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Resources Management (HRM)/Personnel Management

The word Personnel Management is popular with different names such as Labour
management, Staff management, and Industrial management and in modern times as
Human Resources Management.
‘Human Resources’ cannot be standardized, no two persons are similar in mental
abilities, traditions, sentiments and behaviour widely they differ. As people responsive
they feel, think and act. They cannot be operated like a machine. Hence they need to be
handled very tactfully and sensitively by managers for achieving optimum results of an
In the words of Peter Drucker ‘the prosperity if not the survival of any business
depends on the performance of its managers tomorrow’. Success of any organization
depends mainly upon the quality of human resource and their performance.
Organizational resources can be broadly categorized into two i.e. Human or psychological
and physical resources. Human Resource Management deals with management of human
resources of organization.

HRM is a strategically-driven process of acquiring, training, appraising and

compensating employees, and maintaining good labour relations, health and safety. HRM
directly addresses the business related issues or functions.

According to ’Leon C. Megginson’ the term ‘Human Resources’ can be thought

of as “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an
organization’s workforce, as well as their values, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals
A view from National Stand Point; the Human Resources can be defined as “the
total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes in the population.” In
other word “the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge, behaviour and
aptitudes of the employees.”

In modern times changes in the technological abilities and qualifications of

employees are revolutionariesed in the organizations with the technological advancement.
It has resulted tremendous changes in quality, attitudes, aspirations and complexity of
work force and posed several challenges to Personnel Management.

According to the Edwin B Flippo Personnel Management is the planning,
organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation,
integration, maintenance and the separation of human resource to the end that individual
organizational and social objectives are accomplished.

According ‘Michael J. Jucius’ defined Personnel Management as “the field of

management, which has to do planning, organizing, directing and controlling the
functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labour force, such that the
a) Objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and
b) Objectives of all level of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, and
c) Objectives of society are duly considered and served.”


According to Dale Yoder Personnel Management is that the phase of

management, which deals with the effective control, and use of manpower as
distinguished from other sources of power.

According to Institute of Personnel Management – London, personnel

management is part of management concerned with people and with their relationship
within an enterprise.

In the words of Prof. E F L Brech personnel management is that part of

management process which is primarily concerned with human constitution of an

Human Resources Management (HRM) can be defined as managing (Planning,

organizing, directing and controlling) the functions of employing, developing and
compensating human resources resulting in the creation and development of human
relations with a view to contributed proportionately (due to them) to the organizational,
individual and social goals.

Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resources Management:

Personnel management is different from HRM. Personnel means persons
employed. Hence, personnel Management views the man as economic man who works
for money or salary. Human resources management treats the people as human beings
having economic, social and psychological needs. Thus HRM is broader in scope
compared to personnel management.

Academically there are three aspects for personnel management: -

1. The welfare aspect - This is concerned with the working conditions and basic
enmities such as housing, schooling, hospitality, sanitary, canteen, crèches,
handling personnel problems and the recreational facilities.
2. The labour or personnel aspect - This is concerned with recruitment, placement of
employees, remuneration, training and development, promotions, incentives,
measuring productivity and individual performance.
3. The industrial relation aspect - This is concerned with trade union, negotiations
settlement of industrial disputes, joint consultation and collective bargaining.
All these aspects are concerned with human element in industry as distinct from
the mechanical or physical.

Scope of personnel management:

Scope of personnel management is very wide. It includes all activities which help
the management is getting work done by labour force in the best manner possible to
accomplish the main objective of organization.
o Recruitment and maintenance of labour force.
o Training to all persons new or old to meet the challenges of the new jobs and
o Job analysis, job description just to higher the qualified personnel to the jobs.
o Compensation i.e. determining wage rates, wage methods and incentive plan.
o Keeping personnel records or service registers i.e. to maintain complete bio-data
of each and every employee.
o Welfare aspects such as housing, education, hospitality, sanitary conditions,
recreation etc.


o Labour relation and activities such as settlement of disputes.

Importance of personnel management:

Due to rapid Industrial Development and undetermined role of human resources
while other physical resources were given undue importance resulting in the new and new
human problems in the industries. In order to solve these problems personnel
management was assigned a very important role to play.
Labour being an important factor of production needs, motivation and proper
guidance from the side of management to get the desired result. It is the task of
management to deal with human force effective and to lead the work properly and in right

Objectives of personnel management:

Personnel management is an approach, appoint of view, a technique of thinking
and philosophy of management and it is concerned with the overall development of man
at work. These objectives are categorized into two they are ‘general objectives’ and
‘specific objectives’.
General objectives: -
o To get maximum individual development.
o To maintain good relationship between employee and employer.
o To optimise the utilization of the organizations human resources efficiently and
effective molding of human resource.
Specific objectives: -
o To ensure right type and number of persons on the job, at right time.
o To give proper orientation and introduction of the new employees.
o To adopt suitable training facilities for better performance.
o To ensure provision of better working conditions and other facilities.
o To offer fair, sound and effective wage and salary and administration.
o To give good impression to the men who is leaving the organization.
o To create and maintain good relations with the employees.
o To maintain a high morale, by ensuring the development of highly effective work-
o Provision for personnel research and auditing.

Principles of personnel management: -

Principles of personnel management are guidelines for executives in
administrating and directing him/her personnel policies on rational basis.
1) Principle of maximum individual development.
2) Principle of scientific selection
3) Principle of high moral
4) Principle of effectiveness
5) Principle of team spirit
6) Principle of dignity of labour
7) Principle of fair rewards
8) Principle of co-partnership
9) Principle of effective utilization of human resource
10) Principle of contribution to national prosperity


Function of Personnel Management: -

The functions of personnel management are grouped into two categories; they are
‘Managerial’ and ‘Operative’ functions.

1. Planning: -
Planning involves the
ability to think, to predict,
to analyse, and to
come to decision, to
control the action of its
personnel. It
bridges the gap between
‘where they are and
where they want to go’.
For this purpose, the
personnel manager has to determine in advance the personnel policies and
programmes and how to attain the co-ordination between them. Planning today
avoids crisis tomorrow.
2. Organizing: - after plans have been developed the personnel manager must
establish an organization to carry them out. This function is therefore carried out.
Grouping out the personnel activities, assignment of activities to individuals,
delegation of authority to carry them out and provision of co-ordination of
authority relation ships horizontally and vertically in the organization structure.
3. Directing: - It involves guiding, motivation and leadership. It also involves
issuance of orders and motivation of workers to comply these orders so that the
people may follow the path laid down in advance.
4. Co-ordination: - refers to the balancing, timing and integrating activities in an
organization, so that a unity of action in pursuit of a common purpose is achieved.
In the words of Terry – ‘it deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure
a successful attainment of an objective’.
5. Controlling: - is concerned with observing and measuring the performance and
correcting the deviations if any from the set standards and it is the follow up
action of personnel planning and policies.
6. Motivating: - is stimulating the people or oneself to get desired course of actions.
It is effective instrument in the hands of a manager for inspiring people at work.

Operative functions:
• ‘Recruitment and Selection’ – procurement of personnel
• Providing ‘Training and Development’ programmes for personnel – inducing the
knowledge and skills as and when employees are required, provides opportunity to
get growth individually and providing better working conditions.
• Providing ‘Welfare facilities’ – housing, education, hospitality etc.
• ‘Compensation’ to employees – fair salary and administrative
• ‘Manpower planning’ – in order to maintain balance between over staffing and under
• ‘Job Evaluation’ – to fix equitable wage rates by studying the job contents


• ‘Performance Appraisal’ or merit rating – to assess the worth of a job holder

periodically on his/her job
• Maintain ‘Industrial Relations’ – to get industrial peace by handling grievances and
• Maintain ‘Service Registers’ – profile of an employee
• Promotions or demotions, terminations and transfers of personnel
• Personnel audit and research.

According to ‘Eric W Vetter’ the process by which management determines how
the organization should move from its current manpower position to its desire manpower

According to ‘Coleman Bruce P’ manpower is the process of determining the

manpower requirements and the means for meeting these requirements in order to carry
out the integrated plans of the organization.

According to ‘Stainer’ manpower planning is the strategy for the acquisition,

utilization, improvement and preservation of an enterprise human resource.

According to ‘Edwin B Gester’ manpower planning is a process including

forecasting, developing, implement and controlling by which a firm assure that it has the
right number of people and right kind of people and right place at right time for which
they are economically useful.
From the above definitions: –
 Human resource planning is process of analyzing and approximating the present
and future vacancies in the light of organisational requirements. It includes the
determination of the kind and quantity of employees.
 Manpower planning translates the organisational objectives and plans into number
of workers needed to meet organizational objectives.
 It is the strategy of procurement, development, allocation and utilization of an
organisations human resource. It relates to establishing job satisfaction or
quantitative of jobs, and determine the number of personnel required and
developing source of manpower.
 It is ongoing process of human resource planning and development of manpower
 Manpower planning is maintaining balance between overstaffing and
understaffing to meet current requirement of manpower.

Importance or Need of manpower planning

1. Effective recruitment and selection policy
2. Increase in the size of business
3. Reduction in labour cost
4. Avoiding disruptions in production
5. It keeps national policy and employment
6. Effective employee development program can possible
7. Maintain good industrial relation.


Basis of manpower planning and its requirements

1. Existing stock and wastage of manpower:
2. Future manpower requirements:
3. Business objectives and support form the top management:
4. Well organized personnel deportment:
5. Determination of other related personnel policies: – i.e. promotions, transfers,
salary and administration, assessment of overtime, training and fringe benefits.
6. Planning responsibility:
7. Fixed planning period:
8. Manpower standards:

Prerequisites of Manpower Planning Process:

 Preparing manpower inventory: - avoids overstaffing and understaffing.
Manpower Inventory means the assessment of the present and potential
capabilities of employees in terms of qualitatively and quantitatively.
 Studying the individual or employee turnover: - it helps in estimating future
need of work force, in order to assess individual output requires a lot of
experience relating working conditions, job satisfaction, competitiveness, morel
unemployment. Promotion, resignation, dismissal, transfers and death also effect
to assess worth of an individual. It is varying from one job to another.
 Forecasting manpower need: - it is based on production, sales budget, workload
analysis, workforce analysis, estimated absenteeism and turnover of employees
qualitatively and quantitatively.
 Manpower process: - after determining the manpower requirements of an
organisation should prepare best course of action to fill the gaps in manpower
programs and strategies are developed for recruitment, selection, performance
appraisal, training and transfers, promotions and demotions so that future
requirements will be met.

Process of human resource planning: - the following are various phases iteratively done in
manpower planning process.


Objectives of manpower planning: -

1. To ensure optimum se of human resource currently employed
2. To assess or forecast future skills requirements that necessary resources are
available as and when required
3. To determine manpower requirement level quantitatively
4. To anticipate redundancies and void unnecessary dismissals
5. To provide a basis for management development programs
6. To determine optimum training levels
7. To access future accommodation requirements
8. To decide in advance how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it.

 This is time taking and expensive process
 Not suitable for small, big and moderate organizations may go for it
 Predictions may not have validity
 Lot of uncertainty in manpower planning implementation
 All are based on predictions and assumptions.


According to ‘Edwin B Flippo’ job evaluation is system and orderly process of

determining the worth of a job in relation to other jobs.
It is an important function of personnel management is to fix the wage rates for
each job and it determines the relative worth of the job by studying and defines all the job
contents. Aims of job evaluators are…
 To study each job contents and define
 To determine equitable wage rate for each job in an organization.

The process of job evaluation consist the following stages they are
1. Job Analysis:
2. Job Description / job manual:
3. Job specification:
4. Job grading:
5. Pricing the Job:

1. Job Analysis: - it is a prerequisite of the job evaluation and the process,

critically evaluation of the operations, duties and responsibilities in a job.
In the words of ‘Edwin B Flippo’ job analysis is the process of studying and
collecting the information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.

Significance or use of job analysis:

I. Will be useful for manpower planning
II. Recruitment, selection and placement of right person on the right job
III. Facilitates training and development programs for personnel
IV. Facilitates to maintain standards in each job
V. It helps in evaluating the job by determining the relative worth of each job
VI. It helps in appraising the performance of people on the job.
VII. Job designing is safety and healthy


VIII. Helps in discipline

2. Job Description: - it is a job manual; descriptive in nature contains all the

particulars of a job with its unique title. In the words of ‘Edwin B Fippo’ job description
is the first and immediate of job analysis, as its title indicates this document is basically
descriptive in nature and constitute a record of existing pertinent job facts.

Contents of job description:

I. Proper job title
II. Job summary
III. Job location
IV. Duties and responsibilities
V. Nature of supervision and span of control
VI. Machines, tools and materials to be used
VII. Relation of other jobs
VIII. Working conditions
IX. Other items such as elasticity and qualities of jobholder.

3. Job Specification: - it includes minimum qualities and qualifications of a

jobholder. In the words of ‘Edwin B Flippo’ job specification is a statement of minimum
acceptable human qualities (psychological and physical) to perform job properly. It
includes physical and personal characteristics, responsibility, and qualification.

4. Job Grading: - it is relative levels of various jobs. Generally determines

according to the nature of the jobs.
5. Pricing the job: - the main purpose of job evaluation is to fix the price based on
the job contents and its complexities in an organization, by taking consideration of
various factors i.e. internal and external. The following are the methods for determining
the price of the job.
They are namely ‘Non-quantitative Methods’ and ‘Quantitative Methods’.

Non-quantitative: - in this method evaluators are not consider the details of job
factors described and specified in job manuals, they determine the worth of job, on the
basis overall impressions and its grade of the job. These are two methods namely,
Ranking Method and Job Classification Method.

 Ranking Method: - under this method a committee of executives is have a general

opinion on a job and based upon their overall impression they give the ranks and
placed in different salary ranges.
Merit: -
1. It is quit simple to introduce.
Demerits: -
1. No specific approach to determine rank.
2. Lack of fairness in judgment while ranking
3. Suitable for small organisation.

 Job Classification or Grading Method: - a committee of executives is studies job

specification in the light of certain predetermined factors like skill, responsibility,
experience, type of job etc., based upon ranks and allots the wage rate.
Merits: -


1. It is easy to understand
2. It is based on job specification
3. New jobs is easily ranked
Demerits: -
1. Not suitable for large scale organization
2. The wage rate effect the grading of job

Quantitative Methods: - to determine rate of a job, Evaluators are studied and fallows
the job factors, which are descried in job manual, job specification and its grade. These
methods are two types namely…
 Factors Comparison method: - under this method all jobs are compared to each
other to determine their relative importance by selecting job factors these are
mental and or physical requirement, skills needed, responsibilities and authority
are the key factors compared one another to find out the standers based on that
they determine the wage of the particular job.

Merits: -
1. More accurate
2. Flexible and applicable to new jobs also
3. The procedures o rating new jobs is logical
Demerits: -
1. It is costly to install
2. Complicated to understand
3. Due to factors weight-age difficult to allot the price.

 Point Method: - in this method job manuals are required. In order to know the job
factors (skill, efforts, responsibilities and job working conditions) are required job
description each factor measured by giving the points and it provides scale or
yardstick based on that evaluates the worth of a job.
Merits: -
1. Most suitable to large scale enterprise
2. It is objective study of job evaluation technique
Demerits: -
1. Point value result some times incorrect.


Merit rating is a technique to know the relative worth of an employee in terms of

qualitatively and quantitatively on the job so that his/her performance, potentialities may
be known and developed. The both terms merit rating and performance appraisal one can
use interchangeably.
The process of evaluating the worth of a person based on his/her past performance
is called performance appraisal where as the process of evaluating the relative merit of the
persons on a given job is known as Merit Rating. It is distinctly different from Job
evaluation. In job evaluation, the jobs are evaluated to determine wages and salary but in
merit rating job holder’s worth/performance will be evaluated.
Performance appraisal is the process of measuring and evaluating the performance
or accomplishments including individual behaviour, of an employee on the job front for a


given period. The main purpose is to assess the worth and value of a person to the

Definition: - According to ‘Alford and Beatty’ personnel rating is the evaluation or

appraisal of the relative worth to the company of a man’s service of his/her better job.

According to ‘Edwin B Flippo’ Merit rating is a systematic, periodic and so fat as

humanly possible an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to
his/her present job and to his/her potentialities for a job.
According to Scot, Clothier and Spriegal Merit rating of an employee is the
process of evaluating the employee’s performance on the job in term of the requirement
of the job.
According to Maurice B. Coming “Merit rating attempts to recognize and reward
the personnel abilities that an individual brings to his/her job, measured by the extent to
which his/her output or quality of his work exceeds the minimum that can reasonably be
expected for his/her basic rate of pay.”

Objectives and Purpose of Merit Rating: -

The principle objective of merit rating is to assess the worth of an
employee on his/her present job in an organization. These objectives can view into self
improvement of employee and personnel administration purpose.
• Self-improvement:
o Employee may improve him/herself as the performance appraisal
brings out deficiencies and short comings of the employee’s which may be
improved if they are known to the person concerned.
• Administrative purpose:
o To assess the employee’s present level of performance
o To identify the strengths or weaknesses of individual employee
o To provide feedback to the employee so that he/she can improve
o To determine salary and increments
o To provide an objective basis for rewarding the employees for their better
performance and to decide who has to be transferred, promoted or demoted
o To motivate and enhance employee morale and thus, stimulate positive
thinking among the employees about the work and the organization.
o To identify the gaps and guiding and monitoring the performance of those who
are lagging behind and thus, assess training and development needs.
o To provide a database for evolving succession strategies.
o To provide a basis for many other personnel decisions such as fixation of
incentives, allowances, regularization of the services of the employee,
promotion, transfer or demotion.

Methods of Merit rating:

There are different methods of assessing the performance of the person on the job.
While most of them are based on supervisor’s remarks, some of them are based on self-
evaluation. The following are the methods of merit rating.
1. Straight ranking method: In this method, the rater ranks the
employee as whole in order of their merit with the best on the top and poorest at
the bottom of the ranking table. This method does not conceder the various
elements of performance, man as a whole and compared degree of difference


between the employees. This method is suitable where the number of employees
is less.
2. Paired comparison method: here every employee is compared with
all others in a particular cadre in the department. By comparing each pair of
employees, the rater can decide which of the employees is more valuable to the
organization. This method is more useful for an overall comparison of employees
and if the number of employees is reasonable.
3. Man to man comparison method: It is commonly called ‘Factors
comparison method’. Under this method certain factors such as Initiative,
Leadership, Dependability, Reliability, productivity etc., selected. There after a
five point master scale is designed to each factor by the rater. The five point scale
would be excellent, good, satisfactory, average and poor and the weightage could
be 5,4,3,2 and 1, respectively. The indications are recorded by marking the
relevant number representing the degree to which the individual satisfies the
standard. The individual weightage of each factor are added up, to judge the
relative merit of each employee.
4. Grading Method: in this method certain categories of worth (made
in factors comparison method) such as good, average and poor are established and
defined in advance carefully. The actual performance of each employee is
compared with the grades established and the person is allocated to the grade
which best describes his/her performance.
5. Graphic scale method: it is like man-to-man comparison in this
method there are two types of factors are considered by rater they are employee
characteristics and contributions. An employee characteristic refers to the
qualities of the persons such as dependability, ability, initiative leadership etc.
Employee contributions are those which denote what the person produces such as
quality and quantity of work, responsibilities assumed. Each of these factors will
have three to five degrees. The indications are recorded through graph and rest is
similar to man-to-man comparison.
6. Check list method: under this method the rater does not evaluate
but reports employee’s performance and final ranking is done by personnel
department. This method is also referred as ‘questionnaire method’ as it uses a
checklist questionnaire which contains a series of “Yes” or “No” questions
concerned with the employee and his behaviour. The employee answers these
questions in ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ on the basis of checklist and the personnel department
ranks the employees.
7. Forced choice description method: in this method employees are
given a set of alternatives for a problem and they have to choose one. This
method facilitates to assess the employees judgment, skill, analytical and
reasoning skills. It is called forced choice because the employee is forced to
choose on from the set of answers and explain why he/she thinks that alternative is
the right answer.
8. Critical incident method: This method is based on the human
behaviour concept. Employee exhibits a particular behavioural pattern while
doing his job. This behavioural patron makes the difference between success and
failure of a job. In this method the employee is ranked based on these reactions to
a particular situation. Examples of employee reactions are upset or angry with
work, failure, refused to help/support fellow being; refuge to get training etc.
based on the ranks given by rater, personnel department makes an appraisal.


9. Descriptive evaluation method: In this method the rater prepares a

consolidated descriptive report describing the performance of the employee on the
job. The report reflects the personality, behaviour, quantity and quality of work
performed by the employee. The report is prepared by rater purely by observation.
10. Group appraisal method: In this method, the rating is made by a
group of raters or supervisors generally who know the employee are sitting
together and evaluate the performance of the employee.
11. Field review method: In this method, instead of directly interacting
with employees, the experts from personnel department interview the concerned
supervisor to obtain all the information about each employee and also ask them
about the possible methods of improving performance of employees. Based on
the interview the report is prepared and submitted to top management.
12. MBO: The short-term objectives mutually agreed upon by the
management and the employees are used as performance standards. This method
considers the actual performance as the basis for evaluation. It is a systematic
method of foal setting. Also, it provides for reviewing performance based on
results rather than personality traits or characteristics. However, this is not
practical at all levels and for all kinds of work in the organization.

o Hallo effect: the tendency of rater to an employee
consistently average or high in all jobs based on general impression.
o Criterion problem
o Frustrations both rater and employee
o Lack of cooperation.
To sum up, merit rating is a crucial function which has to be carried out
dispassionately and objectively. If it is not done in a professional way, this could be the
source of complaints and tensions. Further, it should not be viewed as an annual ritual.
Merit rating is a continuous phenomenon. Progressive organizations create an in-built
system to enable their employees to constantly monitor their own performance

Distinction between Merit Rating and Job Evaluation:

Merit Rating Job Evaluation

o Merit rating is for the job o Job evaluation is to
holder evaluates the job
o It apprises relative o Job evaluation determines
performance of the worker the relative worth of job
o Merit rating made after the o Made before selection and
placement of worker recruitment
o The main objective is to o The main objective of job
development of each individual or evaluation is to establish equitable
employee wage rate.


The service of personnel management had developed very recently the main reasons are
• Technical factors:


o Industrial Revolutions which introduced many revolutionary

changes in the method of techniques of industrial production.
o New experiments and researches in other social sciences such as
‘Hawthorne’ experiments in the field of psychology affected the attitudes of
the employees and also researches in behavioural science for selecting the
right person on the right job.
o Use of science in industry.
• Awakening among workers due to:
o After effects of World war-II and concentration of power in
hands of few owners.
o Political movements and success of Russian revolution.
o Emergency of industrial labour organizations
• Favorable Government attitude:
o Pay-scale structure: Maintaining standards
in pay-scale structure and promotional policy.
o Changes in concept of labour from
commodity concept to human concept.
o Emergence of welfare states.
• Cultural and Social emergences:
o Spread of education
o Population problems
o Changes in social value of
• Increased size of
business developed principles, procedures, rules and regulations.
• Change in the attitude
of management
• Emergence of joint
stock companies form of organization
• Problem of
coordination and control over the workers.


Managers are absolutely essential for the healthy functioning of organizations.
Management is growing in complexity in this age of sophisticated technology, uncertainty
and discontinuity. It is indeed difficult to specify the immense range of abilities that may
be legitimately expected in a manager/executive. The one indispensable quality is
according to Preter F Drucker, integrity. This view is beyond challenge. Good managers
are in short supply everywhere. A really effective manager is of inestimable value.
The position of a personnel manger in the organization is very important because
he/she is the person to direct men at work and to get the work done by them to achieve
the organizational objectives.
Drucker considers the usual definition of manager as ‘one responsible for the
work or others’ as inadequate. He defines a manager as aperson who is responsible for
the efficient performance of an organization, that is, proper use of the resouirces of
production (men, machines, raw materials and so on).
Fred Smith stated that “a manager is not a person who can do the work better than
his men. He is a person who can get his men to do the work better than he can”.


Abilities needed in a Manager:

The manager requires an analytical mind and the ability to integrate diverse elements.
He must be able to use the talents of his people fully and should not be unduly pre-
occupied with their deficiencies. He needs social skills. He should understand the
infinite range of human moods and temperaments. He must understand their language
and speak in a language they understand. Moreover, he has to develop persuasive
abilities. It is not by logic alone that people are convinced.

 Sense of vocation: sense of inner urge to get the best out of the available human
 Sense of social responsibility: to get maximum coordination from workers – as
individual and as a group.
 Capacity to lead the people
 Capacity to persuade the top executives and to subordinate in reconciling the view
 Personality:
o Art of public speaking
o Facial expressions
o Spontaneity of speech
o Personal dignity
o Courtesy and social awareness
o Foresightedness
 Personnel integrity
 Personnel knowledge: He must pose the full knowledge of subject
with latest development in behavioural science in the word.