
%E'ARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AN% COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
MAHARISHI AR(IN% INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY) *AI'UR
RA*ASTHAN TECHNICAL UNI(ERSITY) +OTA
,-.-/,-.0
AC+NO1LE%GEMENT
% &ould li'e to t"an's almi$"t( $od !or $i)in$ me luc' * !ait" in m( abilities to comlete t"is+ %
&ould li'e to e,ress m( dee sense o! $ratitude to m( teac"ers !or e,tendin$ me t"e
oortunit( !or t"is and ro)idin$ all t"e necessar( resources and e,ertise !or t"is urose+
% &ould li'e to con)e( m( deeest $ratitude to 2Semi#!" 3uide4 !or sarin$ "is )aluable
time !or me to discuss and clari!( issue connected &it" t"is Seminar reort+
Mukes kum!"

TABLE OF CONTENTS
C!&te" .: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION555555556./,
1+1 %ntroduction-----------------++--++-1
1+2 T"e ori$in o! satellites----------------+++++2
C!&te" ,: TY'ES OF SATELLITE555555555555667/8
2+1 Elements-------------------3+
2+2 sace se$ment---------------+-++4
2+3 $round se$ment--------------++-++.
C!&te" 7: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SER(ICES 566.-/..
C!&te" 0: GEOSY6 COMMUNICATION SATELLITE555.,/.0

REFERENCES666555555555555555666.9
CHA'TER/.
SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
.6. INTRO%UCTION
Satellite communication is one o! t"e most imressi)e sino!!s !rom t"e sace ro$rams and "as
made a ma/or contribution to t"e attern o! international communications+ A communication
satellite is basicall( an electronic communication ac'a$e laced in orbit &"ose rime ob/ecti)e
is to initiate or assist communication transmission o! in!ormation or messa$e !rom one oint to
anot"er t"rou$" sace+ T"e in!ormation trans!erred most o!ten corresonds to )oice (tele"one)0
)ideo (tele)ision)0 and di$ital data+ 1ommunication in)ol)es t"e trans!er o! in!ormation bet&een
a source and a user+ An ob)ious e,amle o! in!ormation trans!er is t"rou$" terrestrial
media0 t"rou$" t"e use o! &ire lines0 coa,ial cables0 otical !ibers0 or a combination o! t"ese
media+
1ommunication satellites ma( in)ol)e ot"er imortant communicationsubs(stems as &ell+ %n t"is
instance0 t"e satellites need to be monitored !or osition location in order to instantaneousl(
return an u&ardl( transmittin$ (ulin') ran$in$ &a)e!orm !or trac'in$ !rom an eart" terminal
(or station)+
T"e term eart" terminal re!ers collecti)el( to t"e terrestrial e#uiment comle, concerned &it"
transmittin$ si$nals to and recei)in$ si$nals !rom t"e satellite+ T"e eart" terminal con!i$urations
)ar( &idel( &it" )arious t(es o! s(stems and terminal si2es+ An eart" terminal can be !i,ed and
mobile landbased0 sea-based0 or airborne+ 3i,ed terminals0 used in militar( and commercial
s(stems0 are lar$e and ma( incororate net&or' control center !unctions+ Transortable terminals
are mo)able but are intended to oerate !rom a !i,ed location0 t"at is0 a sot t"at does not mo)e+
4obile terminals oerate &"ile in motion5 e,amles are t"ose on commercial and na)( s"is as
&ell as t"ose on aircra!t+
.6. THE ORIGIN OF SATELLITES
The Space Age began in 1957 with the U.S.S.R.s launch of the first artificial satellite, called
Sputni, which trans!itted tele!etr" infor!ation for #1 da"s. This achie$e!ent was
followed in 195% b" the A!erican artificial satellite Score, which was used to broadcast
&resident 'isenhowers (hrist!as
messa$e+ T&o satellites &ere delo(ed in 16708 a re!lector satellite0 called Ec"o0 and 1ourier+
T"e 1ourier &as articularl( si$ni!icant because it recorded a messa$e t"at could be la(ed bac'
later+ %n 1672 acti)e communication satellites (reeaters)0 called Telstar and Rela(0 &ere
delo(ed0 and t"e !irst $eostationar( satellite0 called S(ncom0 &as launc"ed in 1673+ T"e race !or
sace e,loitation !or commercial and ci)il uroses t"us trul( started+ A satellite is
$eostationar( i! it remains relati)el( !i,ed (stationar() in an aarent osition relati)e to t"e
eart"+ T"is osition is t(icall( about 390:.4 'm a&a( !rom t"e eart"+ %ts ele)ation an$le is
ort"o$onal (i+e+0 60;) to t"e e#uator0 and its eriod o! re)olution is s(nc"roni2ed &it" t"at o! t"e
eart" in inertial sace+ A $eostationar( satellite "as also been called a $eos(nc"ronous or
s(nc"ronous orbit0 or siml( a $eosatellite+ T"e !irst series o! commercial $eostationar( satellites
(%ntelsat and 4oln(a) &as inau$urated in 1679+ T"ese satellites ro)ided )ideo (tele)ision)
and )oice (tele"one) communications !or t"eir audiences+ %ntelsat &as t"e
!irst commercial $lobal satellite s(stem o&ned and oerated b( a consortium o! more t"an 100
nations5 "ence its name0 &"ic" stands !or %nternational Telecommunications Satellite
Or$ani2ation+ T"e !irst or$ani2ation to ro)ide $lobal satellite co)era$e and connecti)it(0 it
continues to be t"e ma/or communications ro)ider &it" t"e broadest reac" and t"e most
comre"ensi)e ran$e o! ser)ices+ Ot"er ro)iders !or industrial and domestic mar'ets include
<estar in 16:40 Satcom in 16:90 1omstar in 16:70 S=S in 16.00 >ala,( and Telstar in
16.30 Sacenet and Ani' in 16.40 >star in 16.90 Aussat in 16.9?.70 Otus A2
in 16.90 @u$"es-Au in 16.:0 NASA A1TS in 16630 Otus A3 in 166:0 and
%ridium and %ntelsat B%%%A in 166.+ E)en more are lanned+ Some o! t"ese satellites "ost
dedicated militar( communication c"annels+ T"e need to "a)e mar'et domination and a
cometiti)e ed$e in militar( sur)eillance and tactical !ields results in more so"isticated
de)eloments in t"e satellite !ield+
CHA'TER/,
ELEMENTS OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
,6. ELEMENTS
Two major elements of Satellite Communications Systems are
Space Segment
Ground Segment
The Space Segment includes
Satellite
Means for launching satellite
Satellite control centre for station keeping of the satellite
The functions of the ground segment are to transmit the signal to the satellite and
receive the signal from the satellite. The ground segment consists of
Earth Stations
Rear ard Communication links
!ser terminals and interfaces
"etwork control centre
Schematic #lock diagram showing the elements of Satellite Communications System is
shown in fig. $.
2.2 SPACE SEGMENT
1ommunication Satellite
Communication satellites are very comple% and e%tremely e%pensive to procure &
launch.
The communication satellites are now designed for '$ to '( years of life during which
the communication capa#ility of the satellite earns revenue) to recover the initial and
operating costs. Since the satellite has to operate over a long period out in the space
the su#systems of the satellite are re*uired to #e very relia#le. Major su#systems of a
satellite are+
Satellite ,us Su#systems
Satellite -ayloads
Satellite =us subs(stems8
Mechanical structure
.ttitude and or#it control system
-ropulsion System
Electrical -ower System
Tracking Telemetry and Command System
Thermal Control System
Satellite Payloads
Communication transponders
Communication .ntennas
Since the communications capacity earns revenue) the satellite must carry as many
communications channels as possi#le. /owever) the large communications channel
capacity re*uires large electrical power from large solar arrays and #attery) resulting in
large mass and volume. -utting a heavy satellite in geosynchronous or#it #eing very
e%pensive) it is logical to keep the si0e and mass of the satellite small. 1ightweight
material optimally designed to carry the load and withstand vi#ration & large
temperature cycles are selected for the structure of the satellite.
.ttitude and or#it control system maintains the or#ital location of the satellite and
controls the attitude of the satellite #y using different sensors and firing small thrusters
located in different sides of the satellite.
1i*uid fuel and o%idi0er are carried in the satellite as part of the propulsion system for
firing the thrusters in order to maintain the satellite attitude and or#it. The amount of
fuel and o%idi0er carried #y the satellite also determines the effective life of te satellite.
The electrical power in the satellite is derived mainly from the solar cells. The power is
used #y the communications payloads and also #y all other electrical su#systems in the
satellite for house keeping. Rechargea#le #attery is used for supplying electrical power
during ellipse of the satellite.
Telemetry) Tracking and Command system of the satellite works along with its
counterparts located in the satellite control earth station. The telemetry system collects
data from sensors on #oard the satellite and sends these data via telemetry link to the
satellite control centre which monitors the health of the satellite. Tracking and ranging
system located in the earth station provides the information related to the range and
location of the satellite in its or#it. The command system is used for switching on2off of
different su#systems in the satellite #ased on the telemetry and tracking data.
The thermal control system maintains the temperature of different parts of the satellite
within the operating temperature limits and thus protects the satellite su#systems from
the e%treme temperature conditions of the outer space.
The communications su#systems are the major elements of a communication satellite
and the rest of the space craft is there solely to support it. 3uite often it is only a small
part of the mass and volume of the satellite. The communications su#system consists
of one or more antennas and communications receiver 4 transmitter units known as
transponders. Transponders are of two types) Repeater or ,ent pipe and processing or
regenerative. 5n Repeater type) communications transponder receives the signals at
microwave fre*uencies and amplifies the R6 carrier after fre*uency conversion)
whereas in processing type of transponder in addition to fre*uency translation and
amplification) the R6 carrier is demodulated to #ase#and and the signals are
regenerated and modulated in the transponder. .nalog communication systems are
e%clusively repeater type. 7igital communication system may use either variety. 6ig.
89a: and 89#: show the schematic diagrams of repeater type and regenerative type
transponders respectively.
The actual reception and retransmission of the signals are however) accomplished #y
the antennas on #oard the satellite. The communications antennas on #oard the
satellite maintain the link with the ground segment and the communications
transponder. The si0e and shape of the communications antenna depend on the
coverage re*uirements and the antenna system can #e tailor made to meet the specific
coverage re*uirements of the system.
Caunc" Be"icle
The function of the launch vehicle is to place the communication satellite in the desired
or#it. The si0e and mass of the satellite to #e launched is limited #y the capa#ility of
the launch vehicle selected for launching the satellite. The satellite launch vehicle
interface is also re*uired to #e provided as per the launch vehicle selected. Satellite
launch vehicles are classified in two types i.e.
E%penda#le
Reusa#le
5n e%penda#le type the launch vehicle can #e used only once and most of the launch
vehicles are e%penda#le type. Space Transportation System 9STS: or Space Shuttle of
".S.) !S. is the only availa#le operational reusa#le launch vehicle. .lthough most of
the launches take place from ground) Sea 1aunch has em#arked on the launching of
satellites from off shore platforms and -eagasus launch vehicles can launch small
satellites from aircrafts. 1aunching of a satellite in or#it #eing a costly affair a num#er of
programs have #een undertaken #y ".S. to make the future launching of satellites in
or#it as cost effective and routine as commercial air travel.
Satellite 1ontrol 1entre
Satellite Control Centre performs the following function.
Tracking of the satellite
Receiving Telemetry data
7etermining ;r#ital parameters from Tracking and Ranging data
Commanding the Satellite for station keeping
Switching ;"2;66 of different su#systems as per the operational
re*uirements
Thermal management of satellite.
Eclipse management of satellite
Communications su#systems configuration management.
Satellite ,us su#systems configuration management etc.
2.3 GROUND SEGMENT
The ground segment of satellite communications system esta#lishes the
communications links with the satellite and the user. 5n large and medium systems the
terrestrial microwave link interfaces with the user and the earth station. /owever) in the
case of small systems) this interface is eliminated and the user interface can #e located
at the earth station. The earth station consists of
Transmit e*uipment.
Receive e*uipment.
.ntenna system.
6ig. < shows the schematic #lock diagram of an earth station.
5n the earth station the #ase #and signal received directly from users= premises or from
terrestrial network are appropriately modulated and then transmitted at R6 fre*uency to
the satellite. The receiving earth station after demodulating the carrier transmits the
#ase #and signal to the user directly or through the terrestrial link.
The #ase#and signals received at the earth stations are mostly of the following types.
Groups of voice #and analog or digital signals
.nalog or digital video signals
Single channel analog or digital signal
ide #and digital signal.
5n satellite communications) in early days 6M modulation scheme was most fre*uently
used for analog voice and video signal transmission. /owever) the trnd is now to use
digital signals for #oth voice and video. >arious digital modulation schemes like -hase
Shift ?eying 9-S?: and 6re*uency Shift ?eying 96S?: are adopted for transmission of
digital signals.
The network operations and control centre for the communications network monitors the
network operations #y different users) distri#ution of different carriers within a
transponder and allocation of #andwidth & E5R- of different carriers. -roper functioning
of "etwork operations and control centre is essential where the num#er of users in the
network is large. "etwork operations & control centre is also responsi#le for giving
clearance to the ground system in respect of antenna radiation pattern) E5R- etc.
CHA'TER/7
SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
7ifferent Satellite Communications services are classified as one way link and two way
link. ;ne way link from transmitter T% to receiver R% on earth=s surface is shown in
fig.(.
E%amples of satellite services where the transfer of information takes place through one
way link are+
,roadcast Satellite Service 9Radio) T>) 7ata #roadcasting:
7ata Collection Service 9/ydro meteorological data collection:
Space operations service) 9Tracking) Telemetry) Command:
Safety services 9Search & Rescue) 7isaster arning:
Earth E%ploration Satellite Service 9Remote Sensing:
Meteorological Satellite Service 9Meteorological data dissemination:
Radio 7etermination Satellite Service 9-osition location:
Reporting Service 9fleet monitoring:
Standard fre*uency and time signal satellite service
Space Research Service.
5n two4way Satellite Communications link the e%change of information #etween two
distant users takes place through a pair of transmit and receive earth stations and a
satellite. 6ig.@ shows the elements of two4way link
E%amples of two4way satellite services are
6i%ed Satellite Service 9Telephone) tele%) fa%) high #it rate data etc.:
Mo#ile Satellite Service 91and mo#ile) Maritime) .ero4mo#ile) personal
communications:
5nter Satellite Service.
Satellite "ews Gathering 9Transporta#le and -orta#le :
. new class of two4way fi%ed satellite network service known as >ery Small .perture
Terminal 9>S.T: service has #ecame very popular among #usiness and closed users
group communities.
S.T networks are operated in two different configurations i.e. Mesh and Star. hile in
Mesh configuration a >S.T terminal can communicate with another >S.T terminal in a
single hop connection) Star network involves two hops via satellite and the hu# station.
CHA'TER/0
GEOSYNCRONOUS COMMUNICATION SATELLITE
Geosynchronous Satellites have now #ecome almost synonymous for communications
satellites) #ecause of its wide use in telecommunications due to the advantages over
non4geosynchronous satellites. ,ecause of the availa#ility of a num#er of
communication satellites over the geosynchronous arc) the communications #etween
different parts of the world have #ecome possi#le and afforda#le. The communication
satellites have played a significant role in converting the world into a glo#al village.
Salie!t "eat#$es o" Geosy!%&$o!o#s Co''#!i%atio!s Satellite
Salient features of Geosynchronous Satellite are+
ide Coverage
Stationary -osition
Multiple .ccess
Suita#ility for transcontinental telecommunications) #roadcasting) mo#ile
and thin route communications.
6re*uency reuse capa#ility
Ber( lo& Doler S"i!t
Reliabilit(+
1ost e!!ecti)eness+
=rie! descrition o! eac" o! t"ese !eatures are $i)en belo&8
<ide 1o)era$e8 3rom t"e $eos(nc"ronous orbit t"e satellite can co)er an area e#ual to about
42E o! t"e area o! t"e eart" (3.E i! an$les o! ele)ation belo& 9F are not used)+
T"us t"ree satellites laced 120F aart can co)er almost t"e &"ole &orld !or t"e
urose o! communications+ %NTECSAT Satellites strate$icall( laced o)er
Atlantic Ocean Re$ion (AOR)0 %ndian Ocean Re$ion (%OR) and Paci!ic Ocean
Re$ion (POR) co)ers t"e &"ole &orld !or %nternational Telecommunications+ <it"
&orld&ide satellite TB co)era$e0 an( incidence "aenin$ in an( art o! t"e &orld
can no& be )ie&ed li)e in t"e TB t"rou$"out t"e &orld+
Stationar( Position8 T"e orbital )elocit( o! t"e $eos(nc"ronous satellite bein$ e#ual to t"e
rotational )elocit( o! t"e eart" on its o&n a,is0 t"e satellite in t"e $eos(nc"ronous
orbit aears to be stationar( &it" resect to an( location !rom t"e eart"+ T"us t"e
satellite is al&a(s )isible !rom an( eart" station situated in its co)era$e re$ion and
t"e trac'in$ o! t"e satellite is simle and t"ere is no "and o)er roblem o!
trans!errin$ si$nal !rom one satellite to anot"er as in t"e case o! satellites in N>SO+
T"e constant )isibilit( o! t"e satellite also enables bot" t"e satellite and t"e eart"
station to use "i$"l( directi)e antennas+ @i$" $ain o! t"e antennas on-board t"e
satellite and t"e eart" station0 en"ances t"e transmit and recei)e caabilities+
4ultile Access8 4ultile Access is t"e abilit( o! a lar$e number o! users to simultaneousl(
interconnect t"eir resecti)e )oice0 data and tele)ision lin's t"rou$" a satellite+
T"e &ide $eo$ra"ic co)era$e and broadcast nature o! satellite c"annel are
e,loited b( means o! multile access+ 4ultile access also "els in otimum use
o! satellite caacit(0 satellite o&er0 sectrum utili2ation and interconnecti)it(
amon$ di!!erent users at reduced cost+
. satellite in geosynchronous or#it can link multiple earth stations within its coverage
area and separated #y great circle distances up to 'A)BBB ?m. Multiple access is the
uni*ue feature of satellite communications not possi#le to get #y any other means. 6or
m earth stations visi#le from a Satellite) the num#er of potential availa#le
communication circuits is given #y
n C m 9m4':2$
compared to non fle%i#le $4port network of conventional ca#le or land #ased networks.
Suita#ility for Transcontinental Telecommunications) ,roadcasting) Mo#ile and Thin
Route Communications+ T> ,roadcasting via Satellite is perhaps the most common use
of geosynchronous satellite. 5n developing countries where the terrestrial T>
distri#ution is very limited) the communications satellites can #e very effectively utili0ed
for T> distri#ution. Geosynchronous satellites handle a large portion of transcontinental
telecommunications traffic.
Geosynchronous Satellites along with other "GS; satellites are found to #e suita#le for
relia#le mo#ile communications for ships and aircrafts) as the ship and the aircraft can
continuously maintain the communication link with the satellites while moving. /owever)
GE; #ased satellite systems are much simpler to operate and maintain compared to
other system.

Geosynchronous Satellites are also the most suita#le means of providing relia#le and
cost effective communications to thin route rural areas) interconnecting small islands)
and providing communications to hilly and difficult terrain.
3re#uenc( Reuse8 T"e !re#uenc( bands o! a $eos(nc"ronous satellite can be reused b( di!!erent
met"ods !or increasin$ t"e c"annel caacities o! t"e communications satellite+ =(
usin$ seciall( desi$ned satiall( searated s"aed beams t"e same !re#uenc( and
olari2ations can be reused+ =( usin$ ort"o$onal olari2ations t"e same !re#uenc(
bands can be reused !or t"e same co)era$e area o! t"e satellite+ =( usin$
ort"o$onal linear and circular olari2ations and s"aed beams co)erin$ di!!erent
re$ions0 t"e same !re#uenc( band can be reused man( !olds t"us increasin$ t"e
communication caacit( o! $eos(nc"ronous satellite+ Di!!erent tec"ni#ues o!
!re#uenc( reuse o! t"e same !re#uenc( band are !ound in %NTECSAT series o!
satellite+
Ber( Co& Doler S"i!t8 1omared to lo& eart" orbit satellites0 in $eos(nc"ronous satellite
t"ere is almost no Doler S"i!t i+e+ c"an$e in t"e aarent !re#uenc( o! oerations
to and !rom Satellite0 caused b( t"e relati)e motion o! t"e Satellite and t"e eart"
station+ Satellites in ellitical orbits "a)e di!!erent Doler s"i!ts !or di!!erent eart"
stations and t"is increases t"e comle,ities o! t"e recei)ers eseciall( &"en a lar$e
number o! eart" stations intercommunicate+
Reliabilit(8 T"e reliabilit( o! lon$ distance telecommunication lin's imro)es considerabl( &"en
$eos(nc"ronous satellites are used+ T"e at" loss in t"e satellite lin's alt"ou$"
)er( "i$"5 t"ese remain almost constant0 t"us maintainin$ t"e er!ormance #ualit(
o! t"e lin'+
1ost e!!ecti)eness8 T"e $eos(nc"ronous satellite because o! its lon$ li!e o! t&el)e to !i!teen
(ears and &ide-band oerations s"ared b( a lar$e number o! users0 ma'es t"e oint
to oint ser)ice )er( cost e!!ecti)e comared to t"e ser)ice ro)ided b( land based
terrestrial s(stem+ No )iable alternati)es to $eos(nc"ronous satellites are resentl(
a)ailable0 so !ar as t"e broadcastin$ and mobile ser)ices are concerned+
REFERENCES
'. Clarke) DE%tra Terrestrial Relays=) ireless orld. >ol.(') pp 8B(48BE) ;cto#er
'F<(.
$. /eather E. /udson) Communication Satellites+ Their 7evelopment and 5mpact.
8. 7el#ert 7. Smith) Communication via Satellite+ . vision in Retrospect.
<. 1ewis) Communications Services via Satellite.
(. Miya ?. Satellite Communication Engineering.
@. Maral and M. ,ars*uet) Satellite Communications Systems.
A. Spilker) G.G. 7igital Communication #y Satellite.
E. Morrow Gr. 9Ed: Satellite Communications) -roc. 5EEE >ol.(F) "o.$ 6e#.'FA'.
F. -odcac0ky E.5.9Ed:) Satellite Communications -roc. 5EEE) >ol.@() "o.8) March
'FAA.
'B. /arry 1. >an Trees 9Ed:) Satellite Communications) 5EEE -ress selected reprint
series 9'FAF:.
''. ?adar 5. 9Ed:) Satellite Communications Systems) .5.. Selected reprint series >ol.
'E) Gan. 'FA@.
'$. Games Martin) Communications Satellite Systems.
'8. -ratt and C..,ostian) Satellite Communications.
'<. ,hargava et al) 7igital Communications #y Satellite.
'(. Gagliardi) Satellite Communications