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l. Core notes on Man & Environment p.2
2, P1 and P2 Questions on Man & Environment p.36
3. An in-depth look at the Environment p.38
4- Food and Watel p.43
5. Energy P.4A
6. Health p.53
7. Population p,58
8. Topic Guide on Glimate Ghange p.62
9. Topic Guide on Environmental Activism p.66
1O, Topac Guide on Food Security p.70
11. Topic Guide on Water & Sanitation p.74
12. Topic Guide on AIDS/HIV p.78
13. Preparing for the Next Pandemic p.83
14, Act of Man p,91
15. Global generosity after crises must reach P.93
people in need
16. No end in sight for flood stricken Somalia p.96
17. Melinda Gatesr The Virus and Women p.99
18, Was 2OO5 the year of natural disasters? p.102
19. The Paradoxical Politics of Energy p.1O5
2O. Sustainable Maths p.1OG
21. Yeas in Review: Environment p.1O7
i a. what is ClImaf,e Cnangea

lo o chonge in the long lerm weolher pollerns of o region They con

This refers
become wormer or colder ond onnuol roinfoll or snowfoll con increose or

An increose in world's overoge lemperolure over lhe posl cenlury hos coused:
I Arctic seas to thin by 40%;
'. the ice of the
sea levets to rise by 1ocm to 20cm, causing more ftooding and erosion of many
coastal lands, such as those along the 6utf Coast of the United States;
t . increased warming that cotltd spread desert'Uke conditions in Africa,
destroying the ljvetihoods of hundreds of thousands of Peopte before the end of
t the century.
Mony scieniisls believe ihol people, oncl nol nolurolcouses. crre responsible Jor
globcrlworming. The biggesl culpril is Jhe emission of greenhouse goses.

b. how does global wat.ming work?.

. Wilh increosed inclustriol oclivilies oround the world, vosi foresls hove
{ been cleorecl, hozordous chemicols dumped inio lhe seos ond high levels
of unnolurol chemicols purnped inio the skies.

t . ccrrbon dioxide in the olmosphere hos increosed by neorly 30%, while

olher greenhouse goses hove more thon doubled.
{ . As o resull, more heol from lhe sun i5 rgoching ihe Eorth's surloce -

c. effects on Planet Earth

t . Risingiemperolures ore melling lhe ice cops. This is expecled io moke
seo levels swellobove 40cm by 2080. Three billion people in Norlh Africq,
the Midclle Eosi ond lhe lndion sutconlinenl ore ol risk.
. Al lecrsl 80 million people will be ot risk from ftooding olone, 60% of them in
f Soirlh Asio ond 20% in South -Eosl Asio. Singopore could be hil; its smoll
t, sze ond low ground levelmoke it susceplible lo flooding crnd erosion.

Ihe omounl ot woler for drinking ond irrigolion could foll drosiicolly os
roiny seosons lurn clry ond rising seo levels coL,se soll io enler lhe
Ctrounclwoler of Cooslol oreos.

Projected Scenarios
. Plonei eorlh willrun oui of room ond resources by 2050-
. Populolion will be forced lo colonise oiher ploneis if nolurql resources
continue lo be exploiied os lhey ore ol lhe momenl.
. ln 50 yeors seos wouJd be empiied of fish.
. Foresis woulcl be complelely desiroyed.
. Freshwoier supplies would be scorce ond polluled.

The impocl of globolworming is bolh positive ond negolivei

l) Posilive
lncreosed crop growlh ond more mocJerole winlers:
lncrecrse in minimum iemperoiures longer frosl kee seoson in mony pcrris
of USA: beneficiol tor mony crops ond olso offecls growih ond
developmenl of perenniol plonls ond pesls. The use of insecls ond olher
onimols lhol compele wilh or prey on cerio;n crop pesls, such os using
plonis conioining nolurol loxin cornpounds thol repelhormful insecis -
"biologicol conlrols" is o sofer, effeclive crncj less expensive oliernol;ve 1o
synihelic chemicols.)
lncreosed roinfoll cruciol for orid reqions

ll) Negolive:
. Serious environmenlol, sociol ond economic problems more vololile ond
exlreme weoiher / sudden unpred;cloble or irregulor climole poiierns
record lemperoiures, heoi woves, very heovy roinfoll, or droughl,
iropicol slorms, eleciric storms, hurricones, biller cold, elc, oll of which
hqve sloggering effecls on socielies, ogricullure ond ecosyslems.

llL,mon ocilvilies lhol impocis on lhe climqie ond the environmenl:

. Burning of fossil fuels, occelerolion of decoy of orgonic motier, ogriculture

ond ogriculiurol proclices, deforesiolion ond u.bonizotion, deslruclive
fishing lechniques, dumping of corbon dioxicle in the oceons, pollulion

Question: Are humon oclivilies, rolher lhon elemenh otlhe climole syslem
oulside of monkind's intluence, couslng climole tlucluollons?

d. what has been doneu

ln I992, governmgnts odopled the Uniled Nolions Fromework Convenlion
on Climole Chonge. ll hos been roiified by 189 counlries, including oll
lhose in the G B.

{t_ . The Kyoio Prolocol followed in 199/ ond come into effeci on Februory
2005 wilh supporl f rom l28 nolions. ll seis oui more specific, legolly
binding commilmenJs 1o levels of greenhouse gos em;ssions. This together
t wiih lhe recenlly concluded BoliTcllk in December 2007 is hoped lo bJ ng
oboul greoler cooperolion omong noiions lo reduce ihe domoCre done
io the environmenl.
. The problem is ihol the world's biggesl producer of such ernissions - ihe US
hos refused lo rotjfy ihe ogreemenl, lls crbsence could jeoporciize lhe
{ effecliveness of lhe prolocol.

e, what needs to be done?

I . More concerled efforl beiween lhe developed nolions ond poorer sloles
on lFdu :r g g oe.hou'e go, -n'.5:on\.

I . Shoring of lechnology ]h{rl is env;ronmenlolly friendly belween counhies.

. Reolislic oplion of curbing exlrovcrgonl lifeslyles

. More environmenlolly friendiy lifeslyle lo be inlroducecl ond promoled
e-9. personol corbon roiion, hybrid cors, bio fuels.
. A susloinoble developmenl bosed economy lhol mokes Lrse of lhe
resources ovoilob e wiihoul eoiing inlo tuiure consumpiion of the comlng
{ g-nerojion,.
. Limii populotion growih oncl.reslricling unplonned economic growih
L . ConJrol fossil fLreluse by
' ' or lrolr:ng .olos oI de'ore,'olion
gozelting foresl os "fores] Teserves"
L bonning exporl of wood

. Reduce emission oi ioxic goses Jhrough use of iechnology

L - eleclric ond hybrid cors thol run on pelrol ond eleclricily
lechnology ronging kom use of more efficienl devices (low-volloqe
lomps, e.g.) lo developing co generolion (ihe combined produciion of
I heot ond eleclricily)
- conlrol occelerolion oi decoy which releose nilrous oxide ond melhone
- need 1o look closely ol lhe irovelond lourism incluslry's own conlribuiion
i io qre-nhou\a qose,.

. Environmenlol conservotion is seldom moiivoled only by environmenlol
L concerns olone. Polilicol ond business inleresls, economic ond sociol
concerns ore conlending forces.

. ln generol, much clepends on ihe polilicol wil, of governmenis. However,
lhe communily's righls over its noiuroi resources ond lhe role of every
individuol connol be over emphos;zed_

. ln focl, lhere is o need lo recognize lhol indigenous knowledge ond

technology evolved over generolions hod enobled communilies lo co-
exisl wilh lheir environmenl. Much con be leorned from lhe indioenous

f. environmental activism / lobby groups:

These groups ore formed io oddress environmenlol issues, lo drow otieni;on io
the need for proleclion of noluae oncJ chonge in volues.
Greenpeoce lniernolionol
- World Conservolion Monilorinq Cenlre
Friends of the Eorlh
The Nolure Sociely

g. global action - government pOliCieS and international

Governmenl policies: Economlc developmenf versui environmenlol
- Pollulion siondords ond legisloiion
'oLrrsm (^. o ond ogro lor./rism)
lnfrosiruclure {lroins over oulomobiles)
Nolure reseryes {or reclomoljon - e.9.. pulou Ubin)
BuiJding of golf courses in nolure oreos

Some inlernqlionol orgonizolions formed lo look inlo environmenlol issues:

Eorlh Summil in Rio De Joneiro, Bto7il.1992
Kyolo Prolocol, I997
-GB + 5 Climole Chonge
Diologue {Woshinglon Declorotion, 2007)
"Vienno Climole Chonge Tolks, 2007)
- *UN Boli Conference, 2007
- *Poznan Polond Conference, 2008
'Copenhogcn, Danmotl 2009
rPosl-Kyolo Prolocol negotiolions oim is la reoch on ogreemenl by 2009

h. economic exPloitation
Boih developed ond developing counlrje6 point fingers ot oncl blome eoch
olher for lhe slole of lhe environmenl.

. The industrjolized counlries consider lhe ropidly exponding populolion of lhe

developing counJries lo be lhe rnoin conlribuior of environmenlol problems.

They olso insisi on ihe developing couniries conserving their resources in iheir
t drive for economic developmeni.

. Developing counlries however, poinl lo lhe consumplion levels in ihe

I developed nolions os ihe moin culpril of environmenlol problems. Ihus lhey
coll on ihe indusir;olizecl counlries lo poy mosl of ihe cosls of environmenlol

. Ihe US however hos nol rolified ihe Kyoio Prolocol. ll is unwilling io do so os ii

would meon cuilinq down on induslries olreody offecled by downsizing ond
t. oulsourcing. ln oddilion, ii does nol wish 1o lose oul lo Chino ;ls compelilor,
which cloes nol need 1o rolify lhe Prolocol ond yet is ihe second greolesl
pollulonl on Eorlh.
l. the solution: sustainable development
"Suslni nble deaeloptnent menns meeting lhe nrctls ofthe present u)ilhoul jeopnrdizing
r lfu abilify off tule generaLions to fttael lheir oun nee tls."
- Worlcl Commission on [nvironmenl ond Developmeni
fi. "lllere is a huge chasm of mistrust lhe
corntries about how to do this..
dcveloping countries won't take on any carbon reduchon targets until they
bclieve the countdes that have caused thc problem do so."
, Stitish Environmenl Secretory Dovid Milibond

lnlernolionol co-operolion ond effort is needed:

L . No counlry or smoll group of coLrnlries ocling olone con slobilize lhe climole,
or proleci the diversily of life on Eorth
E . Gools con only be ochieved lhrough globol co-operolion ihol recognizes the
in inierdependence of counlries

{. . The lerm hos been widely usecl in scienlitic, business, ond public institutions. lt
refers 1o "developmenl lhoi meels lhe needs of lhe presenl wilhoul
compromising lhe obitit of furiher generolions lo meel lheir own needg'
L (Our Common F.rlure, lqBT)

. Since 1987, vorious orgonizolions. ond counlries hove odopleci the concepi.
L E.9. ln I993, Presidenl Clinion creoied lhe Presidenl's Council on Susloinoble
Development io promole lhe ideo of susloinoble developmenl. Some
slrolegies implemenled in the Uniled Sloles lo prolecl lhe environment in lhe
f losl 26 yeors include o voriely of regulolory meosures, seiling siondo.ds ond
issuing permils for pollulont dischorges, ond then inspecling. moniloring, ond
enforcing lhe slondords sei for eoch environmeniol siolule-

. The difficuliy wiih odopling the concepl of susloinoble developmenl lies in

lhe focl lhoi mony developed counfrids, such os ihe Uniled Sloles, meosure

economic growlh using gross nolionolproducl (GNPJ os on incJicoior of
progress Ihe long lerm need for environmeniol proleclion ond sociol equiiy
i nol oddad i.lo'he equorio. lo goJgo e.onomiL progr6 s more
occuroiely. l-lence some negolive environmenlol impocls of produclion ond.
consumplion, loxic woste, for exomple, ore considered o credil rolher lhon o
debil when colculollnq cNP.

There olso o d;sporily omong professiongls os lo the definilion of

developmenl. Business represenlolive5 oflen view developmenl os growlh
ond induslriolizoiion, while environmenlolisls ofien define developmenl in
lerms of whol is susioinoble. When o counlry exploits its noturol resources
beyoncl their renewoble limit it will experience growlh, bul nol developmenj,
The currenl economic indicoiors of success ore bosed on consumerism ond
moieriolism which do nol loke inio occounl ihe finile limiis of resources ond

To ochieve suslcrinoble developmenl requires o new mullifoceled opprooch

1o monoging our environmentol, economic, ond sociol resources for lhe long
ierm. l1 meonr moking beller decis;ons ond encouroging individuols,
insllluiions, ond corporolions lo loke responsibilily for lhe economic,
environrnenlol, ond sociol consequences of lheir oclions.

11(rlso meons using resources more efficienlly wilh lechnologicol

odvoncemenis, ond ioking o leodership role in lhe clevelopmenl ctncl
implemenlolion of 6lobcrl susloinoble developmenl policies lhol will ensure o
vilol economy, sociolwell-being ond o beollhy environmenl for iodoy os well
os lomofiow.

i(i). The burden of reaching sustainable development musl tall on

developed, industlialized nations

Provide money ond ollernoiive iechnologies lo help developing nofions ochieve

susloinoble economic developmeni. Why?

. They hove fhe weollh ond lhe lechnology

> The Third World need monelory ossislonce in order to conseNe lheir
biologicol diversity, promole susioinoble use of foresls oncl
rongelonds, ond experience posilive lrends in economic ond socioi
conditions lhqt will fovour populotion slobilily
> The Third World would be unoble ond unwilling to poy for ihe
esseniiol new lechnology, given lheir economic situoiion.

. As lhe greolesi consumers of ihe common resources, they conlribuie

disproporlionolely lo ihe globol environmenlol problems, espec;olly io
ozone deplelion ond greenhouse effect. lMorol Obligotion)

Need io prove Jheir sedousness ond sincerily in order lo persuode lhe Third
World lo lreol lhe issrres of populoiion growlh, deforeslolion, ond loss of
biologjcol diversily wiih equol seriousness. lMorol Authority)
Unless lhe poorer nolions' need for food, sonilolion, cooking fueloncl
olher bosic requiremenls ore being mei, lhey con horclly be expecJed lo
i. conlribule lo solving long-lerm globol problems.

i(ii), Govemments of rich counlries must fulfill commitments made

I and implement fiscal policies to regulate unsuslainabte activities

Eliminole subsidies lor unsusloinoble octivities

L o Currenlly, governmenls subsidized mony of the very
crciiviiies ihot lhreolen ihe susloinobiliiy of lhe economy

I o E.g.: ihey suppori fishing tleeis io the exlenl of some 954

billion cr yeor, even though exisiing fishing copocily
I olreocly greolly exceeds the susloinoble yielcl ot oceonic
I fisheries.

lnsiilule o corbon fox

I o Such o lcrx woulcl reflecl lhe cosl Jo sociely of burning
Jossil fuels- lhe cosls, of oir pollulion, ocicl roin, ond globol
, 1 i^g
i. laslilule o Personol Corbon Rolion Cord
t o Everyone willgel lhe scrme ollowonce for how much
corbon dioxide lhey em;l eoch yeor
o Every ijme they buy some product lhol involves corbon
dioxide emjssions ciorbon poinls ore deducied from lheir
g. cred;l or clebil cords.

> Reploce income loxes wilh environmenlol loxes

g o Tox environmeniolly deslruclive ociivilies - use of peslicides,
{, generoiion of loxic wosles, use of virgin row moieriols, ,
conversion of croplond lo non form uses, corbon emission

L Queslions: Refer lo lhe lwo orlicles (in lhe Addif,'onol Reodings ol the bock) - .
The Parodoxicol PolilicJ ofEnergy A Susldinoble Malhs (Pgl05 & 106)
. V,lhy qnd how ore odopling lhe "green cilizenship" shategy?
L . Do you know of ony "green incenlives" or compoigns ir Singapote?
. How efleclive do you lhink svch iniliotives qre oDd holy could lheyfu',het
t be imprcved upon?

i(iii), Developing countries need to play their part
. Ensure lronsporency ond occountobility crs they build lhe inslilulions
needed lo monoge iheir resources.

.. Slobilize lheir populolion

o Adopj sociol policies lhol will encourcrge sr.oller fomilies
o lron. focing bolh lond hunger ond woier scorciiy, now limiis public
subsidies tor housing, heollh core, ond insuronce io lhree children
per fomily

. Conserye resources even while ihey embork on developmenl

o Economic developmenl rnusi be poced lo ollow for resource

i(iv). Private seclors and industries need to advance environmental

objectives while pursuing their interests,
. lhe, n .,' 'o-op^Joie. Lomp./ or forc^d lo worr wrll"
environmenlol objecJives.

i(v). The backing of a well-intormed, committed public is crilical.

. The power of the governmeni depencls on ils obilily lo oller the behovior
of inclividucrls through educoiion, lroining, incentives, help, ond
deierrence of individuols who nonelheless insisl on seeking lheir own ends,
'egoro'e\r of rrcler inrFra ls.

. For instonce, lhe lhreol of consumer boycoll in lhe US forced iLrno,

conning compon;es lo imporl dolphin,sofe iuno.

Quesfions: Reter lo lhe orlicle - Ilme is right for ASEAN lo tockle climofe chonge.
Whol rore does ASEAN play in helping to tock e lhis isiue?
Differenl counhies in ASEAN ore offecled in diflerenl w(Jys. Descibe ond qnalyze
thei molives fot being potl of lhe iniliotive. ,
Time ls rlqht tor ASEAN to tackl€ .limate .hanqe
AMID5_I in.reasing.ttention on.rimate chanqe and otobat warmrng, the Association ofSo
(AseaD) has vowed in thejoint coFmunique ofirs 40th MiDtst.riatMoell.g, to make con.ert.d efforts to tnckte thts

be herd rnsinqaDore in Nove **-a." a

""**, ""
The Asean tnitraule @mes atlhe riqht time, Reoronalstates need to act now to coordinate their positions for
up.ominq internatlonal neqotiations for a post-Kyoro reqime,

althouqh qrobalwarminq poses a threat ro arlcountries, som lly vulnerable dle to their

f4.ny south east Asian countries are ro.ated in iropicalarers and soDe of them are littorat, archipelaqic orisland
states witD rong coasdhes, one ofthe pmjecte.r manifestations of climate chanqe is a rise in sea level, which means
saltwater int.udinq lnto tfe surrace and groundwaterof co.srar areas. Tbis witl aftecr fisheries and desrroy
mano'o,e. Jno the hdbldr\ o due lo , h"nq", in *inrry.

cktrirrv. n.q al.o th. rr.q&ncy and inieneity of tropi.Jlstoifnr 4rr induc.s mor. .ardjovascurar aid
den!,ue aever.nd tri.rrnJ
Take nre Ph'rippin.t and riJo Thf5. trvo.r.h peaqic beheved ro br€{remely n.t€.h.nqe rndonesin,.ons[r no of.bout 17,000 islands. n,.y wiiness2,u0oof lhenr submera€d
rry 2010 rue to sea eveln5es lhe.urrent |rend of o!ob.lw.rmtrq cDni,nu.e un.he.ked. rhe PhilipDlnes, wth
appror nrrk,ry 7,1o0 islands, r'rruirtri,,!, ,tum t'opnrl .y.lone5.nd noodinq thar dal

!, B.rhrrr.Ph ppnes.ndrndofesi.hsvethush..loreate"nre,e5tn,t.klnqbs..vepa in nternation.r cl mate

.h.nq. r.qoLatio's s.ce the lJl. r,r30i

lhe phLpn'neswdi t,vdlvrd nsdunq!rirhclnrdrqovi,'icnlalNeq.tat'naCommitteealtheunitedN.tion5
i_,k.onventon on arn.te rhan're (r.c.). rt w.s.5

rrnder thr 1997 Kyoto Protoc!1, the emis5ion .ut5 imposed of i'nrunnalired .oufnies fo' 2003 2012 nvera9ed on y 5
Th. nen round or tarks ror a p p..e.i thr uNs World chmate ah.nqe Conf€r€n.e h 8al,
t', at lre end ol thir y..r
.t t. k5 nv.rvinq mo'e th.n ro0 cour tj.s lenr to liE time .onsdmina wrth 3lr.'p
d,ve,! .mon! d'rrer.nt .ount,,es .nd bloG
i Ai' rridr.l.olntryrr.5toJ srttiml.rstrrl.:ron,aqrry r!'oi.r,sopr!nrlDti.roi

rnlr naton5.nd fornrd

the \:rotrp.r 77 ard ahi d lr nd ns6ted on .ommon blt
a,lre',"nt.ted r.sF.r,bil Ls *lrc p.rii.uany eiron! d, vin0 the Kyoto
n.0oti.fuit. 'n

i Ir,js rdi., nr. 10 member has we.omed the proposarof s nq.pore. r',e ,rtnl.hrr or .dqioral !rouli'ro,
to nake Frqqy, Envko n.nt, '.
^sernarm:re ahdnbe Jnd 5lstan,ab[ Dev.opmenr ihe theme ro' dis.ltsions when
ie ir pa ly tht orga.,salion nnd. f ne.ess.ry to co ^

t. ,vcroPnred, en!ironment.l Jlo
eur ro!nd or tarks Ch, usin!
. sPc.r.r dnd ind€P€rdc'n
$.t r.borb(r nrorc with nsthr€e No h €ast p.finers chnra;raran.nrr
South (orc. - on the lssuror cimate chanqe, Ch,na, the wond t laroesi oreenhouse q.s emjtter, is racil'q
in.reasina irtern.tional presslre lor mo,e emEs on.uts. S!ffeinq rrorn nrcurtrto rlomeshc pollution problems, China
f'{- is seekinq rnternationalaid, espe.i.lry through biatersrcooperaiion, ro baldn.e rts economi. developmenl and.
environmeni.l Drotedion. lt nceds ,tern.tionarsupport .n(l underetandrnq lrom other blocs io rorest.ll .ny cqally
b'nd-o.m .on

j' rap.n, the bfih pac€ orthe Kyoto Protocol, has a sDe.ial Lnt€rest in.lmat. cha.9€ talks be..ut€ it re9.rds
envfonmental protection .auses as.n efnoe.t m€ans to promote lts inre.nat onal tnaoe. M€aivJhile, iapan also
finds t.rfi.ult to fulfil ts oblioation3 un.r€r the Kyoto Protocolto cut emi5son5 by 6 p.r.ent lretore 2o12.

(' Expa'son of q obalc-rbon tradrq 3rd nio.c envronmentdln,v.stment inio develoDinq.ounties serve tlre int€rest5
ol rapatr, whr.t' urqently.eeds policy.oordrnatioi and sLpporl tom Ase.n.
South Korer, which has been exempt€d kom mandatory emission cuts under the Kyoto Protocol, may also be
pressured ro shoulder more strinoent oblioations in the n€xt climate treaty bc.ause.l ilsnlgher l€velol
industrralisanon. seoul isan acnve psrtiopant rn the Asia Pa.ific Panne6hip on clea. Development and climote.
t. Equrpp.d with hioh end t€chnolooy, it wants to expand reqional.oorerbti.n r .neroy .onseruation and fucl

f It is tr'n.ry and ol strate!li. importan.e, ther€Iore, forAs.a. to not only devoie more altennon to th. c rmate.hanqe
issue, but .lso to exp.nd ils broc noqoti.tions to incrllde China, l.pbn and solth Kor€a.

j. are we headed for an environmental disaster?
There ore lwo schools of lhoughl.

. Dwindling rqw/nolurol resources
. Shrinking biodiversily/ norrower ecosysiems
. Runowoy populolion orowih
. Globolworming cousing climoiic chonges wiih devosloling effecis
. lncreos;ng pollulion problems
. Exploilolivelechnology

. New le( hr o og o. \ rl ollow ^c onon^.. o(ponsion
. New resources will be found when presenl resources ore spenl
. Recycling ond more effic'enl use of row moieriols willnol couse
resources lo ciwindie so quickly
. "cene Revolulion" will erodicoie food shorloctes
. World's people ore increosingly owore of ihe environmenlol crisis ond
ore concerned

Iopping new source! of energy:

. energy
. Wind power
. Oceon iialesrnd rivers/ hyciro-eleclric energy
. Geolhermol energy {heol from lhe eorlh's inner core}
. Nucleot enatg/
. Cieon-fuel : Lrse of nolurol gos cors which give off foa less cancer
cousing chemicols
. Hydrogen (in oulomobiles)

Sectian II. Water Isnes

. Only 2.5% of the lolol omounl of wqler on Eorlh is treshwoler {lhe resl is
moinly soll woler in oceons). Of this 2.5% only 0.4% of il is occessible
woler found in lokes, rjvers, ond oquifers

. The wodd hos enough freshwoter resources lo cover most woler_

needs, but ihe dislribuiion of woler resources is uneven ond shows
greol disporilies, bolh sociol ond geog.ophicol.

. There ore more lhon I billion people who lock occess lo drinking woler
ond 2.4 billion ore deprived of woler purificolion services.

. estimoted thol 3.4million people die eoch yeor from diseoses linked
It is
lo o lock of cleon woler ond proper sonilolion.

. Woler polluiion is henceforlh regorded os o mojor public heollh
{. concern. ll we foil 1o reocl, lhis could jeopqrdize the fulure ol lhese
resources ond wiih il. lhe quolliy of life oncl even jhe survivol of fuiLJre
f gpn-l olio^
. UN eslimoles lhot by 2025. up 10 iwo lhirds of lhe world's people will
foce woier shorloges.
. The urgeni need lo deol with lhe woier crisis hos prompled the UN to
declore 22 Morch os ihe World Doy for Woler-
7 a. economic aspect of Water
t, . clobolwoler wiihdrowols hove increosed sevenfold, ond induslry-
reloied woler conrumpiion hos mLrlliplied 301imes in one century.
]l. . lncluslry require5 woler lor cooling, woshing oncl processing, wilh mojor
uses lncluding power generolion, sJeel, chernicols, poper ond
pekoleum refining.
. People oJso require woler for cirinkinq, food preporolion, sonilarlion
.3 oncl oiher purposes. Allempls by governmenls 1o privolize wcrler
l supply musl nol deprive ihe poor occess io il.
> E.g. Manjla's experience of water privatjzation in which the poor
1 pays more for water than the rich tiving in the city is an example ot
i prjvatization gone wrong_

. Proponenls of wcrler privoiizctiion soy woler pricing is ihe solulion lo

f ihe globol problem ol woler shodoge.
. Bul crilics counler thot woler like oir, is life ond everyone should hove
occess lo ii. The morkej should nol diciole who gels lo drink. Wilh
{. privolizoiion, protil driven componies will provide woJer orily lo ihose
who con offord lo pcty ond ihe poor will end up high ond dry.
L . ln oddiiion, couniries in neecj of woler ore oflen omonq the poorest
couniries. The Midd,e Eosl, Norlh Africo (MENA) region in porticulor is
omong lhe driesl in lhe world. As such, lhey con ill offord lo poy high
{. pricer for woler.

L b. water as a money spinner

. Singopore is going big on woler indusl4/. The Woler Technology tnduslry
hos been given o boosl when lhe Environmeni Minislry onnounced in Aprjl
L 2005, the setting up of W.olerhub, o S$32 mi'lion cenlre lo bring locol ond
foreign induslry experls lo troin people here to develop the technotogy,
pick up know how ond moke woler lechnology o money spinner.


. Hyflux, o Singapore-bosed woler lreolmeni speciolisl, hos cutlom mocle 2
seowoier desolinolion plonls ond 4 woier generolion plonls which purify
river wcrler ond use less eleck;cily.

Quesiions: Refer lo ihe orlicle - singopore sels up two new institules to boost
wolet teseotch ond livob,e cities.
. It il only lor economic reosons lhot Singopore is invesling in ils "wolet
indushy" inhoslrvclute? Exploin lhrovgh lhe concepts of urbonizolion ond
sustoiroble deveropmenl in relolion lo Singoporc's iniliolives.

Singapore sers uptwonry inslitules to boost water .esearch and llvable citics
STNGAPORE S'nslpore rs booslinq ris capabili cs in €ter manaoemeniand susl?in.bre u.ban deverophenl ttwitlbe
setring uplwo expen bodies lhe lnsrilule orw.ter Poucy dnder the Lee Kuan Yew sch@l of Pubric Polry, a.d lhe cenke

oponr.q lh. wD d orlies s!m,n,r 3nd rhe inrernalionar waler week, Prime l"l riner Le. Hsien l-@ns sajd every cLry s goaloJ
a good lrvnO erynonment and efli.iert use or resources ca.iolbe a.hieved in iso ation's nodoubl colnlries pacehigh mpo aice on issu€s I ke waler managemenl € nersy erhclency, atr qu.l{y and lrban
plann.q ev'deil from the ovetuhem'no resFonse tom d"^ieqares Io tha Wo d C r.s Summir aid rhe r.lernatron.r

q'ornh solr'l !rb.t m3n3qemenl DolcLes aren.edcd And lopp nq rhal lis( ls enerqy co.serval o.

MrLee$id "lo aclr eve rlsuns renllgy€tnclency.nd.onsetuaron.rr s mpodanr.gelrheeco.otricsrqrrl Er.rsy,

lvherh€r erecl,icily or Delrol 3hould be pric.dprope ya.{J.d lbsidhed

J't lee nored rh.r R&Doncrednere.cylechnorolis inctudnqs.le.uc.arpowq ne€dsrobean

nrporlanl component ol,n.nkLnd str.sponse lo slobal warmrng

Anorher .nli€r eieme.t ot sLsrainabre lilinq iswaler manaOem..l Ttiepime MifisterJeets thar, onlhewhote, rhewond e
nol shod olwalerbl( whal is .ckrno.ra sou.d w.ler m.nagem€nl practices

llesaid Li snotenolqhlobuldlheb.slEterlreatnenlplants and lhen neglst io prolect lhewater catchrnents iom

sqlallds or polulion Enslingacl*nandreriatresupplyotpotableMrerrequnescilreslorrkea.inle!€redapproach
lrcm lhe reseNoi.s, calchmenl areas and saler trea|fient planIs.lolhe relcular'on, sanilahon and sewerage sysrem

ln Singapore s case lhe Naliona Rese.rch Foundat on has a 55500 m trion pogranme to rinance res€arcrr in env-onmedat

Dr Tony Tan, Chairma., NalionaiResearch Foundalion, said: These inveshenrs have yi€lded dramalic eductions rr rhe
cosl or w.le. rrom r€cycino of used waler rnd desalinalrcn lhrough the use ot adva.ced memb.ane lechnology."

As some.tsi.lapores sotulions may be relevanl lo olher eneroing o es,lhe counl,ys bro new insr lules on water poticy
and urba. pla.ning can play a ro e in collabo6livereseaEh prcjecls and infomalion shaing. CNAtm

sou-o: hg!i//r!.aet:.v!!!oo.!on/cna/z00s062r,,ra0-356oor-z"r foo-trrt

c. political aspect of water

. Water has also become a strategic issue- Around the world, a total
of 261 river basins are divided between different states, generating a
risk of "water wars"-

There have been 37 yiotent conflicts invotving water between nations

'in the past 50 years e.g- lsraet's 1982 invasion of Lebanon was
ptanned in part as a way of gaining control over Lebanon's Litani



i Closer to home there is the Singapore-Malaysia water dispute, whjch

i hds been a thornv brldteral iscua for vedrs.

f . On the other side of the world too, a water row features at the
{ - United Slates Mexico border over the shared Rio Grande river basin.
They have an agreement to provide each other wjth water, but
I Mexrco has failed to fulfjlt jt and owes the US a massive water debt.
I fhe livelihood of farmers on both sides is at stake.

{I the inlernotionol communily musl prevenl contlicl over woler ollocolion by

providing solid legol inslrumenls, especiolly in oreos where woler shorioge is
combined wilh polilicol lensions.

i d. how some countries are dealing with water shortages
! singopore
Treoled wosJe woler is mixecl crnd blended wilh reservoir woler ond lhen
f undergoe! convenlionol woier lreolmenl io procluce drinking woler
t" colled Ne,voJer.
Waier ishorvesled from c ouds by pulling huge neh on firounloins 1o
f oich lhe vopour The colleclecl woier con beused forsmoil scole
iqolor ocd boihing.
1 -,.
iI Chino i5 Lrrrderlollng cr huge projeci io chonnelwoler from ihe flooding
oLr'h 'o ory'nq 1 r ll'.
. li hos bequn work on o mossive scheme io chonnelbillions of cubic
tt. melres of wqler from lhe Yonglze River 1o the clwindling Yellow River.

I Formers ore ploniing ]ess woler-iniensive crops ond replocing them wiih
[- cropt lil-e crpple cocius thol require lillle woler ond con proc]uce fruit for
I I monlhs of lhe yeor.

i. e. conservation of Water

[- otr. woler recycling

. Woler recycling or reusrng lreoled woslewoler is for purposes such os ogricr.jllurol
Ir- ond londscope irflgolion, industriol processes, ioilel flushing, ond replenishing o
ground woier bosln. woler k someiimes recycled ond reused onsile;for
, ercrrnple, when on incluslriol focilily recycles woler used for cooling processes. A
E common lype of recvcled woler is woler lhoi hos been recloimed from
L muni(ipol vrosiewoler, or sewoge.


e(ii)- Efficienl wolet use
Efficieni woler Lise enlo s the moinienonce of oquolic ecosydems, ond
proieciion of drinking woler resources. ll is one woy of qddressing woler quolily
ond quonlily, onci con olso prevenl polluiion by reducing woslewoler flows,
recycling induslriol process woler, recloiming wosjewoler, ond using less energy.

e{iii). Sound woler resource monogemenl

ln order lo meel lhe needs of exisling ond fulure populoiions ond ensure lhoi
hobilqls ond ecosyslems ore proiecied , sound woler resource monogemenl,
which emphosizes coreful, efficieni use of woier, is implemenied in order lo
ochieve ihese objeclives, e.9-

The US Envircnmenldl Ptoleclion A,gency Ggulores mdny ospecls of woslelvolet

heolmenl ond drinking water quolily, ond lhe mojotily of sloles in the US Itove
eslobfished cilerio ot guidelines fot lhe beneficio, use ofrecycled woler, It h(,s
prcvided o f,omework lo ensure lhe sofely of lhe mdny v!dlet rccycling prcjecls
lhol hove beer developed ir lhe Untled Stoles.

While woler recycling is o susloinobJe opprooch ond con be cosl effeclive in lhe
long lerm, lhe lreolment of woslewoler for reuse ond lhe inslollolion ol
disiribulion syslems coLl be iniliolly expensive compored lo such woler supply
crllernolives os imporleg woler or ground woler. lnsliiulionol boriers, crs well os
vorying ogency priorilies, con moke ii difficulJ io implemeni woler recycling

Section IIL AiTQlafrtJ

. Foresl fires oncl hoze hove coused mojor problems in lndonesio ond il!
Aseon neighbours in the posl l0yeors.

. ln200l, ihe hot spols were colculoled lo hove numbered 26,.561,1he

highesl since Augusl 1997 when 37,938 spols were counled.

. Mosl ol lhese come lrom lhe loncl ond foresl fires in Riou, Jombi ond-Soulh
Sumo lr o.

. Mojorily of lhese londs ore peollonds, lhol when droined for logging or
ogricullure purposes, become highly susceplible lo combuslion ond foresl

. Slorting o fire is q cheop ond mosi convenieni woy lo cieor bul wilh dire

. Siluolion is furlher inlensified when Soulh Wesledy winds corry lhe bulk of
lhe hoze over lo lhe region-


I a. tackling the haze
l . The scole ond frequency of lhe iires, ond lhe hoze lhey lecld to, reqL,ire
serious consolidoled efiorls by boih governmenis ond 5c)c;e1y.
i Convenlionol suppression opprooches - puiling oui iire5 ofier ihey occur
ore nol odequole in deoling wiih ihis issue. The frequency of
occurrence is increosing, os oie lhe cosls of firefighling. Thereislhuso
I pressinq need tor more comprehensive 50luiions.

Queslions: Refer lo lhe orlicle on - ASEAN Agreemenl on ftonsboundoty Haze

. why is il impo onl for singopote lo be poi of such diplomolic dnd muluol
f agteemenls?
x . Moke o cosf-ben efi anolysis. arc dilficvllies loced by o covnlry lo
ocluolly provide conctele oclions, progtess ond commilmenl in cartying
f oul lhis ogteemenl?

ASEANAgreemenlonTransboundaryHaze Pollution
i The Govern{ncnts of the ten ASEAN Mcmbcr Colntrles siqned ihe ASEAN Aqreement on Transboundary Haze
Pollution on L0lune 2002 in Klala Lumpur, Ilal.ysi.. The Agrcement is the fir5t regio.t I nrt nqeme |n rhc
world that bnds n gronp of contiqlous states to tackle transboundary haze pollution res!ltinq lrom land and
forest nres lt has also been .onside.ed as . Olob.l role R,odel for the ta.kling of t..n5bolDdary issues
The Agr.-emeni requires the r€fties to the Aoreement to:
(i).oopcrat. rn developlnq and inrplementing m€asures to prevcnt, monitor, and mitig.te trdnsboundary
haze poLlution by controlling s.!r..s of land and/or forest fires, {levelopmcni of nronitorinq, dssessment .nd
eany warninq systemt, exchanqc of trform.lLon and te.hnoloqy, and the provision of muiual assistance,
i (ii) respond proDpuy to . request for .elev.nt infoflnatioD souqht by a statc or States that are or may b€
afiected by su.h transboundary haze pollution, wjth a view to the consequcnce of the
transboundary haze pollution; and 'ninrmisinq
* ('ii) take legnl, administr.tive rril/ or other measures to iniDlement their obli9atioos under the Aqreement
Th. Agreem€nt establshes an ASEAN Coordinatinq Centre iorTransboundary Haze Po lution Control to
tacilltate cooperation and coordin:tion in manaqing the mpact oi land and forest fires in patticula. hizc
polluiion arisino from su.h fires. Pendinq tbe establish6eni ofthe centre, ASEAN secretariat and ASEAN
Specialised Meteoroloqical Centre (ASl'lC) co performed the interim turctions ofthe Cenke.
{- The Agreement entercd into rorce on 25 November2OOl. To date, eight I4eDber coLniries, ;ahely Brtner
Darussalam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nlblaysia, flyanmar, Sinqapore, Thailand, and Vlct Nam, have ratified the
Haze Aqreement.
i The First Me€ting ofConference of the Parties (COP) was held on 11 November 2004 in Hanoir Viet Nam-
COr /*dah-dontr"lolhl00/rrBdrddrsenB-Jaidn,B'unerDdtu.\rldmCOPJ'asherdonc
SepteDber 2OO7 in aangkol, Thailand. COP-4 ts scheduled ln V'et Nam tentanvely rn the qua.tdr of
200a, in conjunction with the 11th lnformal ASEAN Ministerial l4eetjng on the Environhent (IAlvllvlE).

L d/misc& nh2 oho

I oi) Prevenlion Meosures

To minimizelhe risks of deslruclive fires e.g. .oi;ficoiion of lhe Aseon
{ Tronsboundory Hoze Agreemenl by the lndonesion governmeni.
. Medio compoigns

{ l6

. Promolion ond odoplion of zero burning proclices by holders of foresl
concessions, limber ond oil plonlolions ond smollholders.

. Cessolion of groni licenses lor lcrnd cleoring on peollond.

. The consumer mcrrkeJ should respond by fovouring goods which ore

proclLrced through guoronieecJ susloinoble operoiions.

qiD Shorl Term ond Lono Term Mqnoqemenl Prqclices

. Governmenl boclies enforcing fire lows- such os proseculing lhose
responsible tor lhe fires- need oll ihe supporl lhey con gel.

. Need for joinJ work by relevoni insiilulions ond NGos in Aseon counlries lo
help lhe ouihoril;es in cross-border evidence golhering, ond ihen firmly
proseculing lhe offenders in eoch jurisdiclion.

. Would olso go o long woy 1o correcl ihe prevolenl "gel rich firsl ond
cleon up lolei' mentolily.

oiii) Rehqbililotion oflhe Foresl ond Lond

. Good ogricullurol proclices lhoi clo nol resorl to fires lo clecrr lond crre

. Giving o volue lp lhe peollonds ond other foresis in line with iheir
conlribuiion lo sloring corbon ond moderoling lhe climole will creqle lhe
income oncl incenlive for lhe lndonesion governmenl lo moinioin lhe
peoilonds rolher lhon burn lhem.

. Win - win siluolion for oll

Sectbn I'/: Tfre (fireat of Natura[(Disdsters

a. natural Hazard or natural Disasterz

"Noturol hozords ore o port ol life- But hozords only become disoslers when people's lives ond
Iivelihoods are swept owoy. The vulnetobility of communities is growing due to humon
octivities thot leod to increased povbrty, greoter urbon density, environmentol degradation
and climate ahonge-'

-UN Secretary General, Kofi Arnan, October 8 2001, lnternationaL Day tor Djsaster Reduction

According to UNESCO,
. Natural hazards are naturalty-occurring physical phenomena inctuding
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tandstides, tsunamis, floods and drought.


Natural disasters are the consequences or effects of natural hazards. They

t represent a serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of
economic and social progress.
l. Many researchers and scientists betieve that the boundary between natural
and man-made catastrophe is often blurred: naturat disasters are not
i entirely naturat , for people are agents of disasters.

b. the lmpact of today's Catastrophes

I Backgroundi An Era of More Natural Catastrophes?
. Ftoods and typhoons in Asia, the lndonesian and Kashmir earthquakes,
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the lndian Ocean tsunami - the world seems to
t be entering an era of more frequent natural catastrophes. Natural disasters
are increasing in terms of frequency, complexity, scope and destructiye
{ capacity.
. People are the fr'rst casualties of natural disasters. The number of people
{ affected by these types of disasters has increased in recent years:
I .,"*,or r, .l(shJ\cre l, rJrurdl ..rbr.ophe. 40r l?r1,.,1 Ino io
L ,/!10I L q p.", d .o b I I r IR |Flf l: lhi r .':9, !l !:

. Disasters have a qevastating financial impact. This resutts in not onty a

loss of infrastructure and jndustry but also a loss of development
i. o In the Uniled States. Hunicane K!1rina rook orly hours to wreak devasralion esrimared a1
USli 100 biUion.
o The 26 Decenrber 2006 l_aiwan qnake ruphtrcd undelsea data trinsnission cables aDd
L caused ohssiv€ telecomnnrnicalioDs disnrplions th.oughorl Asia, as lnlemet services
slowed down or sloppcd, pbone lines Nert dead a.d financidl transactions ground lo a

L Disasters often damage environmental resources affecting environmental

sustainability. They exacerbate deforestation and soit erosion. Natural
disasters increase the liketihood of potlution, jncluding as a reslrlt of
t damage lo industrial infrastruclure.
{ Disasters affect poor countries and poor people the most because of their
L lack of resources, infrastructlres and protective systems for disaster
preparedness and prevention.
AccordiDg lo tbe UN D€v€lopmenl Programme, 24 onl of 49 of lhe world s least
L devclopcd counlries face bigh levels ofdisaster risk. Oflhese, six are hit by belween lwo
to eighl largedisaste.s every year.

I Even in lhe rvealthiest counrries, Ihe people most affecled by emergencies are liom the
t- poorer sectioos ofsoci€ty. iror inslance,lhe urban poor were wont hit in the aftermath of
Hunicane Katrina ;n New o.leans


Exposure to disasters increases the vulnerability of the poor, deepening
their poverty and preventing them taking advantage of economic
[" propodion the 2004 lndian Ocean tsunami is cstinraled lo t)ave inereased the
I ot l'.orl€ livirg below lbe pove.ty line fiom .10% 1o 50%.

ln the long term, disasters pose a significant and growing threat to

development- According to UK's Department for lnternationa[ Devetopment
(DFID), the inability of poorer countries to cope with disasters makes it
difficutt in achievjng the Miltennium Devetopment coats (MDGS), in
particular the target of halving extreme poverty by 2015.

Reod more: Refer lo lhe two orlicles - Resources scorce, homeresiness persistj in
New Orreors & Aceh lsvndmi viclims dwdi, oid
Aceh tsunami vtctims await aid
Dead bod es litter the streets oflndo.esi. s Aceh province where it i5 feared more than 25,000 pcople may
hdve be, n l"l d tom jr ,d1, ,i1q dr- a.d I r' ln .

Decomposing .orpses have spread a foul smell over the provincjal capital, Banda Acch, o. th!- .orthern np of
Sunratra isla.d. Fresh water, food and fuetare in shori suppty. Fear has becn mixed wrrh anoer as residenrs
{tucuc outsida lh!: few open shops quarded bv soldieE.
Banda Aceh resident r,lirza, 2a, cnticiscd the covernment
''Wherc i5 the a5sistance?,' 14irzd said. Ihere is nothrng. 41lthe governrnent are asteep.
Another.esident Audi, 24, haqbeen standi.g in line for an hour.
''There is nothrnq a! homc,'Budisaid.
Hund.eds of soldiers and volunteers have collecied corps€s for mas; bun.l rn . b'd ro prelent disease in the
provinc€, where troops are stationcd !o combat a rebellion which beqan in 1976
Whole battalions of soldieG and police are among the dead and misstng and separdtist rebels have
announced a cease'fne while people search for loved ones- aut foretgn aid agencies are shll waitinq for
officlat pemission to enter the aea.
rn Banda Aceh, Dn a field about four times the size ot a soccer pitch, morc than 1,O00 bodies lay where they
died while watching a sports eventon Sunday.
Indonesian Vice President Jusuf Kalla s.ys the death toll frcm the tsunami that swept across the Indian
ocean region could hit 1O,OOO inthis one area of the country alone-
In a separate rcport, state-owned news aqency Antarb has quoted him as saying he feared the tott could rise
as hish as 25,000. He says 100,000 people had beetr injured,
Ihe death toll givenby the Government lo. Indonesia is around 5,000. Families are fDnticatty looking ior
loved ones, thousands orotheE arc traumatised, tuarinq fresh quakes and tsunam
Banda Aceh resident Farzalhastold El Shinra radio he is worried.
"wete scared about the next eanhqlake a;d tsunami," Faizar said.
''It is difficult to find fuel oil. we need food and medicine.
rlrlirdry o.ilc'dl L'e!tencnt Colonel Bddi \antoso sar\ rer;ur, *r,"r. hed.
'riany bodies are still lyrng on the streeLs." Lt colsantoso said. Therejust arentenouqh body bags.
'The eva.uation process is dimolt because there are not enough ttucks, another omcer said.
The wallofrater up to 10 met€s hiqh that followed the earthquake ofi the tndonestan coast has kitt€d more
than 23,2OO people acrcss Asia, Hundreds ofswotten bodies stitt tay tn a market in Bahda Aceh's oltskirts,
covered with brioht oranse Dlasticsheets.
''I m tired, Maimorl/ 22l sid. "I'm lookinq ror my idther- Please help me."


{. She says her father was . tlsh eciler a.d spoke to her on Sunday before qotng to the market. Power
{, .uts mea.i Banda Aceh has been viftually bla.ked o!t. Few people ventured ooio the strecls, but sonc
a.tivity could be seen at the mos.lue, whcre peoDlc from outtide town have come to ask .esidenls
.bout mjssinq relatives
aceh police clrief inspecior General Bahrumsyah Kasman says one battalion from the police mobile brigade
I .re rnssi'rq as well as ai least 500 miliirry oersonnel.
Aceh, whi.h is some 1,700 km nonh west of.lakarta, is under cjvilian emerqency rule as part ol efforts to
quell the separatist i.su19ency
f The United Nations has oifered to send d saster response teams and a Government otficial says Aceh lvould
be open to ald worke.s fioo Wed.csd.y.
The Government ha5 also rushed ald to the rcgton
I That effort may be aided by the fa.t that Sweden based leadeB of the separ.tist Free Aceh l,lovement
i. (GAM) have declared a unilatdar cease tire wrth sovemment forces
GAll says the disaster has displaced some 50,000 people and ii did not wlnt to add to the panr and

[, Tbe UN has warned ofepidemi.s withjn days across Asia if hcalth systems.ould not copei saying the
eftects of disease .ould be as bad as the tsunami itseli.

i, sour.e h]re1l!q4.q!!.re!!!,1!er45l!!r4rl!!]/0!1 121!l?z!4?nt!r

f Resourc€s Scarce, Homelessness P€rsists in New Orleans

NEW ORLEANS .. Fayor C. R.y Naqin re.enoy luqqesled a way to redu.€ this .ity's po5t-K.t'ind homeless
populaion: 9ive thein one way bls tickcts out of town.
i r,4r Nasin rater .srlrcd lhc orr the-.uff propos.r wasjLst a joke. But he has porkavcd the dozcns ol pcopre
camped rn a tent .ity under a qreeway overFss near street as recalcitr.nt drla and al.ohor abusers
who refuse shelt€r, oi!. p.srefr bv lhc fn,qer aFd, woEt of a l, trail from somewhere else.

f While many ofthe homeless do have addiction problems or mental illnesr, a suney by advocacy qroups in
February showed that 36 perc€nt were from the New Orleans area. Sixty per.ent snid they were honeless
because ofiluricane Katrina, and aboui l0 Oercent snid they had received rental assistance at one ttme from
the Fcdcral t4.nagement A9€ncy.
L Not iar from the French Quarter, flanking Canal Street on Claiborne Avenue, tbey are living inside a long
corridor iormed not ofwalls and a roof but ofthe thick stench olhuman w.ste and sweat tinaed with alcohol,
f $ack and despcration
[. The inhabitants are natives likc Ronald Gardner, s4, an H.LV.-positive m.n who sai., he had ;ever before
slept on the streets untll Katrina. Or Ronald Berry, 57, who despite belng a paranoid schizophrenic said he
had lived on his own. ii a.ented house in the Lower Ninth Ward, tora dozer yea6 before the storm, Both
men receive disability checks ot $637 a month, not nearly enolqh to cover post-huricane rents.
''If I could just gct. narn room," t4r. Gardnersa'd, slttins on the cot underwh'ch allh's beiongings ar;
stored, il could take it from there."

{. Lurrene Newelr, 54, said lhe Federal Emerqbncy Manaqement Agcncy had paid her rent in Texas after the
storm, but when she moved back to New orleans, she .ould not find a place to live.

L Ay one very rough estimate, the.umber of boneless people in New Orleans has doubled since Katrina struck
in 2005, Homelessness has also become a much nore visible prcblem late last year, Unity ofG.eater New
Orleans, a netwo.k ofagencies that help the hoDeless, cleared an encampment of 300 people that had
sprung up in Duncan Plaza, in full view ofcity Hall. about 2ao of lhose people are now in apartments, but
I othe6 have flocked to tilr several blocks ofclarborne Avenue at cana,, ncarenough to the French Quarter to
t- reqrlarly encounter to!rists

Unity workeE arc hopinq that Congress will lDclxde $76 millio. in the supplemental appropriation tor Iraq to
pay for vouchers that would give r.nt subsidies and servlces to 1,000 disabled homeless people.
f 20

OD Thursdby, the senate passed a version of the bill that in.luded the vou.hers; lhe current House vers'on,
not yet approved, does noi include them without the vouchers, said Nlartha l. Kegel, unity's executive
diredor, even those people already jn ap.rtments will be injeopardy Thet cuirent vouchers, issued under a
''rapid rehousrng" proqram, expire at the end of 2004.

New Orleans had 2,3OO beds tor the homeless before the ttom, now Lt has 2,000, Ms heqelsard Tho5e
beds are full, but even if th.y were not, ma.y oftbe people living on CanalStreet i,re not the sort who can
5tay in a qrcup sh€lter. Ac.ordinq to the turyey. whl.h was co.ducted before dawn one mornlnq so that only
those who adually sleep the canp lvould be cou.ted, 80 percent have at J€ast one physical disability, 58
pe.cent have had some kind 'n of.ddictlon, 40 percent are ment.lly ill, atrd 19 percent were'tri morbid"
they had a disnbility, .n addiction and nenlal illness.

For these diffrcult cases, permanent houeinq siih 5!pportive seNices, like couDselinq/ has become a
prefetred method. But it takes time, patience, money and one thing New Oneans is short oi: apartments.
l4any .parthent develop.4 who .pplied for tax credits after Hurricane Katnna werc requned to set aside 5
per.ent oftheir units for supportive housing, but because oi high construction costs and other tactors, i:r
iewer unils tha. erpected are in the pipeline And witholt the vou.hers, even those units will not bc

Unity has akeady moved 60 Dt the nosr vulnerable people from the camp to hotel rooms, paid for with a city
hcalth department grant, including a woman who is etght months pr.gnant and a paranoid schizophrenic who
is diabeti. and a double.mputee. In the iilth ofthe c.r,p, the amputee's stumps had become inf€cted. workeB have tound cli.nts with and colostomy bags, and one so disabled thaL he was
unable to talk. On averaqe, people bave stayed in hotels forsix weeks before lJnity finds an apartment and
.obbles toqether thc ncc.ssary funds.

r,like r,liller, the director of supportive housinq placem€nt at Unity, said lhe camp had become a public health
h.zard since ihe.tty removed some portablc toilcls in February.

''Two olireach work€rs have tested pos'tive fo. iuberculosis," I'Ir Mtller said. "There's hepatitis c, there's
aIDS, there's rr.l.V. Everyonerout there's had an €ye intection of some sort r got one "

on Thursday, Herman rrroore Jr was ha.qinq out with a friend in the camp. llr Moore had lived in a Federal
Emerqency Man.gement Agency trailer, then a FEIlA-financed hotel room, but had not realized that he was
eliqiblc for further assistance after the 30 dny hoiel stay ended last fall. Tipped off by his brothet, I'lr. Moore
h.d ofly recently rented a house under the coergency management agency's program, but had yel to pay
the d€poslt or turn on the utilities because he had no money.

"lf I had a TV and some electriciiy, you all woutdn't even see me," he said.

clara Gomez, 45, told .n ookeach worker that she had just discovered she w.s pregnant. Like abolt 14
percenr olthe homeless people under the bndge, Ms. Gomez had come to New orleans to work as a builder,
blt ack.owledqed thatshe had problems with druq and arcoholabuse.

After gettinq fired from onejob, she,ound !p under the bridse, where sbe met Patr'ck Pugh, 36/ a Naw
Orleanian who sa,d he had been rn dtug rehabllitaUoi, turnanq his llre around, wheD the storm hit. Their lDs
had been stolen, they said, nakinq it diffcllt to qetjobs or food stamps.

seated on a mattress, Ms. Gone2 shilted nervously, chnnginq pos'tions every few seronds, all the while
l-epin,l l.a. drm\ dn, hor.d d'ound Mr. Puqh's np,I

'wete ready," she we're readytogetoutofhere-"

sorrce: h gol@!.tytDelEoml 2009105/23/rs/28tent-htm

il c. who takes the Blamer
The impact of today's disasters is exacerbated by a series of trends and
dynamic processes:
. globolisolion,
. populolion growlh,
. increosingurbonisolion,
. poor plonning,
f . corrupfion,
- envhonmenloldegrodolion
t ' ond climole chonge
are atl contrjbuting to an increase in the vulnerability of popuLations,
especiatly within deyeloping countries.
c{i). population growth
L . Natural disasters are likely to affect more peopLe because Earth's

c(ii). increasing urbanisation
. Poputation increase witt be made worse in developing countries with
L overcrowded conditions and tow quality infrastructure and services.

[" l,'r ^ "' ',1"'"" A,r -"h ol rhc$^,ldqn,esJ.rr€.llrshcrpopLl.r,on

| \,'.,l,e "nJ m.rF comrle. rhy.t.,l rrlrr'rrucrur( N'll ,".rlr rn g( polenrial f.r
L 'rcr
t.'rgc .rtcrmp.^r. Al lh( 'nn,c rmc. u,brn pot',lilion oRc,hr\eupou,unLie, r''ndr e
f I el'\" "r]Ilrllrlrlv
c(iii). poor planning and corruption
. Poor governance reduces the abitity of a country to mittgate and nlanage
L disaster risk. This ranges from failure to address gaps in legistation retated
to risk management (such as quality assurance in the construction industry)
to corru (such as misa ation of reUef funds
1 Lack of proper buildirrg codes in senri'rural norlb west Pakislan is lhoughl to havc
dire.rly conrribDred to the high dealh 1o1l ir the 2005 Soulh Asia eanhqlake. I}le
destdclion of infrastructlre, i.cludinS schools and hospilals. had a dcvaslating impact,
bolh d;eclly in deaths caused by buildings collapsiog, and indirectly, due tolhe resulting
{. absence of c.itical facililies

t Countries that are in, or emerging from, violent conflict present speciat
chaltenges, both in terms of increased yulnerability of the poor, as wetl as
weak governance structures. ln such countries, tackling disa5ter risk is
seen as a low priority when compared to meeting basic needs and re-


estabtishing sociat services. Yet many of these countries face high levels of
disaster risk whjch are an addjtional burden to progress.

c(iv), environmental degradation

. Disasters are also a consequence of deyelopment and industrialisation.
Naturat protection is being eroded with the gradual loss of coastal
protectjon, in the form of manqrove forests, and ftood protectjon, jn the
form of wetlands. as these are drained and develoDed.
o ID Enrope, expens believe that countries such as France and cermany are more adverscly
.ffccled by floods roday becaDse naior .jvers, such as the Rhirc, have beeD straightcned
ro ease comncrcial t.allic

c(v). climate change

. Climate change r's increasjngly bturring the distinction between natural and
man-made disasters.

Averrge lcmperatures a.e rising. This will c.use sc. lcvels ro r;se, inoeasing the .isk of
coastal llooding, and El N;no wcatlei p.ltens arc prcdiclcd to b
rcross oflhe Pacific. lt is estitualed thar by 2080 clirrrrc chrnge lnd curr€Dt
'nost will lcad 10 a teo-fbld incredse iD
social trcnds the nlmber ol peoplc affeclcd by flooding
.cross ftral areas, cities and coastlines.

d. strategies to ieduce Vulnerabilit! of naturat

When a naturaldisaster occurs, the provision of disaster relief tends to
capture the imagination of the public. Disaster preyention often ranks
relatively low on public agendas, as governments tend to focus or} retief to the
exclusion of mitigation and preparedness that coutd help communities learn
from disasters and reduce their yulnerability.

i, applying scientific knowledge

Today, there is more scientifiq knowtedge and technologjcal know-how than
eyer before to anticipate the potentiat effects of a disaster before it strikes,
Ahhousl! eanhquake predictioD is still nol possible, a ability exisls loday lo
make more accurate forecdls dd to issue early wamings on volcanoes dd cyclones
hours or days ahead and organise proper conmuD;ly response to sucb warnings, saving
many lives and preventirg s;gnificrnt property losses.
Owing to progress in design dd constnction enAineering, earthquake-resislant
slructures, iDcluding high-nse buildinss dd indusrrial facihies are lechnically feasible.
In comties such as Japan,lhey have become a rcal;ty.


ii. education
{ lncreased pubhc awareness about natural disasters is a vital element in any
I strategy to reduce disaster risk, Pubtic awareness campaigns can be conducted
in schools, through the media and official, pubtic, professional and commercial
fj channets. There is a responsjbility for governments to promote pubLic
awareness of natural hazards and rjsk on a continuous basis- Creating a culture
of disaster preparedness at a community'level enables people to be in a
{ better posjtion to help themselves should disaster strike again.
4 Section I'/: l[he l[frreat of Diseases

t a. the Current situation

l . Human activities and changing environments have brought humans in
contact with organisms that are capable of causing diseases,
I . Despite medical advances that have produced hundreds of drugs that are
safe and effective, infectious diseases are still a major cause of death,
i disability and social and economic upheayal for mi[ions around the \yorld.
i ln fact, diseases such as tuberculosis and small pox which were once
beljeved to be under controt have re'emerged as qlobal threats.

{. . The above is fueted by:

. poverly
o Overcrowded and poor living conditions make those living
in pove y especially vulnerable to coinmunicable diseases
such as tuberculosis and cholera.
!" . lock ol occesslo heofthcore
o Limited access to health care and drugs renders otherwise
t teatable conditions such as mala a, and fuberculosis fatal
lor Lhc poor.
. chonging envlronmenlol ond developmenlol oclivilies
L o These lead to intensive hurnan interaction with highly
concentrated populations of animals ald birdt substantially

t increased intemational trade in food, increasing human

movement throughout the world, and alteration of the
environment and the climate.
{. o Afu pollution resulting from modern industdal processes
has been implicated in a grol /ing number of chronic and
I 24

fatal diseages such as asthma, lung cancer and resPiratory

- growing onlibiolic resislonce,

. inopproprioleprescriplionotineffeclivedlUgs,
.. ond poor odherence io medicolion,

b. the Rich-Poor gap

. Those who are most vulnerable evotving heatth crises tend to be the
poor and marginalised who already suffer from numerous inequities and
lack of o )ortunrues-
ln 2002 75% ofall dealhs dne 10 infeclious diseases occuned in southedl Asia and sub'
Saharan Africa Sourhern Ati-ica, which is home lo l0% oflhe world's popularion,
accounted for more than 40% ofdealhs due 10 infecliols diseases.ln facl, more than 60%
ofall dearhs in the regjon were dne ro irfeciious diseases

Children and women are especially susceptible to the impact of infectious

o Childrrn in developing countries, already lacking proper
nutrition, may also lack access to affordable measles vaccinations
and simple interventions for diarrheal diseases.
o Wornen now accotnt for more than 50% of ncw HIV infections and,
among ac{ults, pregnant women are t}re most at-risk for malaria.

The repercussions of these diseases go well beyond mortatity statistics.

Poverty not only characterjses the circumstances in which infectious
diseases thrive, but the cycte of poverty is exacerbated by lost
productiyity, missed educational opportunities, and high health-care
costs for the affected and their families.

Communities and societies also bear an economic burden of caring for

those who are sick. Diseases such as HIV/AIDS, mataria and tuberculosis
affect those who are in the prime productive stages of tife, while
pneumonia and diarrheat diseases more often cut short the tives of chitdren
belore their fifth birthday.

Fear and ignorance stigmatise those who affected by diseases such as

HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, denying them much needed sociat support and
other socio-economic opportunies,

c. what Needs to be done

. Many countries have demo.nstrated that even in low-resource settings, the
burden of infectious disease can be reduced if there is strong political will



Ii, and the basic resources and infrastructure to support use of low-cost
o But such efforts reqlrirc substantial resources, often beyond those
{ available in thc poorest counb ies.
Progress must also be supported by firm political commitments at the
international level. These commitments must be backed by resources that
are sufficient to enable communities to have the basic toots needed to
routinely monitor and control disease.

I The scope is significant: there js a need to increase the world's supply of

djagnostics, medicines, vaccjnes and other Lifesaving toots. Effective disease
I controt is possible, but witl only become a reatity vr'hen every nation,
{. regardless of size, location or wealth, has the capacity to recognise,
prevent and respond to the threats posed by jnfectious disease.
Multi-sectoral approaches, inctuding partnerships between the public and
the private sector, are critical to provjding resources in the scope that js
l required.
o Partncrships that have formecl to addrcss these issues include'fhe
i Clobal Fund to |ight AIDS, TB and Malaria, bringing funding
and rcsources to countries battling thesc diseases,

j o and the Children's Va(cine Prograrn, funded by the Bill & Nlelincla
Gatcs Foundation, seeking universal irnmunisation against measles
q and other diseases.

d. learning from SARS
. The closest the wortd has come to the pandemic scenario in fiodern times
was the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) crisis of 2003.

I o over a period of live monrbs, about 8,000 people lvere infecled by a novel humaD
coronavirus. Aboul ten percent ofthem died.
o The vinE apparently sp.ead 19 bumars when infecled animals lvere sold and daughtered
t, in uns.nitary and crowdod markcls in China's Gllngdong Prolince.

L Atthough the transmission rate of SARS pated in comparison to that of
inftuenza, it demonstrated how quickly such an infectious agent can circle
the globe, given the ease and frequency of international travet.
L o Once SARS emeiged in rural China, it spread to five
countries within 24 hours and to 30 countries on six
continenls within several months.

t 26

Even with the relatively iow number of deaths jt caused compared to other
infectious diseases, SARS had a powerful negatiye psychological impact on
the populations of many countries.
o In a r.ccDl anrlysis ol rhc epidemic, the Naltonal Ac.demy of Scieice's lnslilule of
lvledicine concluded: "th. rchn@ hish ftttliry rdtt, the intntiJication oJ ssper-
Ur.nde6, the naeness oj the disese, thc spee.l t its global spread. afi public
tne ainly abott the abili, to cn trol its sprea.l may have conrrib!1ed to the plblic's
alam. lhis alr'm, in lurn, may have led ro rhe behaviorr thal exacerbaled lhe economic
blo\rs lo lhe lralel and tDtrrisn indtrstries oflh€ countr;cs with th€ hishest ntrmber of

. SARS provided a taste of the impact a kitter inftuenza pandemic woutd haye
obal economy
o The economic impacl oflhe sir montb SARS.pidemic on th€ Asia-Pacific region is
cstimaled at about US$40 billion.
o Thc SARS outb.eak also had a subsrantiat inrpncl on the global airline induslry. Aflerlhe
disease hil ir 2001, fli8bls tn lhe Asia P.cific area decreascd by 45 perceni from lhe year

The SARS epidemic also raises questjons about how PrePared governments
are to address a proLonged infectious'disease crisis - particutarly
governments that are atready unstable.
o Ihe SARS ep;demic crealed the mosr severe social o. polilical crkis encountered by
, 1,,n. s lc.,{e^\rp .,n.e r\ ' lo8r) lidnanmen r..ldo$n ChrnJ \ F,oblcn fl.h'bl\
r!Jrlrc'llc trom \cR\'prbli( hudlrh imrr.' r,'i1 I o,n rhe govcrnmcnt r IrileJ etlo'l
to .llty pxnic by lyilhholding iDtornrtion aboll tbe dtsease froD lhe Chinese
people. TIe effon backfircd. DDrnrg lhe crisis, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao pointed oul
;. a cabiDel meetinA on the epidemic that'1he Ieilth and securny oflhe people, ovemll
slale ofrefonn, developmenl, and srabjl;ly, and Chi.a3 nalional inleresl and i,nage are al

Widespread infection and economic collapse can destabiUze a government;

blame for faiting to deal effectively with a pandemic can crjppte a
government. This holds even more for an influenza pandemic, '

Unfortunately, the pubtic is often indifferent to initial warnings-about

impending infectious-disease crises - as with HlV, for example. lndifference
becomes fear only after the catastrophe hits, \ryhen it is atready too late to
implement preventive or contro[-measures.

e. the Threat of the HIV/A|DS epidemic

. ln just 25 years, HIV has spread retentlessly from a few widely scattered
"hot spots" to virtually eyery the world, infecting 65 mittion
people and kilting 25 million.

. Global trends of infection emerging from the HIV/AIDS pandemic;


a Strb Saharxn Afiica conlinucs tobcur the btunl oflhe global cpidemic. 6l% of!ll adulls
! and childrcD .tproximaicly 25 milljon people wilb tIlV globally livc in rb-Sharan

t Withonl prcvenlion efforts. ]5% ofchildcn bom lo ar HIV-pos'live nolhe! \ri1l become
{ infecied wirh HIV At leasl a.luarter ofDewborns infecled wilh HtV die belirre .ge one,
!nd up lo 60% rvill die belorc reaching lheir second birthdays.
{' Inje.ring drug use and coDnerci,rl ser work are lirclina lhe epjdemjc across Asia .Dd
t. F.ast€.n Erro.)e, and lerv counties are srfljcienlly reachi.g oul to lhesc harginalised

i, In nrany regions oflhe wo.l(i. new HIV infections are heavjly concentraied anNng youtg
pcoplc (15 to 24 ycars of asc). Among adllls 15 years and oldcr, young people
r.. ned lo, 40o" ol !'e, HIV lnte.l,ons ;r -006.

Queslions: Reler lo lhe odicle on - AlDs drugs flood block motkef.

tt. . why do block morkels for ArDS orlrbiolics exisf?
. Are lbese brock m orkels o vioble olletnolive for lhose poot ond ill-shicken
wifh lhe diseose? D,scuss.
'AIDS Drugs Flood Black Market

Harare Aids druqs some ottheD contaminated, diluted or faked are being sold at flea markets.nd
hairdressrng s.lons in the face ofgrowinq sholt-ges in clini.5 link€d to Trhbabwes cconomic otsis, says the
I'ealth ministry.

1 Stat. medLa quoted r4inister ol liealih David Parirenyatwa on llonday appealing to people livinq witli HIv/aids
3. to buv their m.dlcines lron reqistered pharmactes, clinics .nd hospitals only.

lle w.s quot€d as 5nynig: Thes. fake d.dgs rncrease chances of one becoming rcsistant to treatment and it
F, becomes even more expensive for that person io renarn on treatment."
n wns also rcported th3t the prohibitive cost of antir€t.oviral drugs at private pharma.res had ftielled the

L state radio s.ld that ihe illeqal mcdications were either adultedted with olher substances oreseless fakes.

About 50 0o0 HIV intected patients were receiving tree medication from government hospitals in a natLon,
where an 6tinated f 000 people died a week lrcm Aids related condiuons. Il was reported that 3oo 0o0 more
were in urg€nt need oltreatment.

{. Since a qovernment edict in luDe to slash prices of all goods and by about halt, pharmaclcs said many
medicrnes had bcen scarce.

'fhe price cuts were ordered in an effort to tame the world s official tnflatjon of 7 634vo. ln<Jependeot
L estimates put real inilation closer to 25 000o/o and the International Monetary Fund fore@sts it rea.hinq
1Do 000o/o by the end ofthe year.

Local manufacturers ot HIV/Aids drugs had fatled to obtlin eDouqh imported raw materials, whlch nrust be paid
L for in scarce hard arrency,

The localgeneric drug costs about z$sm ior a s supply, rar odt ofthe reach of most rmpoverished

HIV patients liwe in constnnt fear'

A tea.herin a top qovernment hiqh schoolearned about Z$3m a month. Where formal unemployment w.s
30%, an unskllled general hand e.rned halfthat adount.

At the dodin.nt btack market exchange rate ot 250 0O0-1, Z$5 worth oi medication was the equivat€nt ol
$20 compared to $165 at the onicial exchhnqe rate of 30 000 1.

HlV/Aids support qroups said patients receiving antirerroviral treatment liled in constant fear of not berng
able to lind o. pay io. their honthly medicatton. lmported drugs cost up to double the local make5

lnterruphons in treatment alonq with poor nutrition qu'. yr€nde'edsLffere'svunerabletorube.Lulosisand

othcr often fatal infeclions, accordtrg to support groups

Most basic foods had drsappeared from the shelves since thc governnenis p.ices edit on lune 26. The.orn
me.l staple, me.t, bread, mil!, suqar, e99s.nd even soap and tea fet.hed teo times the qovcrnmcnts filed
pnce it tound on the illeqalblack market.

Brcad shortaqcs wo6cn.., on r4onday across the country aft$ the two r\ain bakery charhs th€y we.e
down to their last emerqency r.serues ot flour.

sour.e: hl'p://!\ifu news2.1 .omlNews2r /4l|.!/!rllit)liiwe10..2:Lr _1122,? )€!3a3a!.Irr!,r

e(i). women and AIDS

. By the end of 2006, women accounted for nearly half of alt peopLe tiving
wjth AIDS worldwide, and represent atmost 60% of infections in sub Saharan

. Social and cultural norms contribute to the unequat status of women in

societies, which facilitates the spread of djseases such as HlV.
o In their sexual relationships, women are often denied the polver to
make decisions that may lower their risk of HIV infection.

o Social norms may restrict r /omcn's ability to negotia'te sex with a

condom, demand fidelity in a relationship or seek information
about protection, treatment or health care.

o The unequal power balance between men and women puts

women at a greater risk of FIIV inJection. In some societies, social
norms may dictate that women remain monogamous, while men
may be allowed and even encouiraged to engage in sex with
multiple partners.

. Poverty - 70% of the world's poor are women - and the reliance on men
for economic support cornpound women's risk of HIV t'nfection.
o Women might engage in unsafe sex or commercial sex work as a
means of survival or to support their families.


t, Women's fjnancial and matcrial depencleDce on rncn often makcs it
difficult or impossiblc for thern to takc control of their sexual
{ r el,rtionships
HIV-positive women may transmit HIV to their chitdren durjng preqnancy, ln
i chiLdbirth or through breastfeeding.
As AIDS ravaqes famjljes and communities, the burden of caring for ill
family members rests mainly with women and girls many of \4hom rlrdy
l be seriousty itt themsetves. A woman affected by HIV/AIDS is plunged
further into poverty, tosing the abitity to provide tor hersetf and her
children. Combined wlth pervasiye sociaI stigma and the co apse of
L tradjtional famity and support structures, HIV/AIDS is eroding the status of
women in many countrieS.
Reod more: Refer lo lhe two orlictes Poitiyely Sesome St/eet & Giving hope lo
HIV-posilive women.

Positively Sesame Street

lnSouth Afrca s war against AIDS, a cute and.uddty fivc yearord js prepartnq to mak. ar imporranr
debut. Meet Kahi, the wortd s first HIV posrtiv. Srreet t4uppet rrkalari Sesame, Solth Africa s
version of the ramous U.S. television series (takatanj m€ans get happy jn ve.da), has been runn na fu,
'ror'!'so'h- ourhAlr',rF'odd'nti1 ,o,,,,r'!6d1c,r,o,or,trL,.r.
.r,o,n 1d.d,.1. ..ind .,ludt,on. ro
educai€ whLle .ntertainjnq younq .hildren thtuughoot the couniry.

Incorpodt ng allll ofSouth Africa s officibt tanquaqes into its pedaoogue ap1ared sctip\., Takatani
Seiane is secn by an estimated halt-mtltion kids a week. Ir reaches basic skils and rutes of behavror, amt
trjes to help children undersland.nd enjoy South Africas m!lttraciatcuttrre_

Not 50 easy to etplain is the reality ofan AiDS cpidemic that affe.ts atmo.t one io ntne South Africans,
in.luding about 250,O00 The numbcrof orpharrs who have tost their parents to AIDS is expe.ted
to appoach 2 miilion by 2010. And a major obsta.te in the fight aqbinst the disease is the stigma
assoclated with f. The subject ofAIDS is reqarded by mary peopte as raboo and sutterers, whether adu,ts
o',1lo.p,, drctrellFdd co'alou o,r,. Tt-c'cnrerpan-od,nre,.cir.on\lhdtdtrcc.tiddd,ess
J'IIV/AIDS for very younq children. says Gtorin Britain, rakalani Sesadek prcduction managor. We saw
how we couJd help fill this void.'

After morths ofdlscussion, Iakalart sesaDe cane up wrtb kam', a qrnge.-ha,red. qotden yelow Murlet
*l.o lo.n\ rl"c ,how <tcrtr.9 S-pL J0,or tOah-h hoLr eoEodF!.rt hbd,lrnolomU€DeDr.tmenrot
Education ahd spoDsors incllding USAID and Santamr one of the counFy s najor insurance companies, the
program willgo olt not only onTV but
- anorher fiEt for ! Sesame production on radto and througttan
where every.hild in our coln$y willhave access to rhe TalalrDtsesnre messaqe, says Ministerof
Edu.arron Kader AsmaJ.

The target audience for lakdlari SesaDe is chitdren aged three to sever, but pro<tuceB expect the new
HIV/AIDS focus to attract older kids. When Kami bounces onto the screeh, she wi come aiross as a perky,
tun loling and healthy HtV positive character with a weatth ofinformation about HIV/A]DS to share with
her inquisitive triends. Shet emotionatty and inte e.luafy inte igent, wirh an insiqht that aoes beyond he.
6ve yeaE," srys Britain-

Kaml - from a Tswana tribal word tor "acceptance wil ctralenge the stereotype of the Htv-infected
sickly child and focus rnstead o. fun aDd friendtiness.- she witt arso introduce bas'c informarion and promote
dis.ussion about such uncuddly rssues as death and sociat ostracism. h an eptsode next month, Kmi has
to dealwith rejection at school because of hercondirion. (amrwins ove. her ctassmatesr teaching the
other children a ressotr in tolemnce and undeEtandhg of her sickness. (am' is no outc;st rar rrom ,r,
says Britain. she's lovable, and she's roved.'

Sesame Sareet has been beamed to millions of cbitd.en h nore than 120 .ountries over the past 30 ycars
Thou9h Sesame Workshop has no plans to introduce Kami in thc U.S., says Roberi Xnezev€, Sesame,s head
of international project management and devetopment, we wilt be seeing how the characrer unfotds and
what potential it mtght have in oth$ parts oi the wond.. Kami coutd pur new tife inio south afric. s Htv/alDs
awar€ness campaign. She may also have a bigqer carecr. If she s a hit in the new series, sdys scriptw.iter
Ntck Warren, she could be the star of a full le.qth South Ahlcan fitm to add to the propaqand. wEr aaainst
A\DS: Kami fhe Next Mavie-
source: t'rtpJ/w*w riue lod!rl!lrE93zrndE!!de]!-:!Zl 90to2oelo l5]-s?t oo.htmr

Givinq Hope to ttMositive Women

I'lalaysian women share their voices with UNICEF to Bark the .ount.y Iaunch of The State of the Wortd,s
children (sowc) 2007 report on Interoationat women s Day.

Themed Women and Children - The Doeb,e Dividend of cender Equatity", the SOWC 2OO7 examines the
discrimination and disempowe.ment women face throuqhout their lives and ou tnes whnt mlst be done to
el:mrndra ac1dF. d'5. nJI on dqd cnpoi-, wome , fd q ,ts.
KOTA BAI-IRU, J'larch 20O7 - Sraff nurse Zaimah l]ussin s patients know they can reach hcron the te,eDhone
at all hou6, .nd €ven on public holidays rh.counsetling nurse atthe qovernrnent hospitatin Kota Ahaiu,
the capit.lolthe north easternsrate of Ketrntan, does not onty hetp her HrV/AtDS paiients come to terms
with therr infectton, but also assist them rn Datte6 such .s seekrno financiat help to pay for th.rr
medicanon, dealing with adherence ro rreatmcnt .eqime and breakino the news to famitv menrbod

Still, she could not quieten her nagqi.g concem at not donlq enolgh for her patienrs, t4any ot rhem are puor,
and have to travelfrom rural6rcas to seek treatment amjdtr fears ofstigma and discrtminarion.

Woment vulnerability

It is, however, the pttght of HIV positive womeD thai worry Zaihah the most. "Women are genera y more
v!lnerable to I'IIV infection because most llck rhe knowtedge and the abjtity to protect rhemsetves,,, Zaimah
expiains wth conce.n.

According to Zaimah il is even tricli€rfor married women wharever theirsociato. economi. sratus - to
negotiate ior saf€r sex, even when they know their htrsbands are e.gaqhq in hjsh risk behavioursuch as
inje.ting drug use. "In our culiure, women atways say yesto tbeir husband. He is the kinq at home,,,she
says when accounttng ior the three fold increase tn the number women qetthg jnfected with HtV jn i,tataysia

'From ou. sotuey, we found that women have a row sense of setfworrh and asserdveness contrct of
thetr llves- They do not take care orthemselves very well, t4ost come for HIV screeninq when
their hDsband,
or childre. or they themselves haye been admi$ed !o holpirdttoran ArDs related i nesses. sone ardtso
detected when they are sdeened for Htv in antenatal ctiniG," stresses zaihah.

Helpi.9 single mothers

w hen her patients .eeds coutd not be met by the bospitat s tacitities, zalm. h began seeking hetp tor them
frcm outs'de. After ten years of tappt.g on her network offriends informalyr Zaihah besan mooring the ]dea
of startjrg a non qovernmentalorqanisation to hetD HlVinfeded sinote motheE tn Ketanran.

'lt seemed a dlificult thtng to do, but then my son Zahrain agreed to hetp run the NGO,,, said the 51,year,otd
Zaimah who has been in nuGtns tor29 yebrs.

zahrain zulkifli is well acquaihted with the hardships ofHrv anfsted shgte motheE because bts mothe. has
always enlisted the famtly's help, "My mother woutd refer needy stngte motbers to our NGO, prihatin, and we
would helo them w,th financial ard. We arso set up counsetting seNices tor these women because some ot
them Jre 6ore comrortable comtnq ro Prihahn than to theqovernment hospttat." Zah@in exptains. "We atso
started income qercrating workshopsto help sinqJe mothers,!

Althouqh Prihatin st.rt.d sm.ll, the thrce yc.r old,riration has quickly the attc.tion ai'd 3upport
of rh€ public and qovernment aqen.ies. They recently .noved into a house that was oriqinally buit for lh.
{iistnct health of']cer, and dow oftc's shciter to tllv posttive sinqle rnothcrs and their ch ldren who

'The number of HIV-positive women n Kela.lan is o ofihe h'9hest rn the.ount.y ALout crght out or t€n of
'. left to deal with thcir rnfe.tion, and fend for the r
then are infected by iheir husbands. Thcy are also olten
childrcn when their husbands passed away. flany are poor, a^d cannot turn to their fdmily for he p,' snys

Aside from pra.ti..l aid, the orqanisation has more impo.tantly qiven lnfccted women hope. Belore Prthdtnr,
many oithcse women sutfer in sjlenc€ and desperatbn. At the shelter, they do not only acqlire income
generatirg slills, but also qa]n and offer suppon to ea.h other in a saic environment

'About 70 percent otsinqle mothers registerEd with us live below the poverty liDe, So, there is a dire need
rorour serv'ces. other states have also looked at whdt we are doinq, and have asked us to help establish
Pnhatin the.e, z.ihah whose jnitiation into HtV/ArDs work 12 yetsE ngo was aoidst mlch tear and
Overcominq fear, linding satisi.ction

"1. 1994, nurses were we.ring atrons, q oves and masks when .arnrq ior Hlv posrtive p.tients. But then, I
was scni to Bangkok to work in an AlDS ward dhcrc lhe nurses were not ntr.rd of tho. pati.nts I .ame
back, dete nin.d to em!late their po5iiiv€ .tiitude, .nd start.d treating my p.tients wfthout fe.r, str.

l- E'qlrt to ten new pati€ di.gnoscd w tlr HIV at the Kota Baru FosPital week. zaim.h recognises,crcouDselhnglsvtalinfhaDinqp.tients.csDonsctoiheiri^fection.llcr.altnnessand..'npa.sion.s
she expl.ins aboui the diseas€ and ireatment options .re olt.. patienLs fnst inkling th.t liv.s are not
t, 'Most patients do not evc. know that treahnent is avail.ble; they all think they are qoinq to die. aut we tcll
thcm that treatment has become afford.blc wLth Government subsidy.
{ As one ot the fiost erperienced HIV/AIDS counsellinq nu6es in Malaysia, z.imah is alsD actively involved tn
trai.inq other health.are workers. There is slrll a shortagc ot Hlv/ArDS counsellinq nursca N Malaysia, as well
as a need to address 5tiqma and djscriminalion towanls HIV positive patients anonq healthcate workers
f zaima\
[" 'I find immense satisfactior in helpinq my patients. it allcomes from the heart, said

Sour.e: ht!!://www.uni.ef 6!qLlllrl

e(ii).What is Being Done?
t . There is no known cure for HIV/AID5. There are medical treatments that
can stow dolvn the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system- There
are other treatments that can prevent or cure some of the iltnesses
t associated with AlD5.

{ Life prolonains anriretoviral (ARV) lreahent dntss besun 1o kansform HIV from
t" a. inescapable dealh sentencc inlo a nanageable condition for those fo.lunate enough to
have .ccess to lhem- h 2005, 250,000 to 350,000 dealhs wer€ avened because ofrecent
scale un ofrreatmcnl.


o A numbcr ol drugs such as clinically provcD lo significanlly rcduce
moller to child transm'ssio (MTCT) when preenant molhers ard childrer
shorlly afier birlh.

A global commitment to turnjng the tide on this disease js nonetheless

buitding. More resources have been devoted in recent years to research,
preventjon, care and treatment for those infected \ryith and affected by the
disease. Simultaneous and sustained expansion of prevention and
treatment efforts are needed if the Dace of the eDidemic is to be slowed.
a 'fhe Global Ftnd to Fight AIDS, Tsberculosis an.l Malatia. an indepcndenl
organisalior, was created ro increase rcsources to fighl lhree o, lhe norld's mosl
devastaling djseases a.d lo direcl lhose resorrccs lo arcas ofgrealest re€d-

The World tlealrh OrAan;sitio. launched the 3 b! 5 Iritiatiw in 2003. ]l'e campai8n
.ims to have three million Hlv'posilive peoplc in developi.g couDlries on anliretroviml
(ARV) lrcahcDt by lhe end of2005.

Top scientists from around the world are committed to vaccine

development, which remains one of the greatest bopes the world has for
preventing transmission of the yirus, but a successful vaccine is tikety to be
years away. Clinicat triats are ongoing in severaI countries.

Governments have increased their health spendinq:

'l'hailand has $lccesstully adoprcd effccrive iontainrenl measures (such as massive
condonr dislribulion and public cducdtion) lhat have broDght the epidemic utder a
remarkable deBree ofconlrol, bolh in lhc counlry's military and ils civilian population.

Thc Nalion.l A]DS of Br.zil has successfully otTered univeBal access to
rrealrnent while conducl;ng ao aggressive HIV prevcDlior campaign. lD lvlay 2003, lhe
progranme w's presenred wirh lhe us$l nillion Gares Award for Global Healrh at lhe
ailobal I l€alth a'onferenc--

ABc stands for Abstinence, Be faithful to a single partner and c6ndom

use. Certain organisations and governments promote the ABC prevention
message as a means to stop the spread of HlV.

ln many countries, it is civil society which remains at the forefront of AIDS

prevention, care and support programmes, particularly among the most
vutnerable and hard"to reach DoDulations.
o These iochde NGOS, faith-based orsanisations, women's groups, bEiness ertcrprises
and labonr onions, priv"le foundations a.d lhe media.

o The mosl aclive menrbers ofcivil society are often those with personal rxperjence ol the
I epidehic, eilber as people ljrins $irb HIV or members ofmarg;nalised and vulnerable
populatiois, such as sex workers a.d dnrg lscrs.

Section'/: Ifu Etfrics of Ai[ anfI{umanitarian R7sponse
. ln recent yearsJ global interest in humanitarian response is high.
Tacktjng these issues has become an interest of many privbte individuats
t, (e.9. Bitl and Melinda Gates, Warren Buffett) and a key feature of many
nations' foreign policies, for a varjety of reasons:
. Some *ee rl as,r mr'rrl rlui)
o others see it as a form of public diplomacy;
t o some individuals see it as an investment in sclf-protection.
However, humanitarian aid tends to fayour high-profile emergencies at
the expense of other crises far from the media or political spotlight,
r They tend to reflect the interests and concerns of the donors, not the
recipients; must be spent accordinq to donors' prioritjes, potitics and
values; and come wjth strinqs attached.
o Posl September ll, while counlries lraeled in lhe war on leror' huvc altracted
unpiecedenled levels of humaritariau and rcconstruclioD aid, oLher arguably nnte
i pressing criscs Ianguish in thc shrdorv3. willi' weeks ofonsline Saddam Ihrsscin, lhe
{ US Derarlnrenr ofDclcnsc,eponed lhal it h.d raiscd US$ 1.7 billion in rcljct for the
l.aqi [)€ople: l.ess than half ol lhal ano nl h.d bccD plcdgcd tor ,10 rnillioD slrrving
Humanitarian aid often arrives late, Even if the ma jority of funds
$, eventualty provided, they often arrive too late to prevent avoidable
sufferine and death.
'Ihc 2005 food c.isis ir Nige. was prediclcd monlhs before il hi! lhe beadlines, and mrny
de^lhs could have been prevenred iffinrding had been available al lhat lime. Il look
L lelevision pidures of slarviDg children in Jrly 2005 lo prompl 0deq!ale'tdnds by w[ich
timerbe shondge had llrned inlo a disis.
. Thus aid should be adequate as wett as fair. Aid organisations and donors
L must agree on a standard way of measuring global needs and ensure that
aid responses meet all priority needs. A ctoser integration of humanitarian
and development responses is needed to tackte recurrent, chronic crises.
)-.gunnino'tJp |
[. t'You have read the notes on hovy man'5 actions have had an jmpact on natural ,
i dirurt"r, and the spread ot disease. Drawing examples and evidence from the i
lt articles, discuss the following:
t ii ls the human race in control of its destiny?


\TPJC CT 2004 - modified)


WeE Qgsources on ltfaturafDisasters st Diseases

Medecins Sans Fronl.ieres

http: / /www.msf .orgl

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters

http: / /www. cred. be/

lnternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (lFRc)

http: //wwvr. jf rc.orgl

Populatjon Connectjon: Education and Action for a Better Wortd

http: / /\,r'w\ry. populationconnection. orgl

Wortd Health Organisation

http: //www.vr'

ctobat Heatth Councit

http: / /www. globatheatth.orgl

Gtobat Heatth Reportinq

http: / /www.globatheatthreporting-org/

Globat H lV/AIDS Timeline (interactive)

http: / /wwvr', kff .orglhivaids/timetine/ m

BBCNe\r's I Speciat Reports - Bird Ftu

http: / /news. 2 I hi I \n depth/v/orld/2005/bird-f lu/def autt-stm

Relieflveb - Ontine Gateway to informat'ion on humanitarian emergencies and

http: //www. relief\

t Relevant P1 Essay Questions on 9l an {, tlie Etwironment
Do you egrec tb cnvironment.l protecdon should take precedence
dcvrlopmcrt? EIC Cl 2002)
2. 1d rhat ways can econonxc developnenr bc sustaincd rvithout cornprofusing the qrality or
or:r living cnvronmentl (SRJC MY 2002)
I ibp,d
3. Assess the of m.tcnaLsh o. ao aLcady dctcdorari4 environmenr 0JC MY 2002)
4 'Nnsfortune teaches Ds tuuch.'I)iscu$. (SRJC Prclim 2002)

t 5. "We ourselves fcel thit whai ve dc doi.g is jDsl a drop ir an ocean. But dre ocea' would be
lcss b.c.Dse of that missr,rg drop." fMorber leresal Discu$ l];s tn rel2uo. ro rhe attenpts
ro help improve our env;'r roday. gJC CT 200J)

6 Is it ever posslblc to n,eet tbe deminds of rhe consuher class without incrunng great
e.*onoeoral costs? (SAJC Prelm 2003)
Are co.cerns aboul the rced for us ro consere our envronmenr exaggerxted? (RJC Piehm
{ 200r)
1s it rxile to consider . glob,l plan lor consewatioo aod prorectlon of the envirormentl
(SAJC C'r' 2004)
,. ''There is enough for ocr'- nrn's nced blr n.rr for every nan's greed." Disorss thrs
statenreDt ir ielation ro d,e ilv'Joorncnml corcchs tdne us roday. gJC IfY 2004)
I 10. "I he futu.e ofthe hnman iice secDs blc,k.'\x4,^r xre yofi views? (SIUC MY 2004)
11 ''our moder. lilesryle js .r qjih ihc prcscnario' of the env;onmenr." Drscuss. (NyJL
\,fi 2001)

Human beirgs h^v. hore to fiar froh rhehcel\es rlran rrom the Dan'r^l q orld. Do yon
rgree? (iJC Prelim 2004)

I 11 llow td would you agrce rh'r despjte Nlan's arrehpt ro co.irol Nahue, Naruie h.s iNtcad
been more successtul in contiollins Man? 0\lJC Pie.Ir. 2004)
1'1. Is poverty largely to blamc tor en ronmental dcvastatlon fodny? olc PreliD 2004)
r 15. 'Economic deelopme.i w l ,lvays be calned oDt ar rhe expense ofd,e ennrroomeor.' How
far doyoD vith this sr.tene.ti (IPJC P'etim 2004)
16 "Wc have not been good gu^rdidns ofthe l:2fth." Do you agree? (l,II Prclin 200a) '
t]. 'Tbe effotts oa the indrvidual arc jrtsi as impor1a.r ,s the effofts of the goverrmc'n ir rhc
.onsemtion and presesrtion ofthe envfonment.' Discuss. (qC promo 2005)
18. The c'*o'hent is therc fot us to exploit, not conscrvc. To vhat exre'r .lo you agtee wnh
ths stateheot (,l.UC Promo 2u05)

I 19. I0hat 2re the main environhental problems that your country f,ces and how €an rhey bc
t o\ erome) (Jlc CI 200s)
20. "Ooly the foolish will focus oo environmental consdr on in Third World Courtries wben
the people thde do not have enough to eat." Do you €ree? (TPJC MY 2005)
I "The prcblem of the envionmcnt is a pmblen) of consumptioo." Discus. (fJ1lC MY 2005)

22. Do yr[rgJee thll it is t])e responsib rty ot ncher n.dons to iaclde glob,l environlnent.] (AJC Prelrn 200s)
23. 'fhe .nvir.,nn,cnl should be Il,e soverihcrls marn conces.' Do rou .glecl (SAJC Preli'n
2+. "flrc Earth is rloored 'rherc is rothrg mxr .an do nbout tt.' Comoent. (lv{C Prelio 2005)

2\. Il]e worl.l is lrcrcishgly m.iked by rlrprcdictabiliq'. To vhat cxlent ;s this true? (N'IIC
PRlln 200s)
16. 'We are oDr ovn vorst enrmy.'ilow true is rhis srxtcDent ir today's worl.l? (SAJC Prclin

21. Is recycling th. rnslc ro our cnwonr.cntal voesl (Ml Prclim 2005)

28. Is it tn,e thar 'thrre's enough oD this planet for cveryone's reeds bDt nol tor.!E4one's
grced?' (VJC Prelim 200s)

29. 'Their: is no*lng opr'tusdc abour the fururc of onr environoent.' Do yor: agn? (M.lC MY

l{1. 'Large scrle nrruril rlsasters brirg out thc chtitdblc side oi reoPle.' DiscDss. (IC Prelin)

31. "Nriuril L.yond our agreel FIC Pieh! 2006)

control.' D., yoD

12. "'l'he future nbr€ pessihism rh2n opunrisrr." Horv fir clo you rgacc rvlth rhis
st,teh€'t? (IPJC Pich'n 2006)
3l Cnses rvlJe clev2sr,ti'g, c.n le,d to posjdv. outcomes. l)o lou agicel (MJC Prcln, 2006)

1r4- Discuss the inrpact ofre.ent worl(lcvcnts o! siirgapole's ftitDre. (lvlJc Prelin 2006)
35. Ijxtrehe is $e m,h c,use of cnvirorment2l dcgradanon Do you ,gree?
(SAJC Prelim 2006)

36. Flivc ivl^n's actlons ilrcady doomed his dcsccndants? (SRJC Pre.lim 2006)
37. Nl.nkrnd is r canccr upon th. Earth. Do you agleel (VJC Prelirn 2006)
18. Thc prcseration of the environncnt is a luxury. Discuss this in the light of c.v;odbcntal
issues facirg us today. (AJC l,relim 2006)

39. In your opinion, is the goal ofavoidlng ccological disasto hopeles? (CJC PttLa 2006)
40 "Humin swiv.l v1ll depe.d oo effective rneisurcs to cope wilh ecologcal problems-"
D,scuss. O.JC Prelin 2006)

Relevant P2 comprehension E\ercises on 94an dtIfre Envkonment

1. HCJC ?relim 2002: 'Ihe Use ofViolence in the EnvnoDental SltDgg e
2. RJC pr€lim 2002: The lss e of Global Wahing
3. RJC Prelim 2004: The ProbleDs Caused by l"ivatc Car Use
4. TJC Mid Year Common 'Itst 2003



I AMitioM[ qgadinBs

An In-Deplh look at the Environrnent

I Human impacis on lhe nallralworld are both more apparenl and more widespread than ever
before in human hislory. li is increasingly more difficult to clean up existing environmenlal
disasters and halt furlher degradation of important naiural rcsources. But public awareness about
f the key role that we can play in proteclrng nature and natura' processes is growing. Deslruction
and protection hang in the balance al lhis cruciall'me in human history.
{. As we scan the globe, signs of environmental degradalion are everywhere. Almost 40 percenl of
ihe Earlh s surface has been converied to cropland or paslure and hall ofihe kopicalforests
have been destroyed or degraded. Past productive pasturelands are lurning into deserts al an
alarming rate while low lying coaslal areas appear 1o be lhreatened by flooding from the etfecls of
I qlobalwarming

ln the almosphere surroundinq us, the protective ozone layer has been damaged, but nol
irreparably. Power plant and automotive emissions creaie widespread air pollulion; in a number ot
lhe world's largest cilies, ihe air qual;ty is frequently below international health siandards. Fresh
waler is declining in qualily and quant;ty

l Globally, an eslimale.l lhree unique planl and animal species go extinct every hour. As a result of
over tishinq, many species oI fish exisl only in small. isolaled pockets in the oceans of the world
Planl species that form a natural pharmacological laboratory are disappearing wilh the kopical
As world populalion qrows, 3ne oI the blggest questions we must ask is: how many people can
ihe Earlh and its environment support? This carrying capacily' of ihe qlobe is atfected by the
i way we use ils resources and protecl {he envionmenl uliimately, the envitonmental ioolp rinl of
each of the Earth s inhabilants will delermine how manY people the qlobe can sustain Today, ihe
average human toolprint is estimated to be just over 7 acres, while the available ecological space
is onty 5.5 acres. The collective human footprinl is bound lo have a s'gnificanlly negative irnpacl
I on the environment.

The current environmental crisis ofters an opportunily for lhe economic engines of the world to
{_ convert to environmentally sustainable practices thal are, in facl, good business. As a rcsult wele
beginning io craft approa;hes to prolecl lhis fragile naturalworld. This means add;ess,ng lhe root
causes of environmental degradation:
1) Economic and social policies that promote the over'consumplion and lhe unsustainabls_
L production models of rich counkies; and,
2) Economic and social inequaliiies in poor counlries.

L A remedialion economy offers numerous benefits noljust to the environment but also to allof the
Earth s inhabiiants. lt brings with ii the promise of improved employment and a narrowing of the
gap between rich and poor as well as enhanced lood and waler security and adequate health
care Environmental remediation is a major leverage point for global change.
First Decade ol the 21st Century: Major lmpacts on the Environment

{ Human hislory has recorded our impect on the environmenl. Whether wete clearing land tor
agriculture, damming rivers, or ex.tracting ore from lhe ground, lhe nalutalworld is always
affected by our aclions. But untillhe 20ih cenlury, the most destructive envircnmenlal praciices
were usually local in scope. Today, even the local is global as acid rain and global warming affect

the enlire world A web of inlerdependence assures that lhe smallest action by a cjtizen of one
counlry can impact everyone else

World population growth has fueled an increased impaci on the environmeni. Uniied Natjons
experls predict lhal, at lhe current fertilily rale, lhere could be as many as 13 bitUon people in lhe
rxorld by 2050, more than double the present populalion. Nearly allofihat groMh willtake ptace
in ihe developing world, where rnany counlies are doubling their population every 30 years. We
also know lhal the number of people living in citjes has iriplect since 195O, and now constitutes
more lhan 40 percent of ihe global population. Dense concentralions of peopte place intense
demands on lhe envionmeni.

[,4any would argue that the Earth can absorb bjllions more peopte, but onty it its resources are
both distribuled more eqLJitably and used in a truly sustainable way. We're aware of ihe huge
appeliie of lhe induslrialized counl es for energy, commercial fuels, wood, and steel products as
well as all other nalural resources. lf those patlerns of consumplion prevail, natural rcsources wi)l
be exhausted and environmenlal deg.adalion will be irevilrsible.

Compounding that problem is the fact that, drawn into ihe globaleconomy, many otthe
developing countries are approaching rich nations standards of consumption and waste We
need Io pay allention to lhe harmlul by-products of what we produce_ Today s emphasis on freer
and more open markels can exaceabate the problem, because it often places a lower value on
Eadh s naiural resources and lessens lhe perceived need to manage them susiainabty

The induslrialized nations pride themselves on their productivity; in tact it is usuatty the sote
measure of economic success The production of food is a good exampte, in lhe pursuit of
quanlily and bushels-per-acre we use fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicjdes whose neqative
rmpacl on the environment have been proven scienl ically. cenetlcally enqrneered fo;ds may
provide an abundance of mlch needed food in ihis century, however its lono term environmenlat
and health impacis are yet to be determined

ln the cleveloping wodd, the cultivatio; of singte cash crops lrke cottee is often promoted over lhe
application of smali scale mixed agriculture. Overuse of marginal pastureland as wett as gtobat
climate change has also led 10 rapid desenification in 70 percent of the dry tands of lhe world.
Slalisl;cs on ihe deplelion offish stocks in allthe oceans of theworld offerfurlher evidence ofthe
permanent damage done lo one of humans most important sources of nutrition.

A good indjcator of balance in the environment is our fiesh water. Wfh the exceplion ot the
occasional drought, citjzens ot the industrjalized world take cJean drinking water f; qranted. ln
Iacl, more ihan 70 percent ofthe wodd lives without it, and 25,000 people die each day as the
resull ot poorwaler management. Because almosl90 percent ot drinkable water is trom -
groundwater close to the surlace, it is especially vulnerable to environmental potlution from
ind ustrial waste, excessive irrigation and overuse of lertilizers.

A secondary impacl of poisoned water and waterways rs lhe depleton of flora and fauna, which
contribule to the balance in the naturalworld. ln our need to develop tand we often destroy
valuable wetlands, which play a crucial role in maintaining healthy water quality. As wiih so many
other resources, the wasteful use and inequitable distiibulion of water must be addressed if we?e
serious about protecling the environment and our health.

Our personalhealth is directly linked lo the health ofour physical sur.oundings. Ranging from
rjsing skin cancer to respjratory ailments, our sick environmenl is making us sick as well.
LJncontrolled harvesting of lhe rainforests of the world nol onty has adirect affect on the
greenhouse gases but also directly depletes the diverse slock oftrees and plants, which are a
source of bolh traditional and non traditional medicines_


Froblems arising from improper diet are another indirecl resull of poljcies lhat are environmenlally
i unsustainable As traditional agriculture is replaced by cash crops, ihe usual dependable sources
of nutrition decljne. ln addilion to lhe obvious impacts of air and water pollulion on our health,
careless disposal of bolh nontoxic and toxic wasle poses a major threat.

f An unexpected resuli of an environmeni out of balance is ihe increase in naturaldisaslers. Many

of lhe extreme wealher events of the past 50 years can be traced lo environmenlal and climale
charge Floods, resulling in nearly 50 percent of alldeaths caused by naluraldisasters, are more
I devasialing because of clear cutling and other deslruclive land use practices Overcrowding in
cilies has also meant lhat urban dwellers are more vulnerable 10 earihquakes and mudslides.

Most countries of lhe worlcl have extraction-based economies. Many supply the raw materials io
I dislanl industrialized nations while their local environment sulTers the most damage Leading
economic thinkers have suggesled that lhis rate of supply, also known as throughput," must be
reduced by a faclor of 10 in order to establish a sustainable use oi natural resources. Therr
I govemments are ollen influenced primarily by considerations of profitabilily and shortlerm
political gain and tollow policies lhal are harmtu{ lo the naturalorder.

Given poor countries economic vulnerability and dependence on weallhier nations they are often
r unable lo overhaul their system, which condemns lhem to a dependenl relationship wilh the rest
of lhe world. More disappointing is ihe fact thal even when national or iniernalional laws do exisl
io prevent pollution or dump'ng of toxic wastes, corrupt officials will turn a blind eye to such
{ behavior. Wiihout consistent and fair enforcemenl by representative qovernments, all such codes
and laws are clearly ineffeclive

{ Concrete Steps Toward Protecting the Environment

Many people have grown aecusiomed lo dire prediciions about lhe environmenl. There is
cerlainly ample reason fo. pessimism, but there is equally good reason to celebrale the
L accomplishments of a slrong environrrrental protection movement. Non-governmenlal
organizarions iNGOs) have made tremendous progress in eclucating the public and leading
governments to more sustainable policies Bul global change will require a fundamenlal
restrucluring ot our current economic syslem thal favors an unequal dislribution of resources and
L exploilation ralher lhan prolection of the naturalworld.

Despite allthe projections oI increasing populalion, ihere are some heartening lrends. First, the
IL- ferlility rate in many ofihe developed counlries continues to decline Reproducljve health
programs ;n some ot the most populous developing countries are beginning to male a d,fference.
Experimenls concerning transportation and housiog in densely populated cities like Curitiba in
I Brazil have shown that urban populaiion centers don't have lo be cenlers ot pollution
There are many ways to change our economic relationship with the environment one is to
explore innovative lorms ofcapitalism that are non-exlraclive; anolher is lo insist on new ways of
accounting, which include environmenlal impact as parl of a calculation ofthe bottom line. A thitd
L way is 10 include anti pollulion and resburce proleclion clauses in all cont€cts with substantjal
consequences f or violations.
&_ Since the pioneering R'o Conference in'1992, a number of agreements and prolocols have been
adopted by the United Nattons with the sole purpose of setting environmental standards for
industries. Each ofthese agreements, ranging from lhe Convenlion on lhe lnlemational Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES) to the Montreal Protocol on Subslances that Deplele the Ozone
t" Layer has a secretariat charged with enforcing il-


Almost every practice lhai is harmful to lhe environment is covered, including dumping ol
hazardous malerials, destruciion of weilands, and overfishing of endangered marine species
The most recenl addiiion is the Kyoto Protocol on cl'male change that sels clear standards for

Each of ihe above organizations is beginning to exercise the authority necessary to identity and
penalize otfenders, and to gain the cooperation of naiionalgovernments Once bolh developing
and developed countiies respecl these iniemalional environmental regulations we can begin to
reverse ihe decades of damage already done by uncontrolled production and consumption.

Probably lhe most importanl aclo6 in this process are specialized nalional and iniernalional
NGOs ihat do ihe research and lobbying necessary to protect specialized resources like coral
reefs, tropical rainforests, and mangrove swamps W;lhout the dedicated and determined service
of NGOs, international institulions wouldn t be able lo accomplish nearly as much as they do.

Afterthe proliferation ofenvironmental NGOs, the next mosl encouraging developmenl is the
growing respect for the natural world- Tree planting programs, recycling, promolion of car pooling
and bicycling and aulojree zones are bui a few examples of a changing consciousness. This
change in attilude is lhe essenlialfirst step in achieving the politicalwill necessary for
kansformational change.

Wilhout the clear accouniability of governments of all nalions, no real progress can be made
towads long lerm environmental suslainability. Recenlly lhere have been some encouraging
examples of national-internalional cooperation, ofien with NGOS being lhe catalyst. Control of the
sale and prodlction of chlo.ofluorocarbons (CFC) in developing and developed countries shows
us that, wilh polilicalwill al lhe national level, slandards can be enforced.

Pioneers in lhe agricultural!,/r'orld are showing that we can produce tood in environmentally
benefjcialways. OBanic farmers are proving that they can compele in lhe global markelplace
while not relying on chemicals; consurners in Europe and elsewhere are refusing lo purchase
genetically modifled foods until theyle convinced thal they won't be harmful lo lhei environment
and heallh.

As lhe wo d economy gradually swilches to suslainable praclices, healthy food production should
follow. lt is essentialthal the naiions ofthe world be able to feed themselves, balancing the
production of cash and food crops. Appropriate lechnology in agriculture, which balances
mechanized with non-mechanized processes, wilialso help to safeguard the environment.
Raliflcation and enforcement of the United Nations Convention on the Law of theSea and its
successor protocols is crucialto the protectjon ofendangered food fish siocks.

The skengthening of international law and iis enforcement would bolslerttre environmenflt
movement tremendously as wellas protect the rights of allcitizens ofthe globe- For exadple,
indigenous groups whose very existence has been threatened by oil exploration, mining and
logging will benefit hom lhe Convention on Biodiversity, the Convenlion on World Cultural and
Nalural Herilage as well as other human righls documents designed io protect their culiure and
unique way of life. The Basel Convention on lhe Transboundary Movemenis of Hazardous
Wasles a.d Their Disposaloffers important prolection to developing countries lhat have been
dumprng grounds for toxlc subslances.

ln the industrialized countries, poor and minority groups have mobilized themselves against
polluting faciories in theh neighborhoods and insisted on equal protection by exisling
environmental standards. Local Nctis from Nigeria io California have delailed knowledge about
specific problems and a passionate commjlment to advocacy.


Cornpetiljon for the conirciof natural resources is oflen al the root oi many conflicts in ihe wortd.
Wilh the g€dual acceptance of internalion a I standards regarding the environmenl, there s a
grealer chance that one major source o{ con{licl would be removed. Naiionat service
organizations dedicated lo tree planting, sho.eline restoration, and endangered species
'?,. protection provide a powerlul example oi how resources miqht be redirected to peaceiulends


f As citizens and consumers we can play a tmnsformalive role through locai action to complement
the work of inlernal iona I environmenta I orga nizal ions and NGOS. The way we lead our tives rs a
powerful stalement in itselt: are we conscious of how much we consume and how our eating
habits determine land use and availabilily of food for olhers? Buying consciously contributes
I direclly to rebuilding the environment; this includes selectjng products that are recycled,
patronizing companies with proven envircnmenial records, and simply consuming tess

L As aclors in lhe world econornic arena we can also have an impact. There are many investmenl
opporiunities lhat a€ environmentally screened and promole positive land and resource use att
over lhe world. Even lhe largest corporations are vulnerable to sharehoJder aclivism and many
f have changed environmental policies as the result ofdemands made in their annual meetings.
As voters we can make a huge ditference in local, national, and intemational environmental
pract;ces. From ihe preservation of wetjands and development of pockel parks to lobbying for
higher emission standards we have a powerful voice ;n how the commons-resources which
belong lo allof us-are being used

I Al the beginning of ihe 2lst cenlury, we are at a turning point in our relationship with the naiural
t. wond. There is ample evidehce of a strong determinatjon on the part ol ordinary citizens to forge
a new way lhal respecis nalure and conirols ourtendency to oveproduce and over-consume Bul
old habils don t disappear easily, especially when the economic benefits to be gained trom
t explollalion are so alluring- Bul the beneiils irom such a chpnged relatjonship to the environment
could be lremendous We do have lhe abilily 1o play a substantial role in protecting lhe

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I 42,

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,Well fed people have many problems, hungry people only have one. This tradilional Chinese
proverb reminds us thal, even though allglobalissues are linked, nothing is quite as basic to
human survival as food and waler. An estimatec,2 billion citizens ofthe world lack access lo
adequale nutrition, and nearly 800 million are chronically hlrngry. Our supply ofiresh waler is also
severely limiled: 31 couniries are currently suflering from scarciiy or slress and for more than 1
billion people clean drinking waler is simply unavailabie. (UNDP)

The human costs of food and waler insecurily are high. Drasiic shortages of food and waier
heighten the gap bet\rveen r'ch and poor and often lead to conflicts on both sides ot the borders of
a partlcular country. Waler wars are almosl inevilable, as more people compele lor that scarce

The push for inc€ased agripultural produciion lo meet growing needs leads {o environmental
degradalion from habilat desi.uction, chemical pollution fe ilizers, and oveFfishing River
syslems and aquters have been seriously depleted by water wilhdrawals. The inlrcduction of
genelically modified organisms (Glvlo_s) in an effort to increase food production has potentially
negalive environmental and health implicalions

As the environment suffers, so does the health olihe millions who lack adequate sanitation,
potable waier, ancl daily nuirilion. Children who go lo bed hungry are vulnerable to disease as
well as delayed physjcal and menlal developmenl. Dirty water is a majorculprit in lhe spread of
diseases like cholera, which are especially deaclly for children.

Populaiion grolvlh has a double impacl on food and water securily. On the one hand, increasing
per capita food consumption bywealthier nations of a proiein-rich diet further skews distribulion
of resources. On lhe other hand, a rapidly growing and more prosperous developing world will
iead to their demand for a grealer share of lhe word's food. Grealer numbers ofpeople also lead
to expanded agricultural, induslrial, and mun;cipalwater use that eventually comprom;se both
water quality and its availabilily.

The structure of lhe world economy al the beginning of the 2lst Century conlributes significanily
to the current problem. Developing countries, akeady deeply in debt to induslrialized countries,
are forced to make difiicult decisjons that often tavor cash crops over food crops and exporl
earnings over self-suff iciency

It is possible lo provide adequale food and waterfor everyone. Farmers can convert to proven
sustainable agriculture by improving harvesting, trcnsportation, and storage technologies that
currently waste as much as one quarter of alltood produced. It's also possible lo use water mrjch
more efficiently in agricullure, industry, and residential.applications. Thrcugh education,


fundamentalchanges in consumplion patlerns and diet in induslrialized couniries and a move
I lowards balancing resou.ce use worldwide are possible

Food and water securily for a,l of lhe world's cilizens direclly addresses lhe rool causes of
poverty and conflict. Hungry people who begin lo eat heallhy diels become aclive and productive
members ofsociety, coniributing to a robusl international economy.

Food Security: The Current Situation & Predictions lor the Future
The UN predicls that ihe world population will increase 10 8 billion by 2025. Accompanying that
growth will be a dlamaiic .ise in per capita consumption ot food and a growing demand for more
I calories lncreased consumption will make more obvrous the huge Inequ;lies rn lhe drslnbution of
food to the people of the world.

This is nol a new problem. ln the 1950s, population experls sbocked ihe world with thejr
t projeclions; many were convinced lhat, unless we made fundamenlal changes in agricultural
produciion, widespread famine would resull. Agricultural advances of the '1950s, called lhe
'Green Revolulion l" raised lhe amount ot food per capila through lhe developmenl and
inlroduction of high yield, pest resistant seeds, and increased irrigalion techniques Green
Revol!tion I was an impressive atlempl lo increase food produclion in rich and poor countries
alike. But lhe environmenialand socialimpacts oflhis agricullu€l revolution were significant:
t tracts of land were deforesled, c hemical ferlilizers poisonecl soil and groundwaier, and
I 'arge
peasant farmers losl control oi seed stocks

Most importanlly, at the beginning ol the 21st cenlury, il is clear that Green Revolulion I dicln i
aclually bridge the gap between tood producers and food consumers; it kept up with populaiion
growih ior only a moment in lime Poor people don i eal well; the result is that about 20 percent of
the world's populalion consAmes loo few calories to supporl an active working life As a result,
the productivity of both agricullural and ind ustrial workers sufferc greally in undernourishecl
i de,eloprng cour1.e,

Recent advances in the area ofgenelic engineering, olten cojned "Green Revolutior ll" is the
Iatest attempl io address the probiem of insufficientfood for a growing population. Genetically
{ modified organisms (GI\4Os) represent to some the ultimate answer lo food shortages and to
others a serious threat to the naluralworld- GMOs rnciude seeds, which are resistanl lo cerlain
{ pests and have built-in genetic characteistics that promise higher yields and rcsistance lo natural
{. pests. But, tinkering wilh the genetic make up of lraditional crops can threaten organjc seed
slocks and produces crops, like the Terminator, that have the polenlial ofmonopolizing
international agaiculture.

L Conversion of forcsls and other arable land to pasture for cattle reduces ralnforests esseniat to
the environmental health of the globe. The cycle of enuronmenlal degradation has also ledto
unnalural disasters, especially droughls and tioods ln the flrst lew years of ihe 21st century,
L floods in Honduras and lndia and droughts in A{ghanistan have made those countries heavily
dependenl on intemalional food aid

There are many trouble spots in the world where food and water security arc compromised rather
L ihan protected. Civilwars often threaten existing tood and waler suppiies lora variety of reasons:
laud mines and unexploded ordnance interfere with potentially produce agricullural lands, military
service of youth and farmers means a smallerwork torce, and iniernal displacement (refugees) of
rural populations results in more mouths to feed. ln tact, il is estimated that 10 p€rcenl of the
L world's hungry people are in thai condition because ofthe clisrupiions ofwar and othe. civilstrife.


ln the process, lhe health ol many oflhe world's cilizens sutfers. Proper nutriiion is the foundation
()1good health. but it is estimaied lhat abou140 million people die annually from hunger and
hunger-relaled diseases. Lack of a balanced diet and an insuiticient daily caloric irttake teave
many more vulnerable to olher diseases and unable lo resist the secondary aftlictions associaled
wilh a disease like HIV-AIDS At lhe olher end of the economic speclrum, 30 percent ofadulls in
the Uniled Stales over the age of 40 are obese and sutier from a variety ot serious health
problerrs ds\o' ialad w lh lhat , ondrlron

Water Security: The Current Situation & Predictions for the Future

Water is one of the most precious commodiiies on the earih; its ownership' and use-tike food-
are not equiiably distributed. The least dire predictions for the future are that by 2025, two-ihirds
of lhe world s population will be ljving with waler shortages or absolute water scarcity. These
shortages wi,l affect lhe poorest first, both in terms of domestic consumpiion and irrigalion.

World history is filled with hundreds ol examples of how water suppty delermines the success or
failure of civilizations. Every greal river system like lhe lndus Valley, the Tigris & Euphrates, Nite
Valleys, andthe Mekong lo namejusl a few - has along history of conflict and cooperation
over its conlrol Water use has determined the very nature of the civilization itgelf.

Already in this century, neiqhborinq countries have come io the brink of war over the use of river
waler shared by them For ihe mosi pad, potential conflicts have been resolved cooperatively:
157 water treaties have been signed over the pasl50 years But as the renewable suppty
deciines and world population grows, some predjct a ditferent scenario Even though onty one-
quarter of water- €laled inieraclions were hostile in the last 50 years, there were 37 insiances
where shots were fired or some sorl oI milltarv aclion occurred

Water can be viewed, like fdod, as a commodity, which can be lraded on the world market and
produced eflicienlly with the applicalion oi the very latest technoloqy. Some multinational
corporations are interested in making water an item to be bought and sold on the world market
Poor people akeady oflen pay more lor their water lhan those in affluenl countries

ln a giimpse ofwhal could easily happen aa privatizalion of resources increases in lhe next
decade, Bechtei Corporation, backed by lhe World Bank, doubled the price of water in ihe city of
Cochabamba, Bolivia in 1999. They were unprepared ior the violenl reaction of the mostty poor
citizens of ihal city who slillsaw access to fresh water as a right and not a privitege.

lnlemal,onal law is even more e{plicil concernrng how waler should be usFd ln d;temrning vital
human needs , special attenlion is to be paid to providirg sufficient water to sustain human life,
including both drinkjng waler and water required tor production of food in order 10 prevenl -
starvation (Article 10 UN Convention on lhe Law of the Non-naviqational Uses)

Many of lhe most debililating diseases like.cholera, typhoid and less severe forms ofdiarrhe&-
are waleFborne; lack oI adequale saniiation and an unpredictable waler supply are major culprits
in h;gh infanl moriality. Irany experts claim lhal provision of clean waler both for drinking and
other household uses would be a major leverage point in assuring adequate and equitable

Planntng tor Food & Water Security: There is a Way

Despite the many worst case scenarios, we wilt be able to provide adequale food and waler to
lhe esiimated 9lo 13 billion citizens of lhe world fifty years from now Br such a goal can only be
reached lhrough a lransformation of our syslems of production and dislribuiion. We will have to
choose to use ihe resources of lhe earlh jn a more equjtable and sustainable way.


t A good slartlng point in achieving this goal is lo stabilize world population grcwth al a workable
levei. Reproductive health educalion efforls in rural communilies can have dramatic results,
especially ln convi.cing girls and women ot the wisdom of reducing family size. This will slow the
process of land fragmentaiion that is having such a destructive impact especially in Asia. Since
fI ihe poor oflen count on larqe families as a form of insurance, it slands to reason that as food and
waler security increase, one of lhe incenlives ior more children disappears.

t This vicious cycle of poverly broken in a variety of ways, but one ol lhe most effeclive is to
I provide ihe food and water required for produciive work. The Worlcl Foocl Summii Plan ofAction,
adopled in 1996 by nearly every nation of lhe world, slates lhat poverly eradicalion is essenlial
lo improve access io food " l\rany stldies show thai increased caloric intake increases per capila
c income dramalically-
ln alnrosl every country of lhe world ihere are grassroots NGOS devoted to reducing the gap
between rich and poor. Many ot these olganizalions arc largeling rural farmers and making self-
t sufliciency in food their number one priority. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Comm'ttee
(BRAC) concentrates on poor ruralwomen and promoles home based income generaling
d.lrvrles. i\e {ood procescinq and pourlry reanng
Heifer lnternational, a non plofit organization empowers locai communities by offering heallhy
animals lo the rural poor and injtialing an ethic of mutual assistance.

Cooperallves and olher local organizalions ofler an imporlant antidote lo the impoverish'ng
I effecls of globalizalion Anti'WTO aclivists claim thai free lrade and open markels musl be
balanced with programs lhat proteci and suppori indigenous agriculture and resist lhe lrend
lowards privalEaiion of commonly held resources like waler, for example

Competilion for scarce resoirces like iood and waler can eilhe. be a source of future conflicl or of
peaceful cooperation Recerily lhere have been concerted efforts internationally to eslablish
processes ofcooperalion which have led to the Nile Basin lnitialive, lhe Waters Trealy, and
I a GlobalAlliance ior Waler Security, to name just a few programs. The World'ndus Food Program is
often lhe most imporlanl agency in areas of conllict, providing foocl lo refugees and the internaliy
displaced They are eager lo turn reliet into redevelopmenl and, ihrough lheir Food for Work
program, allempt to address some of lhe root causes ofcontlicl.
lnternalional orcanizalions are also working hard to prcmote cooperation between developing
counlries in food produciion. For example, Ihe UN s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has
a Special Program for Food Securily thal targets lhe 86 lowest income food deficit counlries, and
t. pairs them wilh another poor country lhat has made signilcant agricu,tural advance's under
sjmilar conditions. NGOs like OXFAM foster small-scale local assistance programs, which bring
I logether rivalt bal groups for seed sharing or developmenl of appropriaie technology
covernments, which are responsive lo tbe needs ofalllhen cilizens, willcerlarnly make food and
waier security lheir top priority. The numberof democratic governments in lhe world continues to
grow; this trend is encouraging. Bul even a democ.acy as large as lndia, in ils efforls to foster
$" economic groMh, can failto listen lo the grassroots. Anti hunger activists make a strong case for
politicians io balance globatand localeconom'cs needs.

t Consciousness of the tragility ot the natural world is growing and citzens and governmenls are
beginning to adopt measures io prolect our naturalenvironment Susiainable agricoltural
practices are an essentialfirsl step in this process, since mechanized production farming can
lake a toll on soil and waler resources In the induslrialized world, consumers a€ paying grealer
{ atlenlion to what they eal and insistinO on healthier diels. ln response, many farmers are
converting from heavy chemica I depe ndent praclices to more sustainable method of prodLrclion
and are remaining compeiilive in lhe process. Altemative approaches to growing food and

models oi appropriate iechnology are being disseminaled in the developing world with some

As lhe enormity oi the water crisis sinks in, a'ternaiives to wasteful irigation ate being explored.
For example, lsrael has pioneered a waleFsaving method of d.ip irrigation lhat is being used in
other arid climates. OXFAM has also supported the wider use ol a locally developed plow in lhe
Horn ofAfrica, which cullivates lhe land in a way that uses rainwater more eflic'ently. Atthe high
lech end of the scale, desalination and complex waler transpori syslems are being explored. ln
indust alized countries domestic waler conservalion is emphasized in schools and efforts are
being made lo curb waste

All of these solutions have meril, but efforts to reverse lhe climale change broughl aboui by
carbon emissions are among lhe most importani Rising waler levels caused by lhe melting of ice
caps and genera' overheating oI the climate are akeady having a devaslating effecl on
agriculture Reduclion of carbon emissions is critical if we wanl lo reverse the negative impacts of

The healih of the enlire populalion of the world rests on the availabilily oi clean water and
nutrilious food. The epidemic of HIV-AIDS in Atrica is a good example: ;n many countries, the
farmers who produce the tood and could pass on lhe agriculturalskills have clied. Ugancia has
taken exiraordinary steps to slow lhe ,nfection raie and restore healih lo the rural areas. The
World Food Prog€m, in iis many food assistance piograms to refugees and viclims of natural
disasters, I'nks food and health care in an eftorl to break ihe cycle

The World Health Organization along with NGOs charged with reforming health care in ihe world
has focused on clean waler as the best way to prevent debilitating disease in develop'ng
counlries. Village wells and a guaranteed supply otwater lo the millions who live in the barrios oi
the world willgo a Iong wayln reducing disease and promoling health.


As we enter 21st century, we are beginnang to realize that we do have the ability to feed ihe world
and io provide each global citizen with sufficienl clean waler. Even though we iluctuate belween
hopelessness and optimism, we are aware thal we must make some dramatic changes in the
way we eat and how we use waler. Until resources are more equitably distributed and we
conlinue to develop and implemenl sustainable processes into ihe way we grow food, lhe basic
problem of hunger willlikely persist.

When poor people have enough lo eat and waler to drink and wash wilh, they enter the global
economy as partners and consumers and business lhrives- When communities lake charEle of
lheir own food production and protect theirwater sources lhe environment lhrives and the land
begins io recover- And when everyone is receiving lheirfair sha.e of the food and water oflhe
world, one ofthe most serious sources of conflict is removed.



After Iood and water, energy lo cook or heal or move from place to place is lhe most basjc human
need. Whether we microwave a pizza or cook ihe evening meal on dried cow dung, energy
impacls every aspect of our life. ln fact, modern economies and cullures are often defined by the
cycle of energy production and consumption.

ln ihe pasl we ve worried about how long supplies of energy will lasl; our consumpt'on patterns
r have been driven by a fear lhal some day we ll simply run oLit. Recenlly, we have become aware
of the imporlance ofsustainable use of a varieiy of energy sources lrom tradjtional loss il fu els lo
pholovoltaic (solar) cells. A{d we know thal our ene€y models are not susiainable because of
environmenlal, economic, and oeopolitical issues.

Al the beginnlng ofthe 21sl centLrry, despite a slowly changrng atLdude concerning wrse use, we
are siill reliani on tradilional sources of energy and on unsustainable palterns o{ consumption.
Hydrocarbon tuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) slill provide nearly 80 percent of lhe world's energy
even though iheir carbon conlenl leads direclly lo the development of greenhouse gases and
global warming. l\rore than iwo billion people in lhe developing world coniinue lo use lradiiional
biomass tuels like wood whose overuse has led to land degradation, deforestalion,
deserliflcation, and air pollulion.

Al one pornl rn our recent hisiory, beginning in the 1960s, we lurned to nuclear ge;eration as lhe
answer lo all of our energy needs Many counkies in bolh developed and developing coua:tries
have built nuclear power plants, and must address the safe disposalofwaste producls of nuclear
energy as well as polential lhreats io lhe humans and lhe nalural environment from operational

Renewable sources of energy like sol.rr, wind, hydro, and hydrogen powerconstitule a miniscule
percentage of the total energy package, but they are receiving greaier ailention and emphasts as
sustainability gains creclence.

As with all the other major issues facing the world today, we have lhe means to reverse the non-
sustainable trends ouilined above ancl to prcvide non-polluting energy to the world s people. Such
a change however, would require an inlernalional effort, redesigning the world energy system
wilh the tollowing key goals:


1. Efficienl use of existing energy, two thirds of which is curenlly wasled At Ihe same time, a
global program of eificienl use would also slress more equitable distribution;
2. A shift lrom hydrocarbons to renewable energy sources including wind, solar, geolhermal, and
3 Redesigning communlties, businesses, homes, and modes of lransportation so that ihey use
less-as well as different torms of energy;
4 Transferrinq sustainable energy iechnologies directly lo developing nations, enabling lhem lo
'' leapfrog ' beyond the unsustainable models currently used by the developed world.

5. Adoption of international treaiies and binding agreemenls concerning wise energy use.

There are many encouraging examples ol sleps being laken in the direclion suggesled above In
many countries ot the lvorld, the urgency of climate change and the impaci ot environmenlal
degradation are spurring individuals and governments 10 aclion

i: Jl::, !il.
lmpacts of Unsustainable Energy Policies on the World

Al either end ol the economic spectrum, ihe way people use energy nol only impacls their lives
bul also affects the world as a whole However, within each one of the impacis mentioned below
is lhe seed of a so'ulioni suslainabilily is the iesl of its long-te.m etfectiveness

As mighl be expecled, energy consumplion patterns and economic status are direcily linked. The
United States and Canada, wilh only 6 percent of the world s populalion consume nearly 30
percenl oflhe world's energy while allof Africa consumes only 5 percenl At lhe village level in
Africa, such a statistic means that women spend a signif'cant part of time dudng lhe day simply
gathering the energy requue-d lo process and cook their Iood. Consequenlly, lhey have less time
lo spend on rncome general,bn or efforls lo relieve their poverly They would pay a significantly
larger amounl for the same energy as a more affluent indiv'dual and have less capiial available
for heallh care and education

ln ihe rich nalions of lhe world, energy tor cooking, heattng, hol water, and light are readily
available at a relalively low cosl. They have invested in both the cenlralized sources and
extensive dislribution systems to make that energy available lo cilizens and businesses. At the
same time, il is estimated that almosl two billion people stilllack electricity in their homes.
Providing similar, inexpensive energy to the village woman ot lhe developing world would
transform the economic siatus of ber family. One of the foundalions of a civil sociqty is the
provision of a reliable and cheap source of energy.

Provision of clean wate. and adequate food tely heavily on the availability of an inexpensife and
reliable source of energy. According to the United Nations there are nearly one billion people of
the world who are undernourished and musl increase thei daily caloric inpul lo 2,160. To do that
requires more efficient production by even peasant farmers who rely on energy for irrigation,
mechanizalion, and oiherforms ot basic agriculturaltechnology. Transter of harvesled crops to
market requires noi only a developed infrasvuclure but also a kuslworthy system of
lransporlation, which again relies on cheap energy. At various points during this cycle of
production and consumption, ihe processing of food also requires energy, wheihet il be sun for
drying or electricity for elaborate preserving operalions.

Most experts claim thal potable water is an essentiql key lo development. ln viliages as well as
large urban areas, energy is crucially jmportanl bolh in the drilling of wells and the development
ofwaler sources and in trealment and supply. Food and waler securily, in turn, impactthe
general health and the quality of health care ofworld citizens.


But world heallh is also impacted negalively by careless ploduction and use oi energy. At the
r producer level, the health of coal miner, refinery worker, and wood colleclor can be advetsely
t, aflecied by lhei activilies. ln the processing and cooking offoods, many ruraldwellers in the
developrng world are exposed lo harnful smoke and other by-producls of burning organic
material ln developing counlries where large refineries are localed like in lhe Niger DeJla region
t of Nigeia, the health of lhose living in lhe vicinily is di.ectly affected. As lhe scale of ploduciion
and fossilluel use increases (in manufacturing and transpodaiion sectors, for example), so do the
harmful emissions thal are breathed in by large populalions ofihe world Finally, andmost
tt. significantly, increased carbon in lhe atmosphere is acceleraling globalwarming with resullant
skin cancer and respiratory problems.

* Local and global environmenls both suifer in the face of unsustainable energy policies. Acid rain,
i a direcl resull ofthe burning of iossilfoels, .enders large bodies of waler lifeless. Globally, the
greenhouse effect already threalens lowlying areas with tlooding as ocean waier levels rise Arid
regions oflhe world like lhe Sahel in Africa are threalened by increased desertificalion. Pipelines,
ra, which strelch over
have a devaslating 'ong
dislances from oilsource to convenient porl as in Chad and Cameroon,
effeci on the local populations and lhe environment Oilspills resulting from
lransporlalion in superlankers and lhe pipelines lhemselves afiecl localflora and tauna in a
variety ofways On the locallevel, when ruralpopulalions must rely on wood bolh for processing
i and cookinq food as wellas for heal, the ullimate result is defo.esiation and land degradalion.

,:-t .,.
Sustainable Solutions to the World Energy Crisis

As individuals we can make decisions about our personal energy use "policy which, combined
with similar aclions ol othei cilizens, can profoundly affect ihe iocal and global envjronrnent. As
world cilizens we can work'for national and internalionalpolicies, which favor equitable and wise
!1 use of resources and non-pollutjng forms of energy. ln both cases, the guiding principle must be
sustainability For each otthe solutions meniioned belowwe mustfirsl ask these questions: 1)
does ii take inio accounl lono term impacts on all relaled issues and 2) will it preserve the
resources tor fuiure generalions?

$. On lhe international level, rich nations can transfer sustainabie energy lechnologies to developing
nalions, thus allowing lhem to leapfrog beyond the deslruclive energy models used by lhe
industfialized regions. ln order 10 reduce global warming, indusirialized nations might agree to
limit their carbon emissions while otfering "crediis lo developing nations wiih a much lower rate
of resource consumption Any attempt by the rict] nations io reduce their dependehcy on fossil
fuels will Lr'tamately benefil Ihe poorer countries as well as reduce their own rising energy bills. ln
a sustainable approach to eneryy use, reduction of wasteful practices musl be linked with-
{ redislribulion olwhal rs alreadv ava'lable.

Nationally, extending the power grid to rural areas will have the etfect of slowing flighi to the
cilies, reducing inetticienl use ot biomass energy and freeing women to engage in income
i. generat'on and productive aclivities. Development and €xtension ot renewable energy sources in
areas of poveriy would have the added impacl oi creating jobs at ihe local level. Solar, wind, and
waterpower technology can lransform remote parts ot counlries into valuable assets and provide
$ cheap rel;able power to ftJraldwel'erc.

Significant steps a.e being taken in developing inlernational energy policies thatwill prolecl lhe
environment. The latest vercion of lhe Kyolo Prolocol, approved by all ofthe developed nations
{" exceptlhe United Siates, includes ai elaborate tormula for reducing greenhouse gases by
agreeing to limii carbon emissions to prescribed levels. Many industrial nalions have teduced
waste and actively promoted the development of renewabte energy resources.

t 50

The use of hydrogen and other non-polluting fuels would have a dramatic effect on lhe
environmeni. lf hydrogen can be ef{iciently isolated (eilhe. ihrough solar power or other means)
and distr'buted cheaply it could provide a clean fuel for inlernal combusiion engines and
revolutionize transportalion as well as power generation. Other atlempts at de-carbonization of
fossil fuels and crealion of synthetic fuels could have similarly positive effects on lhe environment.
Tree planling on land already degGded by heavy firewood cutting would not only increase
oxygen production but also provide cheap energy to peasant tarmers.

Enelgy policies that are envircnmentally friendly will have a direci eftect on many world health
problems as well The shift from fossil iuels to renewable energy sources means that individuals
directly exposed to g.eater risk, such as coal miners or lhose living in vicinity ot nuclear power
plants, would automalically live healthier lives At the village level, women engaged in arduous
daily wood gathering and families exposed lo haimiulsmoke trom cook fires would benefit greatiy
from alternalive, clean energy sources.

As po'lulants generaied in pow€r and indusirial production and lransportalion are reduced so are
the many heallh problems associatecl wiih them Skin canceB associated with the greenhouse
effeci and many pulmonary problems arising from air pollulion would be dramatically reduced as
conservalion measures take ef{ect and solar/airlwater power replaces fossilfuels

Smallsleps have aheady been made in promoling appropriate technology in agriculture,

especially in irrigation With the advent offuelcells and other allemative forms ofenergy.
mechanization on a small scale will be more atfordable and friendly lo ihe environment As
photovoltaic cells become more affordable, small farmers will be able to raise and move waler to
arid lands and inc.ease iheir produclivity w;ihout harming the environment

Cheap energy allows for fobd processing and prese.valion al the local leveland/or efficient
transporlation to markeis Ground waler pollutjon from the extraction of lossilluels will be
rcduced sjgnificantly with sustainable energy policies

The sooner we reduce our dependence on fossilfuels the sooner we'll redlce polenlial regional
and international conflicls Some obseNers of the international scene argue convincingly ihat
over reliance by developed counlries on Middle Eastern oil has heightened the potentialfor
contlict in lhat area The construclion of pipelines aeross parts of CentralAsia and lhe neeci to
protect them thlealens peace. Similarly, development of the petroleum industry in countries like
Co,ombia and Ecuador has brought conflicl as well as disruption and loss of nalive cultures

As we move towards renewable energy and away from fossilfuels we increase ih'e possibility of
building truly responsive governmenls Manyoflhestales on the Persian Gult, especially Saudi
Arabia, conlinue to operale as oligarchies where an economic elile, which conlroJs the sosrce of
oil, also has absolule political power. lnduslrialized naljons dependent on fossilfuels apply a
diflerent standard ofgood govemance lo lheir suppliers, accepting human rights abuses ard anti-
democratic practices. Once energy is diskibuted more equitably lhe political powerlhat resides
with a small economic elite becomes diluled. Again, local, small scale renewable energy
programs bring with them undeniable politicalpower.

:::. t.iy

Where Do We Go From Here?

The kinds of energy we use and tbeway we obtain them have a pervasive effect on our quality of
life, whether we're aftluent city dwellers or rural peasants. The saying you are whal you eat"
could equally be applied to the kinds of energy on which we rely. As long as the developed


f nalions ol the world are depencient on fossil fuels. all ot our actions will be driven by unhealihy
{ rplalronsh p wrih lfF r supp'rer

a, ln Lhese years ol lhe 2lst cenlury there is some cause for oplimism. Fist, lhere is a growing
Ir awareness of Ihe tragilily oi our environmeni and ao apparent willingness to make changes in lhe
way we l,ve Io protecl n More ciiizens are aware of lhe impacts of his or her aclions on the worlct
as a whole Gradually, cilizens ot the cher nations are reahzing lhal they must change the way
they live and change ihe'r consumption of scarce resources.
Second, many nations of lhe world are translating ciiizens growing personal awareness into
,, polrtrcal aclron. The general agreement reached by mosl of lhe induslrialized nations of the world
Ir to drasticallv rul lherr greenhouse emissions by 2012,under the Kyolo Protocol, is a gooct
e,€mple of a progressive energy policy. There are a number of olhea internaiional agreements
governing energy production and consumplion which signal important changes in the way the
ts "vorld
lool\ alhowwepowFrou, vehrcles and unourrndusl,rFs
Th;rd, lhe innovative lechnologies of the pasl few decades are beginning to ofter us some very
. alkactive allemative forms of energy. As inclividual consumers begin lo truly understand ihe
! rmpo.lance oi susta,nabi|ly and tenewabiliiy as well as the evenlual afordabjlily of solar and wind
I power, fossil fue]s will begin lo lose lheir edge This is aheady happening in places like San
Francisco, California where voiers recenily supported a measure to inslallas many solar panels
{' in thal city as lhe entie nalion does each year
The remarkable lhing about energy is how it afiects every aspecl of our lives. As a resull, we can
. male personal decisions about our energy use ihal have the polential 10 afiect lhe wond as a
! wtrole
htlpl/wr*v. fucin el h etutu rc. o r!y'q Lql]l ll.s:!g!llt!r!4!!1j!lt1!!!!tr!!!t!)eFlh/rabid/ ]I2/Dcfaul!.lspr







: j.:.i:ii


Good heallh is absolutely essenlial for social and economic development However, despite
progress made lowards the materiai well-being of many in the industrialized world, the majority of
the world's citizens continue io suffer from poor health

There are many reasons for this disparity, but population growlh, globalization, and inappropriate
development have had a tremendous impacl on the developjng world directly. ln the .icher
nations, over Donsumplion has caused serious environmental hea:th impacts. As an indirect resuli
a much higher priorily has been placed on curative rather lhan prevenlalive health programs.

As with all of the major issues tacing the world al lhe beginning of the 2'1sl cenlury, healih cannot
be considered in isolalion We can see its impacl on eveMhing from population, to the econony,
io peace and conflicl. By the same ioken, heallh is profoundly influenced by economic lrends,
environmental degradation,ror the budgelary priorities esiablished by any national government

A,ihough the news is filled with shocking stories about epidemics like HIV-AIDS or the lack of
health care coverage for poorer citizens in industr;alized counkies, recent reports indicale a
number of changes for the better lmmunizalion programs are expanding in ihe developing world.
There are certainly many opportuniiies to break the cycle of poor health care, including the
extension of reproduciive health faciliiies to women, as wetl as access for all people lo a
nutrilious diet and clean water

The benefits of a comprehensive global 'wellness" program are clear Heallhy cilizens arc more
capable of economac productivity as well as social and poiiiical engagement. 8ul $rch a program
would require a reordering of priorities by all nalions, so that preventive public health receives as
much suppori as the more expensive curative programs currently given lop priority in the affluent
countries. Health care, ot necessily, would take a niuch larger bite out of national and
intemalional budgets; a reordering of spending priorilies would need to lake place

Global Heafth Gonnections

Epidemics have shaped world hislory. One has only to look at Black Death in Europe and the
devaslating effects of smallpox, measles, or syphilis on the indigenous populations ofthe New
World to realize how ihe spread of disease alfects human deveiopment. The lndustrial Revolulion
of the 1gth Century also offers important lessons about the impacl of industrial pollution and
adverse working conditions on overall heallh, especially of urban populations.

But the siluation has changed dramatically as we beg,n the 21st century. The increasing
population densilies and globalizalion of the economy during this century have magnified the
impacts of disease and environmental degradalion by speeding communication and virlually


erasing bo!ndaries, which previously might have slowed the spread of palhogens HIV-AIDS,
Wesl Nile Disease. and Ebola are a tew examples of the many potenlially leihal dlseases lhat are
lruly iniemational scope
By the same token, acid €in and othe. environmental conditions pose a similar ihreat lo public
i health worldwide Jusl as the outbreak of an epidemic in one corner of the world ullimately aflecis
us all, so is lt linked direclly or indireclly to allihe other majorworld issues such as population
growlh, governance, lhe rich poor gap, orthe environment
Population groMh and movemenl have had a profound effect on lhe spread and genesis oi
disease worldwide For example, those who move from ruralto urban areas are susceplible to

t new diseases; increased populaiion density in urban areas also guarantees that disease will
spread more quickly. One of the mosl faFranging developmenls of the 21sl century is the aging
of the world s population. lt is a well established fact that population grows primarily because of a
decline in mortality rather than an increase in tertility. As lhe population ages, priorities in health
care change accordingly and di{ferenl kinds of services are rcquired. ln weaithy nations result has
t been a marked decline in public health prcgrams and increased emphasis on chronlc diseases
and diseases that affect the aqing population

I ln poorer nations lhe needs of pregnant women and newborn children are quile diflerenl and just
as pressing The major goals of lhe World Summit on Children for the year 2000, which tocus on
the reduclion of the tive year old and under mortality rate and the maiernal mortality ratio, have
not been mel, especially in the pooresl counlries of the world. The resulting impacls on
popu,ation irends in ihe developing world are profounct lfwomen in lhe poorest countries had
access to reproductive heallh services and could be assured ihat all of their childreo would
i sLrrvive beyond iive years of age, the nurnber of childten born into those families would decrease
i dramatically

Limited access io adequate heallh care only widens the gap between rich and poor in the world
and intensifies ihe vicious cyc,e, which leads to further impoverishment. One only needs to
i. compare lhe impact of the HIV-AIDS epidemic on lhe poor nations of Africa and South Asia lo the
United Slates io see how money lalks when it comes to medical treatmeni. Even so, lhere are
millions oi U S cilizens who have no heallh insurance and many more in the aging population
L who conlend with substandard care and inadequate provision of drug trealment

As the medical estabhshment responds to the needs ol ihe rich countries and lhe afilueni
members of society, more emphasis is placed on ireatment of chron;c illnesses like caocer and
L heart disease, and less on preventjve public heallh. ln medicaleducatjon, specialization is lhe
walchword, with precedence given to more expensive diagnoslic processes and end-ol liie care
It's been estimaled that currenl'y ihe per capita health spending in rich counlries is $2,000!
L Exper{s contend thal if we sel aside only $38.00 for every person in the world we could reverse
many ot lhe neqalive Iends in hedllh ca'e p'ovision.

Poor governance often plays a critically important lole in the failure to deliver adequate health
{" care to all cilizens. As we've seen in our exploEtion of other issues, globalrzation has increasecl
the indebledness of poor countries and given multinationa I corporations exlensive power over the
decisions of governments, which are dependent on their investments. When govemmenls must
i decide between laxing cigaretles to limit smoking and the prolils to be gained from lheir
deregulated sales, lhey frequently opt fot the latter.
Corrupt government practices inlluence everything from lhe funding of public hospitals lo medical

t education programs, especially in the poorer counlries. When you combine lack of accountabiliiy
ai all levels with pressure from international lending institutions like the lnternational Monelary
Fund (lMF) to p.ivalize heallh services and remove the safety net, it's nol surprising thal only the
privileged few in most countries have access to adequale health care.


To a growing number of people, the failure of governrnents to acknowledge their AIDS epidemics
and to provide low cosl drugs is a gross violation of the'r human rights. Following the lead of
Amnesty lnlernational, firosi international human righls organizations are insisiing that lhe
governments of the world must adhere lo the major provisions oi the lnternational Covenant of
Economic, Social and Cullural Righis. This means lhat pharmaceulical companies, ior example,
need lo provide afoldable retroviral drug ireatmenl rather lhan guarding lheir patenls and pricing
drugs oul of reach in those countries Accepling the universality of human rights also means that
'governmenls and lhe internationalmedical eslablishment mustwork against praclices that have
negalive consequences on the heallh of young women such as female genital mutilation

Food and waler security are key links in the chain that leads to good health at all levels of a
sociely and in the family of nalions fhere are probably no rnore essential elemenls in the
prevenlive approach lo disease lhan good diel and a clean, adequate water supply. Both ends of
the economic specirum are affected by diet: affluent count es suffer from the maladies oi
afiluence like cardiopulmonary disease and other diseases associaled with obesjty and unhealthy
diel and those who live on rice and beans are simply malnourished. Goal 3 of ihe 2000 World
Summii for Children was to cut in half malnutrition .ales among children under the age offive.
Weve fallen iar short of lhis goal. and, in facl, the absolule number of malRourished children has
increased in Africa. [,,]any predicl that, uniess pr,oriiies are seriously reordered, waler shortages
wjllplague most of the world, especially ifwater sources are privalized as part of lhe process of

A changed envjronmenl challenges good global health. There are counlless examples of the
connection betv{een environmenlal change and increased disease. For example, the anopheles
mosquiio has moved into larger and larger areas in response lo global warming, and lhe
increased rainlall in many parts of the world has led lo a higher incidence of cholera, dysenlery,
lyphoid, and other walerborn-6 disease. Everyone is familiar with increased skin cancer due lo
our depleted ozone laver l[e harmful impacts of herbicides and pesiicides on both agricultural
,or[ers a.d con(umers. dnd rhe .n pacl ol a r pollulion on young and old a|he. ln lhe
induslialized world, workplace-related mental illnesses often associated wilh stress are
becoming commonplace. Allhough some scienlists are convinced lhat genetically modified
organisms are ihe only answer lo world hunger, olhers argue equally lorcefully thal they pose a
profound threai to lhe ilora and fauna of the world, as weli as pose potential adverse impacts to
human health. Al lhe beginning of the 21st century it appears that an ailing environmenl is having
a protoundly destructive impact on the health ofworld cilizens.

Finally, ill health is a security threat lo the world Healih problems have the polential lo reduce
economic output lo the point that entire regions mighl be destabilized. The HIV-AIDS pandemic
has had this effect on Africa where, in some countries like Uganda, Botswana, and Malawi, nearly
an entire generalion of farmers has djed, crippling the ability of those counttes lo supporl
ihemselves. As we have seen in our analysis of food and waler security, unhealthy peopldare
more vulnerable lo mililary control and more likely to become involved in intercommunily conflicts
oul of despe.alion. A healthy population is more productive and less likely to become involi/ed in
ihe civilconflicts which plague many parts oflhe world today, as in SriLanka, the Middle East,
and Afghanistan. ln a destabilized world, it is also possible to weaponize pathogens as the
ultimaie chemical biological weapon available to teforists or rogue states- There is no more lethal
lhreat to global security than fast-spreading epidemics againsl which we have no real defense-

Health Care: Priorities tor the 2'lst Century

Not only meci,cal professionals butalso many development experts argue that, like education,
health care for all is a goal worth working towards. There are a number of concrete measures,
each ofwhich moves lhe world's population to belter health. The l\rjllennium Development coals,
adopied at the Millennium Summit in Sept 2000, callfor major improvement in the health ofthe
poor. The delegales recognized the importance of improving the healtb and longevity ofthe poor

r as an end in ilselJ, bui also as a means io achieving the other development goals relaling to
i poverly rcduction. For example, immunizalion prog€ms dramalically reduce infant mortality as do
provision of oral re-hydration iherapy (ORT) io the under live year olds who sufter from chronrc
diarrhea While there is no quick fix" for lhe heallh problems of lhe world, il is possible to reverse
many of the irends meniioned above that pose such a significant threat lo world health- ln this
I seclion we will explore both what is akeady being done to address lhreals to global health and
also iocus on some ofthe ambilious proposais designed io bring adequate health care to all.
Worldwide access lo rep.oductive heallh care would be a gianl step lowarcts population
t. slabilizalion. Not only would il reduce the €tio oipopulation to health care infrastructure bul it
would also signilicantly reduce miglation. The capacity lo conlrolfamjly size permils women 10
safeguarct lheir chosen c hildren s' health by focusing on lheir improved hygiene and diet ralher
t lhan their survival Stabilizirg populataon movement, especially trom ruralto urban areas will also
slow the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS associated with lransient groups such as sex workers
and truck drive.s. imporlantly, reproduclive health services are by their very nature
r preventive and reassert
'\,4osl lhe imporiance oi public heallh and primary heallh care as opposed to
privale, curative approaches.

I Does the narrowing of lhe rich-poor gap lead to improved healih or is it the other way around? ln
L, iacl, boih are probably true. Jl ce'lainly makes sense ihai affordable treatmenl and access lo
lools ot prevenlion like immunization and family planning contibule lo a more economically
produclive pcpulaiion. Sirong heallhy indusirialand agriculturalworke.s and studenis certainly
f wolK with greater atleniion and efficiency. People wiih a siable income will be abLe lo afford
il. adequate health care. Experts in international anti-poverty straleg'es often link improved heatth
care for the poor wilh educalion al all age and ability levels as a key ingredient in reducing or
even eliminating poverly The GlobalCampaign Againsl HIV-AIDS gives equal emphasis to
community education and clrug trealment.

On a more global level, reduction of lhe crushing.nalional debis of the poorest nalions ol the
f world is essenlial; ihese counlries can then budgel for basic heallh services. Jeftrey Sachs, Chair
t of The Commission on Macroeconomics & Health recommbnds the crealion of a Close to Clienl
(CTC) system in which the local healih post is given higher budgetary priority lhan hospilals and
expensive medical facilities. The ef{ecliveness of such prog.ams binges on the efiiciency and
accouniability of bolh localand nationa'governments
L whrch civilsociety plays the key role.
Good governance guarantees ihal local primary heallh'ncare as well as massive immunizat'on
programs like those currently supported by lhe Bjll&
Nlelinda Gates FoLrndation are efiectively and equilably administered.
Rapid communicalion and lhe widespread use ofthe lnternet have led lo ttr" gro*if, ot
consciousness lhai good health is indeed a human right. ln the World Health Organization's 50th
l anniversary siatemenl they reatfjrmed the right of all people to have adequale health care:
Human Righls Watch and Amnesiy lntemaiional have also pledged io expand their advocecy
programs to economic, culiural, and social rights, recogn;zing ihat, wilhoul good health, freedom
of speech is almost a luxury. At the beg'nning of lhe 21sl century, the Global Fund to Fighi AIDS,
{ TB, and Malaia has underscored lhis commitmenl by targeting these three diseases, which affect
ihe most under-served populaiions oilhe world.

F lndeed, recent courl decisions in South Africa allowing the manufaciure of a generic anliretroviral
&- AIDS drug suggest a shift in aititude towards the rights of ihe poor to affordable drugs.
ft- Given the urgency oI the worldwide environmenlal crisis, it's tempting io give precedence to
programs that address pollution and globalwaming. But the inter.elatec,ness of all global
problems reminds us lhat we can'tfocus on CO2 emissions without also lookjng at the habits of
ihe truck drivers who are prime carriers of Ihe HlVvius. Prevenlion is as importanl in lhe
environmental arena as jn lhe lransmission of djsease Most nations of the world have signed the
I 56

Kyoto Protocol, agreeing to reduce carbon emissions significantly before lhe end of lhe first
decade of this cenlury By reducing global warming we will also narrow the talge ol lhe malaria-
carrying anopheles mosquito,lust as more prediclable weather patterns willevenlually moderale
ll'- rn pacl o'cl'olera
Food and water security are obviously key links ;n the chain of health care for all We continue to
make impressMe slrides in lhe production offood but not always in equiiable dislribulion. We
must encourage suslainable organic agr'culture at the local level, 'ts
while tesisting the pressures to
orow cash crops and overuse lechnology There are impressive examples in both ihe developing
and developed world of the application of appropriale technology lo food produclion. Emphasis
on a more balanced diet and belter use of available land for the produclion of food grains inslead
of catile teed will make a tremendous difference in internalional tood security. A reliable water
soorce at the village level kansforms the lives ol a,l ils inhabilants; organizalions like OXFAM and
Uniled Nalions Developmenl Program are promoting relatively inexpensive small-scale projects.
They lead direct'y to nof only a changed allitude aboul what's possible, bul io the mobilizalion ot
civil society. The village health posl is lhe next step.

Health For All: We Can Make a Difference

All of the above measures are componenls ofwhat we can calla globalwellness program. lvlany
oI these sleps are preventive in nature and are not lhal expensive, even on a global scale.
lmmunjzation against smallpox and olher campaigns in the pasl against diseases have been
lremendousiy effective. We can conlinoe to achieve ihe same successes bul ii will require a basic
shft in altitude as we recognize the increased inlerconnecledness of humanity and rea'ize that ill
healih and the resulting insiability anywhere in the world can affect us all. Only by reaffirming the
imporlance of public heahh willwe be able to achieve these goals Preventive and holistic
heallhcare clearly the foundallon stones ior global wellness.

!!rpll!r4!&dlcl!lc!!u-r9!rclQLcLc!l!r!!rl!1r9!c!!r94llsrr!!!!!rDcpli4c!tdl[20e!!t lspr



ll mlght be argued that withoul lhe mulliplier of population none of lhe p.oblems we confront
f. would be of sutiicient magnilude lo qualify as global Certainly ii population were slable, many
Jlobalissue5 ,!ould bF'dr mo'. m.ndg.ablp

t World population exceeded six billion in 1999 - doubling trom three billion in 1960 and is
currently increasing by 80 io 85 million people each year. Depending upon the choices we make
over the next lew decades, demogmphers ai ihe United Nations project world populaiion in 2050
{ could be anywhere 7 3 billion lo 10 7 billion. lt is inrportanl to nole thal these scenarios assume
t. fertility willdecline significantly in lhe idure

'I A number of taciors drive lhis growih. At lhe mosi basic level, ii is because iar more people are
{ born each year than die. Advances in nutrition and health care have increased survival raies and
longevily ior much ot the wgrld, and shifted the balance between bidhs and deaths.

Another is populalion "momenium". Even though terlility rates have come down worldwide from
i an average of six children per womarj in 1950 to 2.9 children per woman in 2000 - lhere are
many more people of childbearing age today than eve. befoe Roughly half lhe worid s
populalion is under age 25, so as those three billibq people stad families over the next few
L decades, world population will likely increase by several billion.

Another reason for continued high levels of population gtowlh is that fertility rates remain
relatively hjgh in some populous regions like Atrica and Soulh Centml Asia Broadly speaking,
L population groMh is higher in those regions because levels of income and education are lower

L Decisions about family size are often based on economic factors, and in poorer socielies,;aving
numerous children may be an imporlant assel. They provide support and secur;ty in parenls'old
age, help €ise food, haul water, care for younger s iblings, and gather fuel wood Child ren may
also work forwages outside lhe home, be indentured, or even sold lo help support the family.
Birrh rates are also closely l;nked to educat'on The more educalion people have, the more
economic oplions they generally have, and the fewerchildren lhey are likely lo wanl or need. ln
L lhe areas ofthe world where education levels are highest- Europe, Japan, China, the former
Soviet Bloc, and Norlh America - fertility is correspondingly lowest.

t Population and Ecological Footprint

Population is about far more than numbers, however ll's also about ages, abilities, litestyles, and
consumption. One approach scientists are increasingly using lo study population through the
L 's

concept of "ecological footprinl pioneered by Mathis Wackernagel and W'll'am Reese The
foolprinl Bodel calculates the area of the Earth's productive su.iace (land and sea) necessary to
supporl a particuiar lifesiyle or levelof consumption

Viewed lhat way, every person has a "footprinf'lhat Ialls on the environmenl Al the most basic
level, it includes enough land lo produce food and frber lo raise crops and graze animals and
grow lrees - and enough clean waler lo drink, wash and irigate. We also need enough land to
supply some sort of energy for heating and cooking, and to safely dispose of lhe wasles we

As indiv'duals hfesiyles and consumption expand, sodo theirtoolprinls As.nalions become more
indusirialized and lheir siandards ol living increase, lhey consume more resources, and occupy a
larger footprint. They need more iarmland to suppoil higher protein diets, and may clear forests,
plow prairies, orfillwetlands lo provide il. They need mo.e waler, and have to lap more lakes and
aqui{ers, and dam and divert more rivers. They need more energy, and have to build more power
planls, burn more fuels, and release more pollulants

Growing populations and higher levels of development also require additional iofrastructure and
increased levels o{ social and communily services- More people need more housing, hospitals,
roads. schools, parks ancl piaygrounds. More highly developed societies, because their
consumption is grealer, use more land and resources per person To supporl lheir economies
and produce consumer goods, they require more factorles, offices, businesses, and shopprng
cenlers. To dispose of lheir wastes, they need more landfills, sewage syslems, and ioxic
conlainment siies.

Each oi lhese needs is met by extracting resources from lhe environmenl, often \,rithout
replenishing them. The mole people on the p'anet - and the oreater the averaqe level of
consumplion by ary individual or group lhe more resources are required to meel ihose needs
and lhe larger the human footprinl on lhe planet. The larqer the human footpinl, the less area
remains for other spec'es and naturalsystems.

Carrying Capacity and Population

The iotal human foolprint the Eadh can wilhstand is expressed as the "carrying capacity" oflhe
planet. Carrying capacity is the maximum numbe. of people the Earth can supporl without
enclangering its ability to support that population in the future. A population thal does not erode
the resource base or otherwjse degrade lhe planets abilily to srJpport lhat populalion in the future
is considered "suslainable"

Carrying capacity is difficull lo accurately assess, however. ln recentyears, lhe Earth's carrying
capacity has been suggested to be as low as one billjon people, or as high as 40 billion people.
Environmentalists and biologisls typically pul forth lower numbers, while economisls and
busjnesspeople ollen pul forlh hnher i,gures

This divergence appears to be rooled in philosophy- Many growth advocales argue thal
increasjng population is necessary Io provide more workers and consumers to expand the global
economy. And they suggest lhat the natural ingenuily of people will overcome the problems this
growlh creates.

Some indusirialized nalions, such as Germany, with slable populations already tace shortages of
younger workers, and groMh advoc?tes argue that iheir economies will suffer as populalions
age. Not only may there not be enough workers to keep up prodlrction, lhey suggesl, but there
may not be enough workers to pay inlo retirement and medical plans lo support older citizens.


Advocates of "sustainability argue ihat increasing population and consumpiion are already
I causing damage to the planel, and that deforeslation, soil erosion, exlinclion of species, and
pollution of ai. and waler are all indicators of exceeding carrying capacity.

Populrtion Conneclions
One way lo view the issues and impacts of populaljon groMh is through ihe "Global lssues
Itlobile" Essentially il shows thai as our populaiion increases, human needs food, waler,
r energy, liveljhood, etc. increase as well. We attempt lo meei lhose needs by consuming more

f When populalion levels reach a criticalthresbold, we then see both a decline in lhe resource
base, and damage to the environmenl. which supplies allthose resources These trends reinforce
each other the damaged environment provides fewer resources, and lhe shortage of resources
causes us to further damage the environmenl. At some point, when lhere are nol enough
t resou.ces to go around, we see signilicanl scarcity,,ancl poverty, which is lhe human iace of

t Scarcily and povedy underlie a number of problems. One is discriminaiion. When resources are
scarce, lhose in power ollen decide who won t gei a fair share, and may discriminale against
women and girls, or other races, religions, or economic classes.
t When resources are scarce, people may also move in search of more resources. There are
hundreds of millions of migrants in lhe world today, seekrng food, waler, land, and work. Scarcily
drives legal and illegal immigralion into the US and other induskialized nations as people slruggle
I to survive and supporl their families.
And when scarcily is acuie,'people may engage in conllicl over resources. As world popolation
and consumption grow, envrronmenlal impacis multiply, and resource scarcity worsens As
I environmenlal desiruction and scarcity spread, and as more people compete for limited
resources, social, ethnic, and po litical tensions increase This combination drives political
instabiliiy, declining social health, and greater mag.allon.

L The combination of populalion, consumption, and scarcity has fueled more than 150 amed
contlicls since the end oJ World War ll, and driven tens of millions ot people trom lheir homes as
economic migranls or refugees. As shortages of essenlial resources such as water, farmland,
L and iisheries reach critical levels, many security analysis expecl conilict over thosg .eso!rces lo

Ullimalely, our own numbers, and the lifestyles many of us choose lo live, drive all the crilfcal
L issues we confront Left unchecked, the combinalion ol pop!lation grc$,th and consumplion -
along with increasing inequjty between rich and poor individuals and nations will ultimaleiy
ihrealen not only the well being, but also the lives ot a majority of people on lhis planet.
Personal and Struclural Solutions - What Can We Do?

f ForlLrnaiely, a future of scarcity and conflict is not inevitable. Expeis poinl lo stabilizing the
t. population as the key step. Solving the problem of population groMh will lhen help solve the
environmental, economic and socialproblems we confroni

L lnterestingly, solving cuffenl environmental, economic, and social problems will help solve the
problem of popu,ation growth. As the Uniled Nations Conference on Populalion and Development
reported, "Efforls to slow populalion groMh, to reduce poverty, to achieve economic progress, to

improve environmental proteclion, and lo reduce unsustainable consumption and production
patlems are mutually reinforcing_

On a personal level, there are a number of Ihings each of us can do l\,4ost importantly, we can
ferlilily This is especially important for citizens ot industria lized counkies,
cons ider ou r own
because people in those count.ies have large. ecological footprints, due to lifestyles ad
Lonsdmplion levelq

We can lower our own consumption and envjronmental impacts by making informed choices
about how we live, and whal we own and use. Consumer preference is lremendously powerful in
shaping producl manulacturing and markeling, and is aheady beginning to lransform many

There are also a numbe. of structural solutions io lower population groMh rates. An important
struclural solulion lo populalion grolt'th is univeasal access to reproductive health care lf every
couple in the world could reliably and affordably choose ihe number and spacing of their children,
world populalion growlh would slow by nearly 20 percent almost immectiately

lnvestmenl jn community health care is also necessary. Adequale heatih care woutd significantty
reduce intant, child and maternal mortality, and allow community members to be more socialty
and economically productive ln some parts ol the wo rld, parents expect one or more of thetr
children 10 die of hLrnger or disease. ll they have a reasonable expectation that their children witt
survive and be heallhy, lhey won t need "extra" children to oflset those deaths

Educating and empowering women is exiremely imporlanl Women with higher levets of
educatjon tend lo marry later, bear children later, and have fewer, and healthier, children. More
educated women generally have higher incomes, more econornic oplions, and more power in
their families and communittes

We can supporl structuralsolutions that stabjlize population through voting and active
participalion in lhe polilical process. While individuals can't implement politjcaland structurat
solutions on lheir own, lhey can help raise awareness, promote discussion, and influence jocal,
regionaland national policies. Many ofthese solutions can be ;mplemented at state, county, city,
or even neighborhood levels, through land use actions and budget priottjes and attocaiions.
Many are akeady being implemented at some level around the wodd. lndividuals can support and
contribule to groups involved in ihat work, lobby tbeir representatives to support and fund tbat
work. and toin rn lhat work as volunleers.

We know lhal these sojulions work Since 1950, totalferlility has fallen 50 percent worldwide.
lnfant mortalily has declined by more than half in lhe last 35 years, and ave.age tongevityhas
increased from 45 to 65 years. More people are literate, more live underdemocratic
governmenls, and more environmentally sensilive areas and threatened species are undei some
sorl ol proleclron

The choices we make in ihe next few decades about our own numbers and lifestyles will
determine whelher the world of the 21st century will be one of hope and opportunjly, or of scarcity
and deslruction.


I Topic Guidc on Climate Change
Millennium Development Goals and cl'mate Change
I Governments and big business were not the only sectors to wake up to the ihreat of cl,mate chan8e
during 2005 and 2007. The intern atio nal development community t'nally absorbed the reality th.t
strate8ies to achieve the Mjllennium Develo.pment {MDGs}are being stabbed n the back by lhe
x impact oI dimate chanBe For €xample, the Glob.lcalltoAction asainrt 8qvs4y{qc4q) belatedly added
d'matechangeto its lislofcoreissues.This procesr of enlightenment culminated intheuN Human
Development Report Jor 2007/08 {HDR 2007)whicb for the tirsltime focused on lhe imonct_o_f climale
chanpe on p9!9t!y. The Report i5 unequivocal'n concluding thai rtabilisation ofgreenhouse Eas emjssrons
is an "e5rential pan oI the overall f'ehi asalnst poverty and for the MDGt'.

The interdependence ir alltoo paintully obvious. i mp octs, Ads ptotion ond

I vulnerobility,a section ol the 2007 4tb A$essmenr Repori of the lnterSovernmental
Panelon climate chanse {iPcc}, confirms that Ilctb!!!!€Elqilqb!lily and crop yietds,
rhe flndamentak of human development, will berr the brunt of climate change.
I Africais notonlythe most vulnerable reSion but is also the onecontinent for whkh
IPCC otfers quantified predictions .s early as 2020. ll says that between 7s and 250
m'llion people in Airica may experience water strers, whilst crop yields in some
countries.ou d be reduced by 50%. rn Asia, Blacicr in the Himalayas may lead o urlcdJ,a! snil
to water shorrages for abort 1/6th ofthe world\ population by 20s0. lntear.ted
Pressure on food securily and water resources will undermine development nrateSies
Ior improvi.g education, health 5eryices and opportunities lor women. shiltinB
patterns of m.laria m.v ieorardise efforts towards elimifation. The whole pack of
cards assembled by th. M DGs'is 'ts foundJtions.
built on shaky climate bythe UK based loternationallnstitute tor €nvionrneniand Developmentshowsrhatrhe 100

{ countries most to clima!e change together account forjust 3.2% of Blobal carbon dioxide
dimate chanae that tbe pooren countriessufferthe greatestimpact whilst being the lowest
"Adapta!ion" is the term given lo remedial measures which might attract
internationalreparations fortheinpact ofclimate change on poorcountr'es, for
example the provision offlood defences, improved irrigation, drought-resjstant crop
I varieties - measures which many richercounk'es are increasingly adoptinA
themselves atvast expense. The HDR 2007 estimat€s that adaptation in deveioping
countries requires the sum of586 bill'on pr, almost as much asthe entire current
Elobalaid budget. The uNt new adaptrtiqlll4 wbich held its fkst meei'ng in
March 2008, aspires to attract totalincome ofjust 5300 million by 2012, a sum lhal a
t' European country might contemplatefor a singleflood defencescheme. rbe UNJunded Nation.l
Adaptation Programmes ofAction {NAPAs}prepared by each Least Developed Country (t DC) recoSnise
l financial real'ties by remaining extremely modest scope, seetinEooly to identify immediate and simpie
'n a changing environment.
steps that indiv'dual .o mmunities can take to combat



Afrustration Ior pove4y cam paign ers is rhe tendency for big;deas emer8inB in the
climatecrisi5tocreateyetlurtherinjustjceforpoorercountries nonemoresothan
the craze for biofuelt. These can be produced from crops such as sugarcane and
maizeandused as add itives o r su brtitutes Ior fossil fu eh. Whikr developingcountries
could benefit from demand for new cash crops, ambitious biofueltar8ets announced
by both lhe US and EU may have been conceived with minimal r€search either inro the potenrial imoact
s!_clsb,a]los lllqty or to verify du bious cla ims of n et savines in em issions.

There is furthe. injustice in the concept adopted by Bovernmenrs and some

campaigninE aEenc'es oJ a "line in the sand" a tolerance th res hold for global warming
of2 degrees beyond which iheworld stepsat its peril- Whilsr tbere may be an elem€nt
ofpraBmat'sm in this suggesiion, the IPCC 2007 report shows howthe richercountries
may be relatively unscaihed up to this threshold indeed croo producr'on in remperate
zones willjncrease- wh'lst crops in topicalregions are already at thet limitof
temperature sensitivity. Smallisland staies will also feelag8rieved by a tolerance of 2
degrees; lhe rPcC reponstates that, whilst more scientif'c investigation is needed, "sea
levelrisewill ... compromisethe socio economic w€llb€jngof islaDd communities and
states'. Related concerns about inundation ot delta regions such as Bangladesh expose
n funherd'mension ofclimate injostice thestatus of people forced to leavethea
home5 willthey be allowed lhe same rishts as politica I refueees? The UK stern Review Report pLrblished
in 2006lentatively ru8gested a number ofup to 200 million refueees bv 2050.

Beyondthe Kyoto Protocol

The Uniled Nations Framework Convention on Crrmirte ChanBe {UNFCCC) ihe inrernabondl rreaty agree.l
at the Rio deJaneiro "Earlhsummit" in i992 - did acknow'edge rhe chmarejustice principle rhat rich
are known as Annex 1co!!tl!g! and it they who are subjecr to le8ally binding trrgets underrhe Kvoto
P rotocol whic h was negotiated in 1997 's
as asupplementto the UNFCC and evenruatty ratified nr February

AlthouShihese countries in aSSregateshould achieve the Kvoto tarRet of a 5%

reduction in their t 990 level of greenho use g:s emissions by 2012, this no more
than a p'nprick in the menace ofclimate change. The figures exclude emissions
's from
aviation and shippins- aodthev also excludethe US which accounts forabout20% of
world emissions but refusedto ratifythe Protocol. 6lob al Sreenhouse gases have
therefore been risingsharply in re€entyears, defyinAthe scientistswho plead thatthe le;elmust peal
and stanto fallbefore 2020 in order to siabilise the climate.

The key quest'on for the future ofBlobalwarming is whetherthe Kyoto Protocol will be
followedbya more inclusive intern ational agreement, whilstretaining the viraldiscipline
of binding quantafiable tar8ets. lfthere is ro be a replacement after 2012, the detaits
have to be agreed by the end of ?OO9 to enable the logistics ofimplementation. The
purpose ofthe Bali Climate Change Conference in December 2007 was to obtainthe
agreement of allcountries to a roadmapforthe 24 months ava ilable fo r ne8otiations.
The politkal envi.o n ment for th e Conference was relatively favourable in light of
initiatives taken byCalifornia to pass a billio cut emissions by 25% by 2020, th€ EU which Dr. Raiendra
has committedto 20% cuts bythe samedate and tha UK wh'ch is co ns'dering leg'slation Pa.hauri@
to cut by 60% by 2050. Th€ year 2oo7 also witnessed the award ofthe NobelPeace Prize IPCC
jointly to the |PCC and the climate evan8elist AI Gore, and rhe collapse ofrhe lasr
bastions ofclimate chanBe denial. Humiliatinp recantations bv Enon. the downfallofthe Howard
Sovernment Ausiralia and a U-torn by President Bush on the existen€e of global warming symboiise th e
end oftwo decades of obstructive abuse ot power.


tn the evenr tbe Bali cg!lqE{'-Se-did-pl.o.!!!q_{o3d!]!p for indusive leSotialions
,. which reco8niset the need for "deep culs" in emissioos and in wbich developing
countries a.knowledge the need to take measurabl€ "miligating actions". But the
process wa5 so tense and the wording so stran8Ulated that doubts remain over lhe
core disirusi belween the U5 2nd the deve loping coun t ries curently exempted from
Kyoto, each demandins prior Iirm commitments ofthe oth€r.Talks willcontinue
throlghout 2008 leading up to the next crucial conterence in Poland in December.

l A more co ncreteutco me 2t Baliwastheestablishmentofthe Forest qrrbon Pannership Facitrty, ;r


schemeto explore how 20 developing countries might be compensated for "Reducing Deforestation and
t Pledses of 5160 million have been lnadetoward5 a larget of5300 million.
I technology Iransfer
Apan tom the soft touch ot the Kyoto tar8ete, there is concern about the methods,
known as flexibility mechanismi', by which the rich colntries are permitted io ease
L. their painful task. ln padicular the Clean Development Mechanism tCDM) encouraEes
Annex l countries to installmodern clim.t€ iriendly technolosv in developins
cou.tries in return for c.rbon credits towards lheir own emissions tareets.
t a renewable
ln th€ory poorer countries cJn then leapfrog dkly and inefficient power technology in tuture
their energy evolution. But the CDM ojfers technology transfer as suflicient in itselt
I with no underlyrng reference to the re.l.ncrgy needs ofdevelop;ng counlr'es. rhese needt are
and he alth c€ ntres una ble to 9p eraie ectuipment whi,st the stern Review suggests a figu re of 52 0 30
blllion pa to meet this enersy sholtfall, CDM credits tor efficient energy produclion amounled lo onlv
rboul 51 billion 2006. Afric. has qu.lified for only 18 out of7o8 approved projects. Not sulprisinSlv, the
t. 'n
Bclr(onlerpn,FrFqup\rF(lll'p(DMddrrnsl'"ror,ro-\plo'airp,ovPm'nl to lhp

t", Climate cha n8e n rategies th erefore n eed to acco m m odate a vision for en€r8y
etticjent provision of el€ctricity to the worldS people. Meanwhile, developing
.ountries willcont'nue to take the line of ieast resislance, represented by
con5truction of coalfired power stations. China plans to build one ofthese every
L week and willbe doing muth rhe samefor its newfriends in Atrica. The latent demand
for en€rgy in the developlng world is movirgtowards an exponentialrelease of
{ ereenhouse sas emissions, exactly the opposite ofthe intentions of ihe KYoto planners.

The mechanics oftradingcarbon credits underthe cDM have been hijacked tor the
L veryditferent purposeof "otfsetting" the emissions ofcorporations and indaviduals
concerned aboul theircarbon footprint.The apparently cheap ava ilability ofsufficient
cred'ts has enabled a succession of businesses and m unicipa I authorities to annouoce
t. plans to become carbon neltralfor a modesl financ,aloutlay and, perhaps, equally
modest behaviou r ch a nge. For individuah the d ilemma ofcheapfliShts is thereby
"solved" whilst gllp4rlde! q! 9ll!c!j!bc!09 governed by the great and sood ofthe
L UK environm enta I movement, which promises European car driversthat less than
trading G)
Ssopawill neutralisecarbon emissions.

lhis unregulrted "voluntary market" in carbon credits is prone to bucca neeriDg trad ers,

poverty reduction. The carbon offset marketis viable largely because the extreme ditference in sp€nd'ng
powerofcurencies between rich and poor €ountr'es yields cheap credits- lf ofket payments are invested
in renewable energy schemes in the home country, the mathemat'cs is somewbat transformed.

China and lndia preseDtthegreatdilemmaforpost 2Ot2 n egotiations. Should theybe

classitjed as developins or counties? Both a.e hoslto hundreds ofmillions
ofdesperately poor peopleyet'ndustrialised
lndia's ind ustria I lycoons nowadays make takeover bids
for major European companieswhilst, according tosome repons, China has akeady
overtaken the U5:e ihe world\ bi8hest emitter ofcarbon dioxide.Ihe are
's5ues impons
complex, not that China's dominance of ma n ufa ctured goods €Ife.t'vely
carbon emissions from the consumer countries in 200514% otChina\ emissions were
djscharged on goods destined fo. the US wbere they could have been manufactured in
more eff'cient factories and without iransponation costs. ruralChina

Extraoolations from the cutrent low per capita consumption inthesetwo hiSh population countries
creaie clim ate cha nge sc enar'os more akin to disaster movies than a scientific basis for policy making. Yet
neither country is prepared for the foreseeable future to compromise econ omic deve lopm ent with
€ nfo.ceable em issions targets. Manmoha.Singh, the lndianprime ninister, has said that social

development is the first priority and that 'the developing world cannot ac.ept a Jreeze on global
inequity . lndia's per capita carbon dioxide em issions 3 re l.1tonnes per annum aga'nst 20 tonnes in lhe

An imponant inlluerce on thqpolitics could be the spec'f'c impact of climate change

,n these countries. Both face alarminB risks from the thaw of Himalayan glaciers;
resnicted tlow into the River GanPes could ilnpact 500 million people aDd 35% of
lndia\ irrlgated land. Boih are dependeni on stable monsoon rainfallfor ag.iculture
.nd watersupplies, stabilitywhich is alreadyshowingsignsofbreakdown. Both
countries acknowledge the serious ihreat of climate chan8€ and have started to put in
place institut'onal skuct u res to add ress the issue, a longsade som e qu antifiable
energy related objectives. Nevertheless the.e is no current prospect of e'ther lndia or
China be'ng drawn into a post-(yoto a8reementwhich involvestargets for carbon
dioxide emissions, unless the Annex 1 coun!ries make commitments on a qu'te
ditferent 5calefrom those to date.

lf the driving force beh'nd apocalyptic lndo-Chinese em'ssions scenarios is aspiration

to western ,ifestyles, then the surestsolution istomodify them. Climatechange is not
the root problem; isjust oneofsev€ral critical environm€ntal symptoms attributable
to unsustainable lifestytes. Theremedyto climatechange lies wiih the cultureof
cui5ine, Guyiang,
ln some developed countries there are signs of awareness ofthjs reality at the level China O Tami a
which matters most- that of ordinary citizens. Many people havecome to realisethat Hetd
the fate ofthe planet lies in their own hands. They are disillusioned with feeble
governments, seltin terested bus;nesses _and inetJective campaign Aroups. They see through the fahehood
of structura I m easures ofsuccess - 'ieconomi. growth" and profit.

SDch indiv'duak are striving to meet their Chinese and lnd,an counterparts halfway J
vision in whkh poor families should not be den'ed the right to many ol the comforts
considered eesential in wealthy countries, whilst the latter reco8nize that any
correlation between happiue$ and consumplion is at best doubtful.

Jhe search is on for an underlyin8 philosophy ns welias pracli.almecha8isms forsLrch

iundamental chanBe. One helpfulvision is of a lifcstyle which consumes no morelhan
a fair and equal share of the earth's .apacity lo irbsorb Sreenhouse 83s3s. ln direcily
addressing the curreni injustic€ of climate chanSe, the philosophy of €arbon
citizenship becomes the antidote to the imperfect world of carbon neuva'ilY.


Topic Guide on Environmental Activism
fightingto save the planet
protect the environment. Unfulfilled by mcre complainine about environmenial
problems, activirts follow ihe advice ofMahatma Gandhi, "belhechangeyouwantto
s€e", and workio brinStheirvision ol a betterworldinto reality, cven iftheir nctions
i sometimes involve pe.sonal .isk5 and bring no marprial rewardr

I rhe instrlutional proiije ot envkonment.l aciivism embraces !ctors ransinB ftoln lDqLl
Frassroots 3nd community-98e!lldj.o-!: to large intern.tional pressure Sroups. Some
of these focus on !!qdf!qE!!t!! while others such as WWF and Friends ofthe farlh
. {FoE) tar8et the f!ll r.nge of env' ron mental proble ms. Environmental NGOS oblain frndin8 from different
i sources: for example, Grecnpeace, FoE and many grassroots organDations rely mainly on individ!al
tl donat'onsi olher NGOs accept corporate, governnrent or aid agencyfundinS.

5purred by environmental problems linked to nuclea. technoloSies, pesticide

L pollution, nnd overex plo iiation of natural resources, environmenial a ctiv's m first
emerged as a w ides p read movement i n the 1960! Th e publication of Ra ch el Ca rson\
Silent Spin1in7962 is Aenerally considered to be a key milestone. The maio
achievements of the movement over the last 30 vears have been the raised elobal
L awareness about eco logical p.oblems and integration of the sustainable develoPment LbBging alongthe
concept into inrerDationalpolitics. Environmentalists now aspireto be a le.dingforce
in sha ping intern rtional agreements.
It is larEely accepted that these advances have not translated into high standards
policy making, stillless to any t! ndamental ch. nge in behaviour of ind'viduals and'r
society in Beneraltoward sustainability. Astbe UNEP Global Envionrnental outlook
i. ZlqZ clearly indicates, environmental deg.adation continues at an alarming rate-
AlthouEh one ofthe Millennium Development Goals lMDGs) is labelled "Ensure
t Environmental susta inability", !he official MDG proaress indicators offer litlle
t, substancefor enviro n m enta I cam pa iSners. Ihe negliaible attention to climate chan8e
which could undermine every one ofthe otber MDGs - symbolizes the need for a
r fiesh approach to environ menta I activ'sm at the stan to the 21n century. amazon watch

t New media lechnolog'es emerSing over the last decade could providethe catalyst to shake up the


e nvironmental movement. overcorn'ng potir'cal, geogra phica t, censorship and communicarion barieF,
!Y!!L:a-c"!yl:D lte!?lIe?dyrtshieved subs!ar!!4lyE&!r:. orsanisations which depend on youthfut aciivist
membe.ships have not been slow to explore rhe porenriat ofp.qputar sociat n€tworkinp websires to
dllrd I nPwr.-ber\or \uppon lor (dmplrBn\

A wade r.nge ot trad ition al s trategies and took remains ar the disposatof
enviro nne ntal . ctiv'sts the search for democratic change; some NGOS, such as the
world Resosrces lnstitute, 'n provide policy and scienl'fic advice, white broad based
membership Brou ps w'll engaBe in peace fut orotesrs to stimulate media and
.onsumer campaiSns, public educ.tion and research; advocacy, tobbyins and tirisation
for politic.lnd legq!le!!B!Ltt!! of environmentat vatues and rights.

c.mpa'sners tackre a wider ranee or:,cro.s - not onrv buenesses and sovernments,
but alro intcr sovernmentrl or8anDations, fin.nciat in5titutions, investors and ;ilf;il H:,
consumers. LobbyinS and enBaging in alJiances with these new stakehotders is olten
: G;;i'::
seen as thc mostpromisingofthe reto rm ist n rategies. For example, the Forest Stewardshio Counci(FSC)
trademark is widely adopted tor labelling ofsustainabte t;mber producrs and invotves workins
relationships between torest camp:igners,logging companies, tocal co mmuniry erou ps and retaiters
similar partnerships focus on rhe rhe use ot E4&9! !9qI!!EI1L9 qlb ?relDcaI investment to promore
sustajDable consumption and production.

ln thepast, radicaldirect act'ons.nd "no saying'prorests were rhe main insrruments in raisiDg public
env'ronmenta I ;l waren ess. However, as pubtic rrust and support for rad'cat environ m enraJis,rr dectined,
NGos have incre.sinBiy turned toward moderale, sotution,o rjentcd straregies thit seek to address the
undFrlyinE .r..- ot -nvlonmpntotdFErdde.,on

Nevertheless, thedays of l!da!fnsd:bitt!!B!!9I9!s bysroups slch as Eanh rjrst!which

lake direct, som etimes even violent, act ions aga insr r hose a businE t he envkon menr a re
far from over. Often, such actions remain rhebnty eifective means of resisting oppressive
governme.ts or corrupt .orporations, partjcutany'n devetoping countries. yet, to resist
corporate power, buttressed by the WTO rutes and the evercrearive co.porare
Sreenwasb strategies, rrdical environ mentat activism strategies haveto be toushened bv
new communication tools and stronger attiancerwirh socialjusrice a€t'vists. Fo.exampte.
iD lndia lhe fo! nder of the Save Narmada Movement, Medha patkar was abteto exptoit-
Elobnlnedrdrorp.&agq!r!!!hunper5trrkp.dtlcdrorhpcdureotpoorpeopterh,edtened O 6abri€lle
with displacement by the Narmada dam.

Socialjustice issues come to the forein local cam paiBning. Over recent years tocat com mun'ties have
become increasjngly active in finding their own sotutions to rheir immediate envtonmentatand socaat
problems. However, typically lackiDg financialmuscte and awareness oftheir rights, tocat activists aI too
often face prosecution bv corupt eovernments and bu5inesses. Thefight forthe environmenl especia y
at grass.oots level, is ;nseparable from the fjghr for the human rights.


r Ihe e.o jL6lice novenrent link5 the goalof environrn€ntal protection to the Soals oI DealinB with
i lqcjallLrstice, peace, and the recognition oI the riEhts of allmarginalized and wasreintndiac)
underprivileged people. Environm€ntal action has to be driven by a strong eCdISJg!5!&!!e
r u.derstandingofwhat isjustandfair, andbedeiivered t hrough dcmocratic and Envnonment
institu tions, srch as re pres en tntive E.assroots oBa'1,zations which have a n im m ediate
t, srakeinlhelocalenvironm€nt.Thereareioomnnyexamplesotsolutionswh'chmerelydriverheproblem
aw.v frem rich to Poorygrn!,qlltjq
t F.ilures of eco justice Jre also to be found al international level, in the abuse of the developinS world by
ricb countries From toxic waste dumped on the beaches of Somalia, a counlry with no government, to
the attempted decommi5sionine oi an asbestos ridden French w.rship in an Indian dockyard, deveioping
countries tind themselves !reated as second dass environmental citize ns. Climate change, the foolprint of
L the rich oD lhe ooor, is the ulljr ate ex p resslarl qt€nviro nmenl al in iur!i!e-

In the last three decades, environm ent a I activis m hrs emerged 3nd streDgthened in
[, developing countries, symbolized by the aw.rd oflhe 2OO4 NobelPeace Pri?e to Wangari
M.alhaiforherworkwith the Green Belt Movement in Kenya.However, manyoflhese
NcOs arc {inanci.lly dependent on governments and multilateral organDations, raisinS
r 5omedoubt as lo the inci5iveness of thei campaigns. Nevenheless, acrivistsfrom
developlfe countries increasingly participate in intern.tional environmental neBotlations,
often uring the lnternet !o collrbor.te with inlernational partners or receive uncensored
I informrtion not accesrible in localmedia.

/ women
{, There is however a growinB sense of lrustration among5t NGOs in developinB
counnies, a.d indeed marginqlized communities in Beneral, who feel thal their
interctts nre not adeqdately rep resented. Ihey pointto the transnational
environmental NGO domination of inl crnation a I process es, inter se.toral
l partnerships and media coverase- For ex;mple, the majority ofAtrican NGOs did not
have sutficienl resources to participate in thewodd Summit o. Sustainable
t Development in lohannesburg in 2002.
G8 Edinburgh
2005 Peter
[. Armstrong
AltbouBha proven mechanism formonito nB the internation al system, the increasine
presen.e of environmental NGO5 in nationaland intern ational a renas has created difficult conflicts of is undeniable that the complexity of negoliatio ns on m.rllilateral environmental agree ments
[. demands ihe resources ofhiBhly qualiiied scientists and campaiBners; yet the typical northern'based
centralized organn.tion necessary to sustain such can be accu<ed of lacring leBitimary io
represenithe interests of Srassroots activi5t5, ma r8'n alized societies and those seeking eco justi€e^ Such
L uncertainties are seized upon by those politician5 who feelthreaten€d bythe new plural'sm and who are
quick todraw attenlion to any shortcominss in vansparency and accou ntability wjthin the non_protit
L Similar dilemmas have emerged in recentyears through thegro\ring n umber of Pa rtnersh ips between
environmental NGOs and industry, donor agencies and Sovernments. Advocates ofthese pannerships are
driven by concerns overthe abilityofthe environmen tJ I m ovem ent to d€aleffectivelY with the challenge
L ol globalization and the growlng financ'al and political power of maior corporations. OPPonents ofsuch
close involvementwith ihe private sector feel that it fundamentally undermines the kaditional.ole of
t environmentalactivists as watchdogs and Suardians of environmenta I justice.
NGOs are iherefore under pressure to strenethentheir lesitimacv by pushinB through much-needed
retorms in their own community andto practicewhai they preach in empoweringthe poorto sPeakfor

I 68
Most environmental indicato6 in China are moving dramari.a[y in lhe wrong
direction, on r scale which tbreatens ro denabitte progress achieved etsewhere. yet
ihe live5 ofhund.edsof millions of poor peopte remain desperatety in need of rhe
benefits of industrialization tn a country wirh one of the most represrive
Eovernments in the wodd, where the concepr ofcivi'society is retatively embryonic
and where treedom ol information is at a premium, whar hope can there be fo.
striking r balance between the needs of citizens and rhe protection of both locat and

Against these odds, there are promising siBns ofroterance of environmentatactivisrs

in China, far more so than human rights o. soc'at ca mpa igne6. There are betieved ro
be over 2,000 environmental NGos capable of mounting protest aDd te8atchaltenge,
with a track record oI some success in prompring environmentat regutations. There is
speculation thatthe Chinese governmenr wetcomes a degree o f jocat activism to
compensat€ forits own failureto imptemenr nationat envirop menta I taw! at
Demo in China @

activistswillbejudSed Theyears2006and2O0Thiveseenanastonishing
kansformation in the rt!irllgglsqvernmenrs and corporations iowards the desperat.
nee.lforaction, mostremarkibleoiallintheUS Thejury'sstiIoutinassessing
campaiEninE orsimply rbe inrpact ot At Gore s powerpoint presentatjolr timed neartv in
lheJftermdrr.olonFor lwopdrli,ut,rtVnd(tvhu i.dne,
A,Gore O
Nev€r b€fore have tbe poliricalwinds beenso favourabte for ctimate change
campaigners but there is a sense rhat rhe a8e;da is be'ng sejzed bycorporarions and su b,narionat levets
otgovernmenl. Envkonm ental groups are ftounderinBwith ditemmas presenred by the era of cheap
aviation. nuclearpower and the headlong rush for biofuets. Manypeople are abandon ing faith in
established campaign groups.nd turning to indjvidua I actions in the home. often find'ns a sense
ofcommunity throuEh online networking and 'nstead
btogging in preference to traditiona I forma.t memberships.
There is talk in the U5 of a new civ'trishts movemenito address globat wa rming. Active cirizenship may
be the only hope for overcoming the impotence ofwortd governments and corporarions to acr jn the Iace



I Topic Guide on Food SecuritY

Millennium Development 6oals and Hunger
Food sec!ritv is the condirion in which everyone h.s access io !ufficient and
affordable food; it can relate to a sinSle housthold or lo ihe global popula tion The
ii6t Mill-"nnium Development Goal (MDG)ialls short of food secutity aspnrtions in
r, seekinB to reduce by halfthe proportion of the world's populatioR experienc'nP
o n1y

hunser. Furihermore, governmen!ssigning the Millennium Declarationwere

overriding a com mitment madejust4years earlier at the World FoodS!mmitof 1996
Girls wairing for
[, which applied the 5ame tarBet to the numberof people- Rising pop!lation fiSures
food in BurundiO
mean that 170 million f€wer will betargeted bY the MDG programmethan would
otherwise have been ihe case.
*. Thc first oftwo benchmarks for measuring proEress is the "minimum dietary enerBy
requirement" loreach person as stipulated by lhe UN Food and aBriculture
Organization (FAO).This naturally v.ries by age and sex so that a weiShled average is
I cal.ulated for eacb country based on its population p.oJile; iypically this avcrage is
just below 2,000 kilocalor'es per day. Despite the promisesotthe MDGs, over 50
peo_plqEtqleC! ?!!ded to the 800 million falling belowthis ben.hmark in
2000. Malnutrition impairs the ability to le.rn or to work and reduces resislanceto
L, these problems increas in8 in s everity with the shorttalltrom the ninimum
dietary requlrement. Hunger is therefo.e a cause as wellas ,r consequence oI povenv
; chrldren! [ealth and cosnitive dev-"lopn]ent it cspecially sensitive, to the extent that
rhe majority of chi!d monalityt\ attributed to malnuirition The second MDG ;ndicator
1 islhereforeihe proportio^ ot children un.lcr age5who are underweight in relation to
t. their.Be. This fiSure has reduced only iroll 32% to 27% in the period 1990 2006
Unicef says that 5l co!ttries are unlikelv lo reach this MDG tarE€t by 2015.
Moreover, these pro8ress assessments predate the explosion in world food prices
lhat has rocked Clobal development a8encjes in 2008. UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon has warned
L that "hi8h food threaten to undo the gains ach'eved so f.r in fiShting huneer and malnutriiion"

climate Change and Food security

As recently as 2006, progress repons on malnutrition publ'shed byuN agenc'es made no
reference to€limate change. Yet was nosurprise when, in pteparation for the Bali
climate change conference in 2007,the lntergovernmentalPanelon climate change
x_ (IPCC) painted an almost cataclysmic picture for Africa in which "for even small
temperature ancreases of 1-2 degrees..... yields for rain_fed agr'culture could be reduced
by up to 50% by 2020". ln addition, the predicted increase in drought and floods will
L aggravatewhat is already a 5erious shortterm cause offood insecurity lnSouthandEssl
Asia cl;mate change tbreatens to upset the stab'e monsoon oattern around whi.h rice
p,oducrion in parlkuld, ha\ evolv.d.

L The UN supporls lha 50 Lei l De!eloppd Counlrie\ (LD( sl ,n p epdralion ol Ndt'o!4!

Adaotation Prosrammes ofActions (NAPAsi and the B3liConference launched an Erhiopia O

t Adaptation Fund which may in timesupport these programmes- Re.o8n ising that funding
is likely to be scarce, NAPAS limit theirscope to community-based low cost options for
dealingwith climate va ria bility- Adaptat'on of agr'culture willinclude the use of
Hushes /
Oxfam Great
alternative seed !€rieties, improved soil management, mainten:nce of water Britain

management synem5 and r€torest:tlon. These NAPA repons convey u nive15al concern for the sensit,vity
of food security lo a less predictable climate andfor the very limited capacity of poor com munities to
respond. Seed s.jstLts ack.owledpe the extreme difficulty of dirnate adaptation even where research

Biofuels and Food Security

Under pressure to take action on climate change in the run up to the BaliConference,
politicians .eso r ted to kDee jerk policymak'ng, seduced by the claims ot the bioluel
industry. Petrol additives such as ethanoland biodieselare manufactured from piant
crops.s a me.os otreducinE dEpendence on fossil{uels and cuttingtarbon dioxide
emiss'ons. Apparentlv obllvious to the mathematics that one tank ot ethanolfor a
Spons Utility Vehicle consumes corD that coold feed a man for a year, the EU
announ.ed thal these biofuels willcontribute 10% oftranspon fuels by 2O2Owh'lst Corn, th€ raw
the US plans to quadruple output in that period. materialusedto
produce ethanol
Quite apart from the assumption that rhese products creat€ a net reduciion !n @ Networkfor
Ereenhouse gat emissions, the use oI land ard food croos to cnter tor rich motorisis New EnerPy
ata time ofglobalfood insecurity has provoked outraSe amongstBroups campaigning Cho'tes
Ior poverty reduction. Oxtrm predicts that biofuel targets could creare 600 million
ndditionalhungry people by 2025. ln 2008, one third otthe US maize crop willb€ divenedto biofuel
production, showering corn farmers with subsidies offar Creatervalue than US food aid. As these realilies
s nk in, there arc initial signs of back pedalling on biofuel targets and subsidies amongst EU and U5

Promotion oI bioiuels has been cited as a breach of the flBht to (utf,c,Fnt food enshflned h the Universal
Decla ratio n of Human Rights a nd other internationa I treaty comm ih ents. The U N Specia I Ra pporteur for
the Right to Food, olivie. de Schutier, has urged lhe UN to respond to the food crisis as a human rights
emerBency and called for a freez€ on new investment in convertingfood into fu€|.

ln contrast to the half speed MDG vision, a human riehts approach to lood securitv places immediate and
inclusive obligar'ons ongovernments to create capacity fortheir peopleto feed themselves.ldeally the
right to food shouldlake its place iD national laws or constiiutions, w'th guarantees of Boi1,d'scriminatory
and n on- political sirategies. Many ofthe world's food secur;ty problems stem from the absence of an
overr'ding goal lo honour the ri8ht to food. A set of world trade rules might look very different if -
soverned by suchan objective rathertban the focus on abso lute volumes of rrade.

causer of Food lnsecurity

rhe aftermath ofthe Second WorldWarsaw strategieswbich did indeed award priorityto
tood security. The European Common ABricultural Policy and the US Farm Billcombined

subsidies and !ariffsto supporithe pattern ofsmallfamily farmswhich were dominantat
tbat time. tbe5e poli€'es proved successfu l, Beneratjng colossa I intern al food surpluses.

Nol surprhrngly. lhe poorer (ount' ie\ ol lhe modern ;vorld are keFn to copy this cuccesful
protectionist model, not least because ot t heir sim'lar profile of agriculture - there are 500
millionfarms ofless than 2 hectares in developing countries. Such ambitions remain o 9IEI!
unfulfilled largely because in 199s the richer countries were successfulin th€irefforts to America
include agriculturein thesystem ofopen market rules governed by theWorldTrade


I Organisat'on, whilst simultaneous ly ref!sing to onraveltheir own proteciionist model. Attempts by

t developing .ountries to build lheir agricullure se.tors have been undermined, both in domest'c markels
u.dercut by cheap imports from nch countries and in exports which encounter trade barriers erected in
i Countrie5 ioAfrica and SouthAsia are aho ro bl;rme for their proloneg4,bgLglnvestment in rural
economies whict] account for about 75% ofworld hunger. For€xample, African Sovernments are yetto
t their 2003 Maputo Declaration commitment which called for 10% ol national budgets to be
*" 'neet
dedicated to agriculture by 2008. Ruraleconomies have thereforefailed to grow. Poot farmers, often
holdinE uncenain land lenure and lacking capital, plant lor a mix of subs'stence and surplus for market, a
m od el c hron ica lly vulnerable to fluctuating prices or u nJavou rnble weather The m ajority of develo pinB
I rountrie5 have lo-glkhkllt a rerlous problem for those lackinB foreisn curency to purchase expcnsive

I whikt overall popul.rion growrh creates pressure on food security, it is a relatively

t. min or fa ctor since 1961 world prod uction of food has trebled whilsl I he population
has doubled Feeding more rhan halfoftheworld'sgrain produciion io animah is the
t: more siSnificant indicator. As 7k8 otSrain is required to produce lkg oibeet there is
an nrBument that meat produclion on lhB scale impedes the Soal oI global food
securitv.Anotherhumanweakness-forviolentcornicr invariably le;ds lo ex!rem-" UNICEF feed'ng
food inse.urity.The 2007 GlobalHunger rndex reports thal ".lmost all" ofits wo6t
{ rankinE countries have been Involved in violent corflict in the last.lccade. Coll.psed
t economies such as North Korea and zimbabwe also generate food crises. O Derk

I The Sear.h for5ohrtions to tood lnsecu.ity

Dis.greement overirade rulei reflects the two longstandinE and opposinS
philosophies for addressins slruclumlweaknesses that lead tolood insecurity. The
I neo liberal m odel a dvocates that lood should be subje.t to thesame marketforces as
manufactured Soods with minimumstate involvement lt denie5 any value to
"romintic peasanl farming" which siould be consolidaled, with aiternative
7 trvelihoods found forsurplus tabour Largertalmscanrhenraisecdprtaland.omp€@ grarnsofhope?O
&. incxpori m.rkets. Fore;6naidwould havca rolelo play in rleveloprngtrarsportrnd "er""no"o." ur<
o,rgernI'd.rru,'1,p.',Fdlr.8"' nrerr1oL"lmd,Ie,\dndimp,rvirS rdndc,d,ot
BoverDance advocates ofthis modelputa price ot58-510 billion peranDum on doublitg farm output in
The alternative philosopby of "food sovereignty" restoresthe priority for food security overlradevolume
Ihis model favours localownership and conlrol ofihe fullchain of resources acceptine smallfarN for
$ what thev are and encouraBing thet sustainabjlity throuSh subsidised inputs and credit ashasbeen
followed successfully in Malawi's.ecent transfo.mation from shortageto surplus. New communications
technolosies can also play an innovative role in su pponing small fa rmers.
L World rood Prices and Food Secudty

t These com peting ph'losophies are under8oing intense scrutiny in reaction to recent dramatic increases in
world food prices - the FAO Cereallndex doubled in theyear to April 2008. As the world's poorest
households already spend 60%'100% oftheir incomes on food, they have no mechanism to cope with
risins otherthan to reduce the volurne or nuvition al quali\ of their consumption. The World Food
I Programme (wFPlsays that 100 millionpeople willbe added to those below the hunger threshold, takinB
the globaltotalto almost one billion and creating a rew class of urban poor unableto alfo rd s ufficient

There is llttle consensus as to the'ng cause ot 5uch sudden adjustments.
grain increased by 4% in 2007, casting doubt on claims oI poor harvests; biofuel
production does not involve rice or wheat;nd thereaore should not those
prices; and the increasing demand for meat is neither new nor confined 'mpactto China.Ihe
parall€ I doubliDg ofthe price of oil does have a sjgniti.ant impact on the cost of farm
inputs and transportat'on and is a reminder thatthe lastserious world food c'isis of
lhe early 1970s coinc'ded w'rh the oi'price sho.ks oI lhat period. The IinSer ofsuspicion h also being
poinled at speculative.ich countrytraders in commodities. The complex and opaque world of
d€r'vative financial products has been exposed as rotten to the core in ihe context ofthe globalcredit
cri!is. Governments lndia iJnd Ethiopia have banned tutures t.adins in the'r aericultu ral comm odit'es

although ihe llllbasE!!! a task force and world l€aders promise discussions, national inlerests have so
fa. dominated the response to a crir's which requiret coordinated globalaction. Manycountries have
resorted to stockpilingtood and blocking exports in or.ler to keep down domestic prices. The US Farm Bill
curr€ntly under d'scussion iEnore5 the golden opportunity pr€sented by h'gh prices toabolish farm
subsidies Without Slobalfood security today, adaptat'on to future climate change willhave no
foundation on which to build

RisinBprices creale a pinccr movementon foodnid proBrammes byincr€asingthe

numbers in need whilst redu.inB the amount offood that can be purchased withfixed
budBets. Although food aid alone is not a susta inable s olution to hunger, it has. vital
of tood sLrpply and demand thfoughout the world is the core mandate ofthe FAO,
delivered by its Globallnforrnalion and War!]ila syltell. Based on this
informalion the World Food Programme (WFP) drnws up its programmes, givinB
pr'ority to regions wherethe depth ot huoEer is most ser'ous currently the aSency
supportsT0-100 million people and aboutthe same number is assisied by
inte rnational aid agencies.This leaves overT5b million dependent on highly variabi€
or non existent domestic safety net arangements such as rhe lndian Public Distribution

Despiie the d'version ofsurplus maize to biofuels, the US remains thelargestfood donor country.
However it noionly in donatinp surplus erain from US stocks rather than cash, but alsothatthe
'nsisisto the recipient country must be handled entirely by US contra€tors. The result is otten
chaiD ofdelivery
monthsof delayforaservjce which is time critical- Development asencies preter donors topurchase food
direct from the beneficiary country - high prices typic.lly beingthe deterrentto the poor ratherrfian
availability. This scenario has creat€dthe u nusual circumsta nce ofcountriessuch as Zambia and Malawi
Frdntinp tolhen own peoplevrd the WfP.

B'otechnology and GM Crops

modified crop O


T Ihe curent crisis in food security willnrengthen the hand ot lhosewho beli€ve that Canvan (lCC)
1, biotechnology is the way lorward. The great advances incrop vield5 siscethe 1970t,
!ymboli5ed by the "gre€n revolulion', haveto be we'ghed aBainst their ecologicai and strudural
cons equ en ces. The rAO sitys that 75% of food biodiversitv was lost in the 2otb century whilst 80%
of the
tt. world's dietary energy is now supplied by jun 12 industnalcrops, such is the dom'nance of a small
o!m ber o f very latEe internation a I "agribusiness" corporations The green revolutio n has also been
responsible for significant deEradation ofsoilquality and severe depletion ofwaler resources, a worryinB
{ loss of environmental ca pital wnh which to satisfy the proi€ct€d doubling oldemandforworld food
L produdion in the next 25'50 Years.

f gqlltqllv-modif ied {Glvll croos. in which a Sete of desired characterislicis transposed

i" trom one plantto anorher, are the mo5t extreme and controvers'al output of the
biotechnologycompanies. Offering higher Yields, lower che mical inputs and hiSher
I nutrltion a I va lue, GM crops sound like the panacea to food ansecuritv Led bY Brazil,
south Africa. China and lndia, m.l)v developinB countr'€s have adopted GM crops
I However, there are doubts as to whetherthe poore. have the capacitvto establish
regu latory fra mew orks lo manage inevita ble con flicts of intcrests betw€en the loca,

tY. srakeholde.s (farmerr, consumer', andsovernments)and Elobal shareholders who

control.lhe intell€ct!al propertv riFhts.
lol_snglIqa- ! d

Topic Guide on Water and Sanitation

Millennium Development Goals

i Wdrp dnd(JnrtdlonldisPl'lFdtureu.dp'elvrronm'ntdl u\laindbrl'rY OodlT olLne
Mill.'nnium Developmeni Goals {MDGs}. The wording calh on governments to "holve, b/
2A15,the ptoponionoJ people without sustoinable occessto safe drinkinq woterond
[, ronlrotio.". Taking into account population Srowih from the baseline daie of 1990, the
target necessjtates the introduction ot safe waterlo an estimated 15 billion peoPie and
basic sanitationto 2.0 billion overthe 25 year perjod.The logislica I challenge beh'nd
I these stark figures mun embrace m ense differences oftopograPh, climate and

cultu.e, as wellasthe gulfbetween'm u.ban and ruralhr,man settlements

O RachflStabb
! A proRress mon itorinR reoorl jointly released by UNICEF and the World Health
Or8anisalion {WHO)in Asgust 2004 suggested that, althoughthe drlnkingwater target /oxlam Great
Eritain -
may be achieved in terms ofabsolute numbers, poorer countries are beinSleft behind.
t Forexample, despite advancing from 49% coverage in sub saharan africa 1990to
g- 58% in 2002, this rate is far too slow to meet the target by 2015 'n

the sanitation targelis more fundamentally al r'sk improvements arefailingeven to keeP pacewith
elobal population Srowth- A!thouBh morethan a billion peoplegained accessto improvedsanitalion
t" between 1990 and 2002, the n umbers witbo ut sanitation coverage decreased bv only 100 million Millions
oJ people in lndia arecondemnedtothe indiSnity of open defacation; 76% of P€ople in ruralSouth Asia
!4I i!!e!!f9 ? bI ! whilst in urban areas oftndonesia lhe tisure is s0 million


Amon8st the many measures putforward to bolsts thas flagging proBress, ihe mon
consistent recommendatlon centres on the concepl oi waler as a human r'ght,1his
hav'nB been omitted from the original Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
2002, the UN Committee on Economiq Cultural aDd social Rights adopted a proposal 'n
to re€ognise water as a human ripht, thereby placing considerabJe obliSation on
countrje! io fulfil individ uals' rights to saie drinkinE water and sanatation. ThrouCh
2007 the UN Human Rishts Councilis engagedin tak'ng this i5iue funberforward. Gualemala n
WaterforLife and the vea. olSanitation

Parily due to unclear definii'ons of "acce5s', therehave been considerable difficulties in placing a
on deiivering lhe water and saniration targets with est'mates rangingfrom 59 530 billion
pa. Nevenheless, cost/benefit €va luations invar'ably show that benef'ts in terms of economic output and
health savings outweigb the costs, a crucial consideration for internationa I dono6. Such equatioDs do no
more than reproduce in fin ancial la rguage whdt development prot€ssionals have been saying fo. y€ars -
that provis'on ofsrfewaterand sanitation is the lynchp'ntohuman and economic development in poor

Poor access condemns women and children tospend hou6ln water collection; time
lhat could insle.d be utilized for income g€neration and edu.ation, espec'ally for
temale children. And unsafe drinkingwater and poor sanitation areihe cause of
teverc heaft h problems throuShout the developinEworld. Millions of the world\
poored people mainly wamen and children die from lygtrllglAlelk!!!C!5C! each
year. For exampJe, diarhoea can b€ both prevented and cured by the most simple
means Yer this disease is likelytoaccountforthedeaths of2.2million children under ln Chenna'O
aqe.5 during 2007; its cont.olwillbea determining lactor in MDG skategies.

Access to clean water and safe sanitation therefore corelates closely with other critical MDG targets such
is child mortality, Bender equity and enrolment in erJucation, ;nd severe poverty. rn China there is
recognition thatpollution and scarcity otwatercould undermin€ th€ courtly's s pectacula r progress rn
poverly reduction, and inde€d stall its economic boom. Governments are beinB encouraged to r€coBnise
that, w'lhoutsuccess in water a nd sanitation, the entire MDG concept may be jeopardy.
To reinforcethis message, the UN has procJaimed the peraod 2005 2015 to bethe blg!ta!!S!?l_!C!!dC
for Action - Water for Life. and the year 2008 as the year ofSanitation, with ihe aim ot injecting some
urgency into5vategies for achievingthe waterand sanitation targets.

Water and Sanitatlon in GlobalPolittcs

The comb'n€d pressure otthis hish leveluN suppo4, the favourable cost/benefit analysis, and p;erful
rights based advocacy has not yet g€nerated the desired sense of urg€ncy. The NGO rommonity \,tas
p.rlicularly frustrated at the apparent neelecr ofwater and sanitatior jssues at the 2005 Global5ummit
to review MDG progress, and at the lilqidlpproach ofthe 4th World Water forum held in Mexico in

A necessary correctionwas provided by the UN Buman Developmeni Repon (HDR) tor 2006, qqyA4i
scarcitv: Power. poverw andthe elobal water crjsis. a title reflecting the view that poor governance lies
behind water problems ratherthan any shortage ofthe r€source. ln an unusually hard'hitting analysis, the
HDR asserts thatthe "Blobalcrisis in wate.....reinforces the obscene inequalities of life that d'vide rich and

The HDR laments the absence ofany clearglobalplan for achieving the water and sanitation targets, nor
sutliciently deta iled nat'ona I st€tegies. lt also calls for higher priority for water and sanitalion in rich


countries a'd budSeis which currcnlly allocate nbout 53 bitlion pa lo lhe sector,less than 5% of all aid. ln
t. rhe4 yeaB Jollow,ng the Millennrun Declaration, the pt-o-p!r!!! SilSIg]8! 9 gdjc ?!eJi lq-ryqlgr !r!d
:Cnrla!ra!j4!!Ollylell .nd only 17% benefiled thc poorest "Least Developed Counkies". Furthermore,
{ campaignersJeelrhatlhcconditjon5imposedbydonorscanbeincompatiblewiththeunderlYingla5koi
creat'ng access to dean waler for poor people.
This particularconcern atlracts its most torcefularticulation on the subiect of priv.risation
ofpublicwatersupplies, typicallybutnot exclusivelyin nr aior conu rbal ions where
i miEralory populations are mushroominB beyond formal recognition by city service
providers ln sucb.n environmenl, i multinational utlliiy corPoration willtend to target it5
se icesto middle dass areas and selprices beyondthrpocketsofthepoor.
I The subject is complex and lends it5elfro ove6implification and slogans. Neveriheless,
the balance ofevidence points lowards failure, oflen al the hands ofsome of thewond's privatisatioD
I m ajor co rporations. There are signs tbat some dono r Bovernments and even the Wqt!
protesl in
!4! may be p'rllinB back from their u n q uestioDiDg stance on water privatisation and the Boliv'' G)

tl water companies are said to be reducins investment plans for devetoP'ng counlries. Butthe lule
i D ult!aBency u N world water Deve lopm ent report for 2006 warned that " it wou ld be a Plasencia /
m istake" io write off any role fo r th e p r;va te s ector 3 nd ss !1rq!CEjC! !!qr!qttb- lltg -q l in AP / Il.le
many major ciiies oJ the world UNEsCO
I 'oqte
Water and 5anitation in Locrl Politics

1 D.veloping countrics thcmselvc! have n tar trom passive role to play the MDG tarBels
are to be.chiev€d.They too are s!ilty of anachinE insufficient pr'ority" to watet and
rven less to sanilation in natimal povedy pl.ns. Of particular importance rs the need io
T nrcngthen local governrnent c.paoty to deliverinfrastructure projecit and to reform
I rrp{r rpn, vd' d bu. 'u 'o /.

Governance i$ues in water and san'lation stretch allthe wJy lo the benefici:ry
communities themse'ves. lt has b€cn demonrirated over and again that success in
t watcrandsanitntionprogrammesdependsoncr€atingasenseofowneEhiPamongst
Catholic R€l'ef
the beneficiaries themselves.

I€jtgllllrt{t1$rMltryllq in cookinS, wash'nA and tending livestock andwilloften plaY the

I key roles in oBan'singvillage level5tructures to ensurethe sustainability ofa facility. tquipment needsto
be properly maintained, user fees collected, and hvqiene behaviours chaneed. often involving difficult
f culturaladjustment-

Nevenheless, community levelwaterand sanitaiion projects in both roraland urban areas have a-
consistent record olsuccess, in painfulconvasr to lhe history oflarge m unicipa I programmes of both
t public and private sectors. Wh'kt it is difficuh to convert small-sca le develoPments into nation.l
programmes, th€ improv€d undeEta.dingoftheir righrs to safewaler amongstthe benefic'aries could

f translate into wider citizenshio movements to bring localand national governmetts to account.





needs oi asriculture and industry Even if the donor community met all tbe funding
demands of internalionrl NGOs Ior water and sanitation, the MDG tar8ets could still fail
through inadcqu.te integration wilh the bigger water picture. This inteeration is not
limitedto understanding these other use6; it must ext.nd Beogr.phically across
separate but inter related watersheds .nd rivers, acros! natio n al boundarie5 and
oceans. Water presents a global.hallenge of unfathomable difficulty.
Carrving water
To botrow popular businessjargon, water is a "zero sumgame". lt is a finite resource in NiSer GJ Josh
over wh'ch compering interests are condemned to squ:rbble. And in an unfair world, its EsteY/CARE
beneficence is distributed by nature Lrnevenly. water sc.rcitv describes an environment 2001/IAEE
which demands lorwaterfor domertic, aCr'culture, and industry purposes exceed lqlA
availability. Th€ significanceof waterscarcity for the MDGs is ihat poor peoplc tend to 'ts
lose out in competit'on for scarce resources, typically th rough the pricinB mechanism. Allprojectrons
susgest that, under pressurefrom rapidly risingpopulat'onsand continred global dem and fo r mear
production, water scarcitv willdeteriorrtesisnificantlvin the period covered by lhe MDGs.Those who
applaud the world! achievement of€xpanding tood production €xponentially overthe last ceneration
tend lo forset the paralleldemands placed on water resources which themselves arei'nite. !ry!:l9,r!!i9!
is seen as an obsla_qleto world hunger and the water MDGs.

Waterdemand management is thc opposiie side of the waterscarcity coin. Nowhere

is the n€ed for demand management more acute ihan the Midijle Easl. ln add'tion to
educationa' programmes for raisinB awareness of water conservation, wise and
cff'cient water us,. measures embrace water pricinB, pollution prevention, ard
fegylEd wa!!q!!tgr.

The uitimate;rony of water manaEcment in the 21st century is the increasing ;nterest
Anumberof lndianstates nowinsistrhat new buildings be fitted with rainwater
harvesting equipment. plants O

climate change

Ihe 2007 Report "lmpacls, Adaptations and Vulnerability" ofthe lntergovernmentalPanel

on CIimateCr!anee (IPCC)brings home the niBhtmare prospectthat climatechange could
unravelthe assumptions u nderpin ning almost every drinkingwater development proje€t.
Cha nging monsoo n patterns could disrupt tiny village level systems whilst the potentia I
impact on the flow of the River GanRes caused by retreating Himalayan glaciers could
unh'nge rnd;a's ambitious 9200 billlon riveilin k'ng project.

Too often associated only witt! risin8 tevels ofsaltwater and extremes of weathet climate
impa ct on freshwater dependence. Ihe lPcc Re;;usserts tha t as ;a rl; as 2020, 75 25; Po'l
million people inAirica could experience increa;ed wai"rstress. railure to synchronrse ttre
planet's freshwater resources witb the demands of humanity mav be the cri5is that f'nallyspurs
Aoveroments into decisive action on climate change.


{a. Topic Guide on AIDS / HIV

Mrllennium Oevclopment 6odh rnd Hrv/AlDs

AccordinB to the 2007AlD5 epidemic update p$llehed by the loiRt UN Pro8ramme otr HIV/AIDS
(UNAlDs),2.5 million peopl€ were newly inlecled-with HIV during that year' Despite the widerange oi
t potenlial etror conc€ded in the report,lhere is consensus that the 8lo ba I rate of infection has fallen from
a peak in the late 1990s and th.i the crisis may be levelljngoffin themon seriouslY afiected region of

t Beneath such optimism lie5 a lqtt of !!c!li4iU!!gr not least that the rale of inl€ction,
known as inc'dence, i!justoneof a bewildering range oi indicalorsthat have been adopted
to assess pro8ress jn the fiBht against Hlv/AIDS The oriSinal fr.mework fot the Millennium
L Development Goals (MDGs)focused on the reduction of prevalence as the measure forthe
targel (in Goal 6) '1o halt and begin to reverse the spread of Hrv/AlDS" by 2ol5 Prevalence
refers to the percenta8e ot people aBed 15-49 I'ving with HIV/AID5; for €xamPle, in 2007
rhere were 33.2 millionpeople livinswith H!V/A|D5,95%i. developing coun vies, implying
r Elob al preva le nce of0.5% However, modern dru81h€rapy, forthose fortunate to receive
it, ArDS clin'c,
exteDds life erpecta ncy without removinB the presence of the virus, an oulcome which 50uth
Atrica O
f increases prevalence and sueg€sts neg.tiv€ proBress
[. EiiY !4!rl &
rn theevent, theinadequatewordrngoflhe MDc and ils flawedbenchmark w-"re 5wiftly
oveNhelmed by n ew politica I reso lve in res po nse to civil socie ty activists who a rBu ed that
failure to combal HIV/AIoS would undermine thc entire MDG prog..mme The Declaration o{
I commilment on Hlv/AIDS siBned at a UN General AsscmblY Spe.ial session in 2001 related targets lo
rights rather than pJpulations, for erample 2cknowledgingthe riSht ol all voung people to have
.ccess to inform.lion nece5rary to reduce theirvulneriibllity to Hlv infection By the time ofthe
L EdinburBh G8 summit in 2005, this principlewas exlended to thb provision oflreatment forthose alreadY
infected,50 that a uN Polltical Declaration approved in 2006 committed wotld leaders to work "towards
the goal of universa I a ccess to.omprehensive prevention programme5, treatment, care and support bv

The oJfidalUN MDGfiameworkhas now beeD supplemented bya new ArDS tar8et for universal
I&. rreatmeni by 2ot0 blrt, in the context of Hlv/AlDs, the MDG agenda has had minimalimpact TheU!
Hieh Levelmeetinson HryAq5 due inlune 2008 has been calledto review progress aga$stthe
Decldrdro. ol ( ommrrT"nl r,'th-r rhd. the MDU(

Such d €matic scaling u p of targets, toE€ther witb a tight deadline, requ'res unpreceOenteO rinancLt
commitments from the internationalcommunity. spendinBon HlvlAlD5 in developing countr'es has
{. indced increased exponentially, ris'nglroh 5260 million in 1996 io over 510 billion in 2007, wirh fuDds
sourced primarilyfrom eovernments, internalionaldevelopment aBencies and Philanthropists The largest
s'nsle5ource is the Us Eovernmenl which appears likely to approve fqltdilpil3qbilll9ry.l4cIllc4!
[. to m 2008 through renewal of tbe President's E m ergency Plan for AlDs Rel'ef (PEPFAR) About 25% of all
globalAlD5 projects are granted by the Global Fund to Fight AlD5Tuberculosis and Malaria, establ'shed in
2002 to "attract and disburse a dditional funds"-

t '18

UNAIDS says that annualspetding needs to quadruplethe 2007 t'Cu'e to fu2liljqll
bv 2010 Co ns idering that the entire 2006 toreign aid budget forsUb 5aharan Africa
was lessthanS4Obillion,itisclearthattheAlDS lobbvaspires to a seneroussliceof
the funding cake. Other human develo pment sectors sometimes 5ugSest that th€ AIDS
priority has been overdone, compariDgthe 2 million annualdeaihs caused byAiDS
with 10 mill'onlhroughhunBer,5 milliondueto un5afewaterand 3 million dillborn
babies.Ihere have even been accusations th.tArDS aEencies inflate estimates of the Olayinka Jegede-
number oi people living with HIV/A'Ds in order lo attracl funding There are indeed Ekpe, N;gerian
sispificart difflculties data collection; the most recent UNAIDS report absorbed new HrV activist O
'n from lndia and other countries where sratisrical analysis has
lower preva lence fiSures
been improved and the agency has aSreed to review its finan.ial need5 estinates. Prerana
i4s!q!lcte qEO!A)

Ihe reason why HIV/AIDS has anra.ted generous funding is that90% of its victims are carried offin the
prameoflife, ripping the heaft out of a countryl socialand €conomic fabric. Life expectancy, oneoflhe
three core measures determining the UN Human Development rndex, has fallen dramatically i. many
airican countries; women in zimbabwe and Zambia are rnore likelyro die before ratherthan after rheir
40th birthday. Th€ loss ofteachers, health workers and even MPs in sDb saharan Africa has disrupted the
functioning ofpublic life and undermined pove.ty reduction plans. Donor agencies have been re5pondinE
lo.n emereencyas much as develoDment.

The less emotionalanalvsis ofcommerce conveys rn equalmessage ot urgency. The

Wodd Bank has estimated that HIV/AIDS prevalence of8% knocks l% otfa €ountry's
rate of economic growlh. ln zambia business research has valued the loss ofrn
erperienced workerat S9,00owhilst an HIV prevention progra mme .osts just 947 per
employee Major companies lbroughout southern Africa have invened in HIV/AIDS
etu\p. Io' \rdfl and lo.dl _ommunrtie,.

Wh'l r ub\dhJrdnAlricddrrrdrr5heodInFctor'o(oboullhFtmpdcloll,V/AlOS,the
latent of HIV in many other regions of the world is of no less concern.There are Nat'onalAlDs
many countr'es where low prevalence dirguises a rising rate of infection, the reverse
ofthe pos'tion inAfrica. New inf€ctions in Easlern ELrrope and CentralAsia ancreased
150% overthe per'od 2001 2007, mostly Russia and Ukraine.ln southeastAsia, Centre for
prevalence is increasinBin V'etnam and in'npart'cular in rndonesia. UNATDS atk'butes Development and
these lrends to the combined iDfluence of 5ex workers and injecting druguse.s, P_ooulirtion
aggravated by increasins mobilitv oflabour and leisure. Activities


Women and HtV/ArDs

A dntre5sing charact€ristlc of lhe nnpact of HIV/ArDs ha5 been its cruel exploitalio n ol
I the un€qualSender relationr andthe tjr:pat-qflqtrllti! yj9l!!!9 that exist in many
developinB countries Thevirus has no sympathy tor lhe weak poeitioDolyoungwomen
{ to negotiate safe sex or no sex. Maffied women are expoted to the infideiities of,their
t, husbands, especi.lly those whose work takes them rway trom home.As il these
rela!ionalrisks were not enouBh, women are ! ucb !Ilqlq!!!!9p!!lC rha n men to
rrrnsm'ssionoflhev'.us duri.8sexw'th an infected p: ner
{ 45 a result, inthe 15 24 age group in sub.Siharan afr'ca, 75% of people livinB with
HIV/AID5 are women. This protile.nd lts underly'ng causes have ealvani5ed the efforts ql
I inrern.!jonal vvmen's eroup5 and strengihened the crll ior fllV programmet lo
{, inteSrate with broader reproductive health services. ln con5€quenc€ a conkoversial
moral'ty dimension unsetdes the hurnanitarian fiSht again5t AlD5.lts most eitrem-" lamilies G)

mJnifeslalion is the continued refusalof the Roman Catholic church to countenancc the !!Xed
I N!!qE"
Lrse of co.doms And US PEPFAR f qllll!L :!Lll.!!! 19!l9l4r !9!!li!1q; impoEed by
! religious conseNativ€s which biJs its preven!ion programmes towads abstinence rather 1!lc&|:?tld
th.n5afe5ex Apart from naively, the {law in thes€ inPositions istheprcsumptionthat Rearonal
t tire b.lanced Aender relalions found in the west are repli.3ted in poor counlries. ldorr!!!s!
children and HIV/AIDs
! chilclren livingwith HJV/AlDSrrethe most heartbr-"akin8ly innocentviciims in thatalmosl
allwereinfededduringpregqancy,bi11horthroughbre.stteeding over 40o,000 new
inteclions occutred in 2007, mosllvtr sub 5aharanafri.a.Thescienceofpaediattic
i rreatment lags rhatfor aduhs; only about 10% of infected children receive proper
t, rreatmenr and one sixlh of allAlD5 deaths are children Dnder Jge 15.

t tnodledeeolprnvcnlionol morher lo(h'ldr,dn Fr ionrP\4lCl)Dmo'e"ordn',d.h

rich corntries a combinaiion ofspecialdru8s for bolh nlother and child, caesarean
delivery and fo rmula milk reduccsthe risk tojust 1% 2%. ln the comPlete absence of
treatmentrhe risk is 30% 35% and this is the position for the majority of babies born to Zambia O
I mothe.s with Hlv in the highest risk coontries. Althougi! increasing etforts are madelo
provide at leastsome treatment, many mothers are faced with dillicult &1!e!:
choices between the risk of breastfeedinB and the presence 'mpossibly
ofcontaminated water in Children'!
I!D! -

! There is perhaps sreater pu b lic awareness of th e problem5 ofthet2 million children

I in sub saharan Africa who have escaped Hlv brrr who have lostone or both paretts
Although cu ltural tra ditions often support the security to be found in extended
fam'lies ortoster parenting,lhere are naturallimits lo the capacity ofcommunities
I devastated bv AlD5. For example, in zambia;t is estlmated that one third of all
children willbe orphans by 2010.
children at the
Human Rights and HIV/AIDS
Uganda O Nyaka
ln many countries the vtus often takes hold initially amonBst high riskgroups such as
AIDS Orpbans
sexworkers, men who have sexwith men, and iniertingdrug users. Association of

I these sroupswith HIV has aSSravatedthe prejudicethal they


.lready experience in both rich and poor countrier alike solhat accessto Hlv/Alos
prevention and treatment services has been veiy low. Quite apanfrom leaving the
disease unchecked, such an approach offends orincioies ofhuman rishts.The 5ame
appliestothose who experience discrimination directlyas a result ottheir HIV posit've
status; a combination ofstigma and ignorance has often resulted jn loss of
employment and public services.

There has been res'slance to the inclus'on of human rights lanEuage international
Hlv/AIDS commitments and AIDS activists themselves have been harassed in counvies
such as ChiDa. However, tbe 2005 PoliticalDeclaration includes a clause'n wh:ch aBainst
Soveroments unde nake ro introduce legidario. to ens ure " enjoym ent of a ll hu ma n
rights and fundam enlal freedoms by people living with HlV". lnternews
Prevention ot HIV/AlD5

Ihe hunon immunodefici ercy v,rur, first identified in Califo.nia in

1983, is transmitted
bv bodily flu'ds exchaneed in sexualrelations, or bycontaminated blood, orthroush
mother to child transmission. Despite prevention services absorbing 50% of HIV/AlD5
spendinS, in 2005 only s0% olyoungpeople in developing countr'es were assessed to
hrve sufficient knowledBe to lake controlofthe risks. Achieviog universalawareness
is a formidable and expen5ive task although the challenge of communkating
effectively to young peoplc in schools and in loca I co mmunili es has provoked endless
creativily, with new technoloeies ol.VinA a oart where oossible.

Advocacy of behav;ourchange must tackle the strong bonds thar exist within local
custom, Aender rel3lions, lhe stigm. ofAlDS and ttre realil'es of poveny. Althoush
can only be effeclivethrcueh localcommunity groups, there has been
prior'tyoverthe next but not to an unrealistic extent. Concerns about unavailabil'ty or failiJre to use
condoms are such thar the Wond Health brganisation (WHO) has added male circumcision to ils list ol
9.pplelrd pleycqlll tollowing research showingthatthe risk ot intection was reduced by
60% for ckcumcised men. For similar reasons great efforts areEoing into rhe develoome,llqltl!!!
resistanr microbkidesels which would restore a degree of control to women.

Early successes in lllV prevention have been attributed to lhailand. Uganda and
Senegal and more recently in Rwanda and Burkina Faso - with a commonfeature of
deternined politica I leadership at the highesr level. Bycontrast, publicdoubts
eroressed bv President M beki con cernin8 ihe link between HIV and AIDS denied the
natu ra I opponunity for South Africa to display regional leadersbip and lo tackle its
slatus as hom€ to the world's largestnumber of people livingwith HIV/AIDS-

rreatmenrofHlv/ArDs y;"lj;r,,
On average a patientwith the HlVvirus can live a normallifefor 10'11years without HIV/AIDS
treatment-A cocktailofdrugs known as antiretrovtal th erapy {ARI)should leade6hip rn
commencewhen the immunesystem has weatenedto a measurable threshold.The Thailand
virus is not eliminated byART but rhe rBk ofonset of Acquircd lnnune DeJiciency
Syrdrome (marked by tbe establishment of one of a range ofserious illnesses associatedwith
deticiency) is reduced by about 80% givingthe prospect of a reasonably norma I lifespan. ln about 10% of
pat'ents the treatmeni fails, and an alternative "2nd line" therapy is substituted.

counties.ln poorcountries ckcumstances often

Sucb isthe position for people livingwith HIV in r'ch
conspire againsl the progress ot modern medicine. The pEtient may be unaware that he orshe is HIV



I poiitite, or there may be no rvailable t€st for theART threshold, or lheremay be so sovernmenr lo
t. pry lor thc treatm€nt Other obst.des induderhe lS|plerlltC! SllChCr-.!l"S:E, often dormant in people
tivingwith Hlv but liableto be aclivated by the viru5. For lhose receiving AqT d!p!!lj-ale5d!4!!ce!
!!lli!!lli5% in Africa aft€rjust 2 years betr.y the shortase of skills for prescr'binB and monilorins
dnuretroJ|dl lreJlmell
By the end ot 2006, only 2 million people were receiving lreatment in developinB
countries out of T.l million in need.50me enimales suSgestthat 14 millionwillbc in
{. need by 2010, the targ€t date for universal treatment. Prospects are much dependent
on il,e price ot drugs which is a constant source oI tension between lhe humanitarian
ion.crn to save live5 and the prolit motive of multinational Pharmaceulical
companies armed with 20 verr oatett prolection AlthouEh World Trad€ Organisat'on
{wloirules permit the least developed count.ies {LDct lo acquire ormanulacture
low costgenerics until2016, middle income countries such as lndia, Thailand and
Brazil depend on less concrete concessions in wro ruletfor heahh emerqelcjes
L Zambla O Cent.e
'lhere are concerns thattbe curren! Iashion ior regionaland bilateral Free Tta de for Development
Agreements willcl05e down the5e conce$ionary .lauses, pr€venting the development and Populalion
{ olgenerics for proh ibit'vely expensive 2.d lineARTdnrgs. These painfullessons about
equitable distribution of drugs may pro!e if ihe dau ntnre p@h19!]!
q:-sgddgd !!4L\ ij!di!&s y..ciqg lor Hlv are eventu.lly overcome.

n Towards Universal Access

Achievementofthepromises for 2010 willrequire. fLrndamentalrevision in the Prioritiesot AlDS donor

{. whose reports b€tray a narrow "vertic.l'world of AlD5-related intervention. The Global Fund boasts of
Jl ovid ing d.u8 treatment to !6 millionand HrVleststo52 mjllion beneficiaries but, however .dmirable
rlresefigures, they tellliltle ofthe progres towardr univ€ is exclusion that shotld featirre in
reports such astheestimated 80%ofpeople livinSwith Hlv/AlD5 in low and Diddle incomecountries
I, who ere not even aware of their condition.

This conc€ptual adjustment would illum in ate the pra ctical r€ality th at u niversal access
{, to HIV/AIDS services cannot be ring tenced from other health issues. For example,
uptake of voluntary counsel'ing and testing (VcT)mi8ht improve if inteer:ted with
less sen5itive clinicsewices. More importanl stillis the need forsufficient numbers of

t, qualified health work€rs and adequ ate facililies. The mo5t recent plans publkhed by
PIPFARand the GlobnlFund do refleclthis shift awavtrom a sense ofemergency
towards "horDontal" developmeut supportforg€Deralpublic health faciliiies Nairobiclin;c n
Strengthening the infinstructure in which other d evelopment seciors operate would The Globt Gag
L reconnect HIV/AIDS with the broaderMDG and development agendas.



/ rww
tcreiqnatralrs c{q

Preparing for the Next Pandernic

IJI'l (lsrerhol,r

t\on Fmign Alatt,llly /Augusi 200s

http: I t w.loreignoffoirt.otgl2nsoTolf aessoy81402l nichae(t-atterhotn t preparing for the-rdt pan teni.,htnl

Srrnrlary: tf an trfluenzi pindemic struck today, borders would dose, the global economy would
shrt r},wr, intetnrtional vacche supplies and bealth care systems sould be overuhelDred, aod padc
woutl reigo. To lirnr the frllout, the jndustrialjzed world must crerte a detailed response strategy
tnroJnng tbe public aod prjvate sectors.

M.hdl 1 (rl.rhaln t Dtftdqr oI lht Ce"tuJbt hJe,/iry! Dtea.ft lt/l/,rth ard P,liry, Ar!0,'aE Di,e'/or oI tha
I>!a,b,4t af llolre/ard SeBnU't Na/tur./ Gnktfu F|ot Ploh.tia, ard DeJe"ie, ard Pnfeilor d/ th. Uri,ed,
0[ Mn,t.tota'J.\'.k|t oIPabtit I kath.


Dathg back ro andquty, urfluenzr pmdemics have fose.l the gle.tesL theit ofa Norldvide c,ladty
oused by trtecrtus dse,st. Over rhc past 300 years, tcn inlluenza pandenics have occured anong
hun.ns. The mosL rece.r crme in 1957 58 aDd 1968 69, a.d ahhouBh sevebl tens of thousa.ds of
An.rlcirs .Lcd in cxch o.c,these were.onsidrcd dnd cobp^rc.l ro othds. The l918 19 pturdcmic
w2s not Accord,ng io lecent analysis, it kmcd 50 ro 100 lniltron pcoplc globally. Tod.y, with i
population o16.5 billior, oore than thrce tioes $xr of I9l8, cveo a "rild" pandemic could kill many
rnnlors ol peopl..

A nrmbu of r€cent €vents and fxct,)!s hive signi6caotly heightened that a specific r..r
rcrd pandcmc may bc imd.eni. lr could be c,nsed by H5Nl, rhe avian inlluenz. strain cufently
circulanng in Asia. ,\t this iurcrDrc sden'rsrs omot be cert^i!- Nor ca. they kros .xacdy when a
pandcmic will hit, or rvhcthc it v 1 ;v.l the experience ot 191&19 or bc more mutcd hkc I957 58
and 1968 69. The rolity of a coming pindcmic, howcvcr, canrot be .voidcd. Only jts impact cao be
lessered. Some imponant prepalatory cfforts arc r:ndcr way, but nruch more needs to be dooe by
instinrtioos at many Jevels ofsociety.


Ofthe three qryes olin0uelza;ns, iDt'lucnri rypc A initcts and kills the greatest oumber ofpeoptc
e^ch year a.d is the only t?e that causes pandemics. It originates in wild aqurE;c bnds. The vins
docs rot cause illness in these birds, aod although it is widely E,nsmitted rmong theh, ir does Dot
urdergo any sig tcant

Drect uansmission ftoh tbe birds to humds has not beer demoDstnted, but when a vins is
transhitted from s,ld birds to dohesticated birds such as chicke.s, it nndergoes changes th2t.llov it
to infcct hunrans, pigs, and potenn,Iy other mamnals. Once in the lung cells ofa mammalian host,
the wirus can "reassort " or mu genes, wi$ hDmao vinses that are also present.'Ilis
process can lead to an eotirely ncw wiral stain, crpable of sustained human to hman transmission.
Ia sr.h a vins has .ot circulated ir humans bcforc, dre entirc population vil be susceptible. lf &e

? vrDs l,rs not cilculated in the hnDraD populruon br . nullber oflea.s, most p.r,th wilt hck r.sjduel
t inrr: ry frcn prrvtrrs niectn;n.

I Orcc rhc novrl strih bcrt$ id,pG ro hudaos.rxj ,s easily txnsnrtc.l lioo pcrson to pcL or, tt is
t .rprl,l. of caushg " new p"ndcdc. As rhe vin,s pisscs repcatcdly trom onc huhrn ro dic nc\r, ir
(vcnftr.llv be.1' cs lcss virDlenr.rJ j.ins th. orhrr hfluerzr linscs rh2t crcllirc rlrc globe rxch
ft lcrr Ihis cyclt cortirucs und inorhd ncw n, virus cncrgcs ftom wnd blrds ind rhe process
Sornc p.ndcmi.s rcsuh tr bu.h h;gher ratcs ol inlectlor rnrl dexrh Lhxn othcs. Sclcrusts,,o\v
urdcr*and rhrt ttrs vanrLio. N x rcs,lt olthe gcneric oakeup oleich sF.]fi. viros,..l *,e pr.s.ncc
i ol ccrmin virulence fictors. 'ILrt is Nhy rhe 1918 l9 pandemic killed many nore ptople thm eitht'r
thc 1957 58 {,rtht 1968 69 pandemic


Inlc.tious clise.scs rcnfur drc nunbd onc lcller of hurrars worldwidc. Ciircrd!, moic than 39
nlillor pcopl. L,ve with IIIV, ...1 list yer xl,ouL 2.9 Jdl]lor pcoplc .ljc.l of AIDS, bfurgrg thc
ennulrtivc total of deeths from AIDS ro .ppionnxrcly 25 dUor. Ttb.rculosrs |lB) ..d
i,lso r.r,.ri Daior ouses .rl 1,, 200:1, rbout 8.8 milLion pcoplc bc.rDc nLcic.l \uih TR, an(]
I rhc drsdsc liLlcd !r.r. tl)in 2 rxlLto.. Ercl,, nxlfia r2uscs hoic thx'r 1 m Lo' d.rdrs dd clos.
I tr, 5 billron cpisodcs ol cliricd ilhcss ID ..ldiror, !.wly cridglrg hf.crons, dr.rrL.d .nd other
r.ctor bcrne <lisars, and igcrts ,csist..t to ilribioircs posc r scrious rnd growbg publc heelrb

a;!.n so nrxnr other s,:jniEcanl !nlc.flols discrscs, why docs droth.r hflu..,r pi..lclr. !'enr
rrntg: rncl urgenL iLte',ronl lrrst, ol thc rrrc rhan 1,500 microbcs lnrorvn to c^!sc diserse b
l humnrs, bflrcnzi conhu.s ro b. d,e ldng ln rems of ovenll nortality. Ii.r'en tr r yerr sAen ody
rlrc grrd.n vaneS' strahs in cstitrhr.d 1 1.5 p.opl. lvoildvrle.he fro,r hfluen?,
inti.ilons or relrt€d .onplic.tions. ln . pxD.lcdc hsfi,g'ndlon
I2 ro i6 mondrs, rhc nlnrbd of.,ses in.l
.l..ths lvould rjsc dnu.ilcaly.

RcceDt clinic.l, cpidcnriologic.l, ...1 hl,.,rat{,rt evideoce suggests Lhar thc ihprct of r p,!!c
c.nsed by thr cnrent IJ5NI srrin lvould be s nir ro Gnt ofthe 1918 19 p2nden!.. \,Iorc dr.n half
I of drc pcople lill ed ll thit pxDdcmic w.rc 1 8 ro 40 lefs old and largcly hc2l LhI. I f 1.91 8 I 9 mortality
.lilr ir. extripolrtcd to $c cDnc't US. populrtn,n, 1.7 dil]ron people .ou]d .le, h.lf of thes
bdwccn thc,gcs of 18.nd 40. G].,b.lly, tlDse sxne esuhites yield 18U 360 m lon dcaths, Dore
rhan fiv. tincs the cu.nrlativ. mnrbcr of do.unre.Led AIDS .leadrs. Is 1918 19, nrosi dcadrs were
l c.used by a vins ilnluccd rcsponsc ofdlc vlrrjm's lhbrne systcm srom which led to
a@te rcsplatory distress syodronc (ARDS). ln othrr, i. thc proccss of fighrig thc rli..r.r, a
petmn\ imnune system severely dam.gcd thc hxrgs, rcsulting in death. Victios of I I5N1 hive .lso
t suffered ftoh ctrohre sr.,turs, and the ea,rkl is nDch be$er prepared t., re,t hrllioG of cas.s
oIARDS roday d).n rr v,s 85 ye,rs ago. In the 1957 58 1968-69 pandehics, tle pnm.iy c^use
of d€rLL vxs secoj,ddy bactenal pneumodas that infccted ^ndlungs rveakened by i!fllenza. Ahbotgh
I soch b.ctend hfections can often bc treatccl by arrbiotics, these drugs woukl be eitber uoavrnable
or nr shorr pply foi m!.h ofthc globxl popln2do. duing a pindemc

The atival ofx p^.dcmic n!fluenzi would trigg€r a reaction tbat would chaoge $e vorld ovunight.
{, A vaccxrc pornd .ot b. available for i number ofmo.ths aftd the p2.demic sr,ned, xnd there are
very limited stoclipil€s of ..ti*al dogs Plrs, only i fee pnv .gcd arcas ofthc world beve 2ccess Io
vacche prodDcron facililies. lbreign tr2de and havcl would be reduced or even ended in rn atrcmpt

to srop rhc rirds fron errer;rg n.w ()DDrries cveD though sDch efforts lvould probxbly tul grvcn
th. ofDi]lcnza.'.1 rhr volunL ol rJJegal covng' rhrt u..uL rr m,'\r h, ers. ltis
likelr'firL lrr'sportaron rvould also bc sjgdfic.ndy cut.n.d doncsrically, as yna]ler commurunes
sought to kcep the r}sease co.taired -Ihc sorld reles on thc spc.dy disiribution ofproducts such as
f.,od .rd rcplacciDert parts for eqrnpment. G)obal, rcgiooal, and oal]onul cconomies world cohc to
,n rbiupl h.h sohethjng drat h,s never happcned due to HlV, ozlana, or TB desp,re thdi
d.irniL. lrD^cr o. th. dcv.lopbg world.
'Ihc ck,sest tht vorl(l has .oDc ro rhjs s.enario iu nodern umes w,s the SARS G.vcie .cute
icspiratotl syr,lrome) crisjs of200l. Over period of five nonrhs, aboot 8,000 people wcic xrfcctcd
by a novel hrman coronavitus. Abour ten percent of them .Led. The vjtus apprcndy spiead to
hlDans when iofectcd arimals Ndc sold ,.d sl^ugbt€red jn unsanlrdy dnd dowded m.rkcts ir)
Clu.'s Gu.rgdoDg Province. AltloDgh the transmissior rxte of SARS p,led in compxrison to th2t
ofnUr:cnze. jt deoorstrated how quickly an iofectious agent can citcle the globe, glven the.asc
and frcqucrcy ofintehatron.l rhvel. (lnce SARS emcrged iD n)ral Chin4 jt spread to fi
withn 2,1 hours and to l0 colntries on six cortncnts vithiD several months.

llic Sr\RS.xpcricncc te,chcs r ctitj.,l icsson abour the potertial global response to 2 Fand.mic
r,fluerz. Ercn vit} rhc rchriv€ly lorv Ntrber of dcaths rr caused conprred to other ;,fecuous
.Ls..s.s, SARS had x poscful .egatile psrchologr.?J Drpact on the populadons of many c"unues.
ln ^ rr.enr n.rlysjs of the tpt<lernic, tlc N,ti.',r] A.^deniy of Science's lnsdn:te ol Medicine
conclurhd: "1}e relruvely high cas. f.rihty.xte, ihe ide.tlficxron ofsupc! spic^dcrs, thc rcwrcss of
Lh. dlscxsc, $c sp.c.l .,f jts global sprerd, .rd public unccrtainty about the abiiity to contol its
spr..d hrvc cortibrtcd to the public's ahm. This xlim, iD turn, may have led to the behavor
rhat cx'cerbatcd the ccodonic blovs ro thc rrivcl .nd toDrism indusiries ()f $e cor.t.l€s wirh the
hig,hcst nurnber o{cases."
SARS prouded taste of the rnpact a killer irflucnza pardemrc would have on th€ glob,l economy.
JoDg X/lM l.ce, of Kolca UnFcsity, and u/aNick McKibbin, of the Aus[rLan Nauon.l Uillcrsity,
esrimaterl the econonic impa.t of thc si{ month SARS epidemic o. thc Asii Prcitc i.gon ar about
$40 billon. In Caoada, 438 people eere infected aod ,13 died after an infected person tr.vcled froD
Hong Kon!' td lbr.nto, and thc Canadian -I ourisn Conrmissior estimat d th2t drc ep'.l.nxc cost
dr. nauoris cco.omy $419 million. Th. Onrdio he,ith ninistcr estimated th.t SARS cost *,e
province's berlrh care systcm rbout $763 Diltion, money rhat was speot, in pan, oo speci,l SARS
cltojcs rnd suppJies to prorccr he2hh care vorkcrs. The SARS ourbleak also had a substanEal ihpacl
on the global arJline industuy Afrer the disease hit in 2003, fljghis io &e Asir-Pacific area decie^scd
by 45 peicent from the year beforc. Dur;ng the outbrcak, the .uhber of flighs bersecn Flo.g Koog
aDd the Uniied States fell 69 pcrccnt. And $is jmpact \rould pale in compdson to that of{ 12 to
t6 rnunth uurlhvitle influFnzi pa,,dehr\.

Thc SARS cpidcmic also rdses quesrions.^bout hov prcpared govemments re to address a
prolonged infectious cltse,sc disis .. particulaily govemcrts thrt ale already unsiable. Seroo HaI
Unjvers;ry's Yanzborg Fluang concJuded that the SARS epidemic ceated the rDost severe social or
political cnsis ocountered by China's leadership since the 1989 Tianmmen crackdovn. Cbi.a's
problems probably rcsultcd less from SARS' pDblic healh impact than from the goveinmenfs fliled
effon to allay padc by witbholdiog irfomxtion about thc disease Fom the Chinese people- The
effon b'ckfired. Duriog the cisis, Chinese Premiir \yen Jiabao poinr€d o r in a cab;oer meciing on
$e epidemic that 'rt}re health and secu;ry of the people, overall st,te of refom, devetopment, ard
stabfity, md Chinars natiooai intdest md image are at stake." But Huang believes rhar "a faral peiod
of hcsitation reguding infomatioD sbarng and acrio! spaMed dieiy, pdic, md mor monger;g

rcross rht coorrry xn.l rn,Lldnmc(l ihe gorcromeflas.fforts"te a I ld'r !n'ge ol itscl{ in dic
i ,tcrn2ion^ltcnr."

W'd.sprcxd hlccrio. ,,rd cccrroDic colhpsc can rltsrabilize r governnrenq bl^rne lor fdlhg ro d' J
cffecdrc]I with . Pandemic crn criPPle a gorc'nncnr 'lhis hoids even nntc lor an t'tl'rnza

l. penrlemc In tl,c cventolapddcnic mllucnzr, rhe levcl olPailc vitnesscd d!d'g thc SAItS o$]s
.oukl sl,ml o"t of coDtlol !s illlcsscs and rlPirbs .ondnrtd ro drolrnt ovet monrbs and m'nrhs'
tlnlinrrrrtcly, tht Publc is oltcn hdlliirert to liiual Ir nlls ab"!t inrpen'lin!: hf'ctlo!\ 'Ise'sc
i. c,isc as Mrli lIIV, lor .lahPlc. lndrtfdcncc beconrcs lear only alter rhe c't^stroPhe hiLs, vhen it
is rLc.dy too l^tc n' imPlcr.cnt Prcle lllt or contro]


r \urxt shoukl the nrdusttlalzecl world bc dolng ro prcparc for rhe nexr pardcmic? 1he smplc answet:
( tui Dorc. So far, rhc World ll.alth ()rg^'jzxti(D.nd sevdal counEes hrvc flnalizetl r" dnried
-ll]e U S DcP.ltnenr ofllealdr arcl Hum'n S'n'ices has i"'rc:sct1
usctin bur ovcrly seneral Phns.
res*rch on trllucrza va.ctrc'l ,',d .vailaLrhrr these cflbrts re conrmcndablt. bot
f is is . .]cr.n.d oP€muo'd bhePnnr for hoN to gct x PoPtlirion rhrorgh o'e ro thr€r tcars of
{ r prnJcmic Such i inan must inv.,lr. all the kcy comlxrneDrs of rcierv h rlr' Privatc stdd the
pr," 'nurt..",r,lr"^t" rbe res|onscs ol rhr fucdrcrl c.'nFunlry medicll $Pplics, li)od fro'(lers'
fd rhc t,o,'sportanc,n s$Lc"i. In tl. g-crn6enl s.cror, rht Pl.n shOukl rikc into rtr:ouI't ollnirls

Ar the s2tr' tinrt lr nntrt bc lcknovlc(lgcil that such mnstct bluePr;)ts 'ni]' h2ve th'ri drxrvbicks'
ro,. Rcrl<lcy's Arron wil!avskv irg €d rhir relljcnct s ILc rcil ket r" 'IAL
nld,rgdn€lr ovctly ngrl lll-* crn do auc hatn d!.n gooLl Srill, fla'd'g s cnounrrslv rselirJ
tr'i;k d';""sh pol.aital (lile;nas, purchast nccesst'y equPmcnt' and sct oP orsr"iTati'Jn'l
srrucrorcs rbr i2 ro16 rcsporse n blucprnr forccs lexders tii r'hc^isc rheir resl)onsc k) '
" "","th c'an t''c
I crisrs, prepxrhg e'ron(nally i..l ;ntcll..[,ri]y so r]r2r whcn disaster stnles the
'ohmDiq 'r'
lnfiuenzr ra.clie producror .liscnes sP.cral irrc.tron Ar rnitiative to p'ovide viccjie tur the
t .ntr." o,otl.l mrst Lc cl.'vcloPcd, lrih r wcll dehncd schcdulc ro ensurc Progless lt is laudzble that
t- courucs srch 2s tl,c United St"tes .nd VtL"r,n lre fursdLnu lroP]im\ wrth l-ng t'rm goals r"
dev.lop and tro.t.ce II5NI vrcche for rhit rcsp..uvc Pulllitrons FuL rf rhc ri'r ut ih' vorld
l"cks sirpptics, cven the
vl L'e dcv'statc'l vhe. tbe global econonry comes to a! al']rlpt
i hrlr. influenza PicP.r.clness is Ly nanrre a. intchxtio'al issuc No one ca' trulv be
t , -, .J t,on. rJ"J, ',i .

0 -fhe pan.ierrc rehred colxPs. ofwi) t'ide rnd its tlpplc elfecr tliroDghout;r'hrstflal'zcd and
{ <l."eioplog cou"tn.s woul<i tepLcsenr thc 6nt rc:J rcst of the rcsiliency ofihc modern slob'al dcll'erv
ryrt.-. C,"",' ihe .xl.nt to which trodcrn cotuncrce ielics on dre Precrse and rcadilv avrtJablc
int..".aonrt trarle oI goorls rnd sen'lccs, a sbutdovn of the giobal ecouomic slstcn would
I dfumatrcally harn rhc woild's rbrlry to meet the sugiog denand for csseodal cohhodiri€s nlch ds
foocl and metlcmc during a cns$. The business commudry ca,i no longer aflotd to plav a ''tror tolc
in phnnirg thc rcsponse ro a prndemic For the vorkl to have critical goods x'd senices during a
p."ae;c,';ausr,1'-r, msi stockpne raw matef,als'for Production and prcplar distni'rtbn md
fi, fansportation suPPort. Every e,mP"nyts selrloi na'.gets nccd to be rcady to resfo'd nPjdly t"
.hr.g"r i" lh" rvr;talilty, pt"auctron, distnbutior, and inventory mmagemenr of their Prodtcrs
'fheti is ro moctcl for how to rcvjve the cl,renl s,lobal econony wcrc it to be devastxted'


'Ib truly be comFliri, atl planning on hrtrrrnonal. reg;onal, r.donal, aDd locd levels mrsr consider
three dillerent scen.;os: \\ftat il thc lxndtmic t)qlDs torighr? \1lrar ii jr :rrrl\ onr yerr from now?
\Mnt jl thc world r so forurrtc as to hrve an cnrlrc .lcc.clc ro pi.p^r.l Al .re possible, bur none rs


Wh^t would h.ppcD today in thc ofhce of every n,tio!'s l..dc if s.vcral ciries in Viernam suffered
frorn rnior outlrreaks of I I5N1 !,le( tun, virh a iv. poccdr rnorr.Lry rxie? First, tiere would be an
imDredi,re effort t., lry to sort out drsparxi.,sureillance data from . v, of govehmcnt
rnd public hezlth surces to cletcrmrnc which counries might have pandemic rdated c,ses. Then,
tle clecision strrld tikely be macle to .kse mosi internarional and evcr some shte or provinci.l
bordcrs vjthout pred.remined .drcria for hov or whcn rhosc boi{lers mighr be reopened.
Bor.ld scc[ir], vornd b. made . priolty, .spcci.lly to p()rect potendal supplics of pddenic
specific lac.Des from n..rby despe.ate counrncs. M liary leaJers vould have to develop \rrireg,cs
to dcfcrd thc courr.f.nd also prorect agahsr clo'hesnc insurleocy with amcd fores that vodd
Lkcly bc cohpromiscd by Ge disease. Evcn in unrlfected countr;es, ieai, pi c, tud chaos would
spread .s inrerniuoral h.d12 reported rhc .l.nt x.lvrnce ol the disease around rhe soild.

In shon order, th. global ccononjl !ra)ul(l shDr do\ r Thc co'n,r,u.luc\ rnLl \en,ces counrrcs vould
corrinuity plxns accornt tb. only i locrll,ed disrupror i shgl. cbsu,e, for iosrmcc and not plano.d rbr cxrcnsiie, lonB rerm onagcs. Thc pnvare ind pnbll. se.rors would have to
dclclop cmclgcncy plaDs r., susrdn cn0cal d.ri.s!. supply chrns nn(l Drarrfacrd'rg aid
rgricrltunl prodrcnon and djstnbutlon. I he labor iorce woui.l bc scvcicly affecreJ when ll vas lnosr
reedcd. Or.i th€ course o{{he ).ca!, up ro 50 perccnt of afleded l,opularioDs cornd bccohc rll; as
J.xny .s livc pdcer t coll(l die. I he disci sc rvoulcl i senior mar rgrmcnt as h dd .s $. rest of the
wolk folce There vould be najor shortrg<s Jn aI cou.ties ol . vide hnge of commodiues,
including food, soap, prpcr, Lght L,i,lbs, gasol;rc. pairs for rcpdtng rnfitrry ecpiprnent and
municipal water pumps, and mcdroncs, including vaccircs uffcl.tcd ro rhe p,ndenic. Mdy
indusdes rot critic.l to sutriv.l-- electroDics, automobile, ..d clol,\ing, for example vodd suffer
or cvcn closc. Acuvitr.s rlu! ie.}ue close hun^D corlxcr -- school, seenrg movjes in tbcaters, ot
e,ti.g .. woukl be avoided, mnybe eveD baoDed
Vaccine would hzve no lrDpaci on rhc course ofthe vis io rhc tust dd lvould likely play..
extremely li'nited role rvorldvide .lDn.g rhe folto$ng 12 ro 18 months'nonths
of ine pa;demic. Despne
maior ionovatiors in the producrio. of most othcr vacci.cs, inrdnationzl production of innuenza
vaccine is based on a fragile limited sysiem that utilizcs rcchnotos/ from rhe 1950s. Ctrrendy,
anoua) production of in{lucnzr vaccine is limited to aboor 100 mliion tivalent doses which
protect aglinst thiee different infllenz, str2ins io one dosc or less th.n o.e bilion nu;ov, enr
doses. 'Ib connier a new sfudn of pindemic irfluerza that hes nevc crculate<i throughout the
popuhdor, each person would lkcly need lvo doses for adcquate protection- Wilh roday's limircd
prodDction c2pacity, that meaDs tb^I lcss lh^n 500 million people about 1,1 per.ent of tne world's
populatioo would be vaccilr2t d wirhin . ye2r of the paodemic- In addrtron, because rhe sftuctDre
of the virus cbaages so rapidly, v.ccine developmeot could orly stad orcc the pb{}ehlc began, as
manrfrcturers wolild have to obtain th. ner pandemic strai!. It vould rher be at leasr ,lnothcr si\
monrhs belore mrss produ.uon or rhe \ inc
Even if thc system functions to the be\t ofits lbdity, mfluenza vaccine is produced comelcially in
just nine couotries: Austr.lia, Cd1d4 F arce, cem,ny, Ir,ly, J.p2n, the Nerherlaods, the Unitcd
Kingdoo, and the United States. These countdes coDt4in ooly 12 pcrcent of the iorld's populrtion.



I ln r)rr re.rr.,l.n ,nfh,cDzi t,i.dcs!c, drcy wolld prob.bly rxhonxl2c th.r clom.strc p,otllction
;n lt)16. Nlie. rhe U.itcd States, lnh.ipat'g i px.d.nxc ol swrnc ,nilucnza
.!. l.,rLur', rs,r.,l
ll I1N l), r.1os.(l i(, 'h^( rts 1i.c,..
i. l1 . ti'drrnrc s[u.k rh. w.'kl tod.y, d,crc wou].i bc inothcr possiblc sc.l).,. .g.hst lrllDenza:
anrivurl rrcdjc,rc \\rlrcn txlcD dii]I dlnng rhe Lrme ol exp{rsure ro tlilucnz., aDirvirils have
-lhcy h,ve also redur:cd thr s.vcity of ill,ress a'd
f p.e1.e.rc.l i.dffxl|xls lrom bccomiig tll
srrbsegucrt complicrrt,ns wh.r Irk.:r Mdrx, a8 bours olonset. Aldrin,gh rt,.r. is no dnri for H5N1,
n js assumti .Dtivirxls wouLl rlso p.crcrt ll5Nl inlecLron t.kcr before erposure. 'lhrr. is no
cvidcrLc, Io$evcr, rhir cD'rent intiviial drugs voul(l'fhe\r lf thc piticnt developed rhe khd
,,f.iLinnn. rhai h.s .hiricrerizcd !L'cc't Il5N1 infcctions. But bdri'g this corlt[cadon,
I II5N1 slFlkl bc ncar.blc $nh lanutlu (oscltanivir phospharc), whi.h is Inrnufacrurcd by the
Ro.ln' tlrrnnic.u!.ils .ompxn) jn i shgl. plinr ir

t Io rcstDnding to r pandemr, 'l amilJu could havc a mersurable;xp.ct ln the limited rumber of
courrcs lvith si7xl,le stockpilcs, l,ut for nrost of the worll u lvornd not bc ,vailible. ,\lth.Ngh d,c
.ompa.y tians on opcnrng inorhrr lacility jD the UDitcd St,rds Lhs ycar, rnnual product,o,r voul.l
rdl corc! oDly r small perccrblle of rhc woild's popuiation 'ti, dxk, ,r 14 coD.rrics have
I ,,rd.i.d I?,nilhr, brr thc rnount of tlcs. ordcrs is enorgb to rre,L olJy ,10 nllio. p.ople Ihd
,, ul{. co.siilt'xble nme ro l). ploc.sscd rlclivcred nrmuf:rcnu,rg cao rike up rc a yexr
i rn,l r. rn r'r.rse,.r rb. co",pr.l's ibjl,ty ro^n(lprodu.e n,re woulcl bc Imilcd r\s wjth r (.jrr!,
cornrrics."oulcl probr yfurjodxLzcthcii irtejnl srpplies r]Luing r pddcntrc. Evc. rfthc medrcbc,,La iblc. most ounrirs (oukl nor rlli,nl t,J bu! 1r. Cr;dril in br.rtlcs. lo1 of
sr.on(l1N br( rrrirl ,ni& t,{r1r, Nonl,l ilso be in short sufph dring pandcmic 1'lven norv, supplies
ol .irhL {l'lLre'r rn!r,fc.ri"c is. r, xre lidt..l n dre U'rited^ Srares due Lo Inir!l.cturint

1 As'.lc lio,n m€dr.itro11, ,nany .ounrics uaNkl not h2ae thc to nrcer rhe s!rge in thc
lor herlrh care supples rnd strvi(s rl,rr aLe notmally trkcr for gnrtcd. Ir lhe tjnlt€d Sr^res, ii)r
erarnplt, tlrtrc arc 1115,000 r,..hrr'c^l r.!ril.rors, 75,000 to 80,000 ,)f lvhch are h usc at inl Ei\.,,
, tise ior cveryd,y Dunlg x roud.e hflucnza sc.son, the nuhbei ofvcnd.rors be;ng
c. lscd shoors ut t,) l{)0,0{)0. ]n rn i.lluenzz trndemic, the U r.d Stetcs mry neecl rs t,my rs several
Lun.lrrJ tl,ous.n.l.dditronil !crril.tors.

t. A s! hi siRr.tior cxisrs in rl' (lc!'clop.d countrjes Vinuzlly every picce of med;cal egLLiPDcnt or
protcctivc gcii wo d be ir short supply w:thii days of the recogntron of a pandemic. 'IltoughoDt
rhe cnsis, nr.ny of thrse Dc.cssjnes would snryJy be DD.vlihble foi host hcaltb care insunrtrors.
i Curcntly, t\ro U S based coi,paDics supply rnost ofthe respir ory prorccrioD oasks for hctlth care
vorkos around the world. Neither company vould be 2ble ro nrcct the jumP jr demrnd, in part
because thc compoocnt l)dts for rhe hasks come fton trltiplc suppliers;n mllriple courtriis. Wtrh
ir.vel xnd tr2rsponxton iesrncrdl, rnasks rmy nor eve. bc produced at !ll.
Ileelth care provtle.s and managed c{e organizatiorrs de ako unprepared for an outbreak of
pandcnric hfluenzr todry. lhete lvould be a tremendous d.mand lor skllled he.lth Professionals
New "hospit,ls" h lxgh school !}mn*iums rnd comrunity c.nters vould to be st,ff.d lor
one to three yeds. Ileal$ ciie vorkers lvoDld prob,bly gct sick and r}e ar rhe saDrc rate as the
gcner.l publtc perlaps at an cv.. higho r.te, particuhly ja lney lack access to Potective
g. cquipmeDi. If tbey I'ck such luodameotal supplies, it is uoclear how DaDy Professionals woold
.ontbue n] pla.e tbehselves jn high risk sirDadons by cari.g for $e infected. VoluDrcels vhd are
n2tui ly ihhLtr,c .s a icsrnt of h.vhg snflivcd influcnza infecrioo wornd thrs bave io be fou.d and


.Dployed 'I hxr means rh,i tbe ocdicll cornJnuniry! srrong resistan.e kr usinB lav voluntcers, Nh;ch
is grounded in both Lrb rty concerrs and professioial hnbns, s{,ul.l nccil ro be .ddrtssed.

Orher issu.s would .lso need ro be rxckl.d. Y.4io woll.l l,avc pr'orrry x.cess ro thc
cxLremely Ldit(.l .drvjral supples? lhe public woul] consi.ld. ) ad hoc pdonb2abon Dnfdr,
cr.xlng lui$cr drsscnr aDd .hstuprjon during a pandchic. Ir .ddrnon, thele woold nol evcn bc
.letajled plans ibr h.ndLilg thc mnssive oumber oi de,d bodrcs rhar vcDld soon outsrjp drc ibirrl io
process theD Clearll, !n influcn,. prn.ledc rh.r srrlck tod^y lvould de,nard ar unpicccdcDtcd
oedical and nonD.dr..l response.'this requilcs planning well beycrrd My*rng devised lhus 1,. by
r.J n, r"( u.,l.l . ro 'nrnc J.J,, E.'n /Jron


Evcn ifaD H5N I pardemic is a ycar awry, the woild bust pl.D to! tbe same problems with the same
feivor Major campdgDs Dust be idd,ted ro prepare the no.he.lic.l .nd mcdicil s.crors. landemic
plandng hust be o. the ageoda of every school board, nrnufacrunng planr, investmeot trm,
st2Le kgrslaturc, md food distribrror ir the Uniied States ,.d beyord l]rere is an urgcrt
need to re2ssess the vulnerability of the global cconooy ro ersure that surges io deniand can be rnet
Cntjcal beath ore and consumcr pbducts and commodines must be stockprled. llc.ltll
professiorals must lerrn hov to bcftd c.nhunicare flsk must b. .blc ro borh providc Llie {acis
and acknowledgc the unknovns to a or paruckcd population.

]f rhci. js . ycir of lc^d tune before

^. H5N1 pzndedc, !'2ccbe could play a [orc ccdtral r.]lc in
$c giob.l rcsporse. Ahbough the worid rvorid sdl have i Lmitccl capacity to manuf.ctur. hfl!cnza
va.ciic, r.chriqlcs that could,llov sciendsrs b g€t muldplc doscs lroD a c.tcDt singlc d.,s.
increrse the supply. In,{ld{on to htirtcr rcseirch on this issue, efforts arc needed ro ensDre $r
avallxbilry of syturges Ld equiphe.r lor delivering vaccine. 'Ihere must :tlso be ,n iat.rn,tonxl plin
for how thc v^ccin. would be.Iocrled. It is far better Lo stiD*i. with dlc cthcal issucs nrvolr.d tn
cietermining srch priorities no!v, jr . pDbttc fonn), iathci thad ro vlit until rhe crisis occuls

Prevenoon must also be lmprovcd. lnoriry shodd bc placed on early iDtenention and risk
.sscsrnent. And an and conpreheosive research ag.Dcla must be launched inxrcdi^tely to
stDdy the ecologtr ald biolo$ of drc trfluenz, dars ,rd rhe epidemiologic role ofvarious.lnnal and


If developed coDnrics begh to transfolm radicatly the curent systo of influenzivaccinc

productio., an hflDenza pandemic ten years ftom now could have a much less devasla6g oltcome.
The hdDstn.Lzcd voild must iniriate an i'tdDatioDal projecr to devclop rhe ability to produce a
vaccine for the entire global popdation vithin scvaal months of the smn of a pandemic. The
idriadve must be a top pnority of the group of seven iodusttialized n,tioos plus Rlssia (G 8),
bccans€ 2lmost nothing coDld inllict more death
-d disruptio. th.n a pindcmic irflEMa.
The cuFent Bioshjdd lav aod additional legislation recently subhitted to Congtess vill ,ct to
enhance the of vaccines in tbe Udted States. This aih is laudable, bui ir does litde to
addiess idtehltion3l needs- l'be ultiDAtc goal mut be to develop a nN cell ctlrDie vrccine o!
compdble wac.ire rcchnology that sorks oD all iofluenza sDbrypes ard that can be made available
on shon notice to.ll ihe people ofthe vorld,

I he world mlsr fonn a bettc! Dnde.shnding of lhc potcntial {br the energencc of P,ndcixc
^ strdn. It
i.flIenzi srixr. A prndcnric is coming It could be causcd by H5N1 or by anoth€r novel
corld happ.D ronighr, next year, or ercn reD )ears from .ow
The signs rft r1ardrg: r|c nunrbo oI huD', and animrl H 5N I hfccdo.s hrs bccn i.crc,sing: snall
clusters olc.s.s h.!. becn docunreoted, slggesnng rhir $. aitus mxy h,vc comc close ro sustained
r. hunr,.-t., hrmin transmissioni .rd Il5Nl conri.ues ro.volvc id the vithral ge.ctic
i.borarory pr.,vided by thc !.pic.cdcDt.d number ol people, pigs, .rd troultry n Asja 'Ihe
population explosior rn Clnni .nd or|o Asjan counE es hns ffexrcd a. incrcdible mirrg vessel for
{i, rhe vints. Consider *!s s.,beiing bfomr.tlon: Ihe most recent trlluenza pandcmjc, of 1968 69,
eDdg.d D Chjna, when irs popl ation sas 79{} Loni roday it is 1 I Lillion. I. 1968, rhe .uJ.ber of
pigs in (ihn,a 'n
*as 5.2 nillion; roclay ]t 508 million. The nr:nber of podt--y io China in 1968 vas

[" l2l tullio.; ro.lay it is 13 bi oD in otncr Asirn.ountries are sim;lar. Giren thcsc
devclopn.nrs, well as the expooenbalgrorvth in foi.lgn travcl over tbe past 50 years, rn infl't.n?.
p..dedc cortd be more doastating than evet Leforc.
[, C.n diastcr be ivo'dedi Tbe rnsver is i luilfled y.s Allhouglr a conlrg prnclcrruc cdnot be
avoided, irs in,pacr cm be consideiibly'i]. It depends on how d,c leidas oI drc worl.l from
ilrc hea(ls ol tl,e G 8 !o local .]fficids dccidc to icsp.nd. They nusr i.cognizc thc ..o,,omiL,
r sccurjty, and healrh rhrert thxr rhe ndt hfl.cnz. pandemic poses and nrvcst .ccorclinglt. leader
rn6r rcalrzc that even ;f r counrry hrs cnough rrccine ro prlte{:t its cilzens, drc eco.omc inPa.t of
3 r worl.lw c pandenic wrll intlict sul,srrodal pd. on cveryonc 'lhe resoures requed ro PrcParc
j ,.lcquatcly vjll be extcrsive, But they nlsL bc .onsidered in Lght ol the cost of faftng ro lrvesr' n
t., for sevcil yca's.
gloL,l worl.l .coDoml tbat lemaDs in 2 sh2nbles

'llls s i cnucal ponrr;n history. Iime is runnirg out lo pr.parc for thc ncxt Pandemic. Wcmusta.t
I 'orv
uith (lec;siveless and purpose. Soneday, aftc thc rcxt pandemic has come ard gore, r
commisst,n nuch lkc t}e 9/11 ComJ ssio. wrl be charged wiLh dcrcn'l ng how vcl go!e!nme.r,
buslne$, dnd publc h.,lth leaders prepared tbe woru for drc catastophe vhen they h*l
L !v.!ning. \I'}it !v l be lhe

wlrw.foreign affai rs. org is cop].right 2ooz--2oo6 by the Council on Foreign
Relations. All ights reseNed.




http: I lw. auardiah-co. oll.olq@nt / stotvl o,,1610526,o{) htt l

Act of man
The impact of last monlh's earthquake on the people of north pakislan
demonstrates how the crippled state machine has only heightened the
vulnerability of its citizens

Dr Kamal Munir
Friday November 1 '1, 2005

Guardian Unlimiied

Everywhere in Pak'slan, loudspeakers on top of mosques are btaring only one message: the
devastaling south Asian eadhquake of October 8 was divine punishment for the moratsins of ihe
viclims and a warning for the resi of us

Pinning lhe blame on God is a convenient way of absotving ourselves and of perpetuating the
socio econom'c and polilical framework that lec, to thjs devastaiion. The catastrophic aftermath of
this earthquake has litlle to do with divine or even seismic causes. but serves as more ol an
indicalion of lhe crumbling siale apparatus and changing potjticat reatity in pakistan.

Nobody who vis'ts the earthquake;ffected areas tarts to nohce one thing whrte many pnvate
buildings are slanding, almost all government constructed buitdings - chitdrens schools,
hospitals, colleges and offices have cotlapsed. years of state sponsored corruption stare you in
lhe face.

And much ljke ils buildings, the slate apparatus itsetf ties in ruins tndeed, the eadhquake has lajd
bare the piliable slale ot lhe civil government The civit bureaucracy in pakistan has over time
been crippled by lhe army's continuat jnterveniions jn aftairs of the state. iheir numerous
"refo.mations" have destrcyed civil institutions and glassroots potitjcat slructures_

The inhabitants of Muzatfarabad are only the most recent group of unfortunates to disclver just
how ineffectual the slate has become. When lbe earthquake struck, the city's Civil Defenee (CD)
departmenl was unable to provide even rudjmentary digging toots to the citzens

A Muzaffarabad university professorlold me of his vain slruggle to rescue students trapped under
collapsed hostels and universiiy buildings. 'There wasn'l a singte crane in the entire city. lt was
left to the people io dig oul their loved ones using hammers, chisels, picks and shovels, even
screw drivers. For over two days no relief arrived, civilian or mititary. My students died before my
eyes and there was nolhing I could do," he said_

His experience was replicated atlov-er the quake,hit region. The civil government proved utterty
impotent, and the mililary was cteady unable to tilj the void. The latier tacked the capacity t;
coordinate or even communicate witb the people. And no wonder: for ihe last SO odd years, the

armys priorities have ofien been in drrect conflicl wilh those of lhe civil slaie, resulling rn
I numerous martial law regimes

f fhis is nol to belittle lhe army's contibLtion to the relief effort Their aviatorc are slill risking iheir
lives, flying helicopler missions in darkfess. The Frontier Works Organisation has done a sterling
t, job in clea ng lanclslicles and rubble. But lhe army has limiiat'ons and it cannol eve, subslitule for
civil administraiion. lt cannor bring ilself to hold the hands of survivors and ofier words of
The absence of lhe civil stale, and lhe indifference of the military one, is taking rls toll on the
millions ot victims. Thousands oI villagers sit where their houses used lo be Everyday brings
new, often conllicling, reporls about compensaiion, relocation and help. Given lhe absence ot any
f; communily-based governance mechanism, there are no communication channels.

Their plighl is unimaginable most have lost many loved ones and do not know their immediate
fl futures They have almost no say in lhe plans being hatched in lslamabad. And most impodantly,
they have no trusl in the promises being made or in those who are making lhem
i The only people in whom their iaith has been renewed are the orclinary citizens of Paklstan, lhe
I real heroes of this lragedy. They came in droves, helped to pull out victims and bury the dead
Doctors came from Lahore, Karachi and other cit'es and set up iield hospilals Coordinating with
international NGOs and numerous privale donors, lhey did eveMhing from arranging for X-ray
t machines 10 treaiing the wounded. Others broughl medicines, food, clothing ancl bedding, even lo
qovernment hospitals.

i Dr Yasmin Rashid, who heads the Pakistan Medical Association, was one such selfless
volunteer. lt is perhaps ironic lhat the good doctor, who set up an emergency fieid hospital near
Balakol, had hvice been sabked by the governmeni tor protesling against heallhcare privalisation
s in Pakisian, which has rapidly reduced the common man's access lo medicalcare and led lo the
t underfunding of lhe public hospilals in Pakislan

Dr Rash'd's case, in a microcosm, gives an insight inlo the sheer scale of lhis disaster Wilh
f unbridled privatisation, access 10 pubJic services has markedly gone down and poverly has
{-, increased. And with inequality reaching new heighls, much of the socialcapital in ihe country has
been desl.oyed. 11 is even thought lhai in absolute numbers, illiteracy has aclualiy increased in

L ln the mountainous north of Pakislan ihe tsk ol naiural hazards has also increas;d manitold wrtn
deforeslalion. The nurnerous falal Iandslides, which followed the earthquake, were largely the
6 resuli of ih's

The decimation of houses and other public bujldings, and the unnecessary dealhs ot thdusands
of chlldren, women and men have less lo do wilh the earihquake than with their highly vulnerable
L stale. The real culpriis - poorly constructed housing due lo a vi.tual lack of building codes, publ,c
buildings wilh corruplion as their mortar, low lileracy levels, lack oforganisation in civilsociety, an
ineffective civil defence and above all, liitle or no access lo public services - reflecl the crippled
The only way we can come out stronger from this enormous tragedy is if we stop blaming divine
forces and slart quesiioning the policies that have silently been increasing lhe vulnerabilily of the
I vasl majority ot Pakislani people

Kamal Munir, who leacbes Strategy and Policy al ihe University of Cambridge, travelled to
Pakislan and Kashmir to offer aid in the immedjale aflermath of the earthquake.

lDtenotionol Federotion of Red Crass dnd Red So.ieties
http: I lw.iItc atg/ D66l Ne$l opinioto6lD6l2 1]ol I index otp'

itL Fn c'6 d nd c

clobal generosity after crises must reach people in need

bv Mohammed ode. llukhiet

In 2005, as never before, individuals and qovernments reached out to people in need around the
globe. Ihey responded to a string of sudden, large scale disasters that include the Indian Ocean
rsunami/ the South Asian earthquake and a record hurricane season along America's Gulf Coast.
Last year, disasters ki'led 99,425 people, affected 161 million people in some way and cost around
US$ 160 biilion.

rhe response was record'breaking generosity. In 200s, funding irom individuals and governments
tor humanitarian aid reached at least Us$ 17 billion outsLripping ary other year on record. Of
this, individuals qave over US $5.5 billion for survivors ot the tsunami alone.
The suln is more than non-governmental organizations had ever collected in a year, according to
ihis year's annual World Disasters Report, which focuses on neglecled crises and was launched
today (December 14) in Geneva by the Internationa! Federation of Red cross and Red crescent

there is much lo be proud or in this generosity- The donated funds enablecl millions of peopre to
eat, drink safe water, tind shelter rrom rain and snow, and start rebuildnrg their lives and
livelihoods after disaster.

BUL what about those in the shadows?

Few know of Lhe silent trasedy of maternal and neonatal mortality in Nepal that has claimed over
25 times more laves than the conflict. Discr'mination against women in Nepal leads many of them to
suifer ln sec.ecy during childbirth. An est'mated 35/000 women and newborn bables dle each year
due to unsafe childbith and neonatal practices, and d'scriminalion agains! women. l,lountains,
confljct and poverty prevent their access to adequate healthcare. Yet this crisis goes virtually
unnoticed. Such humanitarian tragedies hidden by politics or culture must be exposed in tlme to
help people.

The brighter the media spot'ight sh'nes on bigh-visibility catastrophes, the deeper into shadow fall
more chronic - and often more deadly - humanitarian crlses. For every high prorile cata6trophe,
there are others ignored or simply not adequarely funded. llany millions of people miss out on vital,
potentially lire-savinq aid because crises qo unr€corded by mosi databases, media or donors'

No one records, ror example, how many migranrs die in the sahara or in small boats in the seas
surounding Europe while attempting to reach Europe to make a better life ror themselves and their

In Guatemala, as ln many countries, the ma'n disaster databases fail lo record Lhe vast number of
small, localized floods, mudslides or earthquakes.

Ye( these small (rises ddd up lo more deaths dnd dlfpcl many more people thdn d few malor
events. Recurrent crlses create a cumulative impact, ratcheting up vulnerabtlity to larger hazards ln
the fuLure. In small€r crises that erode the alreadv meaqre livelihoods of miltions of people, lie the
roots of future harm. They also provide an opportunity to mittgate lhe impact of future disasters
Long-term support is ne€ded to build safer commu4rues through disaster rlsk reduction
programmes so people can cope better with everyday. small'scale disasters.


rast year, food aid prevented lvidespread deaLhs from hulger in 14alawi. But donors provided just
L one-fifth of the funds requested by the United Nations (UN) for agricurtural support seeds and
fert'lizers so smallholder rarmers could recover and reduce the risk ol another food crisis the
Few donors seem prepared io invest in sustajnable agr'culture Lo avotd continuinq deadly cycles of
food crises. During the 2001 2002 famine, some households were forced to sell or lease their land/
Peter Madeya, kom Dedza diskict told tlre World Disasters Report.
{. "Many people had rented their fields out for five years in exchange for food so they had no I'elds
left lo cu'Livate ard had to rely on piece work only."

Delay in responding to a iood crisis in Niqer led not onty to an avo'dable loss or life and livelihoods,
t but also increased the final cost or a'd a hundrediold. The international community must learn the
lessons of Niqer and inte ene in lime with the right measures - or watch similar sulrerinq in other such as the Horn of Airica.

f, Wben funds are raised for an identified crisis, are they evenly allocated? When we divide the total
amount ol humanitarian funding the UN raises per emergency by the number or peop'e tarqeted for
that aid, some revealing statistics emerse. chechnya received US$ 281 per benetlciary in 2005, the
.south Asia e-rthquake attracted Us$ 310 and sudan Us$ 431 per head.
Far and away the best funded disaster was, noi surprisingly. the tsunami, which raised at le-st us$
1,241 per benefic'ary in humanitarian aid a!one not including an extra US$ 8 billion for
I reconstrucl'on. At the other end of tbe scale, according to Lhe World Disasters Repot, the UNs
i!, emerqency appeals in 2005 lor chad, Guyana, c6te d'lvorre, Malawi and Niger garnered an average
of less than US$ 27 per persor in need.
Some might argue that clifferences of fundinq amonq €mergency progra'in'es reflecl differinq
{ humanitarian needs and tbe costs oi meeting those needs. But comparc the exLent Lo which needs
.re met and a similany wrrped plcture emerges. while UN app€als ior the Republic of Congo,
Djibouti and lhe Central African Replblic were on average less than 40 per cent funded. the
tsunami appeal was 475 per cenL tunded and the south Asia ea(hqlake appeal was 196 per cent

YcL lhere are siqns that lessons are being heeded and erons made to reach those neglecled.

L In l"rarch 2006, the UN launched an expanded central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to provide
funds will go to neglected crises and
lunds for rapid humanitarian response to crises. A third of
its month, ihe CERF arlocate.l USq 13 million to agencies
'ts in the Horn of Africa. By June, the
fund had ra,sed Us$ 36s million towards its halr-billion dollar target.
L Simildrly, the Internat'onal Fed€ration ot Red cross and Red Crescent Societles lnitiated a similar
Disaster Relief Emergency Fund 20 years ago, which dispersed over US$ 8.5 million of rapid
t response funding in 2005 half of lt for mlnor or forsotten emergencies.
And while women's needs are often forgotten ln ahe urgen€y ol an emergency, this isn'i alMys the
case. In Pakistan, after the South Asia earthquake, IRIN news seruice reported on a camp in Puniab
province set up within a week or the disasler to house 300 women and children who'd lost male
L family members.

"Unlike other camp settlements, where familles tend lo huddle together in scared clusters, young
6 sirls and children run freely throuqh the area, vyinq for a turn on one of the swings, and women slt
t. outside in the sunshine mending clothes or knitting," reporte.l IRIN-

Such efrorts are well worthwhile- The common tbeme behind all neqlected crises is social

t vulnerabillty and chronic poverty/ compounded by governments' inability to cope. These factors
expose people Lo a wide range of disaster risks and undermine their abil'ty to cope and recover.

Much work remains lo be done to ensure that millions of people suffering in cases do not remain
f neglected. In many cases, the first step is to direct political will towards c.eating the condrtlons in

t 94

which humanitarinns can operate - in the more neglected, bidden. secreL, dangerous parts of Lhe
world. Among the priorities ror ban'sh'ng neglect everywhere are:

'Attracting adequate donations tor large, common emergency response funds that are not
ed,md'led 'or parl!uld, dNasters,
.Developing a Slobal measure of the sever'ty of humanitarian need/
.Ersuring the right kind of funding and response for chronic crises, such as hunqer, rhat fatl
between developmenL and disaster and. finally,
.Agreeing with donors and host qovernments on appropriate triqqer points for actton-

The continuing cycle of neglect and misery musr be int;rr!pted by governments, donors, the media
and aid orqanizatjons willing to th'nk and act differently to address negrect.

I'lahammed Omer Mukhier is lhe head oftlisaster prepdredness and response at the lnternatianal
redp dtb- at Red Ctosi and R?d fies.ent tacieties

web 5ite is copyriqhtiorhe rn ss a Red cres.enr soci€ties- An

rmarion rom this ueb5ite, plea
preJse contad our audiovisual deDanmenr.<av@ifrc.Drq>


tnternotionol Federdtion of R.d Cross dnd Red CresGnt so.ieties
{ h tp : II w'|. i f r.. or g I Da6 I NeM I opinioD06 I 06 1 2 I 30 1 I idd. asp

g Li
'?l -l
sat c'g ano nclcc*.dso.a.3

No end in sight fo. flood-stricken Somalia

I by Onar val.:Jimarsson jn Naircbi
photos Ly Pldran Yazdi/ICRC

Flooded roads and lracks contlnue to hinder the

I delivery of emerqency rel'ef supplies to some 350,000
people affe.ted by the worst floods Somalia has seen
in a decade. ol these, at least 70,000 are children.
UN projections indicate that the number or affected
I could reach 400,000 by the end oi the yedr.

The floods are compounding what was already one of

the most severe humanitarian situations in the world,
{ After 1s years or armed contlict, tens of thousa.ds of
families are displaced in a country thal
lacks bas'c health services and infrasLructure.
: And the situation is not getting any better, The
Shabelle .nd luba rives on the border with Ethiopia Pte dEPE.ed br dle
have now joined aL Kamsuma where the Juba has an 5 1 66) (P.dtai taz'ii4cR.)
i diverted from its natural course, pos'n9 serious risk ot
{ ificreased flooding to the areas surounding the
converqence ol the rivers. t

Projechons suqgesL that the El Nino conditions that

I hdve be'n ,n erfact .,n.a 56pl mb.' ausi,,9
mass've dispiacement of people and destruction oi
fields - have a 92% p.obability of lasting through
The Somali Red crescent, suppo*ed by the
International Federation and the ICRC, is significally
s.aling up its response in the areas where lt has the
t. lead role - in the Hiran region in central Somalia - to
save lives: provide clean water and promot€ hygiene,
as well as distribute plastic sheeting, blankets and
I o'her rel,Fr item\. the,F are 9'owrn9,onrerns rn te.s of thousands afhones have been d.stared bvthe
t, Hiran that the bridge linking north and south somalia by 15 yaE af @nfhct attt a hztd'hifths drcuqht eattier
is about Lo collapse. thi. vear. ( e 1 51 6 s ) I Pldran Ya2di/ t.Rc)

i The town of Belet Wayne in Hiran is one of.the worst

aftected towns- While wnter levels have somewhat
receded in the last few days, a number of streels in
the to!,vn are still under water. Some 70vo of the
I population have rled to higher ground.
The remaining population lack water and in many
places the water is stagnatlnq and mrxing with
I sewage becoming a breeding ground for mosquitoes
L- and other waLer borne dlsease.

oulbrpdl\ ot didrrhoed hdve been reported in mdny

I parts of the country. some 45,000 people in Belet
Wayne.nd the surroundin!l areas a.e rece'ving
drinking wnter and othe' items throuqh the efforts ot
Lhe SCRS an{l the ICRC arrlift ol supplies from Nairobi. Ip I s 1 61 ) ( Pi d h n Yazdi/ tcRc )

In a camp set up a few kilometres outs'de Belet

Weyne people are safe trom lhe floodnaters but their
conditions are still horrendous.

''We djd Dot receive any assistance", a woman told a

qroup of SRCS volunteers and JCRC wo.keE. "Just
look around, we are 20 families (from my commun'ty)
installed here, our children are sleeping outside
exposed to mosquito bites. Ihe town is down there,
but we had to come here to higher qrounds with our
children, but rook at all lhis, we need assistance."

''All of our houses are surounded by wnter," she

added. "We cannot 90 back to take a.ything includiDq
food. We don't have access. The problem we ran
away from is siill with !s, we don t have pots to cook,
no food, not enough plastic sheets. We are all an faztti/ rcRc )
I p 1 5 1 6 2 ) ( Pidt
displaced, we don't have anything/ but we help each

The iloods in southern Somalid have destroyed crops

and farmland, disrupted iood supplies and cut oil
entlre villaqes from the oltside world.

Hundreds or lhousands or people are an urqent need

of humanitarian assistance. ln some areas, people are
siLl'nq on dykes, completely surrou.ded by water, stall
lackinq shelter an.l drinkinq'water, despite relentless
efforts by the Somali Red Crescent and its partners to
br'ng aid to Lhe needy.

The floods, that also ared Kenya and Elhiopia, began

in late October and have seriously the food
insecurity brought by the drougbt earlier this year. Io
many a.eas, the so'l was so dry that it could not
absorb the rainwater.

The lew crops that survjvecl the d.ousht are now

destroyed by the flooding. lt has been reported that
crocodiles unledshed by ragin9 waters have devoured
at least 24 people along the rivers.

Since October. the rains in Somalia have been 300

600 per cent above normal levels. The rains coincided
wlth lhe slart of the second ''dyer" crop season, which
accounts for some 20 to 30 percent of the annual
cereal production. Floods washed aivay recently
planted crops and seed distrlbutions will be necessary
ror replanting once the $,aters recede.

h pastoral areas, "dyer rains" constliute the maln

rainy season and, despite the severe damage to
rnrraslruclure dnd liv€sto(k losses, the heavy rains
will replentsh water resources and regenerate
pastures after last year/s severe drouqht.

"Our blggest challenge continues to be access, both

due to the ongolng conflict and flooded roads," says


f t'i rooop- thp lnl-,r'Jr'otrr reo.,drron HFdd ol

I deleo"rro, ro, somdl'a, sh,.h mP ' ' r\"1 rnore
needs are constantly bej.g identified as we are able
to access .ew areas. ln addiLion there is a high risk
f ourbr''ks ot ,.JlJ,,J dnd orl" I wdtprbo'n'
!. 'o'
diseases, he adds
Ihe SoDali Red Crescent is one of the iew local
f;i orquni.utions that have managed to strcngtben its
j dDd('lv durinq th'r'^dt' ol the 'onill r' lh' \o(rotr'
' n". brdn(hes wrlh nltive voldnlPers "r d a well-
established health proqramme in all the most heavily
f dlrerL.d teqrons ol H' dn. LowPr Jncl r'tddlP'rraoplle
l_ vloot. ond I owp, r|bd,drduPdo
volunteers are alreadv enqaqed in rescue activities
t p'oprp LUt on by "ood wrte,5 dno rn drsnrbut'on
I*' "' rFl,Fr
o' ,r.m|n pdrlnpr nip w'rl l( Pa. onen us'nq
L'o,tr lo red,h orherwrsp 'not e\$ble people ror
rescue and assislance Over thc last few weeks, SRcs
! ,t'n'.' hdve mobil,/,ng 'edms lo, n"d bv lwo
Io volr, (rainpd rn (lalr',a drd d,d hea
'rpe, to v rl !r'laqd\ arou.d rhp i Inrc\'

I '1" ln F,4"riondl r'oerJrron r\ Dol(lF,r_.r the SR\ \

,l ,-..,n I,ppd,n4na.s Jnd r-\pon\- . apJ(it/ by
" p'o/Ju,q N-w ImerqF y H"dllh lrts lor Lse b/ lhe
SRCS .linics situated alonq the rrood affected areas.
t 1.1-dr' Jl l rn\ ndvd bpna p e Do\irionPd wrlh SRCS bv
i{- tne leoeirrion n ourbrFal( ol d.Llp
dlarrhoeal diseases.
wcb sire E copyrlqht AOrhein
,t;bo-Dh" r.,n ihts."b "it., eDa nent <av@ r. ors>



t 98
I Ne\|s*eek Heat rh
/ /Llw.
'n4!c.!ts!.!q!ry idl] ?665685/!ie/ E!!!!!gqLl


Melinda Gates: The Virus and Women

The next front'er: For many of the world's women, marriage is not a refuge hom AIDS. It's a
risk factor. But new technologies coutd chanqe that.
By Melinda French Gates

Piay 15,2006

to Africa, I

qroup of

Kibera, the
biqgest slum

range.t in aqe Gates (here in calcutta) betieves s€ience can jmprove prevention as weil as trearment
from 16 to 45 but had one thing in common: AIDS had devastated Lheir tives. A woman I'lt ca
Chanya told me her story. Chanya is a mother her 3Os trying to raise four chitdren. She
does not fit the typical profite of a pe.son tivinq with AIDS
- at teast not the Drofite that
prevails in the West- She is not a man who has se)( with men; she is not a sex worker; she
does not use IV drugs. She has engaged in no behavror ar a that ,s hrgh nst f;r A]DS, except
for one - she 9ot married. Her husband, tragicaly, did engage in high,risk behavior: he had
unprotected sex outside h's marriage. After acquiring HIV, he passed it on to Chanya. She
spoke in a hushed but matter of-fact volce about her situation. ',My husband ctied of AIbS. I
knew we should use a !hird te9 sock,".she toid me, using the co oquiat phrase for a condom,
"but he rerused. Now my children wrtt be orphdns."

Chanya's story is not rare. For many women, marriaqe is a risk factor for AIDS because of
the'r husbands' dangerous behavior. Wortdwide, 80 percent of women newty infected with HtV
are pra€ticlng monogamy within a marriage or a tong-term retationship. This shatters the
myth that marriage a natural refoge from AIDS. And it shows that, more than two decades
into the epidemic, our f'ght against AIDS has faited to address the unique circumstances of
women especially women in the devetoping world.

Why are women so vulnerable? Physiological differences make women twice as I'kely as men
to contract HtV from an infected partner cluring sex. In many countries, sexual inequalily
compounds the hazard by making it difflcull, if not impossible, for women to erforce their
choices about whom they have sex with, or to insist that men wear.ondoms. But one of the
deadliest problems is that women sirnply don t have the tools to protect themselves. Despite
the array of breakthroughs we've seen for AIDS treatment. prevention efforts sLill rely on the
r three practices described by the abbreviation ABC ("Abstain, be faithful, use condorns"). These
approaches work, and we must encourage lhem, but they dll depend on a man's cooperation.
For millions of marr'ed women, abslinence is unreal'stic, being faithful is insumcient and the
use of condoms is not under their control.

Throuqh our foundat'on, my husband/ Bill, and I are working to develop tools that can put the
power to prevenl AIDS into the hands of women. Ilicrobicldes are one exciting new prevention
tool in development. These are colorless, odorless gels that a woman could apply vaginally-
without her partner's knowledqe to prevent sexual transm'ssion of HIV. 14icrobicides may
also prevent othcr sexually trans mitted infections, such as syphilis and gonorrhea, and some

I act as contraccp-t ves as well. Mic.obicides are now being tested by wo'nen in several
countrius with large HIV brdens, inctuding South Airica, Uqanda and India. Researchers are
also studying other promisjng mcasures thdi could qive wornen the polver to protect
themselves with-out depenrling on their pa.tners. For instan.e, trials in Botswana, Ghana and
other countrics are study;ng whether drugs now used lo treat HIV nray also protect people
kol.l b-rnq r''fe. tF1 n rh. rir<l plare.

When we consider the mlllions oi women who have d'ed, it's tragic that the world has been so
I slow to invest in HIV prevention tools that women can initiate. We know why so many women
are get-Ling infected and we know what we can do to srop it. Here are some of the steps
needed to make the most ot these llfesav'ng opportunities
rrrst, governments in both developed and developing countries must commit more monev to

t study'ng new prevention tools. Although funding increased from $65 million in 2O0Oto g163
million in 2005, current spending is only about half of what is needed to advance the most
promising microbicide candidates. Pharmaceutical companies have liltle incentive to invest.
I becausethe women who most need t'hese products can't afford to pay for them. But
governments can encourage companies to 9€t involved by providing direct funding for
research, and by promising to purchase new technologres if they are successiulJy developed.
At the same time, developing countries, with international support, need to build the
infrastructure to host clinical lrials so that promising new tools can be tested in the settings
where they'll be used. If developing countries can't run trials, lifesaving breakthroughs will sjt
in laboratories waiting to be tested. By some estimates, 100,000 people will be needed for
I r00

HIV-prevention studies over the cominq decade. Yet most of Africa's trial sites are now filled to
capacity. Countries need to invest in more facilities, and tra,n a new generation of doclors and
nu15es to run Ihem

The challenge is not just to develop new tools. We also need to ensure that scjentific advances
reach the people who need them. Today, fewer than 20 percent of p€ople at high risk of HIV
have access to exlsttrg prevention methods, such as condoms, education and HIV test'ng.
Health ministries, NGOS and businesses must combine their resources and ingenuity to
improve rapidly on that .ecord.

Ten years ago, 1 percent of women in South Africa had contracted HIV; today the number is
25 percent. These women are I'vinq a nightmare, but we in rjch countries are the.ones who
have to wake up. We need to develop prevention tools thal can give women a chance to
defend themselves. We need to deliver them as soon as they're available, and we need to
deploy now the prevention tools we already have. Sadly, nothing can come fasl enough for
Chanya. But ii we hurry, we can deliver these new advances in time to protect her children.

Gates is co-chair of the Bi & Melinda Gates Foundation (


w or ld 4eo I th Orsonno t iot)
hlp: II ffi-who i nt I bulletin I rolrnesl 84 / 1 / ne$lot'6l enl index hl.,l

t. World Health

Was 2005 the year of natural disasters?

t. Why do nolurol disoslers seem io be incleosingly lrequenl ond increosingly deodly? Poor
ond vulneroble people ore usuollylhe worst hii.

Tsunamis. huricanes and typhoons, earthquakes, locusts and now th€ threat of a flu Pandemic Will
2oos be remembered as the yearof oaturaldisasters?

L lhe year 2005 saw the aftermath of the 25 December 2oo4 earlhquake and tsunami waves in Asia,
hurricanes in central anij north america, notably Katrina, which trigqereti flood'ng in the uS ciiv of
New Orleans, and the 8 october eafthquake in Pakistan and India The year also saw lamine after
crops were destroyed by locusts in Ni9er.
1 Virtually unnoticed by the outside world was tiny El Salvador where the countrv's highest volcano,
Iramat;pec, erupted on 1 october, displacing more than 75oo people and killing two A few davs
Iat€r Hurricane sLan swept through and killed about 70 PeoPle with floods and mudslides
rroD lanuary to october 2005, an estimated 97 490 peoPle were k'lled in disasters globallv and 8a
117 oi them in natural disrsters, accordinq to the center lor Research on Lhe Epidemiology of
DisasteB (CRED), a wHo cdlaboraling Centre thal oPerates a global disaster database in Eelqium
According to CRiD, the number or naturdl disasters - rloods, windstorms, droughts and geological
drsaster; rccorded since tgoo have increased and the number or people affected bv such
I disasters has also increased since 1975. - Li4,l"^
Is lhis as bail as it gets, or could it get worse? why do natural disasters appear to be increasinqly
IreqLrFrr dnd hc'easingr/ dPndl/1
L today's disasters srem from a complex mii o'r ractors, ,ncludrnq rouLine clmate chanqe,
warming influenced by human behaviour, socioeconomic factors causing poorer people to live in
risky areas, and inadequate disaster Preparedness and education on the part oi governments as
well as the general population.
L Som€ disasters experts reject the term "natural dlsasters, arguing that there is Stmost atwavs a
man made element.
''I don't I'ke to use th€ term 'nalural djsasters'," said Dr Ciro Uga.te. Regional Advisor for
L Em€rgency Preparedness and Dlsaster Relief with the Pan American Health Organlzation {PAHo) in
washingron Dc, explaining that natural drsasters would not hav€ such a devastatinq etrect on
people's lives if they were not exposecl to such risks in the first Place
I Natural phenomena do not always generatd human disasters. ugarte noted that in 2005, several
earthqu;kes that struck in souah Amerita were of a higher maqn'tude than the one that devastated
northern Pakislan and parts of India in october, but th€se hit sparselv populat€d areas and
I thererore caused less damage. The same goes for severaltsunamis ln 2005 which were not deemed
"d'sasters" because they didn't endanger anyone, Ugarte said
Natural pheoomena are likely to affect more people because Earth's population has increased'
Accordin; to the United Nations Populalion Fund, this stands at about 6'5 billion PeoPre and ls
projected to reach 9.1 billion people in 2050.
t" Marko Kokic, spokesperson for wHo's Healtb Action ln Crisis department, said that some
communities are more vulnerable to the effects oinaLural disasters than 1o0 vears ago because ol
ecological degradation. He said that, for example, when tropical storms hit the Caribbean in

i t02

Scptember 2004, there was norhing to stop storm waters q.therinq and wreakinq devastatioD jn
riirlr b.cdu.e ot detor /\tdtion
"We need to tackle the underlying issues, such as poverry and inequity,, Kokic said, addjng:,,tn
mdnv.ounrie, peopl' (ut doqn rre-\ berdu.p wood rs the rherpest iuc,,.
.Disasters are/also:a:coesequenca otudev€topmentlan.L,industrjalization
In Europe, experts betieve
that countries such as France and Germany are more adversety affected by floods today because
najor rivers, sUc.h as the Rh'ne, have been straightened to ease commerciat kaffrc.
Global warming as well as routine, cycticat ctimate chanqes a.e causing a higher number of srrong
hurricanes in the Caribbean, meteorotog'sts say. Add to thar the nirmber ot peopte livin;
in areas such as coastlines, in subslandard housing and rhe destruction
'ncreasinq in a crisis oi essentiat
irrrastructure, such as hospita,s, and you hav., the potenriat for more devastatiDg disasters tban a

There have always been disasters. rhe bubonic ptague wiped out more than 25 miltion peopte, or
37olo of Europe's population, in rhe t3oos. More recenuy, the 1918 19 ftu pandemjc kilte., between
20 and 40 million people worldwide. qne oi the eartiest recorded disasters, rhe eruption of Vesuvairs
79 ADr buried the ancienr Roman city or pompeii kiling abour to 000 people. T;day, two mi ion
people live within its possible range, one major dinerence berween tleo anrj iow.
Abor,L 75 disasters were reported gtoba y in 1975, accordrng to CRED. rn 2000 rhe Rgure peaked dr
525 anc, d.opped to just under 400 in 2004. By far the htghest number of fatatitie; _ abour 450
00-0 o(uned in 1984. In 2oo4 nearty 100 0OO died in disasters, but the nomber oi peopte
atrected has soared since 1975 with about 600 milion peopte affeded by disasrers of a kincts in
So complex and are the iactors behnrd these disasters Orar some expets betieve rhe
most practical approach to pr€paredness may be to focus on reducing the risks raiher than racrors

Dave Paul Zervaas, regional coordifiator for ratin America and the Caribbean at rhe Unjted Nations,
International Strateqy for Disaster Reduction (lsDR), argued rhar preparation shoutd focus on
makinq people less vulnerable to disasters
"We think it's much more important now to took at vutnerabi ties, because you have factors you cao
conirol," Zervaas said. "You can work to tower vulnerabitity Iro disasters].,,
Hurricane Katrind in the United States is a good exampte, Zervaas said, A number ot tactors
contributed to the damage and loss ol tife. The storm was huqe. rt st.uck a cirv whose tevees had
not been maintained or strenqthened for vears, and qovernment aq€ncie; response to the
emerqency was at first inadequate.
ln central America storms such as hurr'canes Mtrch and Stan have wrought damage with ra,n and
landsl,des rather than wind. The poverty rssue and the sociat inequiLy si-tuat'on h;ve not becone
much better in mosr ptaces, / sard Zeruaas, adding that migratJon to c'ties conspires with a tack of
urban pldanrnq ro pur people rn ddnger.
Clearly, climate change whether helped by human behavtour or not ptaying a rote. Hurricane
- isthat
experts say the wodd is jn the midst of a routine, cyclicat ctimate change caules the Caribbean
to heat up, increasing the f.equency of poweriut storms. The effe€t oi this is greater lhaf, lhat of
globai warming, according to Srantey cotdenberg, a meteorotogist at the US N;tionat Oceanjc and
A(mocphpric Admrnist rdtion rn M'dmi.
Wb'le eathquakes represent some ot rhe mosr devastating disasters in recent years, these are
diminishinq in strength compared with ean'er times. Uga.te said. Nowadays an e;rthq;ake wirh a
magnitude of 8, 9 or 10 on the Richter scale is rare. the one in south Asia in O€tober 2605 was 7.6.
Ugarte_said, addhgi But yes, we are seeing a lot or damage. you wil probabty find more damage
in the rulure for phenomena lhd' Jre tess ,n maqnrtude than in prevrouq yea,s '
Experts agree ihat the poor are disproporuonately hit. "tn severat or rhese counMes, the poor
people are look'ng for spaces to buitd their houses or their commuDities
[and] they find spaces that
are not already used." Ugarte sald. \And lhose spaces that are not atr;adt use;, are usuatly the
spaces at higher rrsk for naturat phenomena. There,s a huge retationship berween this k,nd of
damaqe and poverty."
For this reason tlnancial services ptay a rote in both prevention, and damage Imttauon and
re€overy. A report entitled, Climate change furures; heatth ecolog'cat and econ;mlc d'mensions,


published in November 2oo5 assesses the risks generated by cliBate chanqe. One of several
scenarios "wou!d involve blows to the world economy sufficiertly severe to criPPle the resilience that
I enables affluent countries to respond to catastrophes," according to Lhe repot, whicb was published
by the center tor Health and Global Environment at the Harvard Medical School and sponsored by
reinsuranc€ company Swiss Re afid the United Nations Development Proqramme. While lt is
importanL to ercouraqe people, governments and.ompanies to buy insorance, not everyone can
I afford it or see the need-
Microfinanc'nq is a.other avenue, giving poor p€ople the means to improve their economic situaiion
so Lhat a disaster .,oes not hit them as hard as it would otheMise, and also by lend'nq them money
I lo use
recovering from it,
r.jany counlries are working to lmprove their disaster prepaledness, but more needs to be done,
i "countries are nolr better prepared in comparison to 1970," he said. But now the level of
preparation and risk redu.tion thal you need is huge in comparison to that year,"
The Michoacan earthquake in r.lexico in 1985 showed that beinq well prepared was not enough
r because hospitals the disaster zone were destroyed. Lrkewise, in Grenada Hurricane Ivan
1 'n much or lhe Caribbean island's bealth system, makinq it difficulr ror health
damaqed and disrupted
workers to respond to the needs generaled by the hurricane.
PAHO has expanded its programmes to locus not only on preparedness but also on mitigation. This
I involves reducinq secondary deaths and destruction thaL can occur in the aftermath of a disaster,
and bui'dinq codes that require hospitals, schools, military bases other vital sLructures
to be'mplementinq
built to withstand such disasteE.

l f4any countries say they can't afford more preparation, but some measures are simPle and can be
inexpensive, such as a tsunami wa.ning system, Uqarte said. "But from the.e to Banda Acelr, lhat is
another step," Ugarte $id, rererring Lo the capital of tbe Indonesian p.ovince that was hit by
the earthquake and !sunanri of December 2004. "And from Banda Aceh to all the llttle communlties
l on the coast, that's another lssue. That last link of the chain is not in place. And that is the system
t thai we need to build "
Disaster experts say early \'./arning sysrems and erlu€ation are esserlial to prevent and mltigate
aqainst the effects of natural disasters. In its World disasters report 2005, the IDternational
Federation ot Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies .otes that a simple phone call saved lhousands
l of lives when the giant tsunami wav;s hit India in 2004. A risherman's son named Vijayakumar
Gunasekaran, who lives i. sinqapore, heard about tbe tsunami eady on the radio and phonecl
relatives living on Lhe east coast of lndia. Follow'nq his warnjng, all 3630 residents evacuated their
r village lbere beiore the waves arrived.
If\ B.aine, I'1exi.o City.




Atetrr io' tr(ourrabihy )e
)lopcrgan,lr dope in:pon Dr
tt piimipkdp'ao'nrl-D ro
the iuture oltulurDlogy
i)$nagood trleshetl el ma

A,h"t+ lq

he paradoxical politics of energy

: urgel0 get off oil and to find mole oflhe sluff .hJnoe /\nvamrudldeJ{w;UprobrLly.n\ohe.\meri.
.trrs and Europeirs senrtalr bnttns rhe Ch jnese dd
lol rn L'n\g,'rworrY JLoot ere' gy -h"n rl.e o'l pr,.F tndians to ant emjdoDFthrouglr r qlobil svstem of
f i' t"eh. rl'.osrgy(d\i\o{ .008willbFqu e Itid.ble eDis;ons permil!
ur)il<e lbe oil cnses ofthe l970s ind 1980s for l /) Brrr do nor qpe, r rhe wo' l.l,l€dea ro move mui h
rple rdorJimate d.Dge.
- b/ b-yond e.r.,ul pt,n,iples,n i00s- lhe Ch,,,6e
Piri. over Sloba_l ]{i,alring $e very b.rvotrs rbout r8r€ing ro rry-
nns rhat rheworld now faces *!ing r}tar Dighr slow their ecoDom).
o dj{arenl sorrs of enegy down rDd cr6re uDemployrDEDl
ricr'v- Tbe ilrsr reeolyes Ard lhe Aneriors wiil Deed
)trDd rhe i.miliar slrdg . lol of pars.djng rhat i
r lor Jordable luel- The global cD;ssiors trddiDB
:o'd coocms the ba le sysr€D crn worlc h 2008 it
combar ch.rge nay aall ro 6e Luropsn
reducjng enrss;onj of U on roDale $e bi8'
rnhotrse 3ases
ln rheor-Y, rhese l'o
point ir rbe
'desdirsaiDn The
)rld\ l.!d;DB ccono-
ies reed to iind rerv
rd .l€Dcr solrccs of
rergn rJtowir:j tEcm
ridn.e thbr depeDd-
ice Dr l-ossil tuds, ln
adicc, ih iDBs are nor so
mpldTbeprobld isthat
v lbms ol clsrl €nergy
t-as rl-siBply Dot
,nvbc;ng oouSh .lrema-
io o;l rrd Irs Son€ 97%
'tbe Ancric.n tFnsport systeD is
i[ depodot ot oil- A long-tem pqsperdve butioo lo globd dboi, rmdir,g Tl'e EU hs
slD.kthzttheworldsleadirgcconomiesrcdu@ alrddy established *!e world's most et.boEre
cir dependcnce on fossil tuels- Tbe sbo!-tem iri- lnding'rime Btrr iis trst phc doaged rle cd;bil
4Enis $ill to dRd nore of $e stutr- - ity olarbon thdin€bedE;t 16 fir roo la\-Ph$e

*;:i:il'J';tiT:e'i*xTJ,**;.#' cB .y":J:1i"':itifftil200s d wirle doserv

Xi::$"i"";3:*ffi ;L"::#;?:J:?VE),,*f f*'::,i'""";'i'f"H.?f iff.l;:
re ic.e$ io tbe ve4. fosstt fuels that they kep dDue their erergy-driven diplomab'c offdtsive it
LliDg rher ue Uring,rq folg a4 AFi(FpursDiDg Dorc derls [ke iheir cobtrove'da]
Ar&r ci flDmir ofle.dingiDdusrialiedBrtioDs oil €remor ivirh S an-At horre, Ch-Da wil
b€ held in ,aFn in )uly, tj'e ADeri(:s will iDsisr & kerp oroing new coil-tired p@6 phits ar. Ere
Br thenst de.l oD cliDate choge Dusr irdude dm lorequ'yJor W6rm-sized plutsof.LDosr one
hior, lnil;a and o$s doeloping orr;ons. Tbir W d"y; ro $" d"sFir oi globi-Mmns i(rivies
soDgh,Biro rhar Chira is nrpas -7 1 .uoond " r}e uorld-
tln;red Stares is $e world-s largest emn
rSrb. Q\ rn rurope. $e gopoiiri(s of sellrdlbrdoD)i-
r ot,srtnhour gas6-The ChiresE themselv€s ire /n ed by rhe iDadingt to$e rehrioDshipbetwo
ilaDcd abod ihe ;DplifrrioN of cfiDire ^" RBi! i'd $r EU- The RussirDs wjll rn.inraiD
'niDet dl


> €ftoris ro s€.ue to,c rer. deals ro r'ooMo"l qrn"ritdn um Ih'

suplty €Dcrsr wnhj; rhe EU. white Bigtounlryle.rders 'n
. bunnF i.'1,6 rr.n.,l;y
1i 'nsnlc
rl'c rn,on _rbe qovemmenis
vcqem Jn.l ..Dndl furoDe wiU
Iry r., 'rLiu.r rhtrr depend$cE on
l(ussra. Rnr drrir rarioral dtlistuns
wlllspcnd.r IOt ol ll'iLr. rjon ul "^ ctuns!-8 .b us8h ,u
lltJ a:@"reirnry o\er rhetu, .. ]h.
Unre Lr).rng lo sr(trrc i-u.;,.,.,"j"a" n"*"r,".j.,,
access to,lhe very 4Derica, Notua/ Dd D€nDark. Alt
rdill m Je $6harder of $ese coDnr.ics are iDlereskd iD
6t, rn roos. ho,eve'. Lhe !u miy fossil ftiels t1rey are ll-,,o*ty Bprorll;.s sbe,.hcs ;;
rx),drJ brnDse Blobrt wrr6,ne,s
/rBre€ uro,' )LnM)oD poL,cy ro tjmjr trying to forswear n.long tt €si$ tD narigajerhe$ai-s
RDsskn in!c.lmeDr !, (n.rgy Js
\ ot
turn. . 6d to ger r',.3' ro rh.
re Russjus asrie ro
ot-n,p rh, oh n.n-, g] ruJrkers tu,,ho ro to,-Cn ii ,^I
I9l/ftr foiltueJs belcalh ric
rtuEslc ror $e turic {sce d.r lerd i, ri,.. D
vesnrsLTlcw}ote rhNr ofRusid doBsrj. s,ssy ru, '-roc r(1iob) r&c ih. n in
ptd n jqenr )h,'lL- be- ro t*,m lne i,trot'ue; n.' perfcrt rymbololr}e ^dLr.L.",
of lo,,,Un, mpdni* ,n d,p r{,rsd elern, t', ror. And ;n r0n8 fbc wo, tJi t€dh8Frddoti.J
whd,-\-' rr" u ,loc\ x\ poticy ,. t,ket ro ronliru. ,.d,,. u,!j.,doD befr" o
global hlamn8 jnd Lhe ins,t fijpls L\rr het, ro (ruse jL,
700t Otrp,l"il ro w.,,,Jl uur to, b rhc caJ<LID r ori aur rhc] rLo srJnd rhdy ro pr oh, hom gLb,l wrm
and g6feld,whd. Rusia Day q'!o pDr p,€sre on u8 t'v und", rhe t,,ls tor -o,e lo*it tucb
'lE3D4 "I

Fnyironm ental reportin q for
companieg need5 teeth

7-",1,"-'"-,.-,.-s.,x",,*,, @
rrn in ,,008. Lu' 'r Ed ts"r --=-A
I\' o),
I r"' dd
.,."* w',[ -'"u,r .*.-- j"l 9E-
FerDe, rnd pe' Ldp\ {
rin[ina lo,ptDeate poljrjcal rl;ossior,
.orrprdes will be rDore ers6 rlan aer
Lo offtr op envjro;me!rdl indr.arors ro
\bow thcirciti"rrL"hip. A l,rdtulo,
8oKlruorF Lio* uf Spajj, NoMi' wor ro ieporll h woul,l be oo srtr-pnsr ronon noo abGd ril}y orgdi.-a ,
dd cdaJ|mons lnm-ody . rftre it o.e dJy Cllifotud whiLh hd.bady 1) MeM"bite g,""" or ,
psed a 6p oD c.bon ru;oos_ne lGt ror omumi*;"-elqrsteq i"l4e
;;BfromnoublemF indusrrs. req*e, mre- labets,b.t d,nnifu;;G;
. _ cides Lo rnn.orporrre
g,s J Brge rcpons_sys tbfl nasmrlnbof-lLGrFm
I O) tubm fooDrinr ofp,odocr5hom shos
i " F"{L:r*l"p 19 conloro ro one
'rbd' rbewoidR*orcrn.rituta ' *j rood wirl-pmlif@te- And arbop otr-
rd. Tbe CJob.l Rrporb's !g"r!+ 9 l5) one b;& probto is ihat Dost -!sE $.h; puch"-*.f sffit"e, io
or Bdistioo b*d in lne lldler ldds,
l;lsrainab iry repofts de Bor au.tirrd by ;latrr rre6, wh;d dbsorb olU" a;Aa"
ha be! i$liDs r+ortr-n8 sddelines lo"r*a-.1"amcaro.; i.a A-ai"* *"t".p r..s.".s"-li"g
o! sNraim- tilh.y si'e 2ooo. Ur-mdudes lAm-siG), Tbi, coutd cb.+".pe.iat1yEe;
as iDvetins behayiobr_witl t*"i""diq:ie!eri
h@a-risbrs a,'d vorldore * ".*r"i.,ble .oopo;ei- grows. tui ,007 c",".";;6'ffi;"
Nerrd .*'-htzl repon li"
on*.)c!L'*'* lviro*stalisrs d puttina pre$ure oD ftdjt 6dilatbt' s ca*on offs€rslrirh
,oBhdp.^: tne o,EoBadoD ef,pccl{ lA'do's 5ffid6 uJ exJrd8e co'- rebE d poiirr, dd poc qimidts wirl
r,7.0 globJl {orpri.s ro i$c repons lm*.joo ro rquif (oopmjs ro-disto* sue)rMir in 2008.
bJ*d on jl. Eujdetns in .{0& yiple lhc Lheir a boD d;-s;orl! r5 tE[ a ro qda_
i\"1 B;r 6e ,at br.,k[hro'Bh, olt (onf
. ormb-i-o 1005.
lrry(for rbe bseEr ,n homhe,a ueee
I or
.ba,ebotddt America, rle h
the W.orldt
-----' ."#"" *"", "s-*
Deepersl'adei oirreeD lpo*ot. *p.i of --- -. -----' sbow1alti
6) rnJ;;+**
b/ r !r rexcrpL !d aiku*rroso.
ror8 wyro.go. rhonsh guzzerr
cnlDate ch:Dge oD gre"t eoergy
rDo-ogn' "oiilil'"r,,-,""!'.'# (;d Lh€
corsMpti@ (andrle
i.:':?: ;{Ha#ffi "":: fl-"S#,TtH's*stainabfity.reportd' ffi.'fl T":il*
$o lhecu, io mosttgllqqglso rc .hdtrcd ot ;(cess are Voluntarv,
pte, peopte
coubrq bs ts Amoarequ;B s(!B r.tn63tin
be -iI
coopai* ro oo rb* ro* wa$e 6) r"r.-"r warch,jogs re sprirsitrg rhen rosrs sFr€ whei dry rutr .he dish-
'.port corDbj* hde foi r!
dd se*izl ruopeo ro nonro cone-'e' setu dai*l ,ashs d rfe drye- This ;fl encourase
sooc tnre nqnned rcponin8 on matr6 rn 2oo7 dAseffi websire caXedlqi (oDg:mtioD dd-otr_peak orgj. tse.
)rae.orpone be,€y usa.e:
u<e(orponre oers, Dsrse *) mare, ourlor* aar.d a oDti,e
oDl;np k;;4
so,ea) (dri.
l{.\ .s+!ec4!egcar.d Anenein;;n p.co_b.nding
tund@rD;n Eieo_b"i;;s cdti,
J Ab.l -->-E Sq1i+: -94q!er1 , dd th, nre! rarse,orpoturjoru r.h i-ri"o 1-go'-"i-uea rrro, iiabour
suz16, $stznrbrlrrr€Porrs evolut- as Applq DeI od Nike on their efforrt to broailen iis horizons 6om.odsdcjal
I {tttr_ r,ry-ttBn@roiernhow
S*lrr ldre re^.zgded ar ups,many rom6 ot ro redrce @rboD o;siods tn 2008 $e blndiDss io boDs_And rh
-r"'' Jrorodrhar gm beoaednqdia wilt srdr iDranigar co$DD;5 be.ome o{ their or, 8reo
?roclbr & Gamblet geLLDg ing corponre €wiromeDral daimr Are. foorsinrge nore pressw tlrtuil p"t
S sli''-o{soo.ing1sm.rr;a]).Burwhar.ompo;sredb,rcdr.;ngdretreDdy on coDFnies to .ome .leaD:, '
tne i$!$ l}at.omp@i€s dorit use 6 mrchasuer srl,l"d is !rsd,.: xlr 6rrb,aidr.m,m?Dr.or'jb',4 tttktuoniq rn^
I "q".t

Oec f1, 2007

Busrness.rf ctojnq llreen burns briqht

As climate change moved trom belng a frinqe rssue lo a mainstream concern, /00/ wi
be remembered as the year of the environment. Wiih the green business becoming the
world's ldste5t-growing indLrstry, JESSiCA CHEAM looks at.the rnilestones rn 5rnqapore
for the year

Clean energy blueprint

lN IYARCH, Si.llapore herdtded rts entry inl{) the clean enerlly race ds prime Minister Lee
ilsren Loonq a'rnouncecl a $170 mi ro,r rcsearch fun.j for the industry.

The Econorn c Developnreni Bo.rd ( EDB) soon unveiled a more detaitect

5-]50 rJliIron
blucpflnt lor rese.rch and development, testn.J anal prlot p.ojects in clean energy,

Io credtc a nr;rjor rndirsrry v.rorrh g1 7 I,r /!r dr, ch w cmpl;y /,U00 peopre by

Sinqapore's 1'or;y ioto a{eirn enerqy lhal i9, oner.Jy gcner:rleai 1..,n renewabte sources
i.' \rr .r.r..rlw,.', .o|F tr,.t d\ , ul,,L, t,t]d,, dllta/.. .^r I, cnlo, ,g
mdss ve owth.

Leddilg, (seJr.h lii'use alean Edqe has reported revenues in the inrJLrsiry climbjnq irom
U!g4u b,il/ol (t958 rrlll ,,,r) rl 2tl415 lo LIS$55 b'llio. last year_ This is projected to hit
US$226 billiofi by 2016.

Mega qreen investrnents

l[] OCTOBER, Sjnctapore wns propetted into qtobal timetiqht \/hen Norwea nn sor.rr tirm
llenewable Energy Co.poratron (REC) arlr ounced thai rL wrll set utr the wortd,s biggesL sotar
equipmenL flranufactunnq ptant here, wo.ih 96.3 bit,ion.

'fhis was the fruit of 'nine

monlhs of intense courtship between EDB'and REC. Singapore
trumped more tlan 2O0 tocations to emerge with the prjze. sd,d EDB managing director Ko
Khencl Hrva

The Tuas planl, which witl begjn operations in 2OtO, is expected to ernploy ;p to j,000 staff
with an initial 1,5OO setectect to be htred next year. A qood number oi these wafi be sent
to Norway for extensive trdinjnq:

Earlie. this month, oil qiani {.,leste Oil said that it would build the wortd,s biggest biodiesel
facility in Singapore at a cost of 5SO miltion euros (Sgi.17 bj jon),

The plant, ideally located near Indonesia and Malaysia , the wortd's two largest palm oit
producers willconvert the feedstock into flret for vehicles_ The anvestmeniwit, creale 1OO
lobs and boost the Republc's 4oal of expanding its environmentalty frjendty andustrjes.


!^ Lr'vllon"re"tally lr rcr'.lty I'ohr ics

Ii I O REALISE SJn!J.iDore s afirt)Lljon of becominq a ma jor ctean encr

ljy player, a Ctean Ener gy
t_ Proqrirnme Office (Cepo) announced in tlarch to drivc the qro!/th of the sector.

sir governore.t a9encie5, includin!l ttie EDB, the Natronat Envrronment

Cepo coDrpr iscs
Aqcncy (NEA) nnd the Buildinq nnd Consrruclron ALrth(n iry (ACA).
Ir s firsl /nrti.rlrve \t/ds to set rlijde a g 1 7 fliliion kitty for the Ctean Enerqy Resenrch and
lestbeddinq (Cert), whi.h wrtt prov de 5rle5 ior torciglr .rncj loc.rJ corn pirnies to
r lest all krnds ol.leaI technoloqy

t In Oclober, (:epo launchcd .r 950 rnrltiorr research fund ior the next live ye.rrs Lo accelerate
i the indL'sny's'r.l rlcvetopfitent efforts Thi5 !./ns soon toIowed by a g25 nliition
scholiJrslrip pr arrmc to .Jr oom a wor ktorce to ser ve this industry. Cepo plans to award
olaster's or PlrD sdlo{a,5hips to dbout 110 stuclents over the next irve years.
t, Th.r NFA nlso lauf.h.rcl a En.rqy Efiicr.:ncy prograr me Ofticc {E2pO) io coordinal-e
nalronwrrle ellorti to streaml]'te 5!nr.tdpore's major se.aors of energy use, na,nety in power
r (tcnciilion, indLrel'y, trdnsportnrron. burldllrr]s and hoUsehotd5.
worlrl (:irss r€rji.rdrrh c-o rr. rli.rt yriti tocus on envitonricnt:rt tssuet lhe frrst ot t5 ki.r.t r'
:tinq;rpore r:i dl5r) |kcly 1o l)l' s,rt 1jl) 5oon 1t uri tikely to be c.r e(j the S nqnpor.: F-Tll
a:eritrc lo' Glob.r tnviro]lrne' t.rt S!sr:.rinabrtity_

Tlrc res.r, h.!r5rl will be a l).rrt erthip b€t$/een tlre N.rtLonal Reseirch FounrJ.rtion in
'rlirilJpore and n top Errropear' .lroup ol re5e.rch .r.]Ll tead)inq instrtLtes fro|r Sw/tzertan.l,

'l Carbon: a new commod ity

WITII the Kyoro Proto€ol crc.Jlin,:l !r new market comrJlollity in carboir, Sirgapoic !s
IC, positioning rt5--ll b become the re!)ioD j cnrbon tradtng hub ltiven lts standir(l as a iinanciirl

A local con)pdny Asia (.rrbon Grolrp sard tdst month that it wds workrnq with the
t. 5rn9aporr, Fxchar)qe lo a potentially lucratrve aalrbon creclit t.ading lacility-

Catalst listed ecowise Holdrnqs, a ]ocal cnvironmentat solutions company. also s,gned a
de.rl Lhrs year with lap.rnese fi'm Kans.ri Etectric power to se up to 95,000 cdrbon credats
over five years - rnaking it likeJy to be the flrst cornpany Singapo.e to se {arbon credjts
under the United Nations' Cledn Devetooment t4e.hanism 'n

L The tr.rdlng carbon credtts is dejiqned to timit industry corllon dtoxide emtssjons, widely
bldm-d -\ d .or t'tbulot to glohdl wdr,rrtnq

L Solar: Option with most potential

t THE solar industry has been the rising star of Sinqapore s burgeonrng ctean energy sector
this year anal looks seL to rematn so in the near term_

The Government has sinltled oLlt solar as the clean ene.qy with the ntost DotenLral for

Singapore dLre to rts ex:stinq strenlllh |, the s nil.I ser riconductor indu:rry, ancj its
strategir location ilmong the sun-bell aountries,

Big pJayers such as Norway's REC, Germao solar firm Conergy, United States based
Solnrworld have been courted to set up manufacutLrrinq facilities or req,onal offices in
Sinqapore; while local comparjes such as Sotdr Energy power In.rde nrirory by becomrng
the f'.st Sanqapore company to manufacture solar cejts th's year.

Cepo has also called for proposals from iirms to test a r.j qe of solar technoloqjes at
selecled sites.

BCA lasl montlr unveiJed a gtO million zero energy bLjit.jjng _ Singapore.s tirst , which wi
also sLrch test facilities

The cornplex vvjll have a net zero enerlly coDsumpLion over a typical year, macle possible try
a maljsive arr.ry {Jf solar p,rnels coverinej dbout l,jOO sq m - the bjqllest rn Srnqapore
which wlll be rnte.Jraled or) the roof of one of th-. buildin,rs-

8CA rxpects diFferent generations of sotar techllotogy to be tested here, pav,ng ihe way tor
ltrrtlr.r rnnovati.rng nnd adophons of solar energy in Sing;po.e

The greening of.orporate S'pore

Illl5 Yeal, cf icl €rlecullves h.rve found thal envilonrlentat i5sUes, once af afterthou(Jijt,
r. . .! roroordtp I.dt,qr'.

Firo)3, foreiqn d rd loaal alike, have been JLrmping on Lhe tlreen trandw-agon, nitiatin.l
.orJ:rorate social I esponsibiIty prac|ces trorrl tun(ting environrnenint qroups to
stre.r,r'lrn ng thLr'J operations.

Thosc wiLlr !te'lurne rntenLjons hnve ofteD [ound recorrnition for thei. .]ftorrs

I'r Apni. ior exarnple, properry firm City Devetopments (CDt) became the f|si pr,vate
(leveloper to be .rward.d BCA'S Green Mark ptatinum the hiohest accoJade tor oreen
L.r.ldl a\ ror ir' O.ednfronl{OSentosa 4ovp proJ,. l

CDL'S reputation anci experience as a green developer atso in some ivay led to its clinching
of a l.5ha prestigious sile at Beach Roact from the urban Redevelopment Authority in
Seplember, whach fealures an eco- friendly mega olixed devetopment. r

fhc numbe. of local companjes joininq the race for environmental sotutions-have atso
swelled, wilh more diversifying into the green business_

For relari investors, 2007 is also the year green rnveslmenL fUnds went nlatnslream.

Fornrer US vace president and environmental crusdder AI Gore, who c.lme to Singapore tn
Auqusi for the Global Srand Forum. gave a separate talk o.t the growing range of green
,nvestments in the market that could give high returns and urged investors to .plt your
money where your valu€s are.-

qtw ,w



Green C-ountries

ho\r to tack inninent en\ironmcnt l djsa{iers, lt may scem hard to

believe in this age ofdaLl oyerload, but on the eve oI 0re Great Deples-

sion, theU ted Stater had no broad mellsure ofwhettier the economy

I{as growing, or about to (xash. Roosevelts ill-fated predecessor,-Ilerbert Hoover,

was leli watching rrndom bits ofdebatitble info lihe the size of{ieight-car loads. Tl,

co eLt this prcblem, Rooscvelt asked economjst Simon Iclzjlcts to comc up {ith a

broad, stindardized accountins s)€tem, whai is Dow kmwn as the gross national
producl ihe univelsal mcrsurc of'national economic performaJtce- 'Ibday the battle
to prevent global eDvironmental catasimphe sufi'ers ftom the sarne pmblem-
random, vaSue data andbegsfora sirnilfsolution: some kind ofgreen GNP-

Tbdays equivalent of Kuzn.'ts and the team wbo invented GNP is the research
stallworking on the Environmentnl lerformance Index, or IlPl Joindy prcduced

c0UmrIG TBFES: Crri', h/ to d.aud gcn CNP. aad got d btuhlth todXl@ah-.fitslti

ftE GOST oF wEALItt Rrci, dtioFl;ke t mk tc,llto h@. enrilo"nntsthat4reli;@du to htm* b t kot to pl'ats all @intak

by )ialcJ Certer lor Laiv & Irnvi('hental emissioDs, forcsts i(J watcr qualily, dssdrs suTnses comclh.,' )ou compde nrriom
Ilti{:y (led llstr) ard Columbia s
by Dani{,I ing thc lospitrbility of a Dahonk €nvnon qith p(.r 0i sm,ld in,ume, or srth
(tnter for Intcmatnhal lrti Sciencc ln' ment to ],u',ans, and plants od mioals. ncighbors. ID tlE follosii)g pases, you'I
formitjon Nctwork (led by Marc Le,y), Mu.h ofthe data.rc sirong c.rbon cmis 6nd chaptd on thc bst mdwo6t-na_
EPI aims to be a comprchcnsivc assess sions, fo! instancc, are well documented. 6oN h dery inome gtoup: dte ri.h, the
nent of the woridt cnvironDental chal thmks to 20 _vc s olwork by the Il ited middle .la;s md ine rDor
lenges and bow individurl counb;es are Nilions' lDiergovemmeDtat Pa'el or C]i China in partjculd hs long a4!ed
iesponding to thenr. It is rn elTort to hoil matc Chege. Sone of it is no!. listy, a lor that ii ; too poorjo afford rhe V/enten
all rhe activitie ol a Dation that relate io mcr oflidal for the U.S. EnviroDrtent..l lNry oI cNirotu-nental at?.renss. Tbe
i|e eDv;omeDt doq to a simPle Detric Prctection ]\g!nc], sals that jn some ()!Is E?I expos this claim to bologus. China
tlai tuB from loo (tl,egreeD6t) dosl to dat e "dislressiDgly thjn in terms ol@v- nrks last mong l5 nations in its incodre
rero (thc lc6t sreen). The l'.le Colunrb;a cngc, or poorly construcledl arorp (ihe fifth decile), bchitd l,tetnam. If
tcm released thetust complctcversion of Slill, fie EPI is the Lest m6urc we Colonbja, the grorpk leader, on allod
the index in JanDary', dd il is tic statistical hale ofhov nrtions are fding in the battle enviroDmental coDmm, why cst chinat
backbone of tlris spccjal issuc oD the ro save rhc cNircnment, od ihc I diDgs Icmss the boed, Chinas eNironmo-
world's mosi dd 1c6t greeD natiqN. are strikins. As one might dpc.t, dle over tJ perlonnece is subpd. Compared with
Fi6t, tbe obvious cv@t the ElI is still aI raDLings plaL! snall, wc.lthy S.andina iLs neighbors i! Souihca+Asia, sllich harc

nowhde ncar a ac4rat€ t $easDle of na vim socicties rhe top, and P(Dr war torD snnih popdation densitig md grcsth
tional pcxfomalce as GNr 0ror its sc- Afti.nn nations^t at the bottom. But one big plses, China larcs slighdY bett€r in
_ce$or, $oss dondstic pmduct). Thc indcx surprise is dht si4 is no encDse for p@r proicdins its hcbitdt bDt much $ork h
includestle b4t avdlabledahin 25 criti- pertbtmdrce; big dd small nations (mrpy m.-rqrr*oa indNtrial ilts. Tbe o!e'-,I rm-
cal categorles, lioD fshens to c_arbon both the top dd bottom rarlqs. And b;Kler pact olits cnvimnmenr on hman halth is







? hnt a,,-rxd\mr(, D^d 'tiu ',aJrL;nE, r ''nrl,rrur l'rr'i'lPUPltrlrils ri rr hr' "- $ ll un r"lFxD! '_ rn u.d biLrr
.,,,,. .,",, le\,1; -e tr;ut' l".;t^...' i,:,o, 1 ,onsPo'rturonu \s uaP atsl'l 1 ri'irr(n\rtrrtr
I' l;.:: ,i; i.;;;':;, ;i:'^", ,i ?r1," ;;';;;;:', ""'St-rsorn, , rr" rrr'r or
" rr' o"nrn
""thiid fmr ihe botlnn, ihc adlatrt "rri'r^ n rr
t l :l-"T: lll*:
. r_"- *i"p,l-t" to,this disrnal Pcr Frcent), rukrlg 'scs
f "."
..".- ,elobL"ri^n c'm- i. irhe . i' I tdill\r'rn ' o'rroic{ in'l
',-;i.g bu, r,"i. 'nr',g-l,r'r"'e-lr-
rl ( ltrxvil) "'sco"'n"
$'rgh"l rn drc 5"u'rllalhr'- ubl-"o\c'mr 'iifi
[. -"-.ri
ii'1,'""',i*ril'":'i'ili;,i,."*'gx"o'' ;;il r';a;;' "r 'h'i 'on-trr'"uo' rr' rcni)ro.r{ftrorrPU"
rrrl inkine. Llol il * rnrr,g. cnd lile 'hinr $' $ -l( n'nr'
\ldrv ul' srr' u 'F'':'9.n"-"::ll::
*:y '*:' :
-- er.iu. n"ed
, .J" i i"'"'or,sa'edrr illrrr"c ir( l v un uPr' Jnt-li
ir,".tr ,l- omr"inrectints s "mi slvem 'l '
t@ brok€ tu \diirrdr r'.thl].i:l'L11,'ill
t -ss ;n flre storl of chinat i nvimnnci tio* o' co.l. In the EPI, tlr Uuired
c. iil;;rs;"J."";i""i.*r'm thenethroushoutthcstudvishovanv
'J;:il;; ;" coal fircd Pwer pt-r. i;iv g".-"tidr, @npded wirn -an 'atio'' tstudlcss, 6f 'nc-*-lY:::: "-
r le|crit duurSlrL"A'dolrmrn i;.,.
I i,.k,\,r rbid_.",, r,'r ", bor, J,uri,l.. "r""t l' ounhtu ur
!dr wr';r:'lfrc':r:i llo:':::: n,5..,i.'l:
t. :i. ."" , r'.1, ,", ri . ,r'o"q ".',.,^J ".trr, "",'g-.i"drn. ',uri,h{P,'rmtl
:ii"iH:,iff;il'? ili;.;;]-ii"r' i"-**""r,*c"oi.,, whicr] \deputsat rvccrse than nuorre'
74 o]l":rforn dd1 iis
oemdv t€nds to
Eurcpca' Peere'
""1*i" -a ..E-" lclr drqn,r" to 56,,
(ldaging frr b.lor ihe
-,'r," pc.cgroup rv.ragc
ounthb i- wl'' th' l Pl r-m irrvi Al u ru
,,i,i!. Dlxnts Jn,l ' ''" ' "r'ich
i.. 1"",r'--.*'..',u,allvhiphi' '"n,1 o,,'d'fit I'}lia' -nffonmPnts
rtureil'm'rnr1"rn-r'hrI'rsd'nrP ar
","". rr do! h1r'r o'n nrrrv
i * "-'"or*r. "hry. it prchds,r'r ror InJrl' fi' lc* Je\cluFd ''l{'9!' 'F'lnJlior' ;n ,"n lil18
r.a,rh,un, Lhe .un: olmnohr ny.. Bu, a, n-iLtlir ior pt-r "na ,.imrts. wtaldrl n$er ri,1' natioN

I ?::l']j',:
L i".,- "*a..," p_pi;;;; rl;; ,,. n." soo.l-,,,r,,i". -dmt:ryr".o". al o, n er, rr Uo,,lrorrinc.irbon erusron:
borl qld rnd ,romlU,,re,l. r-h nJs \Frid on u'er .rs' bu' de\elopmcnr nd murnnrn'A high l.'t"-q"-Y.t-l
1 sco.esinthcE}I,smm$.esofgrcud-t'Ies.tolonthce'viroment.lAsde]oflevek!lsootjnttsLltlG.G€msylls
lcvel ozoDe arc among thcworst lelopcd lunlJjs oft"r I lack both dirtv in
h ils envircnrnenhl pnorins, thc a*ti*.*i.r.." L"u"g watd s;d vO irhotos 0l green courndes arumij
t.- See
I uniic,l strte is ;n one -ays *--Ur'ry g"t" r'ill ,'rk Lr smttcf,on; Ilnzm'a wodd at tfo Ncwsek:com

Green Leaderc and Green Laggfards 'th.
meeMAiJ d aoo,na'ls betveatheoa?athofdarktnafttrh.t i@oJB'nd^n atdzgdndim Md z,n@ebhbinings@rn''nheadinrbitiry
L,nronnnta]Mo;dne tnn'*tu ";""t i;' 6fan-'M.,*bir aisit, vat rc'os,B atulhdtitat P'otcdion to Jhtudhon tuti,&*hich?atlL

overall Country -za'-?+--7=

EPI Bankings

1 swit2erland 95.5
countrles has low enis-
\ theworld's best sysiem
88.9 d
88.4 No. 59 'Ihis lvealtlv utder-
achiever scores well lor
ar.8 rater and sanitation, but j,
rt6 its higi oileonsunpuon ,er
means hlgh eO, einissions.

86.3 rifirfirfitl .. :_rF, _
14- Unitedxingdon 86,1
16. Lithuania 86-2

?9:.9ry!1" ., .9q
4 4!e1 . jL! 5I Gaorgia . 422
??:_,lc!qqe" , .,!4,! Iq.lreslirl,.. ..- . .--9U
?.!.:,!!!3L ,.--9!f 39. united states al.o o. 55 Brail pio-
?1.. rtaly ...p14 80-[
25. .D!!I34 ,, 9i4 41. Cuba 80.7
840 42. Poland , 8O5
840 s0.5
83.9 a0l
29, Chile 85t 80,0
30- Spain
8i.t 48. Bosnla./Herzt€ovina-79,J

S.-s!rrD!qn"4 ,,qI a!- lsmel ?S.6

34- lrel d 42.7 79.5

15. Bra?il 8,-7 See all the mnkings at EP|SCOEE I89.99-80 g 69.99-60 149.99-39
16. Urugxal 82.3 rtrd N.*wcik c6n t 100-90 &] ru-gs-m E 59.99-50 ai: No data

ndagcd its well, adopting gmd that reh oD nudmr oDerpy, including Thc nations that find th€Gelv€s ;n the
pnctices such as reqcliag ed investiDg nany in E6tcm Europe, is testiDoDy io middle of the income band tod to have
in altemative €nergy. its value s a non-lossil'fuel souce. By t}}e vorst of both wo ds, vith medicrre
France, too, Ianls Yery highly No,1o coDhas! Br]giun and the Netherlands, scores on hunm hc-ahh dd poor scores
ovenll ed second in its i!@me sroup vhich share mtch in teltr ofpopdation on the Hnds otneasurcnmts that woild
(the secoDd decile) due laryelyto its long ad geogr"pbyrith their ncighbors, sDtrer indicate hary iDdusL"y, such as Poor an
dd caF.irl devotion to nuclw power In- liom neglect o{tire e'viromcnt-partio quatity- I dia, for instance, is jn many rc-
dccd, the generally high soEs ol nations hrly in pmtecting native habitars- spects a poor @utry. Millions ofits citi'

N' NEWS\;IEEK r JUIX TlltJL\ 14,20!J4

more rn ts habit ol
L- ro rt5wld€sDread
"use ol emission_curbing
"rclear Power Planls
I ."dPl to.the rest ot


most meastrr?s. including


I Fr.n faster thd those in

What lt 'np F.nim,ndtdJ Pcrfmd lndatuhB i,to 6cu"nt aeid. rbsc afJ@M e dnn'i'i"8
wt M.tro t ?'afm6 stune ofthos' n@ ob'ture rdtesti't
w,. ao" i," in"
Counls " "o'ue1t
ouatlrY of ,latu8r BEs.uRcEs

BtsI 100 Brsr Fiii 99

rei pu rrgerrn New Zealand 100
won$ Cambodia 44
llonst Etlriopia 0-

zDs lac} addtuare seit tion. Dd clem and other itls, whrch wil only gerwors€ ,s makes it the mostiniospitable courtrv on
rw ot bmt 6te[as the
L ilnnkina water, odgy spply is sPotry citirens L-ade in s@tes for automobiles- thc nlmet for
.**r rtsoe ba<llv on a IcY masurc
even in citis aDd the buming of. bio- Even at the botton ofthe incomes.aie' 'ott'o*
mass-wood md duDg-is wid.sPread, in tbe most cbalengdt region of the tiletv is p"opt" .rc to be afilided
Nirh rleleterions etrecls on hmm health workt-sub Salann Aftica-there {e hig bv illness$ related to eDvironmental dslc'
{" (lms dis€de) md the envircment (soot diffarences in how coDtries perlom vis- s;ch s p@r watcr qualjty or rirpoUution
md caibon emissions). O'r i])c othq hand, ) vis the environmenf- Niser Its sditation is poor, its driDling mter $
mpid gro$th has broDght a; poltution 6 out lhe EPI'S 100 point scalq_ which tull of nsg micmti€.s dd its citizens con

L &


'att,ha!!m!.J rytun, tb Sahtaa Afri@,Ihfie at bi8 dOfrn';:in

h.t lurg disass_iiom cooking :tucs- li's oDnent.l qTc is.aDotlar intbrasdns way satallite inasar slonirlEtow much dcvel
a place where a,@nbination of envimn- of slicins the dat . DBert rntjoDs; for in- opineDl had dcro cheil'Dpon thse te
nartrl wealo*-rhe connt.y is largely a stanG, have simild p.essDrs md chrl- sioDs, illo$ins *rciu io identify rhich
d.sert poveny od politici idstability leDss thcr must jrlsile i:]imii.;d. rdter .ountries have kcpi trote.tcd ar% tnJy
ud Dcglc.t can lud tu enlironneDt.ll supplics with the ne&Ls of indusbl turd wild (the United Statds, Nw Zralmd add
dcgradrtion and so.ieLl collapse. f.mnig, vjthout hdriDg ftagil. desert Botsw a), md which had allovcd tlteir
Ily .ont dt, 'I$zania, with a r.rJ< of ccos'ystms. Although Ismcl doeqlt score mrks rosntr r ft,m l,dm.u eLcrcahmot
ll3, landsjust ah6ad olthe fd richer UDit- wll compdre{l *rrh courEic in iisrvealth iIFImd,DemaJk, lrrm, lDdraed South ,

ed SJab Emimles. Tbnania also ranks clds, it looLs nlch bettcr conpred wiin rsro), Aid sith their'he.'lth oaDe'indi-
frst d)ong those nations in ihc poorcst r0 desert Drtions sch as Saudi Arabia, E&?t €tor, thc mearchen had to rely on n:tle_
pcMnt. Thc r@son h6 to do p.rtly vith and the United Anb Eminttes, ithici have maii@l guarswork, blsdl on satillte
the counbyt biologi@l inheitanc! it in more severc mtcr problems. mcasu.ements, to set a rough sense Dfhow
dt cs nuch of the wililljfe-rich Seftngeti In some cd6, thc Yale dd Calumbia snoB-infesied tne world's ciijes be-
Plain-but also a slable govenrment that Borches had to do some catite anrry- cone. (wlile thdc are g@d c.npmtive
hd gdded .d€velopnent od .onircllcd sis. To 6ss how r'ell routries d€ pro data on oenc, smog also inclDds Ditrcgln
poaching ard pollution. tcding biod;vasiq, {rey overlaid a map of oxids, crbon moDo)dds and other com-
. Comparing coDtlj8 of thc sme end mtionat parks md otherwildlifc ee$1tith ponents t}lti dc poorly trdcled in mosi na






ELtilsY.ih;nuat6 badhJb; tuB! ind*ffidl tltt, dre it Pat ds h,se .wL), Ptio, oJ {oodt,l ike thL nathfrboanls NttzLt'"t
ot' d sned Abtu)
t tions.) ,{nong t]1c bet iddustriil suntris mnk 3'lth. is decepiivc lt, nidry v!ys, w^rl4 rL J$irult. \lthouglr &L
i..nn,'1,,n in\DlveJ F ruldtilelv smprr
were Malqsia, the U ited Kingtlom.Dd aU l}&il is resting on its laur:ls. De.ades ago
{, o[ Eastenr D!rcpc (a legiq of the Sotiet it irvestcd heavily in promoiing bn,auels in'li,k\;ssire, ti h.L\ to I edcllovcd o\er
nuclcF fmgnn)- Among the $oFt oi (ethanol made:lion sov) dd btilding tnlire.o;unc,'Ls on .-con\ siu nt bsis Be
L'rdrupusr.,lms tlrurL ,s I vtsl ldrd .nse- d2ta .oll{tion md.rmonitonnA is
fenders werc laPd, south Korea, Bi?il,
tie Udtcd Sht€s, It ly sd IhnguI bi.-s"e,l wrrir r
rbrn,ldr'cc of\, rter, Fhi.h not norly s scxy ar irsue ast sav' saving
{ $'h.rc the data rre.drin- one .easoD is enersf rcladvely ch$plr with n.J r.rnda' or p"l,r h.'n, \rrppon r.n't
{mDlc: r!'bJrnsroeDi- Sun'e cnuDtic\ !$bon cnissions. Thcse lactors buoy lndll.n,'n, lt'llhout hctttu dtodn ^n.
s,npiy lie or n.I. uf th. f,.ts. Thirw'5 Bruilk score. but nr rc{:elrt y@s, despitc ooli.luJk;i dt tnil Bo"d policres
commoD Pradrce eong Soviet rlPa the cxhortations ofPoliticidq the 6uDtry iroooo s lrke th< ac.nrbi' rloels surge.
I mtchiks 1'lro, yeai aftcr yw, tuDrhow al h.s bcen hacklidiDg on tnc Amv-on Ibr- 'vlirch
istlnqnqrp looJ I'ntcs shuwho\v
treachcrous erin rcll"intcntioned dcci
T. vrvs stned to ra,l, Il'e rn'lu'tnd dd stt lasi ytr, by dcsign or neglecl, ihc nte
,-'firMmm$t coJrs set fortl, ty thc of cied oning judpe.d rB percent. tle sioN abour the ervironment la bevh€D
KR.rnlm. ft day';Russd bureaucrrts Day cause tres e a reserojr for c&bon, dr theyt€ d,nfomed. lhe 'de hold5 f!'
stitl be en*onmenral figurcr.
fldsinq iLs rinq ihcm rulrrceq otbon dioxidt;nto $e .nns'n,ef who somebms Lhink nq4ng
L l'lnt's why YJe rsarclrcrs de suspicjols rr, @ntnbuti,'s ro sluh,l \vming Rnzrl s,,mrbodv to LlDi r fe$ tre€s wilJ @m_
prnsate lur llying irounJ the $orld in ajr
of Russiat shmkingly shong po{omJnce is nolv rhe world's foulth biggst emitter of
a$instils economic pe.6 lit r$ks 28dj tEs.
carbon, tDainiy duc to the lellingof r,h,es. [ur "u.h d-isiont, d aaressetu
oicrrll. rn,lhich rmorg nations olsirnrl* One .onchsion io be dnm tom thc riJ. lfMa.e aoins tn.\nid rluddermg
L income). "l .to;'t belici€ the Russian dati," Yalc-Cohmbia pmject is the need for bet- .d Daiural Goucs, the quicLer we bd
tLr (lrta, vhich rcquir6 fiDds. AcqDiriDg gin to rely morc ott lads sd lss on as'
'rys Esry.'Ibelisc ir:sijllmrdc,,1.' hish quality daia. eq)ecian"v in i}je derc'l- smptions, dre better. I
{ Bruil c suthcr codfy wl'ose high
i. !_BllisrvLIIK L Jtil-v t/JUI,Y rr, 20o3


BEffi ranks-I3th but itiwas quick to-turn its cconomy green.



I U, *
"'., .nvii onm.nLd lagsaros. b, rhe ro7o.. rhr ri\e' Rl{ne
"uroo.. pui"oned by herv,y i, lusr). G.,mln rFsobarurs
I r
"n" "tnL,;ng.esspool.
I ."u, -,,," *.r"* ur,r,., i,,'*.. -d rn" scandi-nan.rn,ounuies
to cut sullirr'dioxide emissions or b:ln ozone-depletilg'+Lvdrochlorofluorocar-
Lons. lnd'rsrl l{,bbyi<6 and labor unions arguerl t}:r*relrnrdon wouil llll
to prove ihe etrecis dfl)o ution. (Sounil

nnre plDs a bug6ningcnvi- climatc ..haDge and eneryy

ronmeDtal novcDcDt, and :th€ continue to drive the global
r"'tu II ^34

\ o':l,t\ fiat mri,' cren eonomy, no coDtry now
seems better poiscd to PIofiL
, Thc Germm' sucless at
n'i',"-*ff;t*ffifi . grccn ag€.da lrst
bonq tbcD in the EDmpm
Tbday, Gcnmy:nay .be .rhe worlds Union, lnd nor worldwidc stems frcm
grenst mutry-md .noi just b@use the ddisioD to rork jn tardem wiih iF
salmon once.gain rctlm to spaM in the dnsby lrom the staf, not,againsi iL 'Ihe
RhjDe. Af@ !ado^!. score beter overall coDiry's 66t EnvironneDt minister-
or Yale aDd Columbia's E rnornenbl KaDs Titpfer, a consenative, no ls-for-
Perfo4ndce Indd (EPl), md Germany nulated a blueplint in ihe 198os that stjll
sti]l lags in prote.tinghabiiat dd;rctrb- ho]ds roda] Cls;er tehnotogy, Topfer
ing gas-gDzzhrg tiN. But.:mong corn- saw, l@ a my to modemire Gennany'$
uies naking then*lvs.g@n by dsign, rnetaLb%diag eonony. lThe idea
G€many is No. l,! sa'sYale'sDdiel E.sty, war to creat !)wkctsdd busin€sses that
Ge.many's nassi€ tummud gB profit from hisher enviroDmental slan-
far beyond its erfironmental clernup, its dards," salB Andreas Kmeiner, direcior of
decouplilg of eneqy fmrn economjc the Faologic Institute, a.thini tu*,in
grorth md a suge in mewable Tlowei BdliLlAnorherkey\r%stoplanlongnem
More importmt, b@ue of theweight of dd give iDdDstry tine to adapt.l lntim€'
iLs economy dd intenational clout, cer- st@dilytighteningsr.rdedsonpolution,
ndyhasb.n setting standads iDpolicy . ra*€mdre.TcliDgvoDldaddlptoarad-
od technology that are making the world ical ov€rhad ofindnshy dd the e(:ororny.
A 19805 BLI,EPBINT:Irrr@rred the netif t;ghttu;ngofruLt on potlutim; ea'te and w|cl;rg



'l.]r€ etrcct $as nrassive pr6$rc on G€r llien Chancelktr Hcl!]ut lbht lorcerl pow InmD INDUSTAlAL Wth iPPk

I -- .o-pr'*" Itol,Lause
f€qcr reso!r.-s b&
icss ene,tsr- dd
,,'ore ton,
er conrpanis to phase
snrns lon
olt sulfd. emis_
tnc-ir r:oa] fired plarLs; thc Ger_
qt:' :^4'.[!:!':!:4!!:"!r
n, tir'ver\ r,d\ull. 'nir mr.s p.$sc(i llrlsqcls io Pass a sinilar
I Th. c."', s ajs,'.ner d ubje,t Les EU widc direciive oily one ]car later UD_ vu not o'\ to dcan uP its owr comPa
son lr loo r., ma,.strclnr gree lohcl lile rhe slill $ccner scdxlinavims, Ge'_ nies, notorio!s for ignoringproduct safeil,
'l ijDlirt cdneDt $,ccessor, SjADar mady is big orugh to st the agoda for bui also to .Dsure that Clircsc FoducLs
crL,i.l, \a\s thrt krce,' policy i5 mtre\ ils ncighbors, says Mihnda Schrcs, an couki be export.d to the ErroPed Unior's
-q poliq dpot at BerInt 490 nillion consumers (conrPard wi$
sootl ,ndustJiil pnl,ct .imql !t t,uLtrng eDvironm€Dtal
L s..n.u', "n!,"'es rt ih( hrdrr^ltirthc Iree Universj+ TaIe thc feed it tdi{l a Anericas 3oo million). Since itt usually
says is a "thnd iDdusirill revolDtion," dria' sche e ti.t po{e. compaDics to more efiicjenl to inanuhcture to a single
r rn br sreen teh an,l Ll€n cncrry' Much buy Dp rcne{ab)e eD.rgy at marked up slandrd, Asiar co.,irdrjs olteD choose
ut c".-.'trt g,*",nment is t*l'in]i the rats froF aiyonc who wants to generato the stricier GdmJn or EU tegllatjons
[- 1n,gLrm. the Rser.b M,n,stry linJs it, 'lbe I]ans invented it, but Gcmany Nni,nodorJly. GcmJny's rionc.rir g

R&D, while tbe Eenomjcs MinisEI mar- adorted it .nd,alhosi ore.night 6Fted role has Aiv.n firms a h@,1 5L1rt in de
il,e mrldk biggst marler for wind drd \clopins Lhc techn"lagyto meet urt en{
i keG Ccmar Sre.n-t{h e{|ortds abrcr,l
siddddeiial ire oftEn copieJ
I Thc FrneLe tuidstn. rhrodah the strt. sold powel Dozens ot otner .ounlris ronmenbl
[- ome,] Raonso'uction credri astr.1, fi- Gon Broil to Indon6ia have since pNed htc b\ oljred. rvl,en the EU rdoPtsl
nancs cdmm rc.€wabie cnersy IrO s;milar Tlanlis io $ee feed in c.-,i,v\ q'llirriraidc st2ndanls in tle
d rt\ .roruLl ll'e qorlJ \vl,ile &e hrifl's modeled arourd rhc vorld on the resus, iomp$ies l;kc S'emtns aLerdy
l nvcloomeut Mustrv introduc6 Gcr c(man dmpk, tlie global ,dket haq l,ad the.lsnrp tohnulogy rcrL! to instill
[- mm e.een tech to chrn.', tnd,a mdafrio cxpdded drd pnces are conillg dom. on t}Ic cortjnent's mal-6red Pow€r Planb
"ltt gleen policy, but it's also divcD by The ipple eiTects ofGermdyt iader Tbday, Gernld companjes re leadels in
shiD rcle N Glt far.nd wide and djsPutc photuvulLl,Lq. wind rlrhinc. mste mM
f GemaD econonic inteets,'sDs Sr-(l,a
r,e€mcnt mJ (cylliog. ALtording to a
it tl,tuller-xraoner. d,rector of the Natc the conventional wisclom that highe. envi'
Conscrvarcv in Berl,r'. ronment l stddards ju.,t scnd dirty plo- 2oo7 stldy bt the Rolrnd tle.ger consult_
From tire stdt, the Gelm s pushcd duction olfshorc- ld 2007 (hina adoPted ,nA Amup, compdr6 sleoalir'
I their Eorop@ Union prtnea to rdopt the EUk drectives thai prohibit h@dous ina in ecofn€ndly iecn aLeady have a
It- sm r stailuds-nut lest to ]cvcl d,e substmcs and mandale recycling of tumover of €15o billion a Year tirh
playing fielLl lor C"ms firms. Forqd houseiold applidces ud conmmer elm srcEth averaging 8 percenl a year- Grem
ple, when in 1983 the govcmment of the boni6. iror China, says Schrctus, the ide tech. the sirdy sat€, til] pass @s to be'



of sel)s Gennany on ihe
Not in Our Park, Mister
i "sreen cLononic mirade."
rtcentlv. Gcmmv hos stcpped uo WHEN THE SWISS PBOTECT LAND, THEY MEAN IT.
iis ;forts to t2i<e its cnviromcrtal leader
sbit beyon{l Euopt. Al tit Sali climrte
confercn(e last DLtember, ChrnLello. An :'l5$iEtffilEranks No.1 in the green index, scoring near-perfect marks-
sela Mdlel promjsed a unilalenl redDc
tion of Geman carbon cnissioDs by 36
Frcent below 1990 lwels by 2020 MerHe 3]y WILLIAM UNDERHILL
a lso pu\hed ihe 1-U scrt by 20
a wholc tu
j'dcint, to he mistd to 30pocentifan in OR A CIJMPSE OF PRIMEVAL
lematioral agrecment ms reached. ln ENpe, hetd lor the high noun-
Mar Gcmany ple(ked €5oo nilion a taiN oI eadcm S\'ltzdlDd. lD
ytrto ielp developing coutr;s protecl
ihe wnd s@ne.y oathe Swi$ Na-
forests and habit^ts. ihe EU this tional Park, ihc authoritis havc
ya began a]]oving mernb€r stats to auc- sought to re-create th€ mnditions ihat pre_
tioD ofl emissjons certificats (imtead of qiled 5,000 yeals agd No tre6 are aelled,
giling then alvay frce), Gemmy w3 the no nadors mown dd no uimals- hut
onty .ountry to spmit that the vinclfall ed. thc ibex and the beaid€d qr-lture, once
wolld not go into the general budget but dr;vo to neu extinctioD, now 0ouish
to pay for specrnc sreeD tech projmts. of .sain after their rdntldD.tion in the lst
thai, one tlird €l20 millon ihis ye.r bui €rt!ry- WolB liare retumed to the re
dsins sharply as the auctions gear rp- h6 the ocmsional btd.
sjon, $rd so
will go to renewtble-energy proj@ts in de- A .are geshft to nature conse{ation
Fod a natlon fmousiy ddoted io com-
Theft are some serious blotehs on il,e me(ei Not so. WhcD it comes to oviron- BoarElJrThe poactioN go b@L to t914
cemanJ record. It scoc badly on rhe DenLd protection, the Swiss .an po;Dt to
EPI on biodive.rsiry, aDd iLs hiSbly subs; tradition. As fs back 3 r91.t, the nation
djzed larnrers and fishern€n dory. creaied the oklest natjoMl park in the Alps b:EiN wiih historyanct tre inPortdce of
nore than dreir shm of hm. Cemars or aryvhtre jD cirtral t]ll.ope. And thc th;,r,lpiDe ]d,Gqpc iD the nationai Psy_
de grca! i! s€tuq iD tc.lling rhe Bdjlids tndition peEists vitli a hdp oflegislation .hd Th fou original .utons that .-me
to plotect tiei! indig€nous speci6, btri last th^t Gtablishes more thD 20 ne; national togeths to lbm the nDcleus of the Swiss
year, $
en . wild bed retmed to ibe Ccr- plrks. Snall wooder drat the country took place in Yale Dd CohDbia's Ennron'
Mtion in the l3th century en@mPas sP€_
dar AIps after ar absoce ofn€+ a ce.- iacular moutain ludseps "The Alps
tDry, a Dalionwide hyst€ria bmke out, nnd rnenrrl Perform,n.e Index with a set of ire pln nl the $hol. Swiss dF}lology,"
mgcrs sllot the "intruderl A similar 'no perfetnals. \4s Soler, Swiss reprG.nt tiveultl'e
h)"ocrisy ls so far lot G(mDy chrg to Itt e achiftment-
that few t"h -"hon'l comision"Itforis
m old ageem€nt to phase out nuclw wor d challense. Moie thdna]f thc llotedioD of the Alps.
polver by 2030, despite the rappnisal of the forests that cover 30 percent where switerldd was bom "
nuks as a carbo.'f€e enersy sourcc. olthe c1)Dtry have gotten For' . EnvircmeDtalsts have tal'
Critics also say Gemm policis donl esr Stewalilship Coucil cerbfi- en ad@tage of Swis dircct
alwals pronote eff€ctiveness and eficier caiion, the intemational halt denomcy, which a]ll'm citi
.y, espccially if c6G ca be handed do\rn lldk or g@d pncti(g In the ?rns to demmd a releEndm
to tarpayers dd colNnels. Sone poli- EPI, Switzqlmd sored 65 in on the issues ofth€n choosing.
des ft oubight nutty. fbrseholds de re ilie efi€tiveness ofits mnsee The oneirt @nstmction ofthe
quired to sod thdr trash into six .liferst iioD m@res, comp?ftd vith a averrge worldb longst dd del6t rail ilmcl
containers- ryen rhough noden rccy- of25 for its Deislbors dd 51 lor others of hene,th rhe St Ciotthlrd ml'rif in $"
ciing plmts sort glrbage vith gqter cfi- similar weatth. This is aI the more jmprs AlDs to.liven heaYy lioght b-afic otrthe
cienca md preision, dd nnDins p&a]lel dr€ considering its poprnation density -"a.-f"tl '* rationai "ote. So, too, drd
collcction Estms is a trcmendous r€ste 176 people per sque kjlonet€r, more thd movstob6n herry loreigD trucks.
of cneryy ad rsouce. Mce the figm for cretre, largely oncen- More tlrd 40 yeas ago Pelamsl
i D€spiie occasional orcrze*ousness, h-nted in the ellets ud lowlands. The pNed laws to prctct edmds. modows
'liewewr, Gernany's gEat corbibution is .outry hs naMged tojuggle the neds of ;mr Ainine strms 3nd slacjs cm for
to show that enviromental progras dd psple vith thc needs ofiLt rAdife, qm- the enviMmot is now vlitten ilto the
ironomic dselopmeDt ne€d not be mDhr iDg it more thd double the areEge Eum- Crnstitrtion. Ar artide added in 1996 ex
aliy dclusive. A bit of it, of ou*, is p€n sere for bodircrsity. "You m sim nlicirly obligs the governrnent to pmmoie
Iuck-the counby wouldn't b€ at this set in oy ofou lales, and tun on dy tap and sustaimble fcmins dd tlte uPkeP ol tbc
spot today ;f€nergy and commodity pnB driD} the mtcruith plea.sre: sqs Hans- tural lmdmpe New pdks. scn as a boost
had stayed low. 3ut lor deiding edly on Pcter Fricker. h@d ofthe Swis ofice ofthe f^r r.,'rism amldnsetraboD. wiU b€ s€t_
that gre€n is an opportunity, not a threai, World wide Fud for NatM, tered acos tie co\Dtrt On t}le envimn_
w]ry sc} dedic?tion? ODe explanitjon rnent, lhis Dation isnl stdding still. t


ich Farmers First
scores better than Europe on agricultuml subsidies, but it's backsliding quickly.

I rcws about the tendencies of govenmenl Soaring rop priccs o{Gr a tremcndous oppotunity for smart re
lorms and leal economic development. In ich countries like Westem Europet and the United States, high
price$ could, in iieory mrlc ;t easi€r to wean fam)ers tiom lavish subsidies, plugging holes in dre public budget
rnd putting tne world's farmers on a rnore ler..el playing field. That, alier aI, hes beer rhe slated goal officFmarket-oncntcd
lpvernmenrs iD the United Statea aor manyyears. I-oweri ng subsi(iies ltr)uld als.,lightcn l|Inrers'fooQrjnts on tlre lardscape;
bsidizxl and protecied farrne$ usually plow ioo much land and trcad heavily \vidi f.rtjli7.c.s and pe-stlci dt:s- \\4lich nakes
I 'I rll Lhe mor surt'n.rngtnilurcre new EU !,rml,E,; ..,.-t, ds
poldd, do .iuci Letter on the
menis .rc squudenng thc op
sponse ofthe ltDited Stntes in lirticu prtuniry 01 high food pric6. In
Lrto rhe lood c;sjs has been to do the EPI'S flbsidy score lE-ause tldr
oaix)d riots and uDr6t.

tlre I;rce
marry hare pa .kd by dmF
olp..,teotwhdl$.,ut',,,rrh, {"(omcnt,dorth,ve.onu.}
.n,"u," 1t_t atrf,o.,gh $" ing dom on ery.rLi on the ihc
rorl.l e.onoDy' Clvcr lhc last monti the t U-t"A Stt"" lar ii-e.'ila,l , ory ihft kecpntg prodrcts otrthe
U.s. consress l,as tasse.l new legislation sodl record on sisilie, tte world mdler will l€ve more at
tharvill heap even morecash on farner$ EPI stldy sh{m that U.S. fam
L The honc India, for dmplq for
biil will enend r progrm that pro- prcg]lrm m not ne{ty u lavish Lade ils f,'nd fmm 6?orhng
tmts U.S. strEar troducers froft lvorkl 6Elropc's.Ameriqhowdd,is ri@ edlier thjs yoi'l}ral ofered
{' conpetition by gdardieeing dut thet nou(a&iingup. a icmponry fix for high local ;.e pnc6 but
[. rlone can keep most ofthc U.S. markct. lt lt is Dot !D a€idcrt that t}lc lat st U.S. deplscd the price that lndie:s rml faD'
channels money io a widc range of fim- thm bil mse jn b election yd. Da?ite ds g€t for leir pro{lucl. Mqnvhile, inte.-
ers regardlsss of whether ii]ey need it, its hugc a.d nnnGsary ost s well s a natioDal prjcs rose, .Dd other govern
I drd it indexes ns subsidis to already rvdll'del€red veto by Pmidcnt G@rse w. Dents havc ben tcmptqt to follN sit As
[. high dop prices, which puts thc sovem- Busl! $e le$slation is so popdar with each govemmot takes Datters into its oafir
ncnt oD thc i,ook for mssive palDcDts politiciaN ke€n to (xm rc,electon that it hdds, the onlerly globrl trade in Iood, eventrally declire. passed by a large enougb naJgin ro oreFide which hs hf,en a nain clcnent of a more
'ftis is mcrly the kind of thn,g dDt $e theveto, The fann lobby kepswinning be prcdD.tjw md st1Ie rtrrld fosl slstm, is
L UdtedStateshasdcoriatedEuopefordo- 6usmostfarmpolcyissiftda@rdingto coming DMveled. Thc Chinese govm-
Envi the age-old l(r$n in potitics: the boefits
ing in inepast. Yalet md Calmbia's ment is now retting piatis to date its i)m
omeDtal ltrloman€ Indd onnms are chbndd to spftial intcr.sts, ud the ddliatql glob.l Iood-suptly chaiDs to en-
qhat bat l,eer lm(Jm for y@6: drc Euro- cosL3mdiflnsedtopsple$iodon.tnotie sue that China gets whaL it !dds.
L pean.omties etlre lDrst ofiEnders in tbe or cant do mu(b to chdge the poucy. Faced with today\ high food prics,
hrnhing ofagriontral sdrridies. (TIre EPI ADoim taxpayers and €tas IEy a sau sc.h gove$nent has tendcd aolook at thc
tr:m m()Nrd shsidie Ning a merhod pan of the total Gi, but mril Eotly tney tssDes fiom ;ts om pmpective.
rpplid at the World Bant: theyl@k at ihe didn t notice it. EveD wo6e, f.m6 in the Tbitt uDdestodablc, but tho govm-
r" ditrertDce betet€n ihe m d narket pri€ rqstoftbevorldsDtreruderthispolicyh,- ments haw soften togethe. in efforts to
lo. pmducb dd tie a.tual price inside qch caBe they €nI sel d nuc}l ofthei!pr(x], dql with rh6e pmblens in concert they
rufty.) Tne ncher nernbs ofthe Ellr uct iD the U.S: marker; subsidies have al$ haven t done \re.ll either The Doha ltoud
oed Unjot, suc.h s Fmce, cemany and dmpeoedvodd prices dd nade ithard to of lnde illl<s ;s alt but d€d, havins
L B;tzin, have maintained thse p@r pnc plo inBlrnmts in imlorialt mps like foudered mainly on the inabiljty of suv-
tiG b@aB their ftm lobbis m strong comaDdsugd, cmments to agrft on fam poliry. Agriol-

I )ut also b$aDse they N ricll The pooE Anoss t}le dseloping wrld, gorcn- ture has been pildal to those t"lks because


sovemmcnls have .lreldi nade sch ,grcc oD ar 'flre Rome stmmit SWEEr DEAt-U-S.famtu get b;g etbJitli5.
trogress oD reduciDg trnde-brtie.s on made !o prcgiess on theise of bioftelsj
other and serviccs, .nd boaue thc rrhich aG pushins up {bod prices, bec-ause najor somnents de actively Dder
Doln ltound Ms aimed at hclpjng thc the gowmments d,at have backed biofdels mining lll thc; main tenets of liee, global
s'orldt poorst, vhic]} requir€s he.lping nost heutily, notably thc Uuitcd Staies, markets. ADd the United Shbes. d indis-
l-he,J f.lineE belum( more proliFhle. re.en't willing io erTose theirbad policiq. peNable forcc ir the worid, has abm.
SuBJidi6 bv nch counrrie-s arc r , hi.ant\ to ;ntematjonal smtiny. doned its role 6 champion for narket
stacE to flrcs- and the ncw U.S. larm Periodicalv the vorldt {bod narkers lbrce. $4En the EPI tr)m updat€r its
prqram vill nale progls ever l]ardei- hnh into qisis. crops fail; demand dd s.or6 ndt fe2r, the Unikd States will
Even \vhcn gorernm(TLs satl,eriust to supply dorc in Dexpe.ted wls, BDt probably move doil'Il a notch or tro-
rlos on fooJ ths lnrE hid i r'me mdkeLs help rcctiry drose iDbaldc6.
maliog progrcss. iast moDth lso goven 'lbey deate lood secuity tlrough fldibili t'tcmR{Ar b oftha I'togldn an Encgt d,tl
menLs met in Rolre for the united Na q, and they be.lp even the world's p@resr sutainabb D*Inpnflt at Sta4fonl Urijnry.
snnit. 'fiicy gushed bro
tions' aood lame6 get their lait share of cconomic Hc n rsnio*tba,zt th. ancil on Fate;gn
mides about tle nee{l to address the opporldnity. 'Ihe bad ne$s about the cDr R.trtiw ad h6 d4yiyd thc US. gwntudt
ernent crisis, bui they vere unable evcn to renl food crisis is that most ofihe Forld's



, lEHffiEB ranks t0th in the EPI because ofits snpply of clean energy

ered a disadvantage, but notfor ]r-mnce Forty years ago necessity Ied
I prLr"uc power aq 3 ctucl


srd heding over thc nc\1 50 Yeds, vith hudrcds of$irNands ofyea6, makingit
prolisions for. theiseue disposat,of nD- difi.utt tordispose of sfet R.tber'6an
plm stta(t pluto_ Yuccr Moul ain, Newda wnjeh h6 bes
dd mste. adE ced roctot deEIoP bury it, the Frenc h is to
$e Ff.n$
nent.and possibl€ fuel sho.t2gs. It is'a nnrmfron l}lc tueldd oixitvidLNo' nird in politi€l oppositr@.
nohedrrj iln to.make ar.w tuel caled rcnosiLtd is lDDded The s'te qrr De
kiDd oI] so-yes-long rsp€Ihigh'avlwith
rlrious oD- dd ojillmps llEtgiee it the MO)L or nihed oxide- 3ecaw'Mox .*l to *. nrel tmpolirily vjtJ] the
fldibiliV:to handle . changing technolo- yields alout one third $e enew of the option to rcErde it aL a lats dite Bv
gies. OdEr nations would do well to mu- ;nginal en,iched uru ium. thjs *ep eff(- abotrtthemiddl. of the century Ment
tiveh.inlEss t$e milE se F@€ gets trenils ar€.ry iniLlcation, a worldwide
Fmce's drrent plo
vas begu in the ftoln the on_ejnal eeicled Lruimtuel. short ce of tllaium maY dise Th?reeent
1990s .oD the assmption:&ai nuclear l he left@cE fon this pr6lis DDst still thct p;ssibitjty, FmDce is now doing rbe
pover will remm the mainslaY of be isolated for hundrcds oi thoNmds of a&n on.a nev eencratim of ad!3nced
t Fmce\'icii seneotins srstem tor yl]s, hot tbey dont pos the pmlifqatim "".le,r
Hctors. ;aled bre€dels, tht can
produ@ new tucl ,or itself or other'r@c-
the lons tem. french ptlNers,e also haa.d that plutonium do€s.
positioning its:Duclerindustry to tate a gpoloCical tors. Rati€rthm buryingiitst stcP€ma
'TbeFrench bave trepared
aah"ntase oIm expdsion in the world's repos;tory for safely disposing ofndio(- noth ard then facina a tutl shonage'
gcneration of nuclear powerr which tive qzste. Unlike tne Us repositoryrn Fmc'e will bc in D cn iablc positjon ol


N:UKE* lttunt n bein;nCnorc dahts

matlers at lmst ihcy scem to be ronsider

rbly rnore mtioDal. Their loDg-rdge nu
.lear'eDerSf plm v6 devclope{l 1vi$ tie
involveDelt of their cledric Dtiti9, t]le
colnpey that builds theii nucled rsctois
nld thetr CEA. (tho equivalent oa the U.S-
Departlrent ofEncrgy). The contrdt bc
tw€en how Frma od the Unitdl StatE
handled thc @ntrovelsial isstrc ofnuclear
wa.ste is stdk. 'rb scttldtthe wLde issu€,
France relied on thc Parlimentary Office
for Sci€ntific sd 'lbchnological tAssess'
nent (POSTA); ajoint .omrnittd oftlrcn
two boNes olPdilid;roE 1'tiose membd'
ship is piportio;at to thc repr6eata.tion
olthc loliticrl panie,s, a civil-senmt stng'
and a high-levei cnedul scientifc adeisG L

ry co]mittcc lF 1991, ihe FrenchiPA:lia-

ment; on iic aaldce ofthe POSiIi! pdsed
a lav giviDg ihc govemnenl l5 yetrs to re_
lFn back{ith tbejr prop6al for hddling
nuclea. Fsh:. In 2005 POSIA begu a sc'
dcs of hclnngs on the govemmentk Pro_
posal (I t$ti{ied at one), inclddinA hcir.- in the a.ea wherc their proPosed
repository woold bc lo€ted: The re$lt
wrs t]E Act of 2006 blessing the nuclea.
m{d ,nap. Thc F.ench Public never
p(aic+.dd n6.orernuclarP,iweri Prr-
haps becausd ol the opcnless of Fiench
ddision nakingi ln contrst, the United
Stats cohar€nt long-tetn: policy
dd h6 not becn able to site a rePository
cvon after 20 yees oftryingr.
Ttre Unitcd Stats stiu ha +c li$e-st
n!mb(.ol€ctors (lo4l, whrch *upPly 20
petcert ofrhe nation's electricity. It is still
the b6t in iie mrld ar opdating'nuclm
power plmts*uptine has dsen ftom'60
' percnt in tlre r98os io morethm gorper-
cent todan ldding 50 percent to nucle.r
el@ticity g entioD capacity ' wiihour
huildirg any ns plants. But die Unjted
-sbte; ii no iongo bcreader iD matters of
'rpolicy, ttrh.ology t. nmtfaabningj
Frmce bas assrDdl drtrole, and it is pG
havinA a virtually unljnited sdpply oafuel: tulio.ctire cothponcnts of spent reactor sitioned veit lor a futdre ofgletn energy.
Brecd6s, of .oNq ee rot new. They fi,el, creating a lcw way ol dispnsing of
lvcrc lirs1 derelope.d 20 yff ngo in tlre this hazadou! nltend more efie.tively 9.1c1ttE1\ o Nabel L&r.ate, i' ?tufeso, of?Lrn6
United Stlts, but shclverl for lcr that the drd sfely tbao is dow possible. waste it st4frd anl4naibd afnt us. Dqrimer
pluto.ild l}ley crcate would causc prcb beared by m id'€lced bEeder wodd ofEtdsrt Ntuten E rs! A.ttnMJ CoMitE .
lclns io.Lspos.l dtl proliJ.lraLi.F. Tbe Ded to be buned o y tor a thoDsdd I L h6'me.l 6 an ddwn to theF@\ gM-
t'_rE-eds tecnnology thitIFn.. d?c(ts to yds, grody sinplifying the safc8lards ndt an nnkn p$a bdf@ Ndnbd2oo3:
havc lcady for commercidliation in 30 n€dcd in a repository to Mdrrh 2oo\ eB M thc bMit ofdiftctfi ofrt.
yeds addr6s6 tbese coDcems. Tbc rac- Americes tend to see the l'renc}l s m US- tultidia ofFffih r.tut da&fAREUA.
lo.s could bc used to .lesboy tle lorg-lived cnotio;al people. Howwer on tcchnictl Hr no rhq6 ]w sq ti6 totht ntu.Lsir.tutl!,



cotvttrlrnctlLLY ExTlNcT.
{o m! protea,"o"". ttigh over all but
fails to marine wildlife.

boals mooled in the French
Meditcrrd@D. Port of Scic de a
bider reminder to Frencb fishcr'
man Dois tsiN{maro of ar
necked , aMr sd an indNt-Y sone {,! .
_ll'e Libt fligs. but it's com-
bobts cirry
,non knoslelgc tl,at they e FEnc}l
.rDt"Ds. fts dld 'ittl \Mtlr tl@hed
n ,ind. ljbw qtcrs m @mpellhF tNi
rrc mde dd rbat f€wpoticePa-
rrol lhe ^bun.Itl
s@cd be bnbq! saF Birs(jmmo.

businNl offishbg- flf€lost. a

lor of money the l6t two )e{s: '
he sls.
Meditemnem :fisbermen
m hurtiog: siocks of blue[n ",
tlm, b'"far $e se.rh dost ']@
mrnicaly inpodslt, 6sh,.@,,
dngeioDsly lo* .\lthoush
l 'nanv @unti4 she $e
*nrlrl , m"st (]ffnsrvc fith -a loo-t4.ldIi!- D un'leacr ' aB(s ro nonhsbrnt
btane, ihe.chief cdpii!.say fishcries d' wH(h.bke rle riJ"'":91:::-
DcrG, js Frdce- lts Mnual qDoll acomts
(u 6ili largetv dnKn
'op '-2s r^ir,."'"r,- wosr,r iuv'triJa. Lo oinhor p s $h@
ior onc Iffi the cntire lesral qtrotd ofAF i'" ij'ii"Ti"i#id."-;r'.
I lDtiel for'alrcoDtries;Saetor in illt i.lifi"'. .".-doos ha"e rhqy''eibtoed ror s'le
-1"'"-n.r,j;- L-., *.,;*
gil otchs, hd Fmceb tal@ climbs to ii"" ",'';"ii. 'auJ "i*
it'" uu.p"- Lommission rdstrvrB
aboutoDethiid of all AllMbc hm €ught i.. o, bi".L tl'" ruls The chasbsed ld(e tor nedlv rea'tJn8,
I '".r..r'
.',rcnl dE ol ovcrGshins rs drMn8 quoLl lo dr's ;nlo LIle scsn wno a'
last ,season, ultDding ,to Glmpace
I 'wlen it ores to btuenn hDa in the \.'l.djkrtrFd blupfin hDa rotl"l",*of gm in Mry. flEl niJn'r ''oP in-E^r:D:l'
Mcditerid@, "Fmce js the worsti says ommerial enjnftion. Scienusb ar the goEnnol rrom sPeedrng
lnlematiooal (ltlm;ssron lor lhe Coosn lionaid prcliSe to the Lqtungrnousrv' al
FEnch biolosist Dariel Pauly' dnector of
utionof ar-foL;.rr,ns, r-t'F Mailrid rrgu rer h'\Pmen r@k ro the bcrisol Han'n)
iic Fishaies CenEe at de Univsiry of
Pro!{q high tuel nr;c's dd Bres
Brilish C.lunbia. r,on umiauon. orimalP thal ihr '€
.ar qsur; an m,al, auch ot lS o0o totB ils grEo Moal lrmc-F st'u dn r seeiD @
ilr,iililii'i.iJ-;;+!;il..s.i wirl to drb ;mpot
, Bead an ini€rviet $,fin marine blol0gst 19-E:-ry"*:'1
Daniel Pauly at strdN*seeekcoi
The Mad Experiment
alone,butaspart of tle U.A.E., which comes i$at112th,

,)TCHIUSTOPHERDICKEYT aldgas-bmingplmtstha!.I€adyh:Mm
ifialled capaciry or l.2b bilJion l,ters a ddy.

dcr€d a fewy€rns ago. Threehuge desigaer

dclripelasG hare erupted in die sea, in-
clding one rhat foms a map ofthe world.
'Uie qDestio4 envimmeniilyspea.king, is
whether this mad,. visioDqiy expeimcnt
reprseDts athr@ttothe world: .
The Envilonneotal Perforndrce lndex
for i,\c Unit€d Arab EmiEies gives a aair
id€a ofthe impact that Dubt hN had so
tu i
the En mtes, lideration that also
incllds AbD Dhabi dd five other states,
d*s way dom the IIPI jist at rl2, m ap-
palling per{onnae for a Nlnty that t
fdlls xnong the worldt 30 richst. By com
peison, ahe vorst Duropu nation in the
sme income Foup, BelgiurD, cones in .t
5Z morc than 50 places .nead ofthe nni- I
ntes, whicn scores as poorly as ene of
the world's 30 p@rest nations. No rich !a-
tion dcept Ku'ait lags its peeru so badty.
And iI llubai alone wcre sure]rd, &c
rumb€rs would be 6r Mrs€.
'rhe nain prcbleD is not environden-
tal health forllDn beings. Therck plenty
of ilrilking Mter, dnnls to the ldt de
salinaiion plmts' md smitation is g@d. PLA}]TG TtlE DESEm GEEI$ E ey;thm f odt;okl dteftdiinnt:ttn?tii elniivndtt.
The rea1 poblem'is vhaCs beirg doneto
the nat@I. 6os)st€ms, The,EmiEted enorrnous malls will sboll along 5%lk-
score-on tliat Fort is, a:miserable 38.2- va]s mong guJgling sttt]ms-" At Dubai:
while rhe tlimat€ cheg€" score ftom all lmd, rhe deve.lopeB tel us, tbe slogaD js conld see mile after.mile of llat bottoiit. A
the oil andg"s bming is an ablsnaL26.6. "Thinkbiggc." Snowwoddwi bc grander spokesmm for Nal$ed, the doelopment
In Dubai, entsiaimmttrmps the en' tho tha indoor slope aheidy operating in fiim building the Palin Island complss,
viFmot evqlvhw ]ou hrn! imitathg Dubai: 'the only ptace in the world sfidb i€centlr responded to criticisln Fon
jtad r€.onstitutinA.iti Onlha ir and edge ;t snows at 40 degEes CelsiN," bng &e grens by claiming.thairhere aJ€ actually
ofDubai a stupendous,thme.park ed F del€lopss- Ther€t also Bio world, a rut nore sea slasses, morc fish and more wi-
sdE."onpl.r ,now' u"d* ' rain foicst nnda gts, od a eti6 of lile in the sbaliercd:satds of the
sddctio; aihE$siLself's,186 wild-animal peL -IhiDL @- Paln JimeiEh the'oldest of'the artifcial
",il.;"q;;;-:;;; ,/d tourism, thirkbigs!" iDtone arehipehgoes, t}Ian:iherc trlerqbefor€:-But
the, videot lr:rmtor.. "Eco' of @urs6 that is:the poinq: drthc prob-
ilffitrffilT;:TffiY /J# iouismr? ThiDlchutzpall lem Many of-those grasss od 6sh may

*:ffi,ft1*i-i#jj )K
Lond qid@ mlls it "a lt r,sy
t ond uiil@ (----J;
t sy U:a- U
If you:go to Dubai dd get notbe nnti\€ to theregioD-Dubai js lj@tr
lM,l ser riqhr in rhe he* ril r \' , ./ stuck'in trafic (which you :i. ;ng m ecology tha! is lew-beyond the
most €nainh wil)i you'[ see sp€ctm of hunm erpsience' or na-
insrandy, md fe.l in you €l€st lurc's-dd whqe th.t wi]l lead nobody
ine b€.lcling; bntal impact on I

mtion rvithin thegoverlmsLi l
,Chinat ennircDmertrl h€adaches ru
tl,e e_dul but most can bc linted b$c
so;hins Dae 0r eonomic grosah. Fa(
toist}latemit.opious amoutsDf smog,
s@t dd rarbon have sprout€d md
cheaply. .PollDtitrg, unsaG coal mines dc
sobusa (dd luctivc) that.orl cza6 rF
loath to Nb Chintc overidins dep€n(l-
eDe on coal,as aa energy soucdlAs a:re_
srit, China scores-?ooiy on tey etegoris
L sch as watd,polludon, indDstrial Co,
em;ssions ed iDdoor air Pollution (which
in some es*is linled io the llsalent{se
@al brick for wdmti duins
of bunnc_o".
L *"r".\ rh'nt of. china: rivetr
md three qu,rters of jts.majorlakes e
-':'hishly potlutediaccodin8-totieOECD,
g, vbich late last yqrreported that up io3oo





' ti
million peoplc dr;rk cont@irite{t ratei sct'go a ioljvest in iqmvins
Hu Jintao md other lmdeB have E tlre imp.ct ofthen opantions oDt}le envi-
ho,ted:tic mss4:to .rdte a "Esourc€_ rorment "ODe pav a big Pnce" to
s.rns. cnviomcnl Gsdb.!(trr.' But FalizeGrcen cDP savs ctunge AcldeDv nD.lercDt fws of @Domic ovdh@dng,
,,m;Uinq ,fpmrcbils ro lo ow of so(iJ scre n.6 Lsearher Li shi I slopped attrnding Gren GDP meetings
rl,is:lo*d is i huse.on"nJrum ha aus' I n'e I i rcport on Lhe Dtdun\ G"o Wlthout uy nunrb.r to cruncl, the ini'
lor tloarle tlrc biggst lactor in thcir GDPwd isucd in 2006 bl'whatvddEn t arivc Isg{6hci}. Th€ ndtydl.s rePon
Drcmodo$ ha b*n $er loulitics l-he Sl,lrc envircment l Prols tion vas postponed jldefi nitely.
,,ononii-rmqh nt.. ll,ishastumtrl3 cgenryand d'c NaLioncl Bu @u of SLius 'fhe.G@n GDP fiasco PutrhebureaD
h!,se.ostithemiromot.&tordingto tic (NBS)' lt qwtified dle cononic cEtic rsistatce to rcforDs dd tbe need
rh;{orld Banh polhtion and othd ePi- Iosresre"sdting ftdm €nviroment'labus- 1dr.@rdimlior uons sotemment m'n-
roment l duag€ msts the ChiDse @n_ s in 2oo+ at 3 peftent of GDB istns ;Dto fc;s C\EentlY
omv as much s 12 D"trnt of GDP.mual- b,,L,lueroclskoiJMLbe r,_ rerc's a-ministry_level unil
lv (includbq -"a;a "*p"o* md tu dmdge ms Lhoughr tu be Iraniltin{ dimate (h gei 4-
d.magetocml,sdd6sh).TheGl1dGDP higherj Almost asr'sooD aa,the other for -ocers; Y€i mother
wrsdpposdltoincorporateihosecr.sts. teport'cmeoug thetwo:agen iackling sDdstoms ed defor
PD iue, a Efolmist vice ministerin ci6: bcgan bi.kding over esettion. md thre€ minisriies
Beijins; vas d edly cnmpion of the no nethodolbgy, fiDdins and, ofl rsDU.srblc for soil andHround_
tioD ofusins a Green GD? torank o6i:ials cowse, politiel ftictioiFs_ wier villases md lrnnlmd,
by:thei|sEnness punishing thoe Petially as top CommDdst?d.
a md laks and xivers, re-\Pective-
lound ]rotins,ld mmaged to vin the ty oficials vied for promotion It wlten th€ toxic-algae eisis
r.(n qpDon;f hrs boss€s h BPijins. bul ,head oft-he 17$ Paif Clongress thar ru- emDred in 2007, devasbbng fish fams in
$e proien wa a nonsure ir r-6e prc"- tum. Crsn GDP r{)m leader wdgJin- ssiem Chinas tihu d<€, Prcviocial iu'
inces.-Arrthoritis ;n.hadsmbble rcgions ne. blmed. foot dngging local govem' ihoritid imted to release Mter upstrea$
with.a lotbfpoluting in&stries'such as mmts- shortly th€!€ller, rcprisentatives to cloar out the.algae dogging thelake, but
Ninsiat Heb;, Sbsrxi dd Imor Mongo- ofthe National Bu@u ofstadstic' noto- fiFt had, to'naligate a b@ucratic m22e
lia-. oppondthcGreerGDPideaFomthe iiousfo!undereportinggrostnfiguesto They appeled to r}}e Agricdture Minist )a


. nich is in (hdgc ol llsh fam\i rhc
I ""+"'hm l\4inis1r. which conrols
I watd-t'€aheDt tldts; the Scicnce oil The New Scandinaviam
Thdnology Mi stry, od d!. Statc Dwel-
. )meDt ud Reform Commrsion, bcforc
I ca,tinsvitJ' the Minisby of 1,1htcr l(c- THE LEGACY OF THE SOVIET NUKE PROGRAM FORMS
Lsourcesi whicb opmed the floodsates
h m etrort ai strearilining, in Marci THE BAGKB0NE 0F AN ENVTRONMENTAL G0MEBACK.-9.
elel€ted ucrurx
r etJtng erevarcq iheftmer State Fnviron'
II .slrtus,
cnr.l Prote.tioD Ascnq to full mh,stry
s,tra Mini\ter Ptu, n,ot l6th overail and is second, to Latvia, in its income group,
cloDt to c@rdinaie.environmental:plio/. I !
r hc r'ew MidsEy nf Enviror'nslil Pm
dion ,s nov lobbi ng otJ r Di n isiries ro
'sha.e p.tlutiorrSat4 a key ti, €iforcimenr l
It ha, hop.s of, a l'€al'1}tmlgh in:
f lers ddstrstrns::?an isralso $oriloring
I rhitous smeinuce projecr,c .uch s a
'i,aiionwjde wctEr Pollulio,' Map" sd
'ting a hish profile in batdng polutio
I iiersencies sich .s tle-hihD.algae-diis-
[ .-jis ] a "sren eolon:s:
'proer-m tiat'woiild p;ide prefer.Ttial '
ails to iDstrdcq credit:and lPOs ior

have moved to a Dore sddinatian *o

'no; social modd, with dl lhat tliai
instancc, so far ihe ministry is havirg a inplies fo. tle cnvironment. Liihuznia
- {rgh tinE I'ersuadrrg Chitrbs bus,re$ s@rs higher tlh average in n.atue of
[ "nsfie ructr .s conmerce, FrDOtr agriculture, fisheri6, irisation, pBticide
[.ud the L]r Btrredu to pDsh forr^@l I vicr burh Du.lqr Ectur-es|.ec,Jly regnlalion and mrer pun+ 'wele nling
emission bxa
foi car buJ€rs dd polDrion to reac}l not only the Scmdinaud std-
,. E6 lor enlcrpljss. But Pao is regsded dad of living, ,b!i. also- its envjmnmental
I s r rhaismaticlqder od sk nl lobby-
L$L "He co do rhings otl'ers Ld t," srls r
st argc my the Baltic stals loi lo
owe a
standanls, too," s.'s Daim SemeDien.,,di-
re.tor of tle Center Lr E.vircnnent l
source who rcqusted monymity bmLs tbe lgnalina nud@ power plmr in lr6a- Policy in vilrJN.
f e ;sn t clrdEd to talkwitl forcign mcdi.. gin6, Uthuania. }-or one, the preence of l-uckily for Lithuania, Iitvia dd 'Esio-
TIE Gftn
I!- gal\mi;ns GDPprojert djd $caed in the pldt, plunted iD the middle of tl,e nia, their S@diDavjs Deighbors have
sorne li-kFdinded provincial counttlside:by I the strDke of a:,litosow ben morc.tharrj$hle mcidelsi Since the
l@des, partid]]dlynayols of moilest'sih bueauaratt pen, helpd ignite LithD iat dly dals.otthe Baltic states' indepdd-
I itis 1'+rdc cMn indussis baee been ,iirlspi;ng
fledgling ero.movement ir.ther lg8osity cn@, Nordic coDtnes have pored huge
ILr€l&ingrcot. ln Chdgslu.for iGtee.te activjsts to oppose itsrpldDed ,mnnnfq .i mnnFv i"t; .ll rlFF lr1l6t:
pldts harc reently laNc}led r.ctcling
nrojects and r a-:carbon-dedit sc.hei€.
f idn adv@t6.iso took hean that rle fi- ndvmcnt to Soviet@pation. Call it . gianl gieDoeDtoring
I rl political worl nprt at last autm\ "l}le envircment was one of schenei rhe Swedish. govem-
-Party Crngr$ plr.d sMter mphrsis on the first things to srface dunng mdli allomted about €200 mil-
.usLlinaltte derelopDent md enviromenl'.: corbachet's ,.la'ot bduse ii .lion .to firnd Swedishled eo-
f 'l polmon rl,an wr t€for(. E t.hinJ ms . nFural t*uc. dd ir \6 prcje.ts in the n ticstater.nd
[-'nnks vidim oiits ('M slc ess. Onc,eson n n .' R.dls lns's LisLs. un- aorthe<tem lrnssid .finland
" Isr in ils income drile saboBging J(r sardary rr d. Ufiunie -Iocused on listoni vhileDen-
;'s "we rc loo p@r to be gIeo" argDent Ministry ot trnjronmdl "Io mek spent €48 million on
* : Epid sDeth,Party led-
itr adLliction to Lithumia, envimmental consciousness Lithudia betrcor r99r md 2oo2- Wattr
L_-s 16 $ar goit'g too green too {an vill p@oled iDdepodence." prnfication ms d @ly prioritr:becaNe
hut iheir busiDs parnrds dd their rreo- Pedoxjml . s it may seem, tlE of.oncems ovq pollutioi in the 3altic
lq.who are alr@dy faeling ine lain ofin- Chemobyl-cn gimt is nov al{ey elemot S@. The DDropee U ion did jts bit, too,
ation ald isins prcductioD costs- Baling in the Baltic st.ts' ompdln to roch the prcviding frnding to h+ the Baltie mm-
,nDst forge in.€ntives i iin its om bu, world-batiDs levels of ecological heald. ply with stri.t Eurcps! emissions codes
raumcy befoie itican convi*c thect of The Baliics' green mov€ment may hare pnor to $enjoining thc Union in2004-
r ie outry that $ e trice ofaoinS g]1n is ben bom in :rrti-rudtu rciivism, but It wo*€d. Tbe prcsp€{t of EU nem
I now many eilize that nucler power crt lEship Fovcd to bc a p@erfn incentive
fl)' NEWSl!.Eri( I JULYTJULY 14,2003

cttwnacl/;d|en" k a;^danitactzfud'dUtn MJ6IiliMn;Acirk(W6i\)dtartu;nn;nginohk'(alN)'aalltftPh'ttuT h4'-

"l don't thi* peotle$ould bc doing a lot ]@ian govemmeDtnwoN about EU de' !6onable;l sa)5 '\bmmavicins- -"Energv
fbr t|e dviro ment: tithout the legal mods Io ctose down lgnalina by 2009. priccs Fould tise an.t that vornd be ver/
p.cssMd s.)€ r\rtMs Abronaticins, who duc to its adv&md .ge. Thc.Pldt pro Painful tdthecoDnt v-"
lld hsddi Swedish technology consil- J,"6 /'t nercenL of dre,ounrr'.;lr lh€ long rem N't. 'aB Kir kJas. is
LrcI Sh€(nh Lithu.lia opentjons sincc ri.i,' 1a
;ell rs sone oI r!&iJs. L1t- ro forse m inl({mrPd, rcstonqde cnergy
1993 Dd hN se€n the tmsfomation.first' vjd Milister I\rs Godm is.'h6 schen; that;s'clem and e$cient (and
hmd. Duingthe r99os, Lirhudia's emis' .ffed dr.r clu.urc wo,,ld cad"e po$t|losn l rly on Rdssicn gas) Liduania
sions ol nitogen otid6, sulfitr dioxide ,l'orrfalls unl.s\ the Brtri* furd alcma- I:rqa, Eslonia dd Polaod :r lalking
{4 tetrolatcr ,Lr.pIEd norc t]ftn 2-5 tive enersy sout6: Euope hs poured: about building a bifi€ea 3,2o0'm€-gawtt
iim.s.r rhe.-"nld rc-stmctmd dd de- binios.cli euros into,safeity ractor, atacostof€s billion to€6billion'
veloped a serdce eJonony ald nw envi- ln. plsr in r(sr yff. dd "pg'.des.t.
ih; UK i. ro epply a nai6c-wj.le ps€r Srid'
romental reg atioDs. took hold- And tund;ne. c".sodm of.otE:actoF $l,o The hird pan i( gettints ttircdgh lhe
Lill1umia;s dDe to rdeive €1 billion bc- N,l;;u'ling sd de$ntmin.ting th" I'ed few yws. o UrnLmial middle
tween 2oo7 dd 2ol3 ftom the,Empem olde' , l lgrau;as two tscroE. The re clN pub lllr:se on the poMr gnd
Union to lund enftonmental. clemup m.iDins ;(tor, Dow 2l yeffi old. ;s dre That shouldnl be insurmosrable for '
prcjccts to meet new regulatjons- ro besl,',t bM in 2ooq, bul Lidrusian count L\rf' gon. &om Sovicl-em ' tt's_
'lhrt suc(s, od tbe cballenge in ftime Minicr(r CrJimin,s KirLnJs has trcphe ro i SmdiDivid olrurcol ec'lo-
meetins fijiDre EU idsets, nake the Lith tEcn 6shtins for a stay- -The EU should be gyin a gener.tion- I

den;c h lvlay, the slitd md mdiciPal
govcnmots bickeial over wherher thc
siatek islq scwo pipes or-the ciryt
closAed s€$.r dmins s ere to blame- "rlav
ing dem€mcy ai thr bt but nat having
I, DELHI'S BUREAUCBATS BICKER OVEB CHOLERA AND g@d democratic institutions od institr
tion.l sh,.hrre-q at rhe bottom is z tunda
OF nenLll Drcblo: sil i nl'dsbm.
Wf,r*. Cn-i. toLJrisid go!€S;
tine enforciilsits rules,
i Mscoresl20 on the green index and especially poorly insanitation. meDt has an casier
comption aDd l!c[ of ac.ourtabilitY
pla$c bd;a's eforls lo enforce regr a
3:yJAsoN O1TRD0RF cmcy eDsr6 ihat it renains a "mere slatc' tions and sct pionties- Agrjolturrl stats
mot of inient," ac.odiDg to TERI- Rc like PDnjab, wnere d,d water table is drcp
t- sponsibility for m.nagjng the coDntly! ping dogcrously fast, still otr€r tamers
Mter rsonrcs is ftagmented mong a frec or $bsn];ed ele.ticity to pmp wa_
dod iliferst miDistries dd depdt' t.r for inisadon, encomgilg: ihen to ;

mots without ary coordination. "You srov mt x-iDiensive fiops-like ;ce ad

I, have nrntiple,,agencic* with ro qndgy use inetrcient iEjgition icchniqlG Small



{ ile.othcrihed, der?erarerpovqitJdvs rtben," says Chmdn,:Bhl' l&king'lhe .capitali to.jnvest: iu:tnailm


most ofits populatr'ot \rinerable to etui- d;cctor of the C€ntor for Science ed En' technologies are ill €quipped to deal vith
roment'relat€dillnesses'Ned 5y:@ter viromcnt (CSE)j a Delhi NGo.. Thus, .in tbe..conbminets theyrpradu@ dd t@
states like;Ra:jasthan md:.Ktu' rmemus to be rcgulated:t5",the'mtrat
nat l(a, pnblic @ter scberne dd state polluiion-control.bolrds. "The
L 'laDcheid by tbe Ministry of mlhrtion-ront.l boards lhat wc IaE N
'' luiilDcvelopment.didlt m@t portv etatrert; tl,eir trlmol%ical @poity
-thek targeLs -bsaNe tbey ;s inad€quate. Combine thatif ith: poor
. sercn't coordimtrd iwith the ' sataries ad sone level of @rupiioryand
L M;nistry ofPlwels prcsam for you have a real Foblernl' saF Lena Sri'
nrzl electrifi€tion. vdrava, dmutive dnedor ofTERI.
T}lse have @no .coDsidenng thse finddnenlrl short-
in the YmDm Rive. .ominss, .it} easy to s@ why the Ilhst€rn
L :IDdia:s m6sy dol)@cy ispa*iculaiy
to a lead "Ioblems.
llhe stat -gwerrment-ontrclled.vater obseqsion eith cdboD €misions 'BrlHB
i equipp€d to handle the con0icting pres- board hrihrhe new w"stemtd treltnent Indiars- Evo ihc EPI iaps India's lI}rick
se of.tmpid rgrorth.and pov€rty. ..A1- ptdls, but tharntrnicipai govennent has hs witn a !@r score oD rmisions Per
L th@sh the national water poticy,F8 re faited to .1@r gebage fion.tne drains- As neeawtt of elEtrioty. Ity lelling tllat to
vi$ed in -2002 io encoMge.@lmmiry a r€sul! so litde.Badeeater atrhs tk the 5oo millon or so Indids vho blm
prnicipation dd daotraliemtE md- pldts ihat they (a operate arabout orily dung jn their homes b€.ause thcy're. Doi
agernent, rhe coutry's brzlDtiDe bu@u- 30 perent cnpacjty. AJter a cholera epj- den conndted to thc qiid. II
user hcomc irom sgar paln (a biofucl

The Threat From?ees souru) to wd fmm logging.

In the long lut ihe most prcmising.dc-
velolmeni is ftboD trrdiDg-thc only rvay
to ftnds on a nrfiicient scale to
GLOBAL WARMING ISN'T JUST A PROBLEM OF CARS addJs rdnpant deforebtion in thc tmp'
i6 dd its contrtbntion io
AND SMOKESTACKS BUT OF THE CHAIN SAW TOO. emissions- The b€autyof@bon tndirg is
that fimds @D lddrly flN to the people in
ffiFs*ores a rvhopping zero on the €lre€n index for forestry- the forcsi rcsions who orrently have Do li'
nsc; stop lopging: Cftbon
Irading, ofcoume, h6 many citics. one
l:/ TIIOMAS LOVEJOY nin'ibMt dBtruction, scoB d 82.) con@m is "lc*.gc"-the notion that 6n
Aithough ruch of tbc Lrrsslm iritia$/ trclliDg ihsdabago in one forest woild
EMIS' due to iiaFeslng fortinber foct prod
ncts, partiondbpirrood, d@d6
in€sal lorsiDsrhs bm.nol€lwidesllad-
The Epid sprud ofoil palm plantations is a.
relativijy new thr€r Palm oil ha3 lt!€rtly
bm rerosni,red as a sorlre of biohels:
Frcm 1990 to 2005, 56 p€Ilnt of
thesponsion in oil-pann planta? r IIn hon would be

L\ 'odoidone-time

iioN in In lonBia @Drred at
the.dp€nse of biodii€$ity'rich
q lll[ \l H]llr.
1,il "il"'.'Hrx
."f"*' in rcnm":;:
foFsis, lnother.listdbing
is the con$ion of p6lfoG_ts,
tod -a-------t ! .,ri. i^,*^- in,- the
,.-^-,-'- cdbon
r^_- --,
.r- forestdd
&fiich hold hnse momis ofcrr- oBt ofihe atmosphere.
bon, into plaitatioB by inierna- Co irtivc nanagement ofthe
tion^lr@npaDisr ChinaS','\5ia rcrld's.forcsls nrust besmitive
Pulp & Papr: pinip!.I: amorgi to Dational aspimtioN ddwer.
than. Orce thafor€s-t is crt :drc pet'dri6 eig{ty. Dono ;shq it:cornd hm miD-fot€st
naliols: inio powafi foRx. for-eNiron
odtzlgo<rl- Aithe l}ne tine,:we shouldnt
Mmy etrorts dc uaen{ray to siem the lory€t ihe.Den to 6t,blish ilinti!€s to
defor€statiorl Emil Sali4 Indonesi/s ftst @l]sflc biod;r€rsiry as wll; \zluing a for
ninister of the Dlrvnommt]r@i€dprc cs1 for its dJ1)on is.likeraluinFa]]rmputer
tetted:ms ind lam. md i€ chip foriissilior Comp&edwitlidrealter-
c.jntror loggjng. Cons@6on lhtema' natrsej lNestina. n@ in preseryins thc
ridnal ;s @rkins with otree producers"to mrld s fomswul<lbe a bargaii. I
Daintain uplnd: for€srr in.Smaha. of
partiolar the imomtiE Smi trr.'Etoy.n Fendeit ofth. E ;Ece,ttn.fur,
boja Iestari pojeeton Kinimutan,which S.i.rtc, Etofontx; dd ti. D,rttu"Mt-
| . mranks 49th on the green index butfit'st among desert nations'




L M Nrlwsw0uK I lur,Y lluI-Y 14,2o03


griculhtnl FDrpose5, says Hilt6l Shanl a mter for adculrre risrnts in iiEtidnal Blts llllg: Wat6 i wt j;n ImL
wter e4ert Ae
at's Hada.ssai Nq nr g]odlS uops.,which othwise
denic Colege: The sbsidis help Ism€li woDidn't be mnomicaly feasible," s]$
1:mers €fport nuch of their .prcduce, HillPl several.tim€s.tbrngE nD-made ponds
lvhich Jmles litde ovimDDental in The Negev i.s th€ labonto.y for nw for grcwing fish induding sa bass, tilapia
.n did .onntry. Fiporiing onc liilosnm of techDologies Ism€lis hope My solve their and bllt]lnundi,
then {imeled to fields of
wheat is equiraleft to erportiDt t,Ooo water trouble$ Some.of t})e mosr ambi- wheat, olive ed jojoba.
"we Mote the
iites ofwate, vhich mans rsrael iE e.trect tious rtcrling e{periments e found book on this stDff
sals Ziv,
cxports 1o0 million obic Deters of mter therc, just minutG ftDn the cabiD where
Fip€rts, drough, mnd€r how far t€h-
acl yed, about as mucn s its desaljnation Ben-Gunon retired to the deserr, In a sun- nology crn boost spply- Dnp inigation
plqts prcJuL!- 1\lo ago IsraeJ inau- bleched sddtor mDndeJ by date dd deralhation (fu... oDly do so mucb.
grJd-tcda nrassive desatinrtion
'1:s pldt in the pdms and dse.t smb, 4r-year-old Amir Making the desdt bl@m ws a gmd idea
@dtd city ofAshkelonj butd$lination is Zis dplains ho1'9 his kibbutz pumps "iir its time," saF BMks, but noF"the very
crosily and enersy interisiver each @bic ne- S0o,oo0. cubic meteB of rzJm, bEckislr ida of derclopins the Nesev is wongl
ter of d@ wt€r 6ts rougfiV 60 ents to water each y€ from m aquifer 8oo mo The day to rethirk Isnel's rcmarc€ widr
pDduce, mrdingio Adar: "Subsidizing ters beiovgrcDd- Themter is first cyded I
d€sert famiDg may be hG.





s"nre pcnod, t(rsni 'lichr,l d'e Snte

a,,",".ift-e 16r tbe llnvrronrnent\ 5,0011

I WhenGraylnoks Green ins.€cton to 800. Therers no agdrcv left

in;e c,unlrv tt' proqd. I fl(.tvt {ologi
cal ,nspcit,nns," sJys Sertc] TsvPlenbv. of Ctce nD.! e Rrrssrl
I suc"hr, a oty in sluth Buss,r ihrtis dlrlo
TtTOSCOW lS CRACKING D0WN 0N ITS EC0L0GISTS' lnst ih. 2or4 Wintcr OlimPics. san-he
*. "1,''t
nfrhe ruthorit;eswhen he fJdl a
its too good to be true' repon l$LNolrmbtr k' t}lt lntoiation'l
I Wranks 28th on the Slteen index, but olrmnn C.mmitte tboor thc neArhve
,rnprJr ol Crlrmlic c,Les-espctiailv tlre
.lisbelicf of orvone who's ds opened a tFbstal incks-ol.Ned tu thrcugti
B} O$DN MATIHDWS lMr}lir dars, DePuryPifle l
I wioilow iD alrv tilv ln the lomer souii nature resewc.
tln6n- ODe rm!; for the ilrscomect is Minister iAlelsanilr Zholov, vho hcaded ,.1
thevfl%stnss of Rssia, vhich includs $ersochi 2ol4 smpaign' sent a letGr
tales maironrnental violations
f Diistrn! vildemss thit drluta thc .lldt I whicl NEws&'I EK l ai seen ) to drc FSB .:i
senoNb-smetimesr Just ask dril lntenor sn EoR iAn m inrstrjes ask ng
oles Minol, dePuty hetd of ;f hsw n,l,sEv lt dsii, alore r mong big
natioN, nay alsD be cookirg $e nunbers' lhem to gather tufomation on posible d'
Rnssia's Federal En romet
f' tal Monitoring Servi€. Ist 'vw'Mj!_ol
i ..,nDiled a dl)5s rc t on rlles€d .nvirome n
{ tal ioirtjons br r oil md gs drnhng
c.Nortrm led by Rqtl Dn t l Sbellunthe
t n", iti. ishnd of Srkhalin An intignrnt
Krcmli{r pronptly uspended shcl\ opeF
ations. i\s soon as SheI ald its paitDcrs

iilt "tl" t,,".ir
r cort.olhng stikc in
om.,l GJ4roD lrqt
!i i

j .:


[. ii
lndeed, o$cialdoD nov semsto sPend olatioN bv GrtenDenLceir Soirhi.Soon'aF
moe timc craeking d(rm on €cotagists ter. rsvOentov re;'ea pr'one calls Jiom
sbte seftet; it's almost impossible io ac rh. r';];d Reslstrition Chmber drdt
.ess inforsation.on radiation .lups, nu thd tackliDs sotogidt Probtcms'
,Rnssiab Ministry otEmcgmcy Situa- dins to.close: his Nco. ahfth led to
.lar'o@er.siations md ritircil nm.ld dd
t.€ntlv qithneu infornation that oonths of inspcctlors
*bmirinesj sart fomer N&tl CaPt. dons
. BJUona requested fora studY of Droblems (tl!ous]' Greenped( ontinucs
Aleksddr Nikitin; a ftseaK}ler
for tne Non€gie.tunded eco-
. .i"'t* *i'-*"" i*"#,t" ia work in Russia) fie fSB dedLned to
colmmt on XreDd[n's alleSrtions ]n.a
Iosicalgoup Belona. the Arctic o.f,3n, sals Nikitin
And:members olthe EuoPt{ Februarv meetrrqFnth GrfDpeace Russa
ilts ro tonder rhat RDssia
roresenutives. Zlutov erplained riat $e
scores imptausibly wel on Yale ?ailiamentwere denied ently to
a nucld-qste slongB site at Nho "hart misuderstood the sitxabon" ;n
d Colmbiat xnvnonmeDtal
Andreyera Bay on the wlite Sochi. ,RoFrdiDg potential darnage ft'rn
Pertormdce Ind* On nany
qen thougb rhc ENPean tl,e OlvmDic sit€s, Yunv Tiutnfl. musitr
. criteri!, ftom air particld to in- sea,
n."-"t noou."s md EologY. sa)s:
dDstrial .pollution md wter Union had paid to ut oad the "r
;There'i[ b€ Do real dmase lto theeNi-
qnality, data provided bY RDssia \%ste -"OnlY North. Korca and
sls. rcnm€ntl, blt tbcre mav be dmage tolhe
$ssast almost Scodinavim le!'els ofpu- lnn de rtrore secretive,'Nikitin
rt rs rm-
S;!ce rooo, env;onnental violations' imDe of our @nntrv: As long as
rity. For instance, tbe munEy scos a 99 .*_-tt'- rft*t *6"tdo, llLich is the
un srosd-ldel ozone, a FJs produced by such s tonc qastc relased fion oil lnd
gIoM iom l4'5oo lo sLte's prionry, RNias r6-st sPc€s wil
ruJ plmts and otber hsrv iDdEtrv, dd s$ plrts, have I
s6 on a mesrc otair Pollutioo-to thc 39500, aRordjts to GrenPerc. ln thc isttcepgettingdirtier.
BtoFUaLtAfuA ofsst dne, d hora16

Coasting on Past Glory E?I fo! leveis oflowlying omDq a bprcd'

Dct of bumins fossil tuels md a care of
r$pimtory illDss. Only ,16 permt 01 3ra
homcs harc runnnlg water or senage
nains, .cconting to dre lBGIr. Thc hospi_
FUTURE HINGES ON DECISIONS BEING MADE NOW. taliz.tion r"te for illnsss due to ia;nted
mter (diarhe4 hepatitis) is five to lo
ffiranks 3dth in the green index,ahead of the United States. tim6 hishd nr dre impoverishal, l1nl
nl dd northGt Lhen in the afllucnt
r :t soutl, a€ording to the cctsLs. For dec
-B} MAC NIARGOI-IS showed that 5,850 sq;e kilonetds of ibr ads. Dational l€aders ha\€ b(n buildins
cst (d mn l&ger thdn Bmnei) had disap- hiehmys thotrgh the Anu on, Pating the
ROM T]tE W]NDOW OI. A p6Jed fti'm August 2007 to April 20o8-a My lorsdde6. loSsl F J,,d ltrd g€bbrc.
" Ti ,eqe ,.e nlt rh. mrkl of rDsla;n3ble de
lk,eing, f€w countdes are gidr r? p€rcent spjle Gom the yetr before the
er than Brzil. Since nu.h of pldd tcek notice. "Bnzil hd a fmtastic velopnent," sq5 Cleveluio.
thisEt temtory in dre hetut of ddo,ment from naiurc butis failing wben Bmzil will have to find somc cteative
Soutb Amen@ is still uDpeopled it comes to masing iq' sa,ts Judi.ael wa15 to iliscipline its fio.tier, ihere the
aDd unbloished, it's not surprising t}lat Clereldio JuDior, head of eNimnm€nLd poptrlarioD h6 riso lourfold, to 25 mil-
Bdn look sood against the backdrop of shidie-s at rhe R@ilid Institute lion p€ople, sin€ 1960. That is
a Disileated pldet. It rsks 34th oI 149 of G@gnptry dd Statistics t1 Dot inpcssible. Th€ nation stnl
nations in Yale md Colurnbia's E viron (IBGE), &e ceNus bur€u. h.i 77 he!-tNs of idle
mmld Itfornocc lndei gI@ner rhd Broilt glee! laNls are nol anble 'nillion
ldd otrtide the rain
lre.irnd (35*r) md tie Unitdl stats (39th). .n ;ilusion. Fou fifths of its til ibresr- (Diltilers say they ln
Aut how long v the {runLT be able to eldtric power comes fiom hy 6ily double ethdol output
hold on to this l;voEble scoE? drcelectic plmts. It vorld
is the withotrt topling a single he-
To qet e betrer look, you have to go to leader in bioftcls-nesly 30 tare of min loisL) And thqe
9,ooo mcten, the altitude ftom rvhic.h the trEr.dt ol its (rm Nn on et})a- de ndly 40 million more h€c'
NASA remote seDsing stellite.s step the nol. Thc trorble is that t}lse tus of desiadqi pastureland
enlth. Every yqr sciendsts at Breilt Na virtlB rcfl@t sound d€isions nade in tbe in the Am@n itself that could be wooed
tionai IDstitule lor Spae Res6ch (INPE) 1970s, during the mbitio s miliiarf gov. back into production.
pole @o satellite images to produce the elm@t of Gen. Emesto Geisel- B@il hrs Fonmitcly, B@il hrs oPtions. Its
mosi detanci survey ofdefoBtation oaany not a1wqts folloved thqn up. boonins @nomy is not beholden to coal-
&iriotr in the wrld- SDch ddor {s wD Major cities m maned by open sfle$ firedpovd plants, ed the rain foftslis still
Brrzil kudos, but also diticisn. Bllzil is the and chokng on mog; d€spite the ien€*€d ldgelt iDtacl. "B€zl lL6 a rm opl!)rtui.
fouth bigest ontributor of greenno*e interest in ethmol, ne€rly 70 p€Emt ofthe ty to rafflom ,tself into a nch couiry
sas.r globaly, of vhich 75 pffint con€s country's e$ md tucks din brm Itsoline md stil rnaintain it
natural capital'says
iom the fellng dd bming of foftsts. so or di*I. with a score of 60, BEal ;s one Cleveltr;o. gobackto its old habtof
when data relded by INPE in late May oa ine hemispheEt {o$i otrcld€Is on the nakins the risht eneironmeDt l mo€s. r

The l.,east Green
on Earth

fffiEflscores 6 on the,l0oipoint tlreen index,last among allnations.



and b[srled n! the blist€ring aitemoon heai lo-get clos€rto t}le we.ll,
Many oftlcni \rc.c crying and b.nying Gom tlirst. Nearby, also waiting
fi, ir rum. hdifu do/en Tou.u.g nohldr sir on c,ny;ng empry
r yclkrw watcr contlinlrs: Some had traveledh day or morejDst to getto this weu.
But th(] hws tlnt govirn water access in tiis vast nnd nrhospitable strctch oftle
Nigrr Silrd dictate tl]at everyone, man and beast alike, wait his tum. "'I'hislife
h# to end," said'MohammedMousa, a craggy-facedi 6o-year-old dan chiefs/ho
ha.s been fceding his herd ftom tlis well for halfa cennlJy. He knol{,s th+desert
is advmciDg, and tlat lLe ains de ro tlEt lie on re volnmblc 6ing6 of the
longer reliable. "Or life is blo.ked now dftlopmmt spectrum, enr.mmotaLde-
becalse of mter- we have to find a wy to gnd^tion md societal collapse oflen go
endihcthirsd' hand in land- "Ii tbeE is sltttitg calcd
Ii! dil6d rto.imagine.a mo€ filda- dtftfte wlnembility, ifs whatI sryin
nenbl hunrn ne€d: the watdi.Its ab Niger,' els Jd EgelaDd, tbe Unitcd Na"
sdce in lddlo.ked NigE, nnnqr srcc,al irlviseron conflict
whidr dselopnent: studisl who is orlu;tins the impact of
iddniit as: theirorldk. p@Bt envircmenbr dease aid, cli_
ounby, is ielcnds, It als, . nate change;rii€ Sanel Egion
partly €{rlainswht in Yrleind on tire Sahm's boftler-'
Crlumbiat Envimnrnent'I Pd r.Ige hs netr ban aI that
fortndce hd*, Niger cmeiin gren. M6t of the @ufftside is
lasL: the woild's 16r gr@n- an imcnse rcp'ot inferdte
munirt lroor,scors, eros!,the winds(Ttsmbland PoloDgdl
bDard. Iiom the burdeD of'dis' pdiods of drcushrand fl mding
(rN ia o()jlsrc of.ilJn6s toE enviton- ha1€ b@ prcL'lcms hm lor aslongcay
menLd €(6s) to wa'er quality dd edum one .,B to femmbd; oo pdcert ol
tton mte.r (DnfirmNgd as,d ()]mple of NigemislireinrDrile$dddependonei'
the disasteritlEl crn:Bult*tld enrircn- thtragrionhft org@ingtorwilaLsince
nenblv€knsqp@ertyddpmrgover, thel96os;hoq^:E,R\eaich6ha!€re.ord'
nm.e co ide (Nig€r soB a pitiablc 6 on eda25peMntdecrea€innin€Iacr6sthe
the loo-point EPI scale).ItFs ale arc Sahc.l, r4rft desert sd16*s l2o,o0o
nindd of h@, in tho* peis of the mrld h{ta6 of aEde land och yatr. Nigmis

rotttEwfJr:InN;y peopt|lom6tim4 na"ellong ilina,c6 toflt,? bottb enhfeshearer


d' by ovcmsng Uien shinking hcalth nrvarincss rnd nds shockei lry ihe
Gml2.d, 6.,.ning crosio. .nd caa(rbating rcs,lts "Not one ot the peoplc I inte.
th. ld.l loss. This procese is why Nigcr viewcd had hmrd ol il lV/AIDs," shc s.lys.
s.ofs iow on e ircnD.rtrl be.lth nr thc onc litdc girl's licc |ad eclled up so
EtL "lti dicmety difianlt 1or l)@ple bcre mlrch shc had trolblc brearhirg.l'hc o,l'
to diDk Gom y@r ro yu or nronth to morih prit; Ar dDlrashed pinrple.
o. @cn day to .laf,' sla Jun Bernad Nutntior is lacking, too. ?Ls watcr di-
I t rnmlh- dircctor ofthc S,,hel M€dical Re minishes, liv6tock hcrd! hdve shnnk, tLEAt* Ghand scts ddetf|n bbo da,ts
sdch ticiliq'. "'Ir,ey ec jn $naiv.i mode. ub;ch mars les mot ancl nrilk to go i'
Jl drc tin,e, cvcry snigle dar' rouDd- With fams ta;hrs, md,y Nigercis

fdm€N might tE able ro ^NI)
rely on \rild pldts. In tie vjllage ofsdokj
Soddy. vendors at a local maket werc un-
loadhg a tnck ofl,uge sa.k oflars, f.on
\ 4th Irss
vii} the emtic rai tU by the lrhi.h people nrale a staplc sarce 'The de
time hono.ed method 01 diver- perdeDce oD wild producis is an eileltive
I \ sifying t!'eir cmps md herds if indic-*or oalow lerels ofeel-beingl sa)s a
itwer.n't fo. anorhi.r dinEgiDgtrcnd: rising r!rcnt U.N. re?on on dre Salel.
popDlation. h thc past 40 yws, Nigc* with s'Lrch @t chdlengB, ihe goverl
y,pulatjon hd quad.\)ld, tiom 3 mill;on ment has iaken a sholgun app@ch to de' IN AFRICA, BAINFALL AND
in the 1960s io rnorc tl,an 13 million ioilay' lt vc.lopmcnt, witr some sdccd$. l} d nor-
is still .rparling at 3.,1 Per€nt a y@_ tality liAtG havc drcpped slightly, a@ss to A LACK OF CORRUPTION
laster than any oLhcr coddry. Thatk patly ,h..r q! , Nimntu\.r r,r '\' r.'r n.,'. SPELLS SUCCESS
l@us. o tu.l Doms falor big fami1i6. sinlt snrru t lrnr6 lLlvr
brt also beoDsc pa.edLe L.y to comp.nste
thc mosi inaccsible a@s. lhe gov@r 'ffi ranks 86 in the €lreen index,
for an j
art molt^lity nte ofotc in nve. ltl nent woukl altu like to s€ indrNtrial's.ale
near the top among African nations
. big dton Njger d'd vorsc on th. llPI fimrins, modcm machnrery and larsessrle
thrn Salel Deisbbo.s slc} as Burkjna 1160 nng'Jn pl()jqrs replacc sm.ll'sjle rgn
2n{l Ma1i. whft birrhratG arc los e. cultre, whirl' no[i6 somc cxprts- tltts B./ A NDRTIW IIHRENKRANZ
Nlost olNigerk c'tjzcns do basi. cnrmeflt "l'eliere thc mdien,iz:tion
aderitis like cl€an drjnkn,g
\€ter, and of tire agf,.ulturrl setor is tbe pdlwy ort I1SI AI'RICA IS ONE OF
sDtrd from eterbome ilhEses och as dii of porerq'," sa]s Ccd l lerse, diMtor of thc rhe lcast grecn regions in
arrba, fesit6 aDd vrious stomach ail- drylands Plognm nt {re Irternational Insti' ilrc rvoild, but the nadon
meDts. In thc smalt setdement ofThldar- tute li'r !:nvironmerit rd Dr]opment. ot Ghda lE distin
bolka, a gathding ofa f6v mud hlLs intie "Th€re's l* edphsis on ho' do yo! he.lp goished itself mong ils
nnkle ol a rast ul<y plain nled vith thc t]r small famer that Npressts 80 perccnt neishlDrs, adrieqng a rdk of 86 or Yalc
ffNs of goats Dd (], a herld of thc popul3tionl AnJ w,li jdst ovcr r ud C{lumbiak Envircnncntal Perfo'-
nded Amadour rsendy spcnt lour hous dcLl" of drmu.rl unJer,ts bclt Nig(r is ndce lndd. In sub-Sahaw AfiiG, only
halling muddy lvaitr out oI a 23-meter stDgglnlg to stly ]rolitiol]y sliblc. Even ar c.tnn ihc island nation oaMauntids
'nd rnd Ghana is bieger dd
mk highq
d€p homemadewell to {aed his sm.ll herd chnra iflesred $5 bi ioD in JuDe in dt oil
otfiE lNs drd 1o goats-'lhe bnckisb m dploration dd prosprdiDg poorer than @ch ofthern.
ter ws all that rcDainel ofldt y6's wter- dcal, Tbu.Eg rebels in the nonh Mdy lactom contibute to
shed. Tbe cl@-1fater tat'le lay mother r20 tbstcncd to atta&, bnefly kid GhDa's $ccess. Situat€d on the
mete6 below t}ld sdfae too far to djg, nappins four &encb nationals Gtrif of Guins, the couty is
Dd thc nqrest deep ve.ll is 20 kjlom€ters eorking on urannm mini'g to endowed with anple minGll,
awy, t@ far {or Amadou to tnw€l safely protest tbe go1€r mentk reftsal ag|arid €con-
whic.h cnatles its
his Dinals. Alter f€dins his co6s he to negotiate witi UEm. ony to enjoy nearly tsic ttre
brought the buckei to his lips od drdnk 'r'heret not rhddr relid on ps cpitt output of its West
deeply of the bom nud. "lhase pople the hon?rn. By 2050, the pop!- Afti(n neighbors- Jrst s irn-
dont have zl@ss to den one gla.<s of cltu lation is expeted io have quadruplcd again, portant, chana has been relativeFypeacefri
wterl Ariee Krtley, a Yale Mher
says ro 55 millioD. Bdole dlaq "you could very ed stable since its hdopendence in 1957
vho sp€nt y6s in Niger working to im s@n have a tippingpoint in whjch yoD hare md has avoided nuch of t}le @rroption
pDve mter condjtions- 'They don't Ioov jut t@ ndy p@plc, too mucb livest@a- that plagues AficL As a result- its instrtu_
that they ne€d to boil the mud thcy driDk" eF the Unitcd NationS lgeldd. "Thm tions hcve bcm anstile to tegulating de
Without \rater, the ldals (ut
build in- you win sddsly see cbild norialiiy go v€lopmen! 'fhe omtry noB requiFs
tastructuft that would bdng €du@tion, fron nomally uacceptable ldels to e(ep environdrental-impact revie{s for aI de-
health caE or emplo]tnal lifty p€rc€nt tionally horriGc lel€lsl As global \'aniDg t€lopment proj6ts. Its ENironmentt
ofNiger's popdation h4 no access to ba' threateos lood supplis thrcughout the I'roteo-tion Agency, opsed in 1974 coordi-
sic he.lth @re, aeoding to n 2006 study. vorld, noeiere is the hDgu disis edgiFg nares dforcenent vith the Fot6try Re_
Kirdcy onductcd an impmused survey of cl6ertocatastropheihminNiger. I sear.h Institute. The ]\kosombo Dam prc-
lides 80pdmt of$e coutds electicity
A Eent oil fitrd, how€ver, rill gire'risitors
RAINFALL IS DOWN 25 PERCENT SiNCE THE 19605, to the United Nations climat€-chdge
Ld1G, to be hdd in GhalB in August, plenty






peopl, , an lolt rh( ir tlernnrs ljr thc 'er ol grcen
h}?e, colsider the cise of Fiji Wat€r. W'ith its bot
tles featuring images of pristine topical flowers'
tie F'iji company shrted to w-orry when critics began ba.shing
the envircnnental impact ofwate. botdes; which i!'ill pile up
in lanrlfills for thousands ofyears. It got morcwoi'i&*len it
beiame fashionable for consnmeN io'crlcr ate &e carborr
looTrinl oi rh, P'odufls Ll cv buy dre xmounr of grennolbe
gas emitted in msnufacturing anA'disiiibution. The bouled-
business has absurdly big feet' udik€rap:vr'ater''bottled
water doesnl low fteely to the p'eoplevlordriok iti butimust
le carr;e,f by go-girzzling t ucksanda]ades in;otdes rnade
of plastic (which is made f om petloldim) So latclast vear
Fiji prsid€nr Rob Six dcci.l('i ro meer rne warer backtash-
hea.l-on with a plan to reduce tle ose ofpackaging, s)r'itch to
more c{Iiciently rerydable plastics and compensate for other
mrbon sins by buying o$sets thll $ould reduce etnissions
elsewherc- His goal iwas io make Fiji not only tr€ndily "c'arbon
neutnl'bul carlron neg?rivc. \ever mind ihat most exPera
tle whole premise of carbon ofllets is based ondubij
say that
ous mrii (how to measure a carbon fooQrintl) and morals

canE GaEJJ/x Ind4tr;6 are rdmbl;"x ftr b.o'fr;dAv bragi'yight'


lraying utl'ers \o yo'r ur' itrlllott)l Corl enrissions trjdirg rsnli jII a
schemc codld
s;,mins r l,^ttlc nlFriilvate' will nt lu.ll) tDdcial \indfJl for E!rcp&n Pove'
rcddce the dnount of carbon bcins re ronpanis- I hc slsl{rn, ]'h;ch giv6 grq,n'
leas€d iito the.tmosphcre. d,e comPanit lrotse gas €mi$;on credits iway fr@ ol
oarkdi,iA now clanns charge, codd lcad to a {iJ4 billion gain for
cu,ll;!tr thc r,'vircnmtnt ts .t I his' Gem,anys coal rcl;ant pomt generatore'
to.i. hiqh, seNmting a fl@d of makGhiJi Many elterLs qu.stion the cxtent to whici
tus- false clr;ls and doome.L schem6 to it *ill lorer.dboD cn;ssions ove.all-
achicve rcdemption NlDy ol tir6c !]6n 'l he prolifention of g@n ndketi
id6surcrndnly1;o @crh)])e, and con- h)pe rnay be a srnpbm of dle sher mD!
1,in then the kemel of a sche.rc dni pldiv of st€rhg thc global ctonomy to a
co dwork verl wel. Il] thc folloving chap firturc in which per c.pita dbon ernissions
ttr, we l@k at how hne has oversold sa of de 80 perent lottr than they de nov nr
the hottst gre€n idcas. aDd how re.-e. @ dselopd (nuntria, . widely discussed tar
sah€-.'e the vorkablc bils- That Pr@as is al rct. Hw mdd' \qll sdch.uLs cost?Niciulaq
rqdy mdo*y for biofuels, vhich were itm, tome rchieionomist for thr world Watch Thoselabels
onsinJry mbdced will, lvil,l cnthtbiarn Bdk od an adviser to the Brilrsh gorem_
d ii its loms t'h,o'su!nJs sun.urt mu\r meDt, has put the cosl ofmaking dmstic clts REEN MARXXTING COMES IN
besood,rishtt)bDtisno facingablcHasl) in emisions at r p€tunt of GDP H€ mivcs wrs, 'r'he Iast big one h the Unit'
thai btulaily distingxishes elicient soltes at this figue by LssuniDg d€re! a 50 Pc.- ed Statcs hit in 1992, vhen "recy'
(@m). t hai .ent prcbabiliq lhat glob.'l lempmtures chu" md "biodegndabld" first b@de
{cclhLlose) 6on the ine{ncidt
sane sdity .h@k ne€ds to tE aPplied to will rise by 5 deglle, Celsis id the ndt €n- bu@ords and the U.S. fe(lenl Tlade
ocqthrg lmm €rL$,' Ddrktts 0\l'icl' hry, lsdins to md3Ne and os& dnru]} Connission issned its first geen gDide,
work onl ,n thc |ght toDditionsr h' tl,c tions. "Thc basic wy of Iookng at it is, clei&ins horv tems like 'recyclable"
hse for hybrid qr (orJy harthe tuodels wo0ld yuu F! rourd I prr tolGDP l'l could bi used Ihat wave faded as t}le
bnnsdoM dut trobibility frcm rLotrnJ 5r' nri.e of oil {all i. the late r99os. 'Nov
omtuce tucl-ecr,nomy sains) urd the
of g.. rndkcting lu,,e studl permt to 3 or 4?" hc s^F. iherck a nc'" *a'ei says Jamds A. Kohn,,
find( wcrrh'n I rEm,tollhr Ll]imstob( 'Ihe queston of what it will @st to re ihe dirmtor oft'he enforcement division at
lcgitilnate). All de* cass ,nler ,trportant du@ d.bon nr thc atmospberc is dln.dt thc @nsumer trotectio. .d of the U S
lessors on how pople dd govcmrent-s beduse the dwer depods on now bad we I,hdcral ltade Conmission- "ltt really
sbould nove foNdd or gen isR s. erTe.t thc ctd$ oqglobal @'.iDg to be.
'll,e ,mportanl qoest on is lt'w Lr|d Some e@Don,ists asSme tlEt global Em It $rrc is. Koht sa-vs he kncw lhe
dre other sre{' Lltums) lR.rore 8o,n8lF} ;Dg vill be l* disnptive tho Stem d6, tsDnMi wa1 coting when he saw ads for
turtber, let's agree that bDyDg rrolc F i efectiveli nisins the c(xt oftaking actioD the "carbon-neut'al Super Borvl,"
lv^ier w.nld Dot solve dre worldt climate now to 3 to 5 pe.enr of GDP. Another un- 'tarlEo neltral NASCAR race" and
problen.) lf;t vere irsly as er\y 5s mdy looM js vhat te.tnologies trught disc to ''NBC'S Gren Week." Nw claims de visi-
compaDis claim to eme our carbot f@t_ nukea6bon n@ tutDre more palatablc. ble in the aisles of dy supemarket or
p;nts. why is everybody in a ti?zy aboxt Eadr +ep oD the path torud a €IlFn hardlvarc store. The llood ofpromotioDs
climate chmge? The inswer t, ot course, aree tutE wil biing more reatisrn to the is prompted tl,e FIC to bump uP its scicd'
t-lEt itt not ihat easy. The similarity be sue. As gorcmments dd cnmpdi6 get uled review of cDviroroend-mdketjng
iw€D sals oacarbon offsets ed rnediflal more experieDce with how to efiicicn_ claims to last Apnl, a y6 e?ilier tbd
cbuc}l indulgences is stikjng, not l4st cie fton t}e ecommy md how to r€aulate pldned. Th? Euiopean Cnmmission re
b@aur€ tberet about c4ual pr(X)f that thc grfl marketing chirns. tle l^Irld wect cendy toushened voluntary guidelines on
dtrJc1fr of tbe gEn businN wil setiJe ecohbcunq, and now xudits green claims
MarketiDg deparhnents dont have a d('m to something a bit more reli.ble Evar ThF IIs nrlc< ,re -not volunLarv. dd
rnonopoly on nonsolutions. Gr@n eneigy D@, some gr14 claims ft legitina&, of could l@d to prosecltions, *ys kot'-
gm Amory Ioins has b@r a$ertiDg all muse. qtdd (s like Tolota! ftios md "We try to g€t the wrst otrendes and
his liae that it costs less to be greo than nol I londa's Civic Hybdd get dmonsd-abty bet Dakcthem an dmple."
to be. Althorgh lrvitr's ri@s are mw ter gs nilege than ihei! non]rybrid eN- There sho dnt be much touble fiDd'
"paiqfinly respe.rable," 6 he puts it, .om t€rparts. Insuladlng bom€ is a surefire my ine candidatB, Scot Case, vi@ prBidcnt of
panies that have tiied to put tbem into of wios eneryy. Slond-gderation biutu- 'llrrachoice m envimnnmtal-mtchdog
pmcrie have found it tough gong. Mmy els such as jatropha hold the prcmisc of group in Ottam, Gnada, saF that while
prcblms also dise fron that bme of envi- naking a re2l dmt on tanpiP emisions. few bmds tNd to tie themselees to ?ob-
romentalists md economists, the tN of Facrories, c2rb dd indusltis oDld vo* at issusi now it seens "weryoDe is nak-
unintend€d @ns€quencrs. Biofrels,'+ich nore e$ciendy thm t}ley do nM, to the ing $s daims," often "using these terms
have driven up the pri@ of food rjthoul b€ndit of the eFirctnenL B€tween now
doiDg rnDch to slice disions, is a classic and the\ nDy uneatstic ides hat€ eil to
6e in point. Carbon tnding, the back be smpp€d- What folom is atiempt e to The estimated
boDe of most plds to rslure worldwjde sepanb $e grbage fom the idess that monlhly spendintl
enissioB, als sDjfss fron this ploblem.
A rent WWr. repoit lound that the EU's
sho d be

Mrcl€4 pernaps in new forms.

,sNDiEw B;sr, lttNY

on gmen con_
sumer products
and services by
Flm GurERl,J,lsoN CrlloxDoRF, rs-
China !s saving pandas
- 0r is it an eco 'wENTwoRTlr @d cHxrs-roPHDRwERis U.S.and U.X- consumers in 2000'
@ scam? More at itrdjle$S elccm Thafs equal to $500 billionperyear.


'noNirs lhat tiey haveD't be€. dcfnred" iimotile industns. widr bott-lcd vate. dsienrLr^,'. s 2rru7 h)bLiJ. Chc'f:
$t r€a! -letrachoicc se^l rcsearchem close behind. CnnsDD.r electronics dld 2oot Srlv.mrlu d,d $e :oo7 CNlC Sicm
t rnio ;g box stores in Nonh America to roewable d€ fanng betic. lrybrid pich,p de examPl6, sayr Daud
Sofaritsce,ns tiat fcw g.en consuiner Frierlmu. re*dh dired)r for the Union
evaluire tic grccn clairs of 1,018 co!
.!mer producis, ddlbnnd that l,0U werc n'u'lucts 1,e r0tly dcsigriateJ lhe onlY ol Corccmed Scientists' Clcan Vehicles
ihin' lhat l!rachoicr r^nsidcre,l leglti- Pn,gtu I l/.n tl,€re.'r- musrle hybnils,"
llegjtidate, indudnrg beaDtv P.odlcls '.
I that urom6rd d "totf,llv urAanr dpen_ nate came froD a bmnd of PaPer iotcls,
\vlrich ndde indepe.dcntly cerrificd
whr.Jr us. rhr I'atttry to ho'st tl'e t.ofr r ol
a bis cnsire tuther than to itroease tuel
.nLt'blt rDcluLLed "7cro evtdcnLe lhJr t}e
nodnct .oniainei dy olSuic ingredi' cl.ims and specified ho$ nuch ofahe toial econ;my lle Lms liie md hybrid Hon
Jrts: says Case. ('Itr.choice woD't nlen cont nt riB recYcled. da Ac@r.Ls fal iDto ilis r:ategory savs
i nfy the rctlilers for far of lilJel-) "We saw
FricakDan. Cha cs Thtrito, spokasp€mon
aEij$Utg vJhtchdos aeencies should lor thc Allidcc ofAutomobile Meufaclrn_
absolutely- .jdiNhus clains." case savs.
cE. s.y\ U,at rn thr pasr, bbnd ostomere
'Ard vague, t@ $ftat lle bcck does have the power to Prosecute false
claims: clearer definitions rcquired- *w lielell-root1* only ont olmany tm
I eafth'fijcndll mern?"
porbnt,rcto6, nnd ruiomJkers Mre sim
Most claids vere not Alse so much .s
pV m*ting $osc vred de mds in the
misleadins. Sone g?$ase bags' fot in
rhnce, rre promoted 6 'compostable'
pst i]rce months, he sals, a "very d.nmatlc
shift" in consmer delnmd is prcducing a
f impliing thai you crn throw tliem into the
bin and by sPiing rhey']l bc lir.til_ much d@tr locs on tuel economy.
Consider HoDd!. last year it ditched iis
izci llasric bags, of outse. t.kc thou- '
san.k oI1€aA to break {lowr, ul6s t}ev
hyl,n,ls. Spokcspe6on Chris
kaushto tned to balDce
t aresentto an institutional composting fa
cilitl thlt snrs vaste with hlgc tradors to
says thc vebic]e
tucl econony and lErfolrnuG in a mY
deatc hat an.] sPdd decomPosition Lhdt Dr.ved !nfrruld. Ii( sa)s H.ndo hac
l.1med fr.m rl,r floo anJ rs nuw f@\ins
Ilost(D$n,ers dont do rhat-'I heylbrcN
l,vbnd s"leh on iueldfioenc.v
I the lags away, tnnrkirg they wiU ntag'cally
ti.i' ont
' rhc n,,intsefiiircn, v. Pcnnevison lxs
dcmate.ialize dirrDn
Mmy beaoty 'ntoproducts mrrketed as "or' fouth irj"s n scvo yiars, and turns ;n
thc c^rs every tlvo ye&s before the td
xa.rc ,'r 'n.t,'tu1- r.tuJIy LonLrin ln$il
I lircl". IYo., prtloLorm ic the prorluLtofde ;ailit rurs out. InedDaa drives a Honda
.ayed plJnL\ inll r ,L,iils L,ul tjrJt\ n!r Ciric HX- rvhich hc .onsnlers simPlcr
t *hn .
1,"!( in rfi, J $h.n tJ cv 'Beryqqflrq1fo Flyb!.lt technolosr lhat gct's almost &s goo(l
pay n prcmium for orgxdic. ,And because nrilas- Js tnc hybnd. n.r a muth luwer
I DetJochcni.als are nixcd wit]l so maDv HERE AXI' FE$T s\ANBOIS OF TBR +r.rrpr .i,,. "ln *r. nrd tcm. iti tie
chemicrls, it's eve. a stretch to grecn virtDe more PoPulr s,mpl.r r.rl'nolo$ rhltgcts us firther," le
call then "natDmi-" In April Dr Brornerb, rhan rnc hvbnd cu. And some like .."4 " tl, rrk rh. ,'\tensk to dl of th 6.'
aline ofbearty producrs, filed a la suitiD th; lbyoia Piiis (more thd a million s{td
L califomia Supcrior court againsl 13 PG_ worldwide, g€tting 46 Diles to thc gzXoD) lm eovernments need to tliink
de deal. Butjust b@use a vehicle about what kind ofhybrids they are
sonal-care brands, lncluting Aldon, Jl
hbnd dosn't nean itt green' lbrry buying for their own fleets, or pmmot-
soD, Kiss My Face and llst€e Lauder, i)r ;s a
f Jeceptirr Jd iak. advertising A,nong Pcnney sals his PiDs gcts a 50 pdrcnt efll ing through tax and other incenlives'
t_ ihc;Lims we.e tl,al KrEr Mv FaLes Ob- cieDcy boosl liom hybdd technolos'/, vhile
sssively Orpitnic" cl%nsrs contained some copycar.s get or y lo Prcent. go in_ 'l
olefin slfonate, a petr@hemical, md thar to car dealerships and they by to led ne a
Avllon "Olganics" contain rhe pcEochd linc of ctp;' sqts Penney, the tecbnology
L ical Amdiopropyl Betaine. Thc defendants nrr,gtr ror admnLrdrehi.le. tu,dtuels aL
say tbat the se ofp.ocNed oil de;mtivs th" U.S. Nctiunal Re netrrble Enersv Lrbo
do6 rot undermiie thcir "rll naturil" la- nrory- ln lacr, half of dll hybrid vehicls
bcls, and call tor a clcarer legal dcfinirion .unently on the Ddket are Do more ftel'
t" ofwhat constituts 'tco- friendly." A'other etrcient tlian iliei. Donhybnd vefions, ac_
tm is also trying to lend credibility to the cordins to thc Union ofconcemed Scid
iDdustry by creating a "Greentarhing b othfl I'alf arc phonjs.'Ftollow
lists. T"he
t, d6" lveb site, there con$men cm mte I'ybhds'livr ncrths tbe hybnd red,nolo
$ed ad €mptgN for accurdcy oa gy a battcry that boosts the combustion
rhealajms. The site, established by us engiDe-nor t}le e.ficiency to qardrt the

t fim iin, Tt-{as-bd€d environm€ntal-mdk€t

ing EnvnoMedia, h mltaboration
with the Univ€rsity bf Oregon, ajms io Growth rate of
Iocatly sroM vegetables in Frt be-

t s;
help con$ne$ und6tdd autheDiic md
inaurheniic green adeertising,
luunchn€ in lanuaJy, some lr3
2,296 global

h the
salessince 2000.
U,S., the smly
cause tnev aslme local is greenei
local tomatos lnvel feeter "food
perCent d oil-tueled vehicle to gtt &om
coDtries have been posted dd re world's targdst in
viNed. Among the Web site's most cgF hybrid market, sales are forecast field to tabk, nsht? lt sounds lod€"l, but it
gous 'srenivasheB": the energy md au- to rise 286 percent thmugh 2012. do€st't hold filtered water "Food Inils are
L 35
a grcal indicalor of locahess," but rot of prorides the {)lkets to ContirreDlal, sals
endronment l impact, says Rjch Pjrog, that whilcthe package do hxle the smi.
Lssocjatc di'ector of lhe liopold Ccntcr csr;matcd impacl the hgher-Pi.ed o!
for Sustaimble AS5iculture at loea Stalc tjons havc a pote.tirl "'DDltiplie. efect
baDsc thq pmnote longlctD slstai*
A big shae of Iood exPo.Ls are lnrits .blc de'clopDc't.'A metJic ton is a met
and regctxbls shipped bebeecn the ric ton," hc says. "But how it\ geDclrilcd
nonhern and soulhem he'nisPhers to has ditrdcnt bcnents. wele tryins to gi*
takc adqntage of altcmating wiDt€rs Aui custoirers the option."
src{ing i}en locally might tlke nore cn_ Thc commo! hlla.y lbr offseis is that
ersy -to hot, lighi and ifigate vinier they lead diicctly to activi[s i]rat conpen'
E€enhouses-tiran to shjp the food "YoD ete Ior the carllD released by thc activjty
cd'ijust look at the tr2nspoiarion piece," ln qustion. In thc d$e oldre plme l]ighl,
sals Gail Feenst.r, a lbod analyst at lhe
Unive.sity oI Californja, Davis. "lt's one q&* that is tne only for the &eapest option: re
forestation, the planting oftft6, v}ich ab
Di€c ofdE vhole ptzzle. It nisht be a big
piecc, bnt more likely itt a small pjet' of
the food chaiDt entironnental
The method of tmpon matters

much :'s $e distmce froD fitm to iark.

66 sorb orboD. Bxt figuring ou. how much
i.volvers a sens oI speulative as$np-
tions about tlE eneqy @st of planting
the nee, the tutn.e grcwth ofrhe tm dd
so oD. "lt's very unprcductive to leavc Pco-
Sea-liciglrt emissions ar€ 16 thaD half ple with $e nnpression that se colld pos
.hose of arlieight, tnins arc clcoet than r_r-t H. nr77rF:sr oE
' I .r.". GrdiEN sitrly tlant odr way out of dre problem,
tncks, dd a bactor tmilc! is a Sree. na ,. -.r'"" ^l,L
Th. rlc-l is salsjoe Ronn,, d cr?crt who bas t.stified
chne comparol with m old pjcllp. II you I rr'", 1"" p.ry someore io (um before the U.s. Corgr6s on calboD ofliets.
lilc ast of [ltDnbDs, Ohio, itk actxr]ly ""'
per,sate Ior your ompolluting wals. ({n' Thepncieroptjons 6orn fi rmsl;kesus
reener to dink French lloldead tlun I'a ns lJ.e Tlrm?ass ind Climates.rt +ll Lanrable Tnvel ;nvohr paying othr linns
uinc from california. whid, is bucled over custoners certifietG for prcj@ts that will t , undertale somc adnily d@clolrnq a
the Rdkies, says oDc How food is supposedly shrink their cdbon foolpnDi winddil or sold poel, lor instece drat
groM @d i,rreted is ajso key: Ncw York an nldividud rcrcion of the widely touted one day may l..d to rtubon emissions !c
stati appl$, fbr instance, {s bc less carbon markel ly-some estimatae. t]le p€r- ductjons- lhe .ustomer bqts m offset,
€oLieDdb' *F those jnpotcd liom Nov' solal olket ddklMs worlh $10 nillion and jn retum gets .n abstract ard o{icn, *l,ere groting corditions -pm in 2oo7 and is gro;ng fast. Th.t nray .ot unprolable plonisc b redu.c ct,issiots.
duce grtater yields vjth less energy- bc a good thing. Auden SchcDdl€r larned aboul what hc
The meat cquation is also emplicated. It's er_lreftely dificDlt to a.rudtely cal- calls this "wild wst" m kel thc hanl
Somc stud;es show ilnt cattle fed on gE-ss d,l'fc eiher the rmonnt of carbon to$cd way. As the id housc 'torpontc sustain
at local orranic farms cmjt 40 percett le$ or by ih€ q?ical household oi aiiine abilitr" advocate for the AspeD Sk;ing co ,
fljght, or thc mount of cabon absorl*d
by otrsct prcjectr like plddng 1]€es, fdnd
Predicted grov!'th ins green and the lik . Itb also value in dollars of
very hdd to figDre oDt where the DoDey the global marlet

raieofthe global
market for orFlm-
ic and local food
and drinkthrough
spent on ofliets r€aly goes. 'Ot a ftnda-
me4lal ]Ad, ofscts arc frauduient
cause it's impossible to quDtify how nDch
be $selmillion
for voluntary
carbon otlsets in
2007. T]}at repre-
2012. ln 2007 alone, the value of this of an oFset any project genentes: sqts sents a 241 percenLincrease from
market rose by l0.g percent, Kevin Smith, a Hwcher at CdboD llade its S97 million value the vear before'
Wat.]r. "Yotr end up having to spe@late on
mcthdc (a potent gmnhouse gd) od in Colondo, he p€jsnaddl lis mployer to
consume 85 p€r.ert Iss enagy than cow '-take the caae ofairlins, which have ie- sp€nd $42,ooo dnDrll, on Renelqblc
mised on concdtEted fe€d at indusldal c'ently ju;rEd on the ofiset bandwagoD. EDersv Cr€dits, or RECr, but changed his
nnches.l hen it @n€s time for slaughter, Airlines like Delta now ofi'era flat mte ofl mind last y€"r rhen closer study ieve.ld
howev€r tle orgeic fams nu-st often set $5 for domstic flishts, $r1 for inter- that the cheD REG be had bought prcba_
ship cows to and fton ce ]aliz€d slaugh national flights, Others, ljke ContineDtal, bly wer€nt h;ving nuch impact. "ltvasn t
tdhosB belore distibutjng the m@t to otrer options: oD a New York-LDdon my finest hou: schendler sa]6. -Thcre de
retail ma*ets. By the tine tocal beef flight, you {n buy e olfset for $r2.4r (re good od bad REcr atd the public has no
reaches tbe plate, itt ncked up more mjls forstation projects), $32,51 (rcneffible clue, rlou'rc a busiD6s, n+ly would You
tnaD industrial beef Regional fe)d- endgy), $36.20 ("gold srandad" renew- buy the sood onesiwhy spend $lTowben
tnn{rcd systems de eight to 17 tines able de4y and enersy eficiency) or rou rculd spend $2 dd e€t ihe same IR
morc eficient thm loc.l ones, says the $23.38 (a combinadoD of all three). That Dneasel_ Jn d w€s ated industJy. the
liopold Center- So 1o@l tomatoes may tot tirree rildly direrent pnc€ points ud 6bon cowboy is kiDg.
be as gr1n as they app€i pack ges och spposedly prodDces tite
same total redDctioD in carbon misions ruKimunu there is an agreed
ffi stares neet to encourage
effideDcy market by market, ralher
spealG to the lack ofagreement on what method for delining ard calculatlng
de6ns m otrset. Bnd MDllis, prsident ofbets, goverhmentsShould consider
than assuming local is better, of Susiainablc Tlarel, tbe mmpany that limiting, not promotiDg, lheir spread.
! comtary! takjlg doncy theCDM Gasoline Substinrte
Lo close doM a pllutiDg fa.tory and us
nrs it to btrjld doiicr one. Grjurat Fltro- r ! F.R^L S-fLrIriES SrlKlN G IOOn
rochemicals, d Indian comPaDy, nade
\prics ^ND tl,. €l,cf rhrt
hrvc ,*ed
e27 nillioD in tle last tnrce months o1' \ J.thJxol. m.Jr h'm lcmcntrractu!s,
2006 (triple ils tor'Ll Lomlany (.ming{ is . grrn subditure for saul,ne Ethrnol
,,vcrth€lrrrbdbrclin nJrtlrum thr
lalH., l€ll trom ArJcc bE ausc ir ielJs at most
sale ofcarbon crcditsio EDrope. The bRxt only a lhnd more enelgl than ir takqs to
,' trofits,e{p€nssoy I L.l) l,elpe.l i, hn,l nmdule- Thc 5e&Lh is now on for nore
r15 consl.ucbon ul r ns Pldt tu make .m,,- ol biotuels |ke
'reilon and caustic soda. which are ldlt ' '.'tnna "ou..""
iatropha and sl]gd me. one Promjsing
.,bdi.latc is cellulose- a sdbsto@ foNd iD
|oll',Ld'G. {GttuBt riluorcLhem .ak
,onl'lnl be roJtrd lbr Lommcntl ln
shon, oveFight js p@r. "Thsct a lot for About 20 fims in the United Stat6 are
!s to learn," says Dan Esty, m etviron trriLA to d(ri\e edDnll frcD vlste croPs.\v ii Yje Unneisiq Ii DcDarinre, t of tsnersy ns edmuked
$385 nillion over four yes for six priEte
'M.+ nor,hlv $E leLd to l,ate ,L n,Jrk€t
th"t t,s grelter auditing u,.l the llrns. one of t!em, IllueFirc Dthdol, is
"'u"i' bujldins i pilot plant in (]3lifomia alons'
A NlarketforGrhn ceriiJicadon io really make ste thal mon
ey iswell speni andprciccts eautheDiic side 3 lddfiI, which supplis celtulose.
O'T'HCANDIDA'|ES FOR U.S. IRESI' and rerifed."
dent have corne out in favor o{ a cat_ The U.S. market, being volutaq! has
bon-tmdjng scheme to Prorde r hecn ,cllng its drbon .red,ts lirr tno
I {ice na.ket iD.enlivc to ftduce the P'o che'ply lor $l tu $s pt, lon rumldetl
duction olgcenhoDse gases Utde. these vitb De CDM, wherc credits trade lor l0
t ''caDrnd tnde arnnsemcnis, govem times more.'fhe d;cr cpdcy is dDe to lax
i nerrs imposelinits on the2mount st nddds ih:It donl,rtnply widl irtcma
bon ttrat fa.torics or companies are al' tional ascenreDts. ltli4ts Guch 6 db.
loaed to em;t, and require those who want estatioD) that are coNidered l.gitimate
to dcced thc linit to buy ctbon credit-s:' offscis or tlle CCX are not reognized in
Since 2005, developed conntdes like Atrs EutuDe; wth n'^re crcd,rs inil,L,le and
tali. and CaDada havc hrd randatory rr-* ;l i
demtu'd fd, tl,em. thev re scll;ns
ndkets nr llace, and the Eurcpean Union' cheap. Still, tne uS. Clngr€ss ;n NoErn
has becD tndnlg crrbon crcditssin.e 2oo2 ber thal it 1's going to beomc
I under it-r \oluttary Pilot Pmgran Sinc crrbon qeufdl by buying enough ofscts
the U.iied States lrasn't ntfied ihc Kyoto on tie C(X to Degare t}je imPact the
r6ushly 3o,ooo nebic tots of arbon
e$itteJ drnuJly I'y iLs duqutten.oal re]EMT
i Value in dollars of
the globalcarbon
bl,mins power phnt {t $2 'r7 I'er ton
Cr.srgss spert Dorlt $9o,ooo on ofl:€t-s 1n A
Pmlected a;nual
crNth rate or
I Z.-1
Tbe key ddver of
carboutrading s
that rcluded plmting Deq', urderground
sroruee ofro6on ,lIoxirl., Dd wind aDd
sulrrDowcr-B rsbscqDdtrudrtfound percent
ine 4olal nioruets
market throuah
production of
growth was the tu's carbon exchange tnat; number nfthc prolc.fs w.uld hNt ethanol. th; badingbiofuel, could hit
Nhich doubled in valueto $S0billion' happencd .€gadls ofwbethei thc offsets 27 billion gallons per year by 2014-
I had b@n pMhded or not. For mnP]e,
i_ a-ftem€nt, carbon ;s t'aded instead on the tamers iD North Dako&! who were paid rims like BP GM Dr"ont aft lnalins
Chicago climate Dxchese [CCX), or- io til dleir lud in a way that baps crboD explomtory investrDenls. Verenium. dr in-
rently the worldt only voluitary carbon- ud€rgromd, told .lv,shingtot Posr re- deDodcnt fim. last month oPened a
porle. t})at they would have sorked ihis small plrntthat us bagzsse- . b}?rcduct
{_ [videD€ that 4€n liuropek hig]rly rcg- mv er en .ntiout ofse rs.
ulated scnene is vorking is veak at bst. ir l.l i2ke 116 ro hamms out s ef C€-llulose is spetialy rppeiling be'
-' '
f€tia€ crbon-tnding scheme' "fwe'rc ge cause it is d€rived from wrsie, but its un'
One idea b€hiDd the Uiited Nations' CleD

t Doelopmmt Nlechanisn (CDM), $e

plgg1m tleIU rd oth€rsthat hde nti
de-d Klobo defolowing. is thatindusris
ins to be s*iot's, ive haE to put tbat rurket
iDtoaffil rwulrtory sructN. sitb
nd misions @luctionsl sl$ &tY. The
sactly what bpe of ffite wil work
commmiJ s.le.As a rsult in
on r
v6to$ de eutious "A lot ofmonoy is sit- '
lion countiis likc Fmce dd Britain wil loiDtary ntuket in the Unitql Stats, for tinc on rhe sidelins,' savs Utrivssity ol
pay tbeir couierparts in lndia ed China instmc,'does not ha'e any degre ofEgu- llli;ois Geanher Dr. Chris Somwi e.
L to enit less carbon, fnancing technologies lations, artd d a ruult it's more or ls ju.+ "Ihe potmtial is big enongh to see d€€p
tlDt a1low then to build nore-eflicienr pmcticing for thc r€.1 d@l to cone "
r factories. Thc problem is ihat cven &ose
t. ddeloping couDbis that ha'e ntified Ky- , carbon trading couH wortq ffi Finding a world-beating new
of on€y
oto dent expqted to redu.c th€ir emis- bd.only if participation is mandatory biofuGl ouictlv will take lots
sioDs.s ch meaDs there's nothing to srop ald reg[latory ovet'sight is strict. and lhe nerve to lose some of iL

Suson H. Greenberg '
I'm So Tired of Being Green
i ar of Deanut b utter, rether than sodr it in hot water to remove every last smear
belbre placing it
1n the-recacling bin. t simply tossecl thejar in the trash can (and quickly covered it with greasy
paper towels to avert the wrath ofmy eco fanatic husband) In my mind, I made a quick-and
highiy calculation: saving the planet from one little plasticjar wasn't wortl my time or
the hot water necessary to clean it.
I may bee'rong about that. But the fact is, I don't ktov what to ]ieles itt a ftatler oftiDe be{brc instatce con,panter rdog
belicve d\nore I'm sic.k ofdervone lrod Al Gore to the guv who niE jt 6 ircatable t)syctrological ailmmt. "I comPare it to PISD
, Doe-rmumxtir stre5. drsonie, l. .h( say5.
" Yeds xgo. $ere\trn r
mo's my smss telling m€ to "go gr@n." I'n tred olsiftins through
tlle "ec. Mfe".laims ofproducts as diverse s .ledsers, (:{s and i l.ibel ror n. l he,. i n ra dksno'u" lab, l l now l lortsr*n f"dgu'
c@kics: recycled, recyclable, reusable, organic, all naiural. envi or eco-aNiety. At some poidt ther€ pobably will be."
ronmcntn\ ft iendly, environnentrliy preferable, environnentd wc can only hope to live so loDg. The gowjng seBse otsreen
Ir safc, biodesr{lable, compostable, ozone_ftend ly, zcro_orbon, fatisue stems iD part arom ll,e feeling that no matter ulatv€ do, it
carbon nentral ... the list js linited only by tJre ituaginations oJ rvili nerer be enough. t ow. aToyota Canry hybr;d, ha\e repiaced
Lh. md, \ptincBFnru. tu sl,c d.vdoPrlir'
!,1etue droqints;n rcushly a 6ird ofour light bDlbs with compact fluorescent ons
many vaFe, dubioDs or breath thoush 1 should confess I''e
icsslt hri'cd assertions thrt sone chanssl a few b@t to tDcands
tirrs it: csjerjusttothosthe cent bccause the tirne delay dd
sticly pslut.})utier jar away. cold light.lrove me c€zy-dd
''Confrrsion crmres in!dr shock," recyc.le fairly rclisj ously, haJd'to-
says Suzande Shclton, CEO of denn alntajncrs notwitlNtdding.
ihc Sbelton Group, a U.S. mlrket YetjudginsftomthedaityDe s,
ing trm that moaitors Amerie s t|e earih's predicmett grosts
envjronndtal pdsc.'^ndwheD only norc dire EtbioPid rDner
.onstmers m confDsed, thcyjnst rhile Gebreela.sie bd pulled out
ofthe olynpjc m.rathon be.ase
I an not alone in my gteen olBejjins'stCLt. pollubon The
fatiguc. The Shelton Cruup's latst ILS F:ryironmelt l ftot€.don
study, En€rgy Pulse 2oo7, rd&ilcd Ascncyr*ently foud tha.345 of
that betveen 2006 and 2007, 7oo Amdi@n counties monitored
nmocN' enthusism for cncrgy- had air qualig considered unsafe
efii.i€nt producrs dd scnicer fell 1o breathe. "The discusion about
amss the boald. ADons its fiDd c}lalogi ngou r light bulbs. about
ings: the ntrmber ofgre-en or eDer- ItrOUI{tAlNS OrT[OUEU: ro 6 /eqclingftd]l! naht a bfi? w.shins ou r laN(l ry on arowcr
gy-edicienr adivities consuners setting, al! seen to be very PettY
sa;dtheypairiciparedir! such s rccycling or riding a bike to apDroachs $har,s heinadsmibql usa glsr tl;marc easdo'
rdxk instead ofdrivhg-dropped liorn an avengo of3.63 in pie,- sars Parron, eofouderotUre Mdiltsro club. s hich
2006 io 3,o lst tr\rthlnoE, the nunber of GPondents is com mtt e.d to prer enti ng rolosical dl(asra wi $oul linjtj ng
who .onsided energy etrciencT "important/dliemely itnpor hurnan potential. "Cheg;g a [glt bulb isnttheffiy fornEd."
tdt" in doiding wbethq to buy a prcduct fe.ll ftom 72 to 67 per_ So what;sl DNironment cPerts sean to agree thai &e
ceDt. "We e relly s@ing a backlsh to the whole green thing," best wy tojolt.onsumers out oftheir green daz€ is to instigate
sals Shelton. /eve tes-ted envirommtal mas.saging for some
"r relorns fiorn the top donn, tjke putting a pnc€ on @rbon 5nd
ddve get a lot ofeye rols od deep sighs. We hear
clierls lately, iDcluding ailtine missions in CO, redlctioD t rgets. "ftlere
things like'I m s tu€d ofthe green being slapped on dery- were strorger inFdtn,chr.€l chdgs, tben you vould have a
thing,"I'n e tired olbeing gdlted iDto b€itg gen'." cl€{r lead {ion the political dd mnomic l€ade6hip ofour s@i-
A nw 6dd, @o-psycbology, h4 even ariseD to help p@ple erv. and you q on t hrve thal kind ol fatisue,_ saFlim Bastd
cope with their motlnting "e@-udieq/ worisnotjustabont mtive drrenot of rhe U. K: climate Ouu each and tDlormrion
d)e planetb health but also about theit oM enviromqntal ;nade- Net'ork. "Itt individuals who get demoralized. ThG has to be
quacies. Mefissa Pickett, a se]f-proclaioed oo-psTchologist ad collective action." It taks a tilage to re(,fcle a perNt-butterjd.
psident ofthe Sornwais Center for Conscios Evolution, be- wi.t AN^ F.I.EN^ A7PURU. dd C Rl$oPtrRWEmH


Ey ffirtry ffiTemswreo ffimm.trfu $s ffiff..

l]rt necned 290lal14 exploded t}lrough plure of billowtng stam. Melr
no.rheateb ILst.Jia lt ertainly lek€d enough Cr@nlan.t ie, ed you
d,at way last yei as cudaitr offire dd dlst r€.h the poinr at wiic} rDu re
E tumed the ski€s of lndondia oftrtge, not simply dtppinB melr'arer.
inank to drcught-tueled bl.zes nrb &e sea blt ddmpDg *bole
*eeping the isldd natior It @r- glacieF By ore re.eDt nefu,
tainly looks that wy s se.tions of se!€nl Gmrldd ice shets h,w
ice the si@ ofsmall ouhtries olve doubled rheir €te of slide, ed
from the disintegnting Arctic od just lan week thejoumat scn@
nnhictic. And ir crtainly lools published a stDdy su&le$ins
rhat way a the soddeb @kage liEt by the e.d of tie century
of New Od€ns @nbrues to dolil, &c world .ould be locked in to
er, while tne waters of the Adarhc aneventualnsc in€a lewLof a
gather themselves for a new huri- huch a 6 m- Nature' il seem,
ane seaon just tve fuodlls ,e)r hds fiuly got a bell,{xl oI us.
Dis.rters have alwys been with Things are happeniDs a lot
os a.d $rely alM/s will be. But tuster tha. anyone pEdicted," eys B'
when they hn this hard dd come Cbareids, chjd seiotist for the.dv@q
this fast-when the emcrgency be group Enviro.menbal Defe6e and a former
6mes @mmonplace sometiing p.ofesr of ah;s?henc chemistry- rhe
has gone gievo8ly \mng. That iat 12 mondB havc b€en alming: Adds
sooetling F globat waming. Rurh Curry of rtrc Woods Hole O€aDo
The image of Eartb s o.gan gEphic Itrsrirution in MlFchBens Th€
rrm-FrrnoLlslv dubbecl Ca6 br en r,pple thrcugh the scientinc .omniuniry is
qronmenta|<t Jrmes trklod
has probablr been oveNorked, ' And its not j&st sciefisrs whoare tak
butthat s not to say thc pidet @!it ing notice. Even s nature $osses ite iip
bchave like , liviDg [,n{, snd ping points, tl,e prLlic seDs to hrve
tb6e days, it's a iiving thing fighr rac]led its oM lror ycarr popular skepd
ing a fever Fbm heat Mve to cism aboul climatologrct sierce stood
sto!ru to floqls to fires to ma$fue the vay of ad.lrcssing the prblen! bur rbe
glacial melts, the global cltmata @ysayers many ofvhom wre on the !ay-
sems to be cnshins around us roll of enersy .ompanies have becor,c an
SctcDtists have beD elliDg Lhis incr%ingly marginalized bre€.I Ir a new
shot for deGdes lhis is pr€isely TrM4,{Bc Newvstdford Unjve6ity po ,
what they have been wming 457. ofreslDDdentsag@ thst global mm
wodd happ€D tf we continued ing probalrly is baplEning Momvei most
pumping greennouse gls into res?ondenG ey they y@t some acnon bk'
the tEppjng the heat en. Oftbose polled, 879, belieE the sovem
that fiows in ftom the sM ed dn- - mot sho ld eiihePen@ungeor. require
tng global tenpeEblrd lowering ol power emlssiors, and
Environmentalists and law- 857, rhmk smerhing shorrld be done to get
yqB shoutjbgat one
makers speni @6 Q re less gasoline Ern EEngelic.l
mother about whether lhe grin Chistiais, one one of ihe most reliable,.-:
for@ts were true, but in tbe part @lulrs in L\e colsen?tiw b6se, are de :
five yeds or so, the sertous debate mnding actio4 most notrbly in rebdary,
ha quietly eDded. Clobal wlm utFn 86 Christie leaders forised the
ing, even mct skephcs hare con- EEngeliol cliftate Initirtive, demding
clude4 is the @l deal, and huDan that Congre$ resulate sr*nhoNe gas.
activrty h6 been Gds]ng it fthere A collectioD of new global-v:min8
Ms dy
cnBolation, it srs rhatihe books is hitiing the shehes in response to
ofnab€ rcutd give us
glacial pace that awakening interesl fotlNed closely
d@ds or eveD bentuns b so.r by Tv and tleatncd ddcuDerbnes: I'be
nrost notable of them ts .{n InMDe ient
O ONE CAN SAY EXACTW 19HAT IT But glaciers, jt oua, can move wrh Arutri, due oui in May, a profile of fomer
looks like vben a planet takes i , srprising speed, and so on nahle. W}ar vie P.esident ,41 Gore aDd his climate
but it probably l@t! a lot like few people r*koned oD w:!s that global cli chanae mrk, lvhich is geneEting a iot of
Earth. Neve. mind wh.t you've mate systems are booby trapped vith iil> prerelmse buzz ove' an unlilev topic and
henrd .boDt global warming as a pfirg poinB aod feedback leps, thBhdds 2n eqoally unlikely std. For all its iack of
slow-hotion ehergency thar past vhich the slow fieep of environme. - Hollravood fl6h, compeDsates by
would takL decades ro play out. SDddertv Lal decay givas way to sdden aDd self- convqang both the hard eence of global
and unexpeciedly, Lhe cris's is upon us. perpehrating collapse. t\rmp enoud Co, waming and Corei p3rticular I)rsion
It ce.tainly l@ked rhat liay last r€ek 6 into the sky, and that last pan per million ol Such public stirings re at ldr gethng
ihe nnnosphelic lbfib that rE qvclone S.eenhous Sas behaves Lke the 100ti d%ree the lttentDn of politicis and Ldrnets
La.r' a Category 5 sronn eidr wtrd bnrsrs CelstDs dMt ttd a por of hor rvare. into a l€ade6 who trhy not dm's rdpond to
s.'en.e btrt havc akecn nose Ior eeloSy at the UDivedity ot Alaska [an and 1cc .a!s cnrnl
where votes and p.ofils lie U.S. bdrLs "Aut eventuallt rl,ey gcr flBhed to hling io slush. Ou.e the thaw
state and lo.?l lawnaken haae tle Iimit of toleaDcel' lreglB, a number of
narted taking adjon lo curLr
em'ssions, dd major @rpora c02 AND !Hi PO'"E5
tioni are doing the eme W.l i5 A TIN'Y COM 11]NENf OF OU
Mirt 16 begun istallirg wind a.boD dionde belpe.l wam liarth ro com
turbiir6 o. its stores to genetulc fortlevclsweareall ucd b. Bu oo n,.r, df
cldtricity ird is talking abort it do6 d awf,n loi of damage Tlre Eas .ct glacioloEisr Enc I]tgrot
putttrg solar reflectors over iis rgents just a few hxnd..d pans per miltun of dr Jet l'ropllno0 Lab
parking lols. HSRC, the wodds (p p n.) in dre
ovenl air blanket, but they rc .ratory in elsdem, Califom'a
s.cond la.gesi bank, hd pledsed p@erfJ palts bemuse tneij' alow suntight and Pannir, a rc-
to neutnlize il5 @rbon ortputby to stJean in but prevent much of rlE har sard, a\r5t?,rt profLsor dt the Unj!ersiry
invcstingin wind fams ad othe. Iiom iadiahng back olt
Dunng dr last ie of KaLes, analyEd dah ftom Canadje ard
g.en pniects Even Pcsident age, the atmosphcrel CO, co.ccntration tru.olqD steliitG and found that cree.
Bdsh, hardly a favorite of geens, mw ac w6just 180 p.p.n., puning Ear intoade€p ltud ice is notjustneltingbut doingsomore::i?
kDwl.dgcs clnnaie cldnge and boasts ofthe fteez. After dE glaciers retreated lrut be- d)& twie s fs! with 220 cu lm dnini.g iEii
steps hc is tahrg b tighi it Mo$ of tlro5€ for. tre daw of rhe modern era, rie br2t aMy inio tie s.a lalt yea. alone, compared
siepl lowevc., inrolvc Bach a.d volun had risen k, a .omfodrble 280 p.p.m In with 90 qr. kD in 1996. A cubickilometer
tarv .srissions .$dlrols, not eFctly dre lalB just tl,e pdt ccntury and a hatf. we have ofwater is 257. nore than the entire city of $$il
$ih le& rientisLs are olling for puhed the level to 381 p p m., ard we,'re Los ye2r
ngeles uscs n, a
k it ioo late lo r.ve6e tbe chdrgesglob teeling $,- Of lne 20 hott6L yen.s Dhping lhat much vater into thc SFBi
11 wa.nnrg has Mought? ]t'ati still .ot on reo , 19 oeued in the i980s o' lat.. ,rFn is a very darg&ous ding. lcebcr€s 1111
clar Ileduc'ng oxr enisions output year to Amoding io N^sa sci.ntnLs,2OO5 w6 ode dont nbe sa wher they nrelt becausc
rea. ishard enouglr Geuing ir low enough oi liE bottest year in nDre than a cenhrry they're floaling, which nreans they have
so drar U,c alnosphere ar |c.l is, Dulh Itl at $c Nonh .!d Sorli pole5 rhai "Eosyslcrns aru
displaced aI t]lc wrter they re ever going to.
But ie on land, like !iii
usDallr able lo,nairtair thenrselvesl $)s Irnd!, E a different Daner
'|c.ry Chapin, a hiologisr isd
trofe$or ol 1bu that into o.e.ns L\at ;;ii

shrink lhe e, s €nge

FEEUTGTHTFg[&T wilhin Africa lrul may also greaJr
h.voc with the arimalr lov.i
. ;.r t.ri !:!': jri:rt:
rir.arl' JiEr !p!i|s 1!r tintrbizr t 6rtd,
i3 life. Th€ relaltve abundance
.i. i^a.-.,'i n:i .ti:cli,r,dtrFin8 .r s.adity of lood rtlecls ltre
rii:.- ttr!,. n.ray r.rt.. i!'!i 1n. *a'riti yetic.rt:3 social hierarchy of the herd,
which in rurn en delcrnrn.
uhich animals eel io breeil.
J:iltliiEt fgE
Ihjs slriking eia.t al@ *e given
itsnme by the S.n peopte oJ
souuiem Afii@, siio 6e fia s &!'-FRi35T€D GOOSE A
hoilow b6rhE 6 quive.s for twenty six bird speci6, including
rlE:r aroE_ s.iedisrs have thisg@se, which breeds in rne
Arctic, are lisied by lhe wofld
Conseryation Union as

vaminA. Half are seabt.ts

I whos€ food supplies arc
dimnrished be€ls€ oi
clioaie changes. The rcst

if.\lrling seyeal whose coastal

hibilnts.re3r risk because ot

./. ,
: '!!:::ii i li]!;li: : j:i r-f:rrtnil: t
tnis tiriy resident of ihe Globnl rvaminc nraght nol oniy
sorthreslear !.S. has ronE: researche; hale clo:ely
;ked oj: iis living,n jlniFer tBcked the movements ol ihe
!{.dlard:. iut ii
. ,'a: i; Caliiornt. fi is
nealti.g :or highei, 6cter
axitn4es:n the Bigh Sierra
Dlde,ny kr')cwo 3s Ednh s

buledies ariSbt b.
ou:e i.
onc of reveal
jdall naEr$als in the r,.giotr
.i,ti :2rr ihri have nroled lhet ir4rei
.t:::t l::,. . :ldrl e t. m niEre.;i w'l nor . ,tuive the imp..i
I +P; .j://
.rl.\,-rllr. .a.f lre!a,
- j#r a,€ alrsdy rishs (beca,r. hy.r of wate. about 180 h dep rhar circD Mmr.r oe$.in bc. Fr6don6lty.mupr
vam rvate. expafuLs), and you ]!tqi in ed .ut oi ine 4dDlid "Itemove .ontincr,rs wtlLjn a hoaer dobe. o.prn
deh,gesLorelir*s. By some estj thc re," says woods Holcls C!nr,'anil t}a curenls berween mm and olrr
mates the erlire Gftienland ic. sdter starls trlkng to the atmo$bere rc 'r,nninl
regio'la s.rve asinaruml themoregutatoB.
sheet would be .aoueh t{r njse leasing its helt Thisj3 noa t grDd dii;s:. .drsirib[hrg hdt fmm ihe equtor towald
global se lcvels 7 n, saeuowus A snnilar feedba.k hop is mellins drepola GrllJsh.eanr anling warn{t
l he
nt laise p,iis oI @ast.rJ flondt rEmaII6! !$aXy deliiien ; hnd rar |a. up the trod6, js what keps Eump!
and most of The Ant been corlinuoull fcen lor tw y€6 or clirFte rcl,hvebi mild. wienewr Europe is
arctjc lokls erouglt icc 1(r nise ser more- Thcrels a lot of&irthly real stite rlrt cut off 6nm tie CdfSheam
l.vels more thrn 65 n' qulifies, and nruch of it hrs been fman pl,rn'nrL lhF,.nd.t rhe tast ici ag. $e
much lorge thar two y6s ence ihe e.d wafur .uFent w,s t.mlEnrily blocked, and
FEED6ACt{ LOOFg ol the lart ice age, or at lcast 8,000 yds ago tenr!.htlres in Elrqx, lellas nuch .s 5"C,
,, -i orn or rttt Sealed insdc ti.t cryonic time @psulc are locking the.ontireni in glaciere.
nd,m, ,-',n^, ,... ".
1i i:; r,t."a ,.p.ov., shir-cu,L' layers ofparlalty demyed organic rnauer, n/hal usualv kceps the culf Shcanr
lHi:;. tl,"por-ib,,sh' hnnL..,. ri..h id carbon. h higb altitude rcgioN ol tunning is lhat iyarh Mter is light€r ihan
irl;r,'^ U-,clatiol.hrp o' 8."+ 1n,' U. Alaka, Canada and Siben., the so islm,
:: pori,i."E.orn^.-tiv.rl,Jr,0e,ord,. ing dd dmlrposir& relding ges Lbar
;i I .': "',,
rl1r": sr',1'sli rhJr ' "ril - ir e,nulv., ,n,--br1 will tum into me be ad CO,. Thrf in
Ii/. lil::," I'loaamL.ho.L n ,fvw l ,l tum, could lad b more Mming dd pcr
I ;" ": | -arn ertn do-. I Ar rh-opl,o,i..,b.o,l rnaftost lhaq e)s Bereh scientist David
! ::i; In {ro%,tri-enargyir th-r n.. l,wencof tne U.5- NariondCeDrerfor,\r
I l:"aj AF's),r,,Lxn, rh, Mmn,rE-
l:"1j.,F'g),r,,Lxn, 'Ficr\..
Mmfl,rE- k.hU n,oslheric Rdmr.h (N(tr{o i. Boulder. Col
I l !; ":,. \ul, uri 4, t, m,t*or r- h., m"t,...,,..l
m,t*or,,- o6do. Ard f,ow much carbon is seked av.y
-5 3i: i er lsipr rJu' rl,c ',,dr tt'dt nr€Lrded rr in Ar trr snrls2 L, MencF furs drc tiF rF rr
i " :: il lh N wl .'r s.i, ,,ti\ll i ' .".b ! 200 aia.rt,nr ro 80u gl!,Lrnns Th. tLtal hu
i,] l;rt"..,",r r\ i,turyooe.\D-.o.r. . i,1,. rnan erbon outpll isonlyT a1g,?rons a teal
;rrI: oJ m|lrh.I^tjc ()!c d,
ili::;"1*,"" ',';* 'ou
.Eces F ri_17.
' \
It is thc nalional fl.wer of amphibirns rJ* rreen !E
sonth Arrjca,jnst one anong I'.pnine, swimmineJfuiI r \..
craudin€ about the praaet ,.1 :
members ofrhe hrgc tamily ro.35o njllion years. I
' of llow.riag phnLs named rurue islardtasured. A elotar I j
aiter Proteus, a Greek dod ca- asse;smentof lr'esrnle of tn'i I
pable ot ch.oging his shape enlire cla5s of verreb.arcr r.Lrnd :il '
/n \ at d'rr. s.,enliqrs tear rnat rh3r trearly o.erbd ofthe
i 'J nk'e rr'an a rh'rr nr rr and drougnt w€ake.ed rees that 5,743 knoM speies are tn
P.otenceae species could act as perfeci hosrs for this serious trouble- Climaie change '
may well be the cllprit an mosr
c66, enh€r dtectly o. indirect
:?M:Srlf?tF ly. Ihe home habitat ol rhe
Ihe ridbe. piDe dwert gokGn road (at nghr,. bo!!rom)
mislletoe is prolifs.! in Costa ni€ nred np the
mountain qtil'trohe" diep
pearerl ent.eriL Mde than rvo n.ny.l the harlequins nni
thirds of tlie ll0species cf wnal Lttreateif, a grc.i m3ry
colonul harlealin ldgs centr.J oth:r amohibian specie: i3 a
and South A'Bi€- lwo '!shbpn dt:ease caused bt $e f(n8us
v lrc.abie t al, kindsof r| ab@e, have €lso {nsarrearei|, ,: BaLacltelrytt un dendft Dat i4 i :
Scicntisls believe rlrt whar r(irr:,: arininte.hange seems to b::
nriing tpg'. nr4ri v!niiEr::rr.:
v) infection b! tha i0ii.i'i
!cae.lists e35eti::r: :
ft^i ir we ira 4r:i, lrl
I $e e:ntslaz.i.:
lrti e.lj2!::. i:'
ari:mal: nri<ii r-riiil
i-te iis! a1',r-"'!i 1'
irn3 ;ltri! t.:Jrr: €: ::::'_
'--rE ih.r. _ rriliij. ij;: ,i
?.,ritlirtn- .Qit i:::ij;L: :i
:: ly t.= i lzt: i:.
-l: tirlri ii:ii}:t .:at;:.::. . 'l ..
, ..- E.z1i'zrt 4--ei.:
Itlis,ir i. aiisoiti.J ofir'"
Ediated baci out as IbaL
asei rirecrrbbh dbrid. hp thar hear
and kep it froh teaking iiiio soae
Inars what kedr's us waflii al oighr.
Bur as humans pour cver i;rceasang
amou.G of ercanhouse gas6 inro the
atmospherc, nrore ofthe sun s sets
tratrped,.nd tlie p,anetgers a tuver


!{ow flot
Trfil! lt Get?

s5.79'l I lra.atcr
I' L,,- -'
| , t'
l'tzt-;*.r. ,t6'cr
el.lwrte-! so it lloars oD rhe ar
. ta..,Asit r€ch6 ltluoDe
*" leas*'iis r'ea1 rtre ome"t and F
''''d.Beriiia sir16, flowirs back to
' d'e.outh and.rossing under lh.
' norlbbound culfsrream unil n
' reaehes re.aropics a.d stads
to wm agajn. l}le cyde work
splendidly, provided $e water
remains salty enolgh_ 8ut ii ir
bccbmes dilured by fr€\hwter,
the salt concentntion drops,
and tbc warer gets lighler,
idljng on top .nd
sLdln,g the curen r. tsr
Decenber researcbers assoc'at.d
. with B.ilatn: National O@.o8nphy
Ccntcr thtrt one @r',truoelt
ot UE \sten rlut dnFs c,,rr
Strcam h6.slovcd about 307,.in.e
1957. lt .i U,e indca*d rel@ ofA.ctic
and Greenlaad mcltMt.. that
e6t,g th€ problcn,
tL) be a
6tsh ot lre Mter thati ovcMhelmtrs
:. the nah,Fi cId.. ln a elobal wrmrns
6F ',world, jt s,,nlikely rlrat any amour ofcool
'f jng, thiit n$lbd frotu dis would be $fli
- cie.t to suppo.t gl,ciers, btri ir ould make
drn,'19 a*'{i ly ln.onfotable
T}r l,ig rvotry is tbat the viole clihate
of Eutope wil .hangej' says Lu.k
. ^.Lirn ar tilc
Da.r:senior l.{lurer in geogaphy
University oI Wales, Sw.r* We in rhe
lJ,K *t rtr the same llhtude r Al:ska_ Thc
.a$n wc cD live- iere ia rh. cl f sr]em '

_ trg -th_e
oc@!s ard the ice .at!! iti having a.
eleiirnore immedialc eff.ct oo la.d. Itople,
animals and plants Udrg nr dry nountrin
o,,s regrons lilc thr wstem US nule it
throug6 q'mmer rloJ,LL to eoqrrck thai
collecrsoqI€kall lvint .andslddlymelts,
off in warm moBths. tately the arly aFi!.al '
ofspring aDd ihe unuMlly bliste.t,g sum
men havc our-"d $e snowplck to melt too
.nly, so drat by lhe iime it's n€ded, it!
largely gone. Climrlologis! Philtp lUore ol
llt UDiversi.y oi Wa5hington ha @mpa..d
deades of eo\"ack leve! in WashingtoD,
':Olegdh tnd Califolita dd found that rhey
- !re.4 llndion of $'hat thev werc iD the l94os,
and :bme sdoN?ack havc vanished entn el.\l
,,. Clobal l^Iming is tipping otlEr rcgioDs
of the:lvorld into drouglt in diffaent i2tr.
Hrgher rehperahires bale moisbrrc olt oi
1.' ' sonf;iercailsingdryregionsthatlneattii"
to thelrrte rnto tull blorn oi
'na$6 crcss
sis. Mdn@hde. ElNino evFnts Cr. wi,nr
' pooling of tlrcific $zte6 tlnt peri&lj..l-ll
: drtes wDrldwjde climate paltems and has
treen q.mRing nrore fuqu.ntiy in gloat!
warnnrgyea!s-hutier inhjbiipiecipii)iion
rtMr-a3( $:w\ i.r.\Bio4D tr.,lri:r?st1y poL:


iHi,vl. h

N&re EEB& le%
eGc. ot by barh eauat'P sdhEglteFe'EG4s%
Do FU lh,,k n,5t 1.,'pDl,sls 3J.e.
w,1^ o4e .,orher about g,ob,,
||znnint, or do wn think dDre i 3
lot ot dis.Erercn. on t.l''s t:sue?
;:nH:€ffi ^e,*Ler@t-.
f :. '..,.'. '. :. ..6a% *.'','-^3 w '

rndFilGHWqF 'i""
cu, d

anJ4hrc :11 r

lncrcaseta.s on etecrricity so pcopte use less orn

I to dc.t \|^h etabat wa'nljnE? tax.s on gaetinc so pcoDte use tess orir
' ...:::.
@ffig*gGs% 3r%

rs doiig rhe ,itln nmoun now
&Iffij! 2s%


f in dJy areas of AJ.jc-r and Lad Asia. Ac .hangs de mowina doM otier flora rm trp drcMed -lteE wit he no r{tu ice by
{ .ddrng t, r rec.nt stuJy hy NH the Der- MJ%nll] hrFlL6 L UF Wst uc Lluns
Fnt se ol !ii1h\"nr,sdroupl,r 2O00l sals t2rry Schweiger, prestdent of $e
ba.h omc pn.kly ,,ar crh hd@ lon $e; Naiior.l Wildlife Fcderarion. "Somewhcre
ndino,cthd, doublcd since the 1970s. sjgrDh,rcgeer, d,lJrF,nst.Jd a sjctriv Dntq along dnt patlr, tbe polr bear drops outt,
rrnF beptls,n qe+pn, Gnad, Jnitrrr; r, s
t .LORX AIIE FAVIJA arc chNj,g rhpir wry rl,F,uetr tLnt of
lronc ot ads ,+ loral. tl,rnk to;-".
!It, 'TVHAT AtsdUT: Us?
and l,ur d. rnd troih rre tak.s i b.d hrr tr FffllJNL pclk,st,lsrTa rHl spL.,F\" -
qnte.s abe beetles hay ewn b@ch the
Wl4Ii,es in such r€qions as rnion-:i1 rh" o6,ng alt the probhmr we re n ferin€ ln€
once inshourtable R@k",, lvtounrain .li derdoion otou lubrr?t r@ and we h"i
L w6tem U.s. and €r€n inhnd lra5ka;ve
)een incming 6 rimberlads dd foresr
v,de opcMg up a pa th in ro it ti^t"r- -vrriPn"ea $,1 loss in r^dbh wvs
rns land5 of the Amenc,n smdhpd ",ict O"en wte61'rvclmpd
fioors srow no.e peched. .rhe btazes cre wiih labjt rs darh'ne, aamals that live
bva tuI deriec
ate a fedback loop of thcir om, pourins the.e are sueumbing roo. [nvirormenr,I
Fa}lrenhe,tenrelgTq rnd *^".-;, ,.
L more 6bon into the atnosohere and e gmups o n hck offscores o f (l)tries thai hdve
like r@ket lirel for ry"l,oo,s and huricanes.
T@ strd,es ist yerJr,und that in U,e psl
ducing tl€ ntrhber of tres. whici inhate beenderemrn€d ro he ir fl;k 6 a ennr or
CO, and rcl6e oirgeh. 35 yea6 thp numher uf Catesory 4 rd .i)
'I hose fo,erts t_hat don Slohd wmitrg tst year, BearcheB in huricaD6 worldqde IB doubted white
r su@umb ro 6E
t d,e rn otl,er. \lower ay\ Cor,nre Mil]lr. a
costa Rica anounced thar two-ttiRts of ll0
rltrics dfo Jortul ha, teq',in f.oss l6vc v.n
thc wiDd speed and duration of a hud
enes has jumped 507,. Since atmospheric
pileKoiosirt tor rhe U S. Io.ed seM.p Ehpd in the pan 30 ycrrs. $rh the ever v heat js not ch@sl: alDtt rhe water it wanns,
shtdjes rbe history of vesetation jo the Sierl of each qoricle-oftto oeinE in lockre; tropi@l storris .ould sra.r ruming up in
, a fJevade Ove. tle p:6i 100 years. qth
L she has
founal. the fo.ests haw shifaecl rheir n€e
r!enry o[rhdt rca.!
f'kkr, satmol
-ooputatrons sonredecniedly noht opicll places. Thoei
.ire a shool ol thoxglt dht sa e.face temper
lines€s much as l0O E trpstope, r.yitrs to es- dsk 6 meltiog pernaf6sr Dours mud inro "t
cape lhe hear aDd drosebt of the towlandr aiuresare $arning!itoward Canada, says
f't. ivers, buningtbe g.alel the tuh neett for CreA Hollandr senior s.ientist lnr Ncan in
S,uci5lowjr otion pqcu. hon n,av \eenr trke spaMing. s,lail aniDiats su.[ as b,rshv-
r stDsibl. lrFi€gy, but v.hen vutrre." , tailed wood rats, alpine chipnbnkqnd pr-
Bouldei If so, youi€-hkely to get tropica-l i

mouDrarn,yo,, c& go onty so taiteto,evou o/clones there, brt we honsrly don ! knowl
Don mi.e are bejng chased updope by
rdn oDt of r@m _Sohetrnrs we sav rhp
f i.€s are going ro heaven b@!se tlE/rc
n\,ng lempenrure\ iollonl,,g lie p.{h of !irlea :r? i, . .i! itc
t; \rlking off the mounrrintops," Uinar sars.
the hecjng irees. And Mth sea rcc vanish so ]"rucH ENwAoNMtNr,r co n?sr lr-{p-
ing, polar beaF-prcdigio!s srtmmers btrt peningin so nranyplacesat once I.sai last
Acioss Nolth Americ, eming retatect nottne\haustibleones arcsrr.rirytohrul a\lakene.l huch oi rhe \,, pznjcuiart,
.1.. l1J nJri,n\t-h"r hav"r'rfi, ll,rXv, o I B.rl-lprrhrn.-tfh".tonAtouEJ.rd|n COt rencenlndois fod climb-
n,!F/ onds (fu.on dJ r'ncclto | o'"m. iJ n8t'l Iur rrrhebet'l.croxI, ing lo 450 p.p.tu.lor 70 pp.m.
.o'd rn l- $'F . blr an aft od aI rh" rD,p | .ai,l fo, mo'r I'\n"t"F ts Lh, J d ff hiEhei 0i.D ;lr&e tl) now)
l l'. U s. hos"r", s'ri, h L hon- 'n le . L r.'Jtv e ogtuzi"s rl, siobai 'na,
\em,,,q pob from dice,.howeycr. we should
rr.r \o''.J r-- d'i pop,Jruo,' l{,r 'od,"" r, T. dr.r.\ rd\ur' In wh"t]ra d-y. ' be able to stxbdize rher and stdt
"^.d.r rr. b,.,.d. to dial tli.m back dom.
2,?, olCO. Fn',sion . rn,,'Jirs i,'l'.,nlLpnl J MU ha\" rlF tuurL-,o,"vcr\"
\1rn/ pnqr unm, n rJi\L ,r' cbnn rh" SrBl' i,ng,v.rl.r,Frndlo,-'Lov" .nt Thnl gnd shodd be .ttan,
AJ,dnrhiri,,n h.|-l6( fr uF Lh r.r. a,. l I thp void Th. m,.,,^ot mo,' rld z00,.iba abli. Ctibn,e gl(jb:'l wamdrg
rldl-ll,rrm,vl,r-L?Fnpamllr',.'r\ur l hJve gr., Ll U,, lr- \.4ayor, rlirndtF ma/ be an ordcr of magnitude
J, nrJbl, lh,r U'- wrril" H^u'" F' q,o, l l1o'"i!on AF. "m. r'. plplsbs hddcr Uun, vy, emdioti.A
,,.ncl '".,{d hu ih" -hrd.nm nr or Iorh4d'q'g\ $' $a {ll meFl UF"monr t)o u smallpox o. putting . nan on
Xvo,o 'n tl " h6id^n'\ LrJlq ,rr t.'rt | -rl o, ., ,l .cir,r a*nhousF-gtu " risron\ tbe m@n IJut is i monl not to
pl.d;, r, ..{,,rolrJ LunLUi,Jrr. r\-rpl.,\ lr, ja. iuar, t /'0 .c\pk bv r0t?. NinF by? We did not $ much fta..h
a on .r FmF.,o,, \DlJJrus l"r, b-,. JF \,"m .,ar6ha./-rdbt, herJ $-,nJt toward the cnvtonment.l pre
In.!r ceo.8,'p..r.rrh-t,{.. r,od ]':recnl,tu\.cr5tnrrdbr.rorti"pud..ol cip'cc 6 dnnkenly reel tlerc,
ro An,cnc'i vil JJLL. ion J d h, I nt , ot I i,u.lor",'" " 6p Jnd haJc prcflJn, LrJ' snapping at lhe scientificscolds who rold us
.u.h.,,r'T'riv, tu,l.oLr," r ,sr,\Eji. l .,outd *r.Al,n& on rnJ6rridl .,,,1 ,.n. .we had a problem ,

h.'\' \,rt^l,.follow.Jbv,^'l,n,h.nv". | ..nd.X.u ompan,4 th1, or.rp. dnm rn rThe scolds, hdwever, knew whai they
ra-d,g- urcur,din8Jrhr, "r"lorl" r I ,-tt poU-LoD n..t, . ro ti6. tl,ar unde,. we€ talkingabouti In a solar s'stem ctulvd
,-.'1, v q l,p,' lraa opdl.., lin ll,tuF',. l"-dom, Ur".rm' -ri.,n, nmr,uvi r',sed ed qih iister worlds that e'ther energed
d.,aro' olll'e La lddd Lrrjlul, In. spi, F.regvd'argot .ulh,,.Ioudc,Dd",6,,Lol sbllborn like MercDF,' ind venus or died in
..u.I,\ anLl a longt,n, h,,ln 1 lnr" .adrFJ,r.Ja,iJ,.',n {ndCattotuipsd infancy like Mari, welre finally coming to
,I'a,.8e rp -..r"h rcmplaur"d 0'a' h. hr,l u," nJhor,i rouet,. I rurnmobrtF pmsrorl ap0reciate il,e ldril blade na.gins withi.
u..,,hr'ruq'1vwh,,e ou.Fdp ui,r,.-1 I r.,Lt",r,,mm1 which life can thrile. Fo. nore thln a cen
hF .pd o ,u, I n" alobJ am. I th..-,,e,{t.oll Ln* ut b,nrs rhr tury were been monke}1ng with lhose
rlr \J. , rn.. rd. . F ,rr "d ':.lrn ,o .\o,t. | ,r-mo,t\nr. u,.r I.Fop. lmr ro -,1 rd margins.:lti long past tioe we set lhen
d'^pr6uT.'o'LLb l'Fplhrr' wll , | .r"rtU!:. r..,-,n,n r,14: nJ- tr,d ught ,w,tt rcponnte by Davin Bis,Jk nn
to,n,-r'hprol l'lMr'T1,Fvn @',rr,,1" | tuJpr t,-,d"nr'. nq..nnpnht D.r.,s" .tun]je. DortMlN.w Dai cnylL6 Aneete.,
n.,- (r0Jtsrn rqr.l,r...'m, l(n.pnJn.tothq LrL, \. :nJr qc -lrodtJ 'G,eC Fuh.n/A|atu, AldB eutin/t nton, aib
rr.:,r'/ .nnrcr'.r', r'l'l gtuLt .h1 - ^h,Jr"n,h.blvn,,,nr.h.trt.'o.tar.ionFr-nt llcdylDew* Eft R6bnlwa.hkebD
sinply to wait out this Id 'hd
tuinishation &d hop€ for
sometiing belter ii 2009.
'Ihe Republian domi
natei CoDgrs has not
been huch nore en@Dng-
Senatos John M.Cain
'ng. J@ L'ebeman have
tvi.e been unable to get I

throuEh ihe Scnate even

mild meau.s to limit I

! crboD. SenaLo.s Pete

Domenici and Jetr Binga-
man, both oi New Mdi@
and both mnking menbed
of the chamberi E.ergy
Committ@, have nade
glotral $:rming a high
p.ofile matier A whjte pa
per issued in !-eb^'ary will
be the subject ol an n,vesti-
gatory SeDate confe€nG
next weeL A House delega
irl-tion sently lrxveled: rto
Antdcticq ABt,lia a.d
Ne\r Zealand to visit
researcheF sttrdying cll
, mate change. "Ol the lO of
us, obly titee we.e beitev-
els: sa}f' nepr€sentaiive

sickncss and death. But whal form they \rill take is difficult to say- we can be
prclty sure that as avemge ternperatures climb, ihere will be more frequent
and longer heai waves o[ lhe sort.that contributcd to the death of at leasi
90,000 ]luropeans in August 2003- Other lredictions are more tenuous. l'br
example, rising temperatures could if ramfall and other cc'ndilions are
right result in larger mosquito populations at highcr elevatioN in the tropics,
which could in rurn contribute to the spread ofmalaria, den8'ue and other insecl_
bornc infections- tr Early indicatrons are nol encouraging. The \r'r'orkl Flealth
Oreianization (wHo) believes t\ai eveD the moclest increa-scs iri average tempera
ture that have occured sirlce the 1970s have begun to take a toll. Climate changc
is responsiblc for at least 150,000 exira deaths a year a figure that will double by
24130, accoftiing to wHo's conservative estimate. .e As.with so marry public-health
issLres, a disproportioDate parl ofthe buden rppears to be Falling on the poorest of

Photrsruph lor TIME by,iamis Naahluey-Vll

n,.joriry otw,
ottbraaks.'n rlie U.S. over d,e
prs!60 ycaB, says Dr Josailh
' Pab..of.the
Univc6ity of Wis
M.r..,. iils u,a" il nri[ion
d.r" trran ;;t;; I obe!+t.'te. patrerns als ats
tu.h'y r"i
pe'pr. .ach
p"op* ?'. sc.t n; nl".
sr.' nel nke pl," a ;oJ, in numa,, health
]lplaiu:a;olej;.humaD hk'rh
,t".€rFbp,,,Ed.rdrop'ot..r 1 M"rcpdeq ftwuJl anJ hpr Nt.
rn:nit:,.,. ov-' \Lb-s'hMhat,ia
I tFaR,6 al r1... I,nrv.r$tu or
l ger\ s
I M:,.hrsan bd.. DPa,, pu,,,r
rc" H,Ehprlprl ol I dp, noF Lbr,' 1 c.ntuDs
o'Lo" J'o,i,l" l""or rh" Ciowd ol I wo,rh oi daa o,' .hotem olr
,. s\FpJ Ind Lri -r pollen pro,lu, | 1,,-rks rn 8i .st" t. \h ,nd r).nL
,,s or^, od,-' nlJnts. rrcording ro
I rheD ro dph,t.J r"mpeEru, .
Dr.Paul Et(-,na' llimrd's, "l lrppodsof . u,r,F@rer\o,
rp ro, Henld, Jnd lh" Ciobal Fn Ith. Pa"iti" O,""n true. Bai BlaJ"\h
4ronn"nL la rddrl,on. ngw.Fd | .nywher" n
.l,u,,r "r $F Fltcrfic. but $. re
as COr )c\ | \s'.hqraru,,"orurearrras
.1,u,,r our mop pollpF asbO,)c. \s'.hprs.aru\,nB th- t.mpporu,e dlrJ as I
.1...i.. S.ientkl5 hrv- Lpd l@l I an,ndreto.r or r ldEe, w".d,e, pJtt"m '
.prl,\inr thmaanJrllprgyarra"L I ,.Ied rhF FlNi,,o/so,,$em O. L;,on,or
lo,n',ed.\inh.ld\lndemisnos I nNsu wlEI th"' h,'e lound is rhat tbp .
rold" dL,a-h ri"m+ i'e" r" .t's"l II t"nrntuie ;li:*t:
;:-:?"::,:" b;'r orl' ,n"'.1'l:'"1'";;:t
v"J. ot hrgh"r
t. r,cl. . trl,r 'h 'l"li\F, $"m norc.1I U, 'n ni,mrl rFmp.€ ur. ^, rhe oFani
ciliciently deep into tl]eluner. Add surfacc. More llarmiDg: s rlf rNso pat-
a plc.tiful helpilg oi duat storns tem bas bccoine norc pronou.ed sn,ce
(from, for instance, tle desertitca ] the r970s, t}c associatn; wtn chotera haj
rr.n or NlonCol'. or nrrrhrmAh!ar
and J i,\c rn d,n',glt Jrj!et, bru\h I
fies tu, l\uuh,vF3mrd"'o o.,JF' I rt{s..:.; Tl- ,'.h lprp I nor ,tl bdd
,p 1rp lor i,,.,' a:,ris," r,F.or I l i,.lr. {.. p\'mpl.,,.,,,or l "rL,lF ro,,,-
diskes! worldwide . I vive houer rempa rh,e in the southwesr
ern U.S- ADd slobaliwarmins iJ udikely to
r'1,. :.
Esrdenr\ of rh. L.s. uull I hsve n,u.h ot M rHe.i on malafla s lonS
,od"r .lonr l,aLp ro bp remind.J $ fu rocs on lodtdd ar.1\ (b.uLse
th.t water can be a ktller. You can I those regioB alre.dy have so maDy mos-
Nually evacuate p@ple ahead ofa I quitoes). l}at pictri.e may c}anKe, bow-

ri:l*ri:".{::i:: iffitt I :thd

Malar; dmnatic I
ha! seen a upswing sjDce
liislilad cinei'like Nairobi
he lo.and dr rFJ level.- eyr Dr. | (abnut 1.6s0 n; aLove s"a l,\el). How
.,ndv PrrkF.olthFJ^hns llopluns I du.h ol Lhr can b" ried to lempFmiure
S.hool oi Publr Healt} in Edlt'. I indes.t d uppo:ed to popubbon mo@
moe. MiL Thrl mqDs thal whAe I menl lap6s mosqurro onbol or rhF
rc@U.Upr'dfuno5'J'n\}rc'l'tl@Us|spl@ool@BFs6tolpadn4}Aa 'n
soarnho\pit'Jsrdlvatpriraun"nr I mrrter of,l,bari 8ur bpou." Fd.h ypJr l
dre poor That doesntmen, iorever that I plants.Aswehavesc.uinNryO.leans,$e I there are at let 30o miltion 6es ac-
I'e .ompnnrNplv w"1lby $ho a', uunr I hpdld, .RFcLs ol lo,ins tho.- ,Jc'h,iFs per I o,"ting tor n or rhl,' I miltion deirhs.
'ur mo,.thrnrlpr sharcofs,,pnl'oL. l,,s,tonsdJr",rheMr"rhs,.""d-d lpvpnsm" uprrkindir-,prp,do,,pr.,
sr5emissioB will ercape h&m.- .. I _,AnorlEi predjcred consequence of I ity of malana muld be devastahng.
AA Iook at three key ractoG affected by ] slobai *".--g
atrc'06"fle.r^Llr.v ra,m,nd i" r. l'""'i".
h-avia ,ti,*p.,^
ao*pou's, | The,,,.karhinEahourr rioiep,r,dn-
wat,,rgottpr'"l,rnrollh,ng ]stobrl lsJinE lo muF floods lh" imn.dLre rions is u,i,6u dnl noinr toalyolrbrF.k
I I'a-,J r dro\qinE.b,,rln-t'rseiisFir'oranyindivjJur'lidFarr,andav-'1hr.,..
\t",- , FJ r,, rh., 1.".1ur r,lus.Ft I wa,q q,,"liryt To rJl" 1u,r .,ni ef[fle. | -,.ot t--." ot ai."r. "lHnBc " I,,r$p
. nd, , Ahaun"rc-1,,m-,,. ho,p rhrn ZOO U.5. .,r,e\ mu\l or rhcm I koow rndt soo,l p blic hprlrh;li6 u,, A ?
'fl,-I-Ullu, un
in. rhe Norrhcsr. rons risr orfd ror.-$"_avaihbrrtvorrro.. i
tllly. 9ll :ll 'h:' I :ldii rcTmu:r'ic
ili-:rll"l,,"-.- li, ,l ,h,nErFn,pFraru'-Lv I
rhin3.Lein"e,t',dl lNorrh"p.r .,od cr"ar.L,t.s area t",. lr",i,na nurF.. "fr.crivF rr,.drirrp ;
- \.ll In.r-i.p, rl. "no nt o' s'o'"a | "-'"r - .r"m. rhar rsut,rt! o,.ltrow n,ro I -. ,.r", prc,rer s,,i€ron .,,,a rt,,i i
lever roD".
ozone. d a ndror unrr,,u-,.r olrog
,,,dro .cunstrtuenr oI $,." I wirpr einrDlics in,ino lr I ^-;- '^r^, ;ir;-" ^. --^^L .rt- ----, i

,',"ru.rl- r" inr ed h,rh"r o-o," mur,g dntu an.t cr@q sarp,
I . : ypa, dr wh;r ,houkt r,- l
lo T "
l.\-t.,oJ-rrhFr,.f,oml,pJ,rnndtu.," i,,d con! r,res,eq, rinsm*...--:+ffir+*; orev"r,ubt"d,pce. ryirn j
tn.p,iL ihar .,,,os / a"Lory boil,nr rt m,l; ffiffip gtob,l
gruud *armrng. , ,rr jI
).ou !d!
sdrn,!,B, Jvu
nl-' r. ro vd, n rhoi.-1',i\t,o L'\,',Jbo, .. r,mtnar"a iap,w;ln rtn. "o.
' !
i A expect the deat} toll to be :
rbtr can expecr lonee' alerts.
I o...,'.ndd ronser
F.pp, r Dro,e ,,ler s I hea., mirrati;receded tr," .;:l:j'?. :l\,-.
lhe-vr':i',trttn'c.prtp.lrha riigr,"r oI
$APffiNLX$TTO(}IS FOR S[JTflruG ffiS?
d,xt hal.!,,^rbon ixled 10, .a,h)i butrEd
Al6d b nt H.atl U,e rock b,'rt (rrfn!iLr is nothing iI ror rda!riv.,
didril wr'rt llic alhrrlt prod!. rnd,li.lrrf\rn r hrve r esporderl to EtoL,:,j
tio,r !.rl,l srJ,l)LrioJ, to rdd tu rti. wirn ns rrtha rrr.k.t brscd tuturi.n tL. t
Arrinl,ore ga!r,, tlLM,,g,,,1o rt,. atno f r ovnlcri l!Llrtr'.i !vrdr r t..lit ir jcf rrr!e to
st,hc'. 50. rvorkrit:\,irtj aenrtt IJlr!5lr mend lh{,i wrr! Iric.!.xl.aparrtrtulp,
firnr, rhe a:arb.rrNdrtrilCo, rh.r group .rd rt sthe nrcch.rnisni ir{in dr.n)
Sorghl ll) 0Lr{) l.rgot,re\t .jlhg.r,rj c,!Irl.di)o,, tririi*G sr)r*red Lr rtie
lii,.,rrrki. t,nlii S,n.p !rtrn15 bie.rhc jrj }itok, l.I.rc.ol r:irnrs iJrdevetop.dorD
.r l!n o.klr.,sUtr' q,,, ,,,tdtt.,, h reslb.t prin4ro t nrorc (--(1, rlr3I ttr.y ar.
rf,,! Ltp'r,., L8olr L | |L\L'rr!.r \ ilio$ed under lirnrt5 inpose.iby Krororre
{ r.rtrilrz. ili th.r coj..te .d r. the byrl 3 Drno.rol to .ifiier rtrr
i,j j grnd rcttinq ot jrl CDs '.,qunrd
polutnl. L,v b! or thc.i,hfr
lLr rFtJr t. I r ,rs Ltdft,J nu'lrt Tlro\. rlui.ut co.,.nnsi.iri
l" t lo :l'r I \ rlLp .1,orr,[,rr lhe r,.1, \ th4, . o . nre u, l,:lu,- , r. .,,,
Df!1,,, sl,ed In(1,,n 1,tir'1..r
i rl,. n,a.go.! btrt rrll.t5o.arr nr)ne./
,,or oD\.s.r l' \rl, t' .-, rno' . lFi. uD Lber, r!r rr nl
ttltlF.r,lrtr r rl!touL, rhrr r
ftD,', ti. COr lo.tpd ,. th. r, rr" rr- gr.crholscqas.s l)1, a orr! othe, rIi.s\.
3rs r r[lorir str:,,,g nor rrarkct onc pli.t,n r&,s
SiBreldury 20{i5, carbo. narkets n
. tle Euiop@ Unon have hads-i .t least
450'inili6 nekic iols of eoq B@use
theS6h Mminisbaiion droppe{l out of
KFto, the U.S. d()($t padicjpxte jD this
bc,o:ding global tEde. Bua state govem-
ments are sr2niDg ro setlp regi.n.l erbon
mdkets based on @ps they BlaLlish under
thetr oM authonry. b Dftehbe' se.ven
Noriheaslem U.S. stat6, led by New York,
agre€d to cut power-plant ehissions na ap
and tade bcginnnrg jn 2009
For no\y US. fiIm that €t
ro tFde forlrealing, no motonsr will beobtjged to Ge perd outside Sw.deh
eflissions mEi ioin the Chi@Ao Cljmate Igasolinelas rhe sole opt'on avaitabre_" ' BelrtjappGciare
Exchange, rchDtarybut leg3ly binding
Cao Sweden do it? Probibt
anck !n 1970, w?y tml befo.e rh;
lhe ft5t 77ol4 e@nhenis are
Mtd.lle Easl ener$/ crtsis, SwedCn gol
boure whos membe6, accodng to
o ir\ .np,Lt I'om rrt. Bv 200J. sen ihdeh ind6ub. pn@uagcd b @hd up r,th
founder Richard Sandoa acodnt tor 87o of p'odu.t,o. r-d d6n; ric;li. lJi"i ieirc h&r
r rnen M dEre6p\ ror
ihe g@nhouse emilnons ftom st honary drop- I r' Jz. .'\Fn
tdn or Lrt; comuri . rrpr*^rn n,-ertCU,e nzbotut CoJl. to,
soucs ir the U.S. Itwe wec a@untry:;
tre sarq'lw€il Le the siz, ot .eccrd.ones cou,'*),oril'-ii;ii;dai;:t::t ':A;!i;i'.tr'j1y6;i$.']i"**Jf;i".
BrLlr:n: Menbea'ougbly
of the Ch'cso ex resources ^We access to ta€e . : gai mbde rrcm gdlbaee
and orher org-.i.
changq indudinA Fbrd Motor Co. hd .- ;asteftn hoosehotdsandrcarbyfams
adounts of hydroiorer," addiftasahlin,
DDPong have plersed to cut their emjs "laqeamd.tsolbiomNn4dg.iidc'9n:.-.|i!iajiofprociMbatdats.b;
sios 47, by the eD.i ot t}lis yenr lrom rhe ditio.sloriic.eaed@otumdpo{br.:l'.1-290o,..!vhelrgjtydfticiatsdciderrthey
levels they areu8ed fron]998 to 2000- BLi rhatl nor the onry re€6 !rye.len riro!,qeer 20% or:nunicipar vende
Irey have.ledy t ken tes ofmiliions oI wJ, r.r-d rhn \ spfondgrnF\r runn,ng o^ ,e4lstblp tu-t or, )ulo. B/
^oiu N'
tulio. ,iu . b-r.,'r /patdndr i' ; ibor. rr,"v n"o d"ch"a r,c, w. .,.,_
inctiic tos of g.eenhoue g66otrt of play,
lvhich sounds jmpresivd inibl
'tud! | \urn- |}i\ vrc' . Wor,d t.or.omc uoDed od la€.teth.I 5Cr, o jh-,rD ,
rn Dava
ron'm in
Io1'm Dav-B, sMnstJnd. Swe.lF,n2
swjEsland. St e+ris eA. v.ns a
.;ia,:rais dr,d uuci! shouu
d rncks use ec
shoutd us.a
Lrmped with rhe 5 5 bitlion hetri-ror leadert nave passed rM rh"i worrtaib4 ;6tabre
ruet bi iolo and we w I
plme of COz spewed into the atnoslheie 'rlh', omppor,t'.'nF . L,p5o rnat la'Fd.- . ds,U a tnCh. t'..r.L
by the U-S.qchyear
Manwhil., the oppoitlbiti& to o$si

-And Coldplafdid more than erough to

offset its l,st album, Xd-X by protecrirg
forests in Mdio ad DcMdoL intemer
vehhrres vith names like TenaFis.
myclimte ed DdveNeuh-J enable
colruuteB rnd .J tErele6 to olsulaie
lhei. emisioN ed neutraliz thedanage
Some e!€n nim to nh a profit
Hw vork? Tdle the non
do oflEts
prcfit It selis abelution
for penonal od commercial emisions at a
ot hte of$5.5o per U-S, ton ot COr- (A fitl
r€ar ofcarbon neuhaltation r'?ic,lty c6rs
$99.) carbonnDd illow buye6 ro choose
where then moDey vinds up-in
altemabve enew foresr conseMtion or frjel and cO2 siss;ons to irdr.e €r . borg s assistaot dteclor of envnorment.
ene.S, efrciency. cGfoDDder trric cadson tMeB to t€de ic ihen g6 gt;;; i6r Similar prcgrdms aG md€! !€y acr.*, 6..ian!ie, and ta :iaiatic.s :te c.!n'J]I h lhe nollrenr iDlri ol -+rpui.
els Carbonturd h6 ollset aboul 36,000 ior hone ordeB \io sritch irqr oil
metric tons oI CO2 $ far- Thar! not much. a u/ind tam .pe&d j6! rast
teatng to rerewabl. energy- lnde-i lhanris to Eidenrs who began IrbL.!
But iti ultimate aim, he srs, is to channet dherea: oiiers :$r!liin ahtut bign:r
what suppo.t it gets inbo driving doM tiE
lof ctticials fire yeas agcj tt shoulc
i es o. innrDg+rerts s rhen ng.G, $Fply 4 ctA6!!a!elecldct!/. The oki
.ost ofclear ererg/ aDd in@ae noqsredes s:e :n.mlfacethsi4ea cniv:rsif=r a{ LMrl gec 3o"l ct i:3
aweness of climate change "Ihere is an ot telping e"e !i€ riane:_ he.i : g.othemal plani. ru.-l Fir€s,
eduetional !2lue in thse tl'jngs: $},5 Judi Iar€,\2otre SweCen-s narjoo, ir rh: 3Dulhwesr.jGi openei a $lar
Crftnulld of tle Pew Cetrter on clobal w;(le ru.-h't.a6 trff gastine tc po,ie.rJ health .ster Srde oi the:e 3n:
Climte Chege. "Peple realize thar what a€ir like .inan4l .nd bicee tejl:Bted .@li eri'.li. 10 be sxe, but llrer
tch .lznt y6ie. siatic tnaa sel alts =n
ihey do en tul€ a difrere'cel so, e.i;ie €rid embrae a pi..ri.r t JJ:ar
apparentlt do istive ae sringtrg up att .rs th. a5.ti ::nb rr, Lhere s FJ ea!r: :: r:.: i
rDck stars.
- By tt1tuh KtE cqnlrli, and illly
i3"n .t ne{ rutG sctC x.4r.2. -.8 Eiaha.l ,, ,28 ..;.:'.
Feaniaiy, tn'- hosi :e.cni m.iti for It tu|t.a rjt a)tta t"$itt"_!.it:th.:,:

,s 1l around ih€ $\o,lLl. sl,ooDers {lNk
AB b wrl Nlrn rol,v ev.'"ti'""n.*
ffi,o.ks ro mii h"d'-In M.Kn;r
P HT"\.E, rh"y "o,ne fo, rnotner re{on
krseethewind trbine Rising 120 ft.
xl{ve the greund, itt lhe tallesistrucrurc
in toM and !,ppln,! 57" of the storei elec-
triciry lts not the.Dly thing that mrkes
lhis wal MrnJ$€engiani There are
photovoltaic shinlles on lhe rool exterior
rmlls @zted with heirt .elle.tive paint and
a bigh te-ah system lhrl autodatically dims
I or raises lhe lighlr deplodirg on whether
I jt's sun ny or ov...6i. Bre l Allen, vlD
nanrges ihe exp..iftrent.l store, says
.ustonc6 rell lln,, all the ti e that thei
j d.ovcotrt ofthaiL wlyto shopat thjs wal'
Manl'Wrich nrakeslyou wonder: If folks
,l,j.F frllhF' h,r thtsyh vpk',Jr.atd'.y
{ Lr n,nrc\t,.' :A'l,i,r,r thc,r Ji.taps
a.d suvs?AnJisrn rl,xt ollscttirg thc
t n^o L, cr'l -rL I \n4v\rn p".,id P'l vf .."l storct cnerg/saLm6?
\::. ''Lo--vl '' L. ^.''ir'. .dl . "lo"r ..-r.,"l .b' /'.'- The laws of !Diritended conse.tuc.ces
:-l6v/ronrt So ror Nicker! anrr his co stituents. canrivar ic€ s.lhtlres and can be.ruel for cornpan ics kying to do
i +y'rt'clnr:1e .hange is abolr thc Cascade Morntatrs, dn ice solrball thc right tli.g.TlLell.\a oi econoni.s
when: the .iiy g-dl5 ita waler 3nd hydropower.n.l where in r...ftyars beaause ot snggest that Wal N1:inisso bigvith
tic $ has shtunk by ll.riov.rihe plst 50ye.6. irsinc lenrperailj, ir usirie 5,200storeswo.l{ivlnl., at iti!flu€nces
ia. a5ovt tb. crb.l of Pu|el Soun,, s watmerwater3.on . blo'nas tt..l po$er plant
l wild snlrmn runs. usaboii hotrcr sumne6:cooking up n'both hear atul erkrr';iiy. ,-verylhiig iio; th€ilrice oflunber to
i s'irog llis abour a ;ise io sla re@l that ioulil trpod l(id';r MH-. is harnbssrne
€ .' - oo' . l\n . , . .'t1
,. erob, r .'1J
,bc.rly. r.- ,r "wen€d to aar-
tie ..y.. n n,,ar,-",.
tslil\drinio -.,-,",-
nfi. ge .rirt.r. i r'ffi
Andrlhr.i" ,r'"
l ". ll ill:;i1ll:;J "j llil':,:rT:1".' 11i,"\l;."r"1,,'rc I 1.1^.i:il:.i:" ;ffi
.,Tl"i,l,"J;li|rSl,i,".l;,1'- | ;;;d,-;; ''
"r,:^,fffl"l,'l I,lnl;;1t,ffiffi
'i i
p,ocn.o rTtr r'ci o'r'urb -rhe
'a .o'v^
otal i "
^'onlt ro
ni6iniL^."h\oro\o.'prndrrd,gptro'ra, 'de,, 'c
Btobatwdm.'Co,'eLh),dtirr.,"...'y' i m1 +n'rl/'l-l . I

' ,-', I olotqJr'i"Drod -
' ':l!"',Lr'p',no \-/d,-mi
.u. rl-n".1 i
q;pn"club,whrhrd.rd""l. a ..r I

.. r!. L,,L Bo,,r:p.iJ ..,4 (,ri..-q-brp. ' r\ FPallor I

i4..,-:.,r,.tr1',n.aro.d.nrnBtoh- Ii rha'd,p,,rh.,l I _
a, rhtuBhndru,.,.^,pi...r,rn,r.,y |,lle,twilh,,,, trn, rl I
\',! ir.ltnnins in 1s33. ras rhe ms* rigriing 6to5-.,r
or ,yaiig, i tittt"
,rbrd, cn.. | . bn i..r, . I i . .. t ,1ii "t "ng"
" 71mf@, $irl

ri,:.: :f, .r'i-.r c.rit'!.iioi .i a 5:ro r,!L,
li;-l1lliltjj,llllli,llj..;;::,..1f'1 - lr,-"s:"]vd-"+*""eess1,',r
::,ii, r,:. f.*e.cranL ,ri,ii.r; io on\4, ".,.,, "..i.i.i,"
g**!.-*!"."-h} ".,j,,,,.::. "
"',-".a::, i o,l r r,the end ol t[e:.lav you have made a
..r,irlrD ii:nie3 inanks !n pa': iq 3n y.a€, ral.her'ne Joh. Lo Lten eqc s luge ditr!'x€a.el i
i:ri.i:;i!1' ;teer rruiiding lrrai r:nrbsi.r:j ny
r?oI,rd ;equire I : \lanrs\lhliMxd to do i(5 part too.
r:i.r:r .,:ir8! .Jnc,ercy au.jir3 ro ari a::l,oao r.n< h.eer-trj;e^.rtairig H. hs piomised to.urgreenhoL6e gas
:i",:rir rlrri!\vriries:.5. J3iaiiis -ir.! !.'f;1n_j,rua..,-!uirt.-.;i i,r!- i '.qn
n n, i..,"n. ; r.i,'.rn,; *r6*s 2O9" oler rhe
, ,..,..',, " ,' d-..,-..' I ,,",,,*.r"n^,.y,ir_rqFdro.on"n,(+
:.r ::r'i. ;,:;tilgnl F io,+i,r.cn1e l!-rs::r: i:r nj6?ay iolis a{l rn./c:r5,:.t rz3i^q 1,._.,..;"..j",r".",-".*l^rno"-^,"
i!t. ri i !r::.'ate.ilryihe lr.k.i 4:ihtri:
tlut slo$ Wal M.n they re {xrtting air
rnnhdoi. even thtse in ChiM will get
prefercnii.l keahre.t in the spply chain
rv.l Man e)s itt Mrking with @Nrmer-
product manllfaatuas to trim tleir
packaging dd !{iI ward tice that do F
wilh prime reii:estiieon tneshehe. Scoft -
h6 pledged to enlistwal Marr's amy of
lobbyists !o puah for pcenvnontnenbl
policy changes in Washington, indlding in
centives for utilitia to cut tleennoe g6e.
Crnics night ca1l it a "green%h;'a
bid to degeci atiention fiom Wa]-Meti
conhoversixi lalor and health insuranc But itt notjNt window drcssin&
because W.l M&t sees prcfit in going
green "We d not being altruistjC say;
S@tt " Ihis is a bsiness philGopht not a
s@,nl philosophyl' Some iop enviroDrrenlal
ists seeh @nvinced hei seriou, nrcluding
Andry lrviN, head of ihe Rocly Mountain
lnstihrtc, vho is a paid adviser. "We don t
go wherc we don t think there! a genuine
inlerest in changd sys L.virs.
Tieret no questio. that @nng ene€y
costs are tueling WaI Mrni; c!ffervahon
drive. tte .onpdy now iGiits tbal hxck
ers shut ofi tlrcir engincs when stopping f(r
a break, yrelding estjmated saqrgs of ASKIilGM BEIA}EII NND REGUIAITO
$25 mniion a y&r, Bydoublinglbega
Dileagc of thc neet dlrorgh better ae.ody- S ni' RUgFA n dpo^pl.omndrv Lh.r ropb 6? lu !.d liv a€npre I
Sl hr[n, ru . d, l-. ,,fo i- ou,F a,n,o.phei' .i^n' rpd'q, L'
Damics and lower-frictio. tires, Wal Ma . 'o.
, d o, o s'6nr6u . 8n1 B'{ v^ou rJ, npnr 'r Lr,L.on
cip€cls to pocket $310 hillior ayed. One p4 w.n t t'nJ
:" l.'
hi' , o'i I I :,n F/q. .\ ,-\p.-
of the biggest itetN on its energy bill i! .r!sade.5. rhe CEO of Ci.etey.'p
a ublity wjlh nine coal il€nertruni.e narual
lighting. ldtead of going wiih the cheapst ol'o Jid h;dui l,v, Ros-.. E
'n i A . r..,udrnE 52oo m.
bulbs, the @mpany is exiqin'enling with t rt.oo\pn advo,.re orr-BU,atin€ urbon d1d impo{,'8 rolro fo.Fd a r o.l.rrr-4
.osdie. r.ED sLrips for reliigeEtion xdts o i 4 o', /mr "os. hN pu on mdqps hli a p1"4. d4d RoAe s h, r

..:that last longer dd use 16s eners/-TmTf

uiinin iis in.lusi4, v/lrie ofiicialjy 'eneedd.
apposes airt iedulalory Ciner8 s relian.e.n coal
also waDts to sell.more orsani€lly stuwn \LaFn'e rhn suJld brLp pow ro n az6o ol r\ rupr r.
..: 4n'r . 1 l, poEF' . rn' a i"clv ro t'- m,'Fd ro 7J\ Hp h ,- Drp,lg",J .n
- fgad dd cotioo clotling, partly becaue 'f!l-
.Siera crub ire.dquaiecixa! io iir While Ho!s;; tsNe'i ci.e.gys co?
_ :..itigoodfortl,eplanet patly b@use he : that Presidelt Aush hasn:t c.ned tor aru,tliing rmre bmi$ions 57o bclcw 2OOO
L€lievele can get pries cion, and boost
sales to lo*income customers.
Like Bill Gates, who st ned his cbar-
st'n,Eenr than vo,untary cuts
greerhouse gases.
in i.vestine in p,,iiif iJj."";3:il".fJ,
in to@srs. Rogc6 b e€ruat ng.oat
itable foudation shordy aier Microsoftt Whal is Ro€ers rl'nlr..g? For one gasitication technoloEly tor a plani in
dbtrun rial, Sotl happes bo be brmish- thing. he s pe rsally @nied ab@l glol,al lndiana, which 6ull dramatimlty .ur
ing Wal-Mari:t image at a iime wlEn hjs lr.rnnrg aid beli:ves thai lhe scicnrifi. carbn enissi.{s ftoft b mirg coal, snlt
compdy's reputation js ude. siege- He debat. .b.{t whai causes it has Iong the least expecire and mGt st unaari
achrowledg6 that he launched drc plan b€er settred. He lhi.l6 th6r lhe u-s. wilr tossit fuer in tht u.s-
t[rtly to shield wal-Mart ftom bad press be i.{ce.{ to }egllale cilbon asnosl Even i, hc srcceds, Cnergy s e.u.o,r
i,::' about its contributjon to global qrming have
o ixer ia.lusl ria lDrd .iorn lrie s meoial racord willbe lar trom peri{|. A
''By doing what we'e doing today you dcn+vnhnr tk::rt frve yens, if ipt 91.4 lrition se reme.l rviii tlre :nvrJon
s.onel r\id as the cEo ofa publicly nental Prdtecrion A8ency ovei.[ege.l
avqid the heaalline dsk that are gotrg to traded conDtry, he lEs toffake viorarions ot th. Crean Ai. Act ieil ap3rt
ome for people who did not do an)thiDg,' .lecision; lhrt attet slarehotriers dhe. CiEr$/ bi.keri alvay trom ihe deal.
he sa!s.'At some poini businessesMll be aecr.?! !n the 'ill
rurrrr. oiiai ila'rls Rv. rlre crignrd sDjt issiowly r,orlanE !i5 !2rj
neld a.countable {or the actrons they llt e sD?rs nf 50 ye.r:. .nd rt calbn. Js iirroleir the .ounj Aml Cn:e€y sr ppc(;
take.' Meanlvhile, sbould Wal Mart t red, ti€ ;Lei .alcllur .ittho* pl:ni; Rrsr f. ej]ofii io roli bacit pr.vi3ioG .l
suceed at sh{inkins its environmenral chatlg6 rarlialjy "W. .. ;e.y. {lepenrierr l!,e Ciean An r\.1rhat Sovern ul;lit:e:.
, footPrint nnd lowering prices for green o.csai, says RrAes "anil):f torl re Bli wilh erob.lwama.g. e.lers v.e!
products, both thepdlet-and ihe e.rne r. e2dinEs :rd*.lh th?ras ii{reei *e he.i onh,s c.rrreaelei ir tiLi:
comPanyvill pront. Sam Walton \vould su,<ianr:ir;s olej a IMg Ddrlad..l.tile, .':eiay ii.isiry eid an wi:h'r4io,
have li!(ed that. D,.€n rodj, R€,rorred
i{! ineedj :i,rtai.ty cr tlrp.a;Don €:r: !.linci;^:. 't , grea€sl iear i5 thni te
-sy lcnh i". It1.v.l lisr hrlltl! hy i!trrt na2i iviih tr. p.drletr i.ra x4 r.Yl
bySrde aafttaeDforvirc, fi'lz Ci'e:g! r :rz'ij ii */itir Duite 'and qc a.l(e !rm. a.y anil dcn ! r:i.
znd add" Pi8,klM.t{jtuef ^:ae€.,r
;:8,9,.. n,;g\:'s ir rJorjr.i l. rur. c.i .nofe,'r 4ne !, !),8 Fte.-t ec !:t ,2r':i
i\nie:;.i ! iafre:i :rtii:t;:r ,..j f;..iiir
GLOsAT WAii !!1rl l
afM -t ./1

fense is lobbljng the U.S. Cong.css kl ap!tuve a srajtem rhat

':..:;. RflVARDING G()OD BI]IAUIOR qoukl nlr;date rcductiors in ehiss(,ns a;d iltd" rl,. s.rt. of
perDlsiorele.s.specincd,rno!nt,,.tcart,oi Cd,tpenieshav
.arbon diorni. rh.r.pc\vs ho,n tailpiler iDdsmokc irg uoul)le c!tln,g emisio,rr c. kl bly altowrn.cs fio,n firns
rtackt Blt wlt is thc Drc\i.te, r ol ED !,ironme.ral I)elense look tha t liave un uscd fermitr. {)r rhef ror
r1d p.ry hnncrs lo siorc .,at-
irs lor soluiions irr trot)jcxl r.iD iortsrs and KaNrs .omtiet.!s? bosa d de\elofnrg nationr ro prc\eNe fo ests I he nlea coFe

8ecr6e iorcsts and fictd' |rtts,ee.hous. g,Lscs funr tt€ a!: So tuo., a cotrcejtt der.bttrrl b) [,rvi,o.D.nrit D.]Gnsc Nher
rirl}rf,5?, {ent ro tk.zilro,uge p,otecttun ott}cAm,an
basn, Kxpp helpcddrift Urc U.Sl5l9il0 (it--.n,{ir.\ct.ll ret upa rrnd-
and lo t'a! sas to proDde no h! tunniDg. I,t{nving fiekls releascs
ing systenr lo coDtrol$lf,,L di.rnle Knipp L,.t,evcs sirnilx.
U(j.- itJarnre$ !],nrr s.(1tj \\ltlort til1j.g,jr6t urder two tonsoi lin.D.ial in.entiles.o!ld sllry :lobal \vi' r,ing Onceyo prt
I .a,t,of p.r he.t e corktbc{l every ye?r. i v.lue on ..nFn,ri, he sa!s. vou Drke $iDtrer o!r
iilirti iir rl for 8r rzilii ns nnd ii,lnsins? [| yiror nenr,l t),. .f nr novatori Yo! off.r i por oi S;kt:' ,sy cr,r$ nr*""dr

(Optrt !!1 t.fnrl tu tr,1tnn !,

Glean Power
ffor ffihina
Tsinghua Univc*itrin thc^Mcdly t!80s,
U had his h€riscrrn th9
bigh, high profile elecrro.ics {iekl-rp unr't r}c day he tonbed
on an elcctrdriG exam. llnt his u..hancter istic ctain@d shrinbte I..t r.i
lo a Iiekl ihat @uld play an even largcr de in Clinat tutu re: e.eigy pr.F
duction "I diink the choi.e wa a very foduoate one in thc end,'eys Li,
whostudied thenal engn, dd h 2000 became a fo professor
' T n'ph.,d' Ll ini . M.l t: "l Ur. ,.mr Lbtv .o,,ng agp ot J".
Energy is iDcedibiy nnportrnt for a growing s@iety like
'' :.i
Art eDer$/ means 6boa, and China:! boonnrg e.onony puts jr on
a |r1tl to be.ome the wodd s No 1 greenhouse gar emittcr
6 @rty as
2020. Li knoq6 that China ,,eeds clean s lradly as the devet-
.'pdl world Clhina ro .lean p. which js why be joined ihc
'J ,oG),u1 8Pclp'nI jr-.Fa.l. tu,J
j,€'j,,n Cexrd
ecto. when jt opened in July9003. The cenrer's most pronisins
poiect is a ncw technolos/ called potygeneEijon, rry which coal ..til
is.onveted into a clcrne. gaseons li,el rhat can tDth g.rerare
eledri.ityan.l bepro.essed iffoa peholeum substjtutc pdy-
geneF&nr @uld cui rhc cn6on ernGsions China gencntes
L,y b(r.nrg its colious .oal res.dcs and redu.€ fts d.pen
de,,ce on oil inrporrs- white his ternr conrbues rd renne
tllc le.hnolos,-its sriU more er?eDs,ve rhaD diEct Gd
conrbustion Liis lol)bying rl,csovenrmert to consrnda
$600 hilliotr deDro.shlbon pla.t ind he:s opbifstic he wiltsee itbuilt
''China is motivated to dcveto!
this rcchnologi Li sls. And rh. rsr of
the wor ld E hopir r{ it docr Er sryan watshrtont x6,e

1 {lgthi
lft*ItlF i.1iilr:i:ii:
ll' - ;ij :r ':i,:'r '::':-, :- .il:.r :,';ll-no,ti$ i;;:,':L'irlri:;:iil,:t:.:'iit,t,:;;i,ii:l
r......i]\::,1 conPJrrc\ r rrrrreftovs
ori--r.dlou,ll . rl ,urI{1. l .nn,.IF
I ./m'" led byLll an.l Nrhin, ro crrforcc ic irklsmenr
Sn nita N& ain a nd Bl,u.e I.lled io blild ti,e world's Tle unlikcly duo nn.redi.tclr ran road

I ffi;,:ff:'ifl:";:t':ril'Jffil"lll':,i:11ff
Nadin,,13, olLldias Center
death," says
fomcd rt U. h lulofgijn.tions\vithcNc
director sliaws
lT..@ffi f.r Science aid' !!r!'rr Ai. poxunon
Finvirotrmcnt !v:E
polhtnrn pnmps. uu Le.llr.dics ftotrcd olr s.,.nhst! lvho
Oil Le.!rr.d'cs
' -W ^r.
i tiIn,io,Lrl]rcpL'hoi AddsLal.li3,tl'crrsenbr elaime.l rlrr (iNc witJ$r as poUuri,,g a!.lie'el Brr
' sovernme,,tarln,iDit,rro,: 'fhc ;epital wr5 one ol N,ntr d lalloughr Dy Dece,r,!e, 2002, rlr.
StiNiTA it'" n,o.r l,otl,rc.t ,,n tt) d,. crrr of the dry,
"r ^r rdr .li6satb[! r,e.l I.{r Dcuri]an.r 10,000 tui5, t2,000
;I{AFAIF{E \'-r''\'rI'' oLr'",rr "- {,p rr8ur,00.,.r.1 'r r\- rr !
I E[.liJR[":g_A[. ,,'i ]re Nliil,{r.l,.r'rbLoncl,it,,irndrsthma] Altl,ough an rrtlution in D.ll,i ha5 stal)il,z.d.
Tha,tt4ed lnrl,e'i rl l,llo5 Nlernliledalawsui oforce dre nght fo..ledr air is far honr wotr Some.10{l ro
r'ou". .ulbn L" D..'r 1r.", l..1 ,,,,.\"'r ro u00,.,1,,"''.,'.'otlor'o,h..rr' .,-i.i1 1
'I d-i .., " drk\l',t ' rtrrrl'r"'nj
i ,;.:;,::' . :;;;;,1 ': '!rL! csscd nal,,rl g \-.i,) In dal Nanin an.l L{.t(h t chnr b hl. sloq{l slob.l
DrEsre ,ijlu'al
r Jl ly 19!)S, the 5 upr eDrc Cotrrt nLled lar qelv nr her lla dnir rg. 8u t iher r effor t1 h dlc i i.te{l r€.]ucns
t r I

1 ;i,i. :il,:,,. ,.-.11 r.rr.r"', .r r.,r,o-.,, rr . o,/.nnr,..,.J,,, 11,.,r....,,,.,r F,',,,-,.

hJiv r,crrri.- .Lr',lrr',,'nr.r,lFrllurl-(N,ernonolalldicsel Delhi lerpfrog:e(l, ri\s \)th i grnl
|I ,lirLe, rhe ?'rl.i ri vp,Fl lu F5 u crL rn{t tle scFppjng of ol.t ..peoplcnoriccd _eJ,,,e, penl/^rri o.,hi

evnng.liel Ch.isiirn cnlle.J o eieculivc direclo, oi thc Evangelical

Congres.lo reeD,nle carbon diorirle ,Envir.n.rcnlrl NctMrk h 200O
r]ler'denlGeorgeW: enrBsttns.-_:-:: v,.1n rni,lers l,Ie BiI anl
.. Ballj4a, pRcl ces what $=:= :izikof lheli.tionalAsso
irajidta. {rtaiiit.r a. energy3Faiana lianbiriiEv!rerlicilt'.preseni n
and h. to lris-
loy.l.l'riu!) signilrL.nt pol ti.rl lrrbilrly for lhe Bdth
envdonmcntil bcliets honerllyj Administralion and itsarlt.s
!nbornchild B!i the A.lii,i.i;sir.tLon. throueh Scriplure.nd conce.-rl-finli! 't
lbtlgrcat-. sls,n thrl lh.'renergy
enviro'rnrenlrl polrcr.. str k. h,.n rs I'vinC.ndthe unborn. Fe;ringthaL . pali.ies have pul thc;r on n colIsion
rno.a lywronghearled. rnd lF nql million! or lives coukl be lost'nglobiil- cor;ise with a c.,..onn Iuen.v. Pav
.fr.i.Jtosay so. rlp le.llh.2l)1,2 What_ vrrnnl.g relaled dieaste.!, heleqrn=] audrtior' (o our mcssJge, uall.rE!€e
Would lclutDr v.? ..4rDdgnaga nst .tudy rg cnvtronment.lisnr al Drew beaa!.c clim.te chanAe i. nol r lell
gas glz?Ji.g c.rrs rnd dlonc or lhe Unryers tyln New lersey in 199;2nd . wing. tiee hrgsrnE iisu. 'lt 5a peop.
orgrnr:.r, ol lhe Lv:ngel,.r Clidrtte €mc,ged lhrc: years l:ler wrtha Ph.D probienr lt s.boutlovnrg your
lnrl,alrv. rn February v/lr.-n 85 ro Ih.olosi.rl ethic5. He be.dme neiEhbo': -6y €tc Rbsld

'and'lndi -or destroy it
TIME by Y.n Na<imb€rc
tEditjonal energy souce lheY climatc .laDge efforts for y@rr but that ir Dcvet@ment Meclianlm, a part of dre
I€veinabuddte BarbmFi@' beginning to change and $me of the ryoto Protoml that all@s develop€d
more- dt@tor oi the Natural Iie push coming from Beting. ror most of ountries to sponsor geenhouse cuthng
soures Detefe Council s China the r€ent
's Montr€al climate @nferercq projects i. develophg coutries iD ex
I Clan Ercr$/ Progm, estimates
the U.S- resisted @y sdous di$tlsion ot change for dbon crcd;ts that@ be Ed
that Chinal toLJ electiicirY de_ *lMt should be done aJter Kloto €; 'for neeting enisioDs t rgels. TnGe prcj
m;Ddwil increisely 2,600 siSn- Bur several major dereloping coutiies, in" ecis dorir requie dy teclDdlogidl lrre2t
: watts by 2050, whtch is the cluding ChiDa as ? quiet but present forcei throughs, A 2003 study by the co@lting
eqtri@lert of adding for]r 300- s.pported turrber talk md helped b@l(: Srm cRA lnte.dtiodal found ihat if Cbina
megawtt Power Plantr evcry dom U.S. opposition. "At ihe momeDl; Dd IDdia:inveJrdi firly in telirolos/ ..1'
weekforthenext4s Y€A lndiai China seems more intosted in eryaging- '@dy in use in lhe U,S- the total @rbon
enersy consumPtioa rose 2089, on this ise intematioully than the U.S. savioss by 2012 wodd tie @mpmble to
from l98O to 2001, even f.sbr does: sars Elliot Diringer, dir@tor of rn- shat coutd be achieved if ev6ry country
than Chtnas, bui n@rlY half the terrrtional stEtegres for tle Pev Cente. under the Kroto Pmtocol actully met its
populaiion still lacks regular ac on Clobat climate Change. t igets.
electlicity a hct tie govmment is
cess to Ttats becE Cbina od lDdia in_ But that windN of opportuDity Ls rlos
workine to change- 'They ll do vhat thcv creasingly see ctimte'dfuge Policy c a jng rapidty, Every slep foMrd tlEt th&
can,bui ovenli emissions are likely to rise My to add.ess some of their imm€diate cnurtis iake today ($dr a, {hiBt hove to
much l,igher than they are nov," saF problems slch 6 enerEy shortages dd nEl<e its autGemission regulariot! drict€r
Ionaihan Sinton, China aD.ltst for the IE 1' lo@l environmental ills-while gettingthe tlta rhej u.s:s) ddc beirs.s'?mped by
Environmeirtalism Devitably rakes 2 intematioDal emmunity to l€lp foot the' g@;rl' tornorow (ftrremple, Clina @dd

!rldie's gr*erlli0etse'ga$ cmEssiens souldsise

eould rise ?S%Sy 2E25
& The ilncrease in China's emissions from 2000 to 2030 will
nearlv e0ualthe increase from the entire industrializedworld
@ #Bainais totaE eleutric!$ demrand will rise arE estiEraated
?"tiS& cEgawaEts bv 2S5fi, iqihieft isthe eq*ivalsaat ef addiilg
fsarn 3$''slcrBegawafit power plamts every uueek fon the next-A5
'rear$ @ lndi-a's eneisv con-sumption rose 208% frum 1980 to
200L even faster tha1 China's, ind nearly half the population
stili licks regular access to electricity
ha.,tse.r ro deteloomcnr in chrnr rn,l tn I bill. Thank rb Doorly ruo planLs ed uti- | h:F i40 m ron lm on the road bv 20m)
;;;;i""; ;.."i *'y see! adrcetes I q*r"a p"** g'ias' chui od lodiaus m I wl"t chi"' -d r"di" 'o v'"d P.''-'l'
;;;. "il;;'.r'"il;;-; * " k's | ."t'"."tv "n.isv inerncieoL china lsrendtrroPm"ntiswhatrhewtrdnceds
presincnrobhm tha; au and Mterpol-lu I rlu.e ume c m"ch .n'r$/ a5 thp U S I'o IabMdtv arpted P'st Kltto pr'l lhar,F
;;". ii'.i":;;.";;:;;.,a r""iii-,t |
' li *-..r' ;tp'r' But thar I s'i't "nougt' ro'at* ir *nomierrv 'rcr th
'he developc'i world. which g* ""t' l "-a,,* -*^ t'. $ a lot or r@m tor ihprcl€.is I etud
"1 siileroel'rua'9Ttu1:1N"*
@ts re ofi l}F tdbl' for now 'lig
*il. i."i'i **"" "", u-. sh-outd I menr- od svinrenerxvby@ftinswsre
"rr'- "i,"'ia*s ** I
-i.i li ,iJ'*p.?",uri; r.;
"i'-"'" I r* Md Nry D"rht seem $dri'e q d'"Y
ro' Ilertarges och as low'nna@bon n j^Nw' 1l
.i"i"". "o'. "',i.i.;t'"r firsr aod Io'. lpbu"'p"*'*
depende'c" on "."r
mosr.-th. U.S npcd( to Fdure rtsem I ergn en"rgy and .omes @rboo and PoUu lSulthevhFldEr\'lhdrngtonmusltareriF
.i""'-: *'. s'"it. r.r.-i". drector of rhe I rair r'.e:emciencv reallv is rbe sw'et I bd 'lr i' Possibl" lo' thde o@tn6 ro
center rir screnc" and Enqrotrmpnt in I loL srs Dan Dudek.3.tuef Nnomrsr ar I acnie* t}" glo*{h $cv d5ei4 Yyiul 'ft"v
;;;;;h, :;; ; ';;;;iJ; ;il i;. I d"'i'"*"""r Dprense. Beiiins as,epr. I wking iI" d,^atel e* Drins't
moFl rhar rhe U.s. does t Lt" rt'e t""d on I rt gou"--"nt oi* ro ,edue Fder$i in I j*< -;t ao rt on their om It has t" to
cl,matechrnEe: The BBhAdmin'nation. "
{ rensitv rh" mounr of enerevwd rel,tive I t!@EhtheUS:
;i;; l"*"." ro *".i- ot th. *no.\- z,qo bcsinbv rrnlns
rFs na
,nlum l;;r"cted
hd;iecred a*4".".,i"
Kmro oartlv b"cuse Il torhesizof tt'. Nnom\ 2arc' I
bv 2AlO.
20% by Mavbe Ameflm can t'cpnDv
dpveloDroe counr, ip< were-xempr l,om I Mrlingambitiourpled86iseat thal lbt' mot' like ^merim
the arem8e chuae.ot
I iswhat five vear plsnsare ro' -but nnding I lnd'" b'foe they stttr buns uKe
I he standotr between the U.S. and the I rhe will and ilre frmds to nale them stick is I nmerics. -r,rn 'aid't Dt s|gn "res
rtian giants has stymied I trickin One source oftuDding is the Clan I end todi x'/a'nine "
9I INTER{NG C}TANGE t\f t-f or

Innovation, The fillorving i: Pqisne lliniste:'i-=e llsien

Loong's :peetfi ai the Ujii ciinrate change
ronference in Bali vesie+day
CLMATB chanse is aD eror on tossil tuels. This r.ality Mll
mous long temr chlilcnSe con noi chanBe ,n tte torseerl le
lrontng maJrland n'hIe desDite our el'orL\
Scientists Jo nol know to su Ureeir.
huw cruicklv it qll haPpen, IJ actjuns to
how s;verelt w,U be or JU of mate chaiae de to
irs conseouences- But the prdwrh thev should not un
rgis are gr6wg -melhng po Eeroe slo6atsrhon and th"
lar rce caes, vanrshrne glr_ Jivisiun ol la-
crers- hottar and lonaer sunr-
mers- more intense typhoons ID ihe world econony,
some .odnttres sDecrahse in
lf we iail lo address clinate prodMins sooab, ivtule oihert
LhaDge, ecosystem-s-a.d hu- iupolv more services Thos.
man soctetres could exnen .loins more tnanutacn,rrn8
ence maror d6roPtions ovPr will mturrllv have a lrraer
,hPn.{r 50 to 1O0 \e36. rnd ca'bon footDrint. likevise for
transDoriation hubs. which
' DosrblY \ooD;r
Th; Kvoto Proto(ol is a supply bunkers for shrlc and
tirst colle;h!e attemPt bY the tuel for airplan6.
world to deal witb climale Penatitinr these couqhes
chJnPe. lt is an i,nPortJnr would be c6utet!rodu't jve
5iart,'bur we hJve to bu,ld
Kvoto aDd do morE
oD i,.".
'." theto:criuires
iLst mowe '
other coEtries
DteiDboul con',nutu_
The less well suited for ihen we
ry mun work otrt r Pra.trcrl world have taid an economic
ind effeciive rPIroich atler Drice ulhorit re3prnA 3nY eD
rh" tir(t.omdtment Deriutl ;F,nmentilbeneLrs
under Kyoto er?nes in 2012 SinsaPore has a vesled D
Let me ptopose thrcc Prin' teres!.in this .s manul.clur
oples wbi.h l hclicve 'rE cs ,nB, porr and !irPort \crvice5
cPnr'"1 lor f, Dost ZOt2 lrimP .P"llrmDo.tantto
mv. But;e rre not dlone
'Third. lle {ran,eworL dust accout differences
Coiletiive cffori 'nto eirdmstancd dd
h nrtbnal
mnsttuls. Countrres.viry r
FIRST. the f.ameworh must !zc. populJho; iod develoP
ment Some cre endowe
ha;e the comitrnent and Par
hciDatroEof rll cuutriries, un- v,tl ablddart clern .nd re'l
,r"; r r"'r.d Nrtions Frch. newal'le enersy eurcci iuch
a5 wnd, hvdro or Eeotbennal
work Coovenrion on CliDate nower whilc olhe6 hrve no
Change auspices. The dcvel ilrPmit ves ro Iosil tuels
oDed Lountries rre rc<L'ons,_
ble for the bulkorofieirt and
Smal states, especiauy de' '
tnstori@l F@n-houe gas emit
veloDne ones, Iace the most
c,ons Th6y w l have ro take erci. aoGtra ts. Tl'eY are
the leal in$'ons more vdreIabte to external
The deveLopLoA countnes.
shocksa.d natlfrl disasters
:sDecullv the emftsine ecnno
Thef are often heavily de
on imported fosil fu-
-i.s of Asia are aiso becom "ardent
i:ls md ururot'easilY diversifY
itlsmcior erutter< TheLr FoP their encrsv sourcs Evcntu_
dl;l'oi's are equaily, ir not etear eneiiv rs rnlea\ibie ior
m6re u,lncrable lo clinrrtc lack of safctY distancc
G,ventiis wde ranxe ots'l
RicI o! poor, alLeountri es uations, the Post_2012 frame
will hfle io Co their Dart tor w.rk camot
tbe environment. Cotlective- rll aPPtoacb An €quitr-
Iv. we share this Problem and hle solutioD must lr[e ac
irust solve it tosether. .nnnt of diveF. n2ticinal ciF
5bor d re.osnse rhe qtJl im -,-(rances. The smaller rnd
oo.tance ot economic arowtl
more lrllnemble countnes in
narriolar uLl need techlicat
lovenv is nor J solubon to itislance to Put in Plzce ajfec-
elobal wamDg The problem tive adaPtation m@sues
6f climate chatee has a long
tcad tine, ar do any countcr
. Meanwhile, soverrments
Lnergy etficitncv
must deal with other Prioi_
b6. includils alleviating Pov- RASED on tiese broad Ptinc'
erw, Esbtin8 dmal. Dles. let me su8gest a lew el_
nutntion, aod improvints t!c lective aPProJches io mlrBate
lives oi thdr people.
All this reouircs economLc Frrlt. wd 'l'ould PUrsue
rjrowth ind r;sourcs, which rraem:'hc rnd Losl_ellechve
;F:n( L Dnhnxcd deDendence *ars to te<iuc. gr.ennouse
Th15 rncludes
on ercrsy and, in P;.tictlar. eri enis:r"rs

ihrs while lluinsine dN.up-

lrons t. thc Elobal sonomvl
No coutry can vol nteer
1o cut its om eoissions if oth-
ers do not joio in All coun
explofinB technologY to im iries musr vork tosether, bu!
pror/e.dergy ellrcreocy and tbe major econonreq b,ve to
cut-irastaA.. lor eirDP'c, bi siow leadeBhip, 3s rny vi3- Political will
sDP mor; publr tDnsport!_ ble solution requircs fDll
ri6n:instexd of cni 1nd noi DEAr-rNG Mth alobal mrE-
dJ;ltoohne or ov€rheatDg Founh. climate chanee B a us wiil bc a lons fd dilfioil
buildiEss dlTamrc problem. Tec6nolu- Dr?,cess- It v l-need Dolitic.l
Wc should rpply- econon Fy b cbdistrs, the elobal dj lupport ftor the popidations
ics to pnce cnergy ProPerry mate B dratreils sd oDr un- ot our countDs. ror we rrx
dd avoid subsiJisiDs over.on derstandinq of clmate chMee I..F. loEh .fiotcas-
sumorion of foss luels ; atso chaisiDs. ln Eo"roDe. dmrte cbdee
S;cond. weaccd to Protelt llence, we need not tust a Dolicv is ah;ady a major Polib
rb€,: world's carbotr sinks. onc-timc, comDlete eolution, ;il n;.ntv In Austtalia- Dub'
slash.Md-bum Drlctices
i:rce.scale bmihe ui oert
JnLl but as evolvini, creative re-
sponse that will erplorr Dew
l- ',.ssrire torced fo;ner
nnni" minister John Homrd
l:n-rlsretease huc iouuLq of technoloBies and adapt to io chafee hrr a^vemcnt's
rrrbon rnro rhe'rtm^sphere nev suedrlic discoeenes. dind ,frer a sevue de@dc
We rDust sL ,n $ese This re?onsc mtlst irclude
d the loss of forested are6.' a nalor rnvestmcnt m re
Tliisrreo ires the conlmudd search on climate change ard
atteDtion ;Dd ;spport.of _.the enersy tecbnolosies, be it car
nrterDarional comunity as bon stoEge, solar power, sle
vell as responsible pol;cies nu.lear energy or other low
rnn .ffecbve enior.emeDt bv urbol wavs to oowcr our tu
the coundcs which ot'n thes; hlrc wP ilc. l'trvr to fin,l
ways to pack gc and .obed pa.t, but D'se lre en@wg-
Siiraapore supports the such tcchnolone\ in.vcrv.t y urE srms ol DroarySss
itlea of redlcine enjsaions LIe, whetber 6alr4 norc et- sinsaDoie atrd all the
frorD de{orestatioD a forest ticrent ensnes or dereuB in;nbcrs. w l do ths
desradatjon (Redd) proposed md:buildiDs more eco heE& ^.u We de IdlY comitted
ly ciliq:'Cliinaie ensineeiinB io an ambitious Bali roadm3D
shoiild be explored tully d,rt Mll d.tiver an cftecr'v;
SDerpore s stroDely coD- post-2012 rcgime.
m riii r^ rhie r.<F.rh Pff.n
e are invertins considenble
by llndonsia, dd resronal iiri- slDs to develop clru tecltrol-
tiatives like the He-rrt of Bor- oeies such assola. and Mter.
neo project, which covers We are also Daitner'n! China
220,000 sq kd oI forcsts in 10 build m eccity iD Timjir
Brunei, lndonesia dd Malay- to tgtbed md demonstnte ei-
sra. We are also workite witb uronmentallv s$tainahle and
lndotresir to lackle tsdand ecoDoo€[v'viable aDproac]
tues aDd develop sustaieble es for urbaD devcldpmcnt,
lmd<leanoe pEcbce!. wuch @n be rblirated in oth-
Third, beyoDil ind'ndua1
melsures, I believe ilitne.6 Next yar, Sin8apore will
sary to set overall targets to re be hostiDq a World Citi€r Sum-
aluce emissions Cotrnt.ies mit tbat will foc|li on envisn-
necd to asree to t}lis obiec- mental issues itr urban ser
tive, Deeotiate a dedi od put
h place policies to achieve iiftb, we sbould work on
adaptatio! stmtegi€s ClitDate
This Eill rlise oany com- chanAe will take place despite
Dler i\sxer How m,'.h (hnuld ou best efforts. We cm, at
;e cut emissios bv? How do best, slow down tbe build-up
we share the .osd? wtat s of greenholse gases in the al-
the best way to ctrt quantita- mosphere over tbe Dext dec'
tive cortrols, cafion taxes or ad€s. but we caonot reverse
cap-md-trade schenes? elob;l wamiDs aod restore
Should the measEes be aonditions to the pre-bJusFi
based on .ountries, or indr$-
trv sectoE such as avialion ife mst therefore .itaDt
d;d shippins on a worldwide ou socielis to sMvins s a
basir, or individual coDsu- wdmer world and apply our
ers? And how can we do all inreiiuitv md resolve io llui
oisiEs ibe Desalive eifects.
Tte sooner we strrl doinP
this. the rnore affordable rln:
task wil be.
Ad'"ii;i;s:D;;";i"" :rj'r' ":r'r'r1}
thF,'^ral sen tus'sfdnn by

! narilowr ..rr l.ndcd wrh

U l,uiolc of Lhe t5 n,ost foUuteil;Ucs Asta's m6l pollred ci|l:es
in theworld u€in Asir OIthes€, 17.tu
in alhin, r;xl liv.irrP in In;ii

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